WorldWideScience

Sample records for external radiation standards

  1. Radiated radiofrequency immunity testing of automated external defibrillators - modifications of applicable standards are needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassen Howard I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the worst-case radiated radiofrequency (RF susceptibility of automated external defibrillators (AEDs based on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC requirements of a current standard for cardiac defibrillators, IEC 60601-2-4. Square wave modulation was used to mimic cardiac physiological frequencies of 1 - 3 Hz. Deviations from the IEC standard were a lower frequency limit of 30 MHz to explore frequencies where the patient-connected leads could resonate. Also testing up to 20 V/m was performed. We tested AEDs with ventricular fibrillation (V-Fib and normal sinus rhythm signals on the patient leads to enable testing for false negatives (inappropriate "no shock advised" by the AED. Methods We performed radiated exposures in a 10 meter anechoic chamber using two broadband antennas to generate E fields in the 30 - 2500 MHz frequency range at 1% frequency steps. An AED patient simulator was housed in a shielded box and delivered normal and fibrillation waveforms to the AED's patient leads. We developed a technique to screen ECG waveforms stored in each AED for electromagnetic interference at all frequencies without waiting for the long cycle times between analyses (normally 20 to over 200 s. Results Five of the seven AEDs tested were susceptible to RF interference, primarily at frequencies below 80 MHz. Some induced errors could cause AEDs to malfunction and effectively inhibit operator prompts to deliver a shock to a patient experiencing lethal fibrillation. Failures occurred in some AEDs exposed to E fields between 3 V/m and 20 V/m, in the 38 - 50 MHz range. These occurred when the patient simulator was delivering a V-Fib waveform to the AED. Also, we found it is not possible to test modern battery-only-operated AEDs for EMI using a patient simulator if the IEC 60601-2-4 defibrillator standard's simulated patient load is used. Conclusions AEDs experienced potentially life-threatening false-negative failures from

  2. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  3. External dosimetry for ionising radiation. From the national standard to the users in radiotherapy and radiation protection; La dosimetrie externe des rayonnements ionisants de la reference nationale aux utilisateurs en radiotherapie et en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J.M

    2009-07-01

    This report presents a review of the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations for the protection of the human being. Looking at this topic, at first we are confronted with its diversity: the protection of the workers and the public against radiations, the medical exposures for radiotherapy, diagnosis and surgery, and the accidental situations. These aspects are often artificially separated so that the global comprehension becomes more difficult. We underline the points of convergence and the bonds which exist between the concepts of dosimetry adopted to deal with its different aspects. It also appeared useful to avoid proposing a dictionary of definitions copied in the reports of the international commissions, and adopting the formalism of the ICRU reports. This is why the definitions, when they are essential, are put in appendix. This text presents the reasons which led to the adoption of the system of quantity used today for the external dosimetry of the ionising radiations. After an introduction dealing with the general principle, the first chapter deals with the 'physical' quantities and the methods used for the determination of the national references. The second chapter, through the protection against radiation of the workers and the public, describes the bonds between the measurable 'operational' quantities and the non measurable 'protections' quantities which allow establishing the radiation protection limits and check that they are respected. The third chapter deals with the difficulties encountered for the measurements in area and personal dosimetry. The fourth chapter deals with the specificities of the medical exposures with the 'practical' quantities, the principle of optimisation and how radiotherapy is implemented. The fifth chapter briefly describes the case of the concerted exposures and of the accident. In conclusion, we analyse the needs and some potential new avenues of work for the metrology of the

  4. New ICRU quantities for the environmental and individual monitoring. Standardization of individual dosemeters by using external beams of photon radiation; Nuevas magnitudes ICRU para la vigilancia radiologica ambiental e individual. Calibracion de dosimetros personales usando haces externos de fotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosed, A.; Delgado, A.; Granados, C. E.

    1987-07-01

    The quantities introduced by ICRU for the radiological monitoring are commented, specially those implied in individual protection against external photons. A procedure is proposed in order to standardize the individual dosemeters by using the kerma in air references of CIEMAT-JEN. The reference radiation beams are described in connection with ISO standards. Provisional values are selected for the appropriate conversion and correction factors. (Author) 23 refs.

  5. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  6. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  7. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  8. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT.

  9. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

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    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  10. External and internal radiation therapy: Past and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed by using external or internal radiation therapy. However, each method has its unique properties which undertakes special role in cancer treatment, this question is brought up that: For cancer treatment, whether external radiation therapy is more efficient or internal radiation therapy one? To answer this question, we need to consider principles and structure of individual methods. In this review, principles and application of each method are considered and finally these two methods are compared with each other.

  11. A femtosecond frequency standard with an external high-finesse interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, E. V.; Golovin, N. N.; Grigor'eva, S. V.; Dmitriev, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    We propose an optical frequency standard based on a femtosecond laser in which the shift of the frequency comb is controlled by means of an external high-finesse interferometer. The standard does not require having a large spectral bandwidth of the laser radiation, which allows extending the proposed method to nanosecond and picosecond mode-locked lasers.

  12. Direct determination of external radiation dose in human blood

    CERN Document Server

    Tanir, AG; Sahiner, E; Bolukdemir, MH; Koc, K; Meric, N; Keles, SK; Kucuk, O

    2014-01-01

    In this study it was shown that it is possible to determine radiation doses from external beam therapy both directly and retrospectively from a human blood sample. To the best of our knowledge no other studies exist on the direct measurement of doses received by a person from external beam therapy. Optically stimulated luminescence counts from a healthy blood sample exposed to an external radiation source were measured. Blood aliquots were given 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100 and 200Gy beta doses and their decay and dose-response curves were plotted. While the luminescence intensities were found to be relatively low for the doses smaller than 10Gy, they were measured considerably higher for doses greater than 10Gy. The dose received by the blood aliquots was determined by interpolating the luminescence counts of 10Gy to the dose-response curve. This study has important ramifications for healthcare, medicine and radiation protection

  13. External Beam Radiation in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Salem Billan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC is surgery followed in some cases by adjuvant treatment, mostly with radioactive iodine (RAI. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT is less common and not a well-established treatment modality in DTC. The risk of recurrence depends on three major prognostic factors: extra-thyroid extension, patient’s age, and tumor with reduced iodine uptake. Increased risk for recurrence is a major factor in the decision whether to treat the patient with EBRT. Data about the use of EBRT in DTC are limited to small retrospective studies. Most series have demonstrated an increase in loco-regional control. The risk/benefit from giving EBRT requires careful patient selection. Different scoring systems have been proposed by different investigators and centers. The authors encourage clinicians treating DTC to become familiarized with those scoring systems and to use them in the management of different cases. The irradiated volume should include areas of risk for microscopic disease. Determining those areas in each case can be difficult and requires detailed knowledge of the surgery and pathological results, and also understanding of the disease-spreading pattern. Treatment with EBRT in DTC can be beneficial, and data support the use of EBRT in high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed for better confirmation of the role of EBRT.

  14. Monte Carlo radiation transport in external beam radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Çeçen, Yiğit

    2013-01-01

    The use of Monte Carlo in radiation transport is an effective way to predict absorbed dose distributions. Monte Carlo modeling has contributed to a better understanding of photon and electron transport by radiotherapy physicists. The aim of this review is to introduce Monte Carlo as a powerful radiation transport tool. In this review, photon and electron transport algorithms for Monte Carlo techniques are investigated and a clinical linear accelerator model is studied for external beam radiot...

  15. Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 μg/cigarette and 1.5 μg/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

  16. Study of Solid Propellant Combustion under External Radiation

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    V.E. Zarko

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of constant and transient radiant flux on the burning rate of solid propellants is considered. The validity of the equivalence principle for the radiant flux and increase in initial temperature and also the problem of possible photochemical effect of thermal radiation are discussed. Experimental data on burning rate response to periodical perturbations of radiant flux for different types of solid propellants are reported. The problem of correlation between burning rate response to perturbations of pressure and external radiation is considered. Formulation of the problem on transient combustion in terms of the Zeldovich- Novozhilov phenomenological approach is described and the results of numerical integration are presented.

  17. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Epidemiology Lab.; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris (France); Le Guen, B. [EDF, Saint Denis (France)

    2016-11-15

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricite de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  18. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers: considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Laroche, P; Le Guen, B; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K

    2016-11-01

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  19. Viewpoint on proposed radiation-protection standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed revision of 10CFR20 is discussed from a personal perspective. A brief historical review of the development of radiation standards is presented, and arguments against the proposed de minimis level elaborated upon. (ACR)

  20. External inspection of compliance with standards for improved healthcare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodgren, Gerd; Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Pomey, Marie-Pascale

    2016-12-02

    Inspection systems are used in healthcare to promote quality improvements (i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes). These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of healthcare. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational-, provider- and patient-level outcomes are not clear. This is the first update of the original Cochrane review, published in 2011. To evaluate the effectiveness of external inspection of compliance with standards in improving healthcare organisation behaviour, healthcare professional behaviour and patient outcomes. We searched the following electronic databases for studies up to 1 June 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, HMIC, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. There was no language restriction and we included studies regardless of publication status. We also searched the reference lists of included studies and contacted authors of relevant papers, accreditation bodies and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), regarding any further published or unpublished work. We also searched an online database of systematic reviews (PDQ-evidence.org). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised trials (NRCTs), interrupted time series (ITSs) and controlled before-after studies (CBAs) evaluating the effect of external inspection against external standards on healthcare organisation change, healthcare professional behaviour or patient outcomes in hospitals, primary healthcare organisations and other community-based healthcare organisations. Two review authors independently applied eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed the

  1. US Army primary radiation standards complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.C. [Radiation Standards and Dosimetry Laboratory, Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Army Primary Radiation Standards Complex (PRSC) to be constructed at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The missions of the organizations to be located in the PRSC are described. The health physics review of the facility design is discussed. The radiation sources to be available in the PRSC and the resulting measurement capabilities of the Army Primary Standards Laboratory Nucleonics section are specified. Influence of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accrediation Program (NVLAP) accreditation criteria on facility design and source selection is illustrated.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF PALLIATIVE EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY FOR BLADDER CANCER

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    Yu. V. Gumenetskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To improve the efficacy of palliative radiation therapy for patients with bladder cancer (BC.Materials and Methods: In the years 1990−2010, 90 patients with BC were treated with palliative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT using three regimens: conventional fractionation in group 1 (n = 37, hypofractionation in group 2 (n = 22 and accelerated dynamic fractionation in group 3 (n = 31.Results: The immediate efficacy of EBRT was evaluated taking into account rapid relief of local symptoms of disease. In group 1, a clinically significant response (hematuria relief was achieved in 63,0 % cases, in group 2 — in 62,5 %, in group 3 — in 91,7 % cases. The 10-year follow-up showed that in group 1, the median survival was 21,8 ± 3,3 months; in groups 2 and 3, the median survival was 27,0 ± 7,8 and 32,6 ± 9,8 months, respectively. In group 2, an increase in the rate of acute radiation reactions was noted, whereas in group 3, palliative EBRT did not produce higher rates and severity of acute radiation reactions and complications.Conclusion: Accelerated dynamic fractionation was found to shorten treatment times and to improve outcomes and quality of life for incurable patients with BC.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF PALLIATIVE EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY FOR BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Gumenetskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To improve the efficacy of palliative radiation therapy for patients with bladder cancer (BC.Materials and Methods: In the years 1990−2010, 90 patients with BC were treated with palliative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT using three regimens: conventional fractionation in group 1 (n = 37, hypofractionation in group 2 (n = 22 and accelerated dynamic fractionation in group 3 (n = 31.Results: The immediate efficacy of EBRT was evaluated taking into account rapid relief of local symptoms of disease. In group 1, a clinically significant response (hematuria relief was achieved in 63,0 % cases, in group 2 — in 62,5 %, in group 3 — in 91,7 % cases. The 10-year follow-up showed that in group 1, the median survival was 21,8 ± 3,3 months; in groups 2 and 3, the median survival was 27,0 ± 7,8 and 32,6 ± 9,8 months, respectively. In group 2, an increase in the rate of acute radiation reactions was noted, whereas in group 3, palliative EBRT did not produce higher rates and severity of acute radiation reactions and complications.Conclusion: Accelerated dynamic fractionation was found to shorten treatment times and to improve outcomes and quality of life for incurable patients with BC.

  4. 76 FR 57897 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power... exclude external power supplies used in specific applications from certain energy conservation standards prescribed under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). Congress enacted this exclusion,...

  5. 77 FR 22472 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External... energy conservation standards for certain external power supplies to re-insert a table that had been... statutorily-prescribed energy conservation standards for all Class A external power supplies to meet....

  6. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  7. 10 CFR 34.21 - Limits on external radiation levels from storage containers and source changers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on external radiation levels from storage... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.21 Limits on external radiation levels from storage containers and source changers. The...

  8. Treatment optimisation using external beam radiation in gynaecological cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sharma

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of patients with gynaecological cancers present with advanced stages in which external beam radiation forms a major component of the treatment. These patients undergo simulation for treatment planning prior to radiation. Currently the lower extent of the disease is evaluated by vaginal examination and marked using a lead wire on the anterior abdominal wall in the pelvic region. A 2 cm margin inferior to this level is used as the lower border of the treatment field. The suggested modified technique includes the placement of an indigenously designed perspex vaginal obturator with graduations at 1 cm distance from its tip. Following vaginal examination the obturator can be inserted into the vagina and fixed at the predefined length using a fixation device. The radio-opaque markers can be seen even in the lateral films. Twentyfive consecutive patients underwent the procedure and the differences between the two methods of marking the lower border were calculated. The external lead wire was inferior to the internal obturator in 19 patients (76% ranging from 0.5 cm to 3 cm (median 1.5 cm, mean 1.37 cm. It was at the same level in 4 patients (16% and 1 cm superior to the internal obturator in 2 (8%. With the modified technique using the internal obturator application for delineating the lower border of vaginal disease or vault, it was possible to decrease the length of field thereby reducing the chances of treatment-related toxicity, especially groin and vulval reactions, as well as avoiding treatment interruptions.

  9. On the external standardization of the language of Serbs

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    Radić Prvoslav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The weakening of the SFRY (Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia which was followed by its dissolution, had an impact on a wide range of issues, one of them being the degradation of the so called Serbo-Croatian language. Not only did the external political influences contribute to the dissolution of the SFRY, but they also play a part in the linguistic profiling of new standard varieties today. However, as the dissolution of Yugoslavia couldn't have been imagined without consequences for Serbs primarily, the transformation of the 'Serbo-Croatian' language into a series of new language norms-successors of the old ones, cannot take place without challenging the rights of the great number of Serbs who live outside of Serbia. These are the rights that primarily refer to the linguistic and social identity - therefore the national identity. The best illustration of this are the external influences in the domain of linguistic engineering today, and these influences can basically be divided into extensive (e. g. commercials, radio and TV programmes and intensive (textbooks, handbooks etc. The aim of this study is the analysis of those different kinds of pressures put on the standard variety of the language of Serbs. From the domain of the extensive influences (commercials there is an example of the instruction given on a tube of toothpaste (Vademecum laboratories, Perfection 5 - Schwarzkopf & Henkel, Dusseldorf - Germany, and as an example of the intensive influences of this type, there is an American textbook (R. Alexander, E. Elias-Bursa} Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Textbook, With Exercises and Basic Grammar, The University of Wisconsin Press, 2006. Both of these language materials proved to be highly compatible when it comes to the characteristics that should become an integral part of the standard language variety of Serbs, and apparently only the Serbs who live in Serbia. Among the language characteristics which are 'typically Serbian' the

  10. External radiation assessment in a wet phosphoric acid production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, J.P.; Perez-Moreno, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: ppmasb@us.es; Martin, J.E.; San Miguel, E.G. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada II, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    226,228}Ra activity concentrations in the material fluxing during the process (the most important radionuclides from the dosimetric point of view) and the external dose rates. Furthermore, any general dependence of the origin of the rock (i.e., on their radioactive contents) on the external effective dose rate measured has not been observed. These latter findings could be a consequence of three effects: (1) a variable radiation shielding at the different points along the process, (2) a changing geometry of irradiation (from a rock pile up to a thin-layered pulp passing through a solid mass inside pipes and deposits), and (3) the existence of a 'memory effect', or background contamination in the installation equipment due to the presence of radionuclide-enriched scales and sludges in pipes and deposits.

  11. Standardization of tumor markers - priorities identified through external quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Tumor markers are often heterogeneous substances that may be present in elevated concentrations in the serum of cancer patients. Typically measured by immunoassay, they contribute to clinical management, particularly in screening, case-finding, prognostic assessment, and post-treatment monitoring. Data both from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes and clinical studies demonstrate significant variation in tumor marker results obtained for the same specimen using different methods. Between-method between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CV) reported by EQA schemes generally reflect the complexity of the measurand, ranging from 25% for the complex mucinous cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Improving the standardization of tumor marker measurements is particularly important for three reasons. The primary use of tumor markers is in monitoring cancer patients over long periods of time. Clinical interpretation of trends may consequently be affected if results are obtained in different laboratories using different methods or if a laboratory has to change method. Differences in results may have major implications for adoption of area-wide decision cut-offs and make implementation of these difficult. Method-related differences also make it difficult to compare clinical studies. Improving comparability of tumor marker results requires broad international agreement about which molecular forms of the measurand have clinical utility, identifying and adopting pure molecular forms as calibrants, and defining antibody specificities for their optimal detection. These aims have been achieved to varying extents for the most frequently measured serum tumor markers as described in this paper.

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Radiation standards for mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of this...

  13. 75 FR 56021 - Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies: Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ..., and preliminary results. II. History of Standards Rulemaking for Battery Chargers and External Power... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies... establishing energy conservation standards for battery chargers (BCs) and non-Class A EPSs; the...

  14. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  15. III. Biological effects of radiation from external and internal sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R.S.

    1948-05-24

    This report focuses on the hemotological effects of total body irradiation from external and internal sources observed in patients treated for arthritis with radioactive phosphorus administered intravenously.

  16. Internal and external radiative widths in the combined R-matrix and potential model formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Hao, T V Nhan

    2016-01-01

    Using the $R$-matrix approach we calculate the radiative width for a resonance decaying to a bound state through electric dipole, $E1$, transitions. The total radiative width is determined by the interference of the nuclear internal and external radiative width amplitudes. For a given channel radius the external radiative width amplitude is model independent and is determined by the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) of the bound state to which the resonance decays. It also depends on the partial resonance width. To calculate the internal radiative width amplitude we show that a single particle potential model is appropriate. We compare our results with a few experimental data.

  17. Radiative Effects in the Standard Model Extension

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovskii, V C; Murchikova, E M

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of radiative effects induced by the Lorentz and CPT non-invariant interaction term for fermions in the Standard Model Extension is investigated. In particular, electron-positron photo-production and photon emission by electrons and positrons were studied. The rates of these processes were calculated in the Furry picture. It was demonstrated that the rates obtained in the framework of the model adopted strongly depend on the polarization states of the particles involved. Indeed, ultra-relativistic particles should occupy states with a preferred spin orientation, i.e., photons have the sign of polarization opposite to the sign of the effective potential, while charged particle are preferably in the state with the helicity coinciding with the sign of the effective potential. This leads to evident spatial asymmetries which may have certain consequences observable in astrophysical and cosmological studies.

  18. Real-time dosimetry in external beam radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran; Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    With growing complexity in radiotherapy treatment delivery,it has become mandatory to check each and every treatment plan before implementing clinically.This process is currently administered by an independent secondary check of all treatment parameters and as a pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) check for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans.Although pre-treatment IMRT QA is aimed to ensure the correct dose is delivered to the patient,it does not necessarily predict the clinically relevant patient dose errors.During radiotherapy,treatment uncertainties can affect tumor control and may increase complications to surrounding normal tissues.To combat this,image guided radiotherapy is employed to help ensure the plan conditions are mimicked on the treatment machine.However,it does not provide information on actual delivered dose to the tumor volume.Knowledge of actual dose delivered during treatment aid in confirming the prescribed dose and also to replan/reassess the treatment in situations where the planned dose is not delivered as expected by the treating physician.Major accidents in radiotherapy would have been averted if real time dosimetry is incorporated as part of the routine radiotherapy procedure.Of late real-time dosimetry is becoming popular with complex treatments in radiotherapy.Realtime dosimetry can be either in the form of point doses or planar doses or projected on to a 3D image dataset to obtain volumetric dose.They either provide entrance dose or exit dose or dose inside the natural cavities of a patient.In external beam radiotherapy,there are four different established platforms whereby the delivered dose information can be obtained:(1)Collimator;(2)Patient;(3)Couch;and(4)Electronic Portal Imaging Device.Current real-time dosimetric techniques available in radiotherapy have their own advantages and disadvantages and a combination of one or more of these methods provide vital information

  19. Internal and external stray radiation suppression for LWIR catadioptric telescope using non-sequential ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Tao; Wu, Yanxiong; Shi, Guangwei; Wang, Lingjie

    2015-07-01

    A long wave infrared imaging system operated for space exploration of faint target is highly sensitive to stray radiation. We present an integrative suppression process of internal and external stray radiation. A compact and re-imaging LWIR catadioptric telescope is designed as practical example and internal and external stray radiation is analyzed for this telescope. The detector is cryogenically cooled with 100% cold shield efficiency of Lyot stop. A non-sequential ray tracing technique is applied to investigate how the stray radiation propagates inside optical system. The simulation and optimization during initial design stage are proceeded to avoid subversive defect that the stray radiation disturbs the target single. The quantitative analysis of stray radiation irradiance emitted by lenses and structures inside is presented in detail. The optical elements, which operate at room-temperature due to the limitation of weight and size, turn to be the significant stray radiation sources. We propose a method combined infrared material selection and optical form optimization to reduce the internal stray radiation of lens. We design and optimize mechanical structures to achieve a further attenuation of internal stray radiation power. The point source transmittance (PST) is calculated to assess the external radiation which comes from the source out of view field. The ghost of bright target due to residual reflection of optical coatings is simulated. The results show that the performance of stray radiation suppression is dramatically improved by iterative optimization and modification of optomechanical configurations.

  20. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Kitayama, Tetsu

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel scenario for globular cluster (GC) formation, where the ultraviolet (UV) background radiation effectively works so as to produce compact star clusters. Here, we explore the formation of GCs in UV radiation fields. For this purpose, we calculate baryon and dark matter (DM) dynamics in spherical symmetry, incorporating the self-shielding effects by solving the radiative transfer of UV radiation. In addition, we prescribe the star formation in cooled gas components and pursue the dynamics of formed stars. As a result, we find that the evolution of subgalactic objects in UV background radiation are separated into three types, that is, (1) prompt star formation, where less massive clouds ~10^{5-8} M_sun are promptly self-shielded and undergo star formation, (2) delayed star formation, where photoionized massive clouds >10^8 M_sun collapse despite high thermal pressure and are eventually self-shielded to form stars in a delayed fashion, and (3) supersonic infall, where photoionized less massive c...

  2. Individual Dose Monitor of External Radiation Personnel in IMP (1996~2001)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For evaluating the individual annual effective dose of eternal radiation personnel in IMP, we monitored individual dose of external radiation personnel every year. The monitoring results are shown in Table 1, from which it is known from 1998 to 2001, we monitored 1099 workers, the mean annual effective dose is 0.13 mSv.

  3. Self-Determination of Academic Standards by Children: Toward Freedom from External Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexibrod, Jeffrey J.; O'Leary, K. Daniel

    1974-01-01

    With contingency reinforcement, students with externally imposed or self-determined academic standards did comparable work. When contingent reinforcement was dropped in an extinction phase, external imposition subjects tended to outperform self-determination subjects. Experiment serves to demonstrate the utility of self-management as an…

  4. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  5. A case of the hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with external radiation. Efficacy and severe side effect of external radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Hideaki; Yasui, Ouki; Ise, Norihito [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Hepatic hilar bile duct cancer was difficult to cure by surgical treatment and its prognosis was very poor. We present the case of non-curative resection of hepatic hilar bile duct cancer, controlled with external radiation. 72 years-old-female, she complained jaundice and diagnosed hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with abdominal ultrasonography. Hepatic hilar resection was performed but curative resection could not be done, because cancer was diffusely spreaded to the hepatic and duodenal ends of the bile duct. After surgery, external radiation (1.8 Gy/day; total 50.4 Gy) was performed. Three months after operation, sometimes, cholangitis was occurred but we could not detect the intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and improved with antibiotics. After seven months, she was dead for sepsis, liver abscess and biliary cirrhosis. From autopsy findings, severe hepatic hilar fibrosis around the irradiation area, stenosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy and portal vein were existed but could not detect the remnant cancer cells. External radiation was sometimes effective, especially for this case. But we should consider the side effect of fibrosis and preventive treatments such as biliary stenting or early biliary drainage. (author)

  6. External radiation therapy for internal fistulation of malignant obstructive jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yoshikazu; Miyazaki, Minoru; Yasumasa, Keigo; Higuti, Takuya; Hayashi, Hiroki; Iwahashi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Shirou; Sumimura, Junichi; Nagai, Isao [Kinan General Hospital, Tanabe, Wakayama (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Internal fistulation is one of way to improve QOL for patients afflicted by malignant obstructive jaundice. Of 15 patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to malignancy in the past three years, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed in all cases, and internal fistulation was achieved in six and not in the other nine. Three of successful cases were irradiated with 10 MV x-ray using parallel opposing fields, with average dose of 29 Gy. There were no complaints of vomiting and nausea, pneumonia, or GI bleeding during radiation therapy. For the irradiated cases, it took 52 days from PTBD to fistulation. Internal fistulated patients had no problem with cholangitis or tube trouble, and all were discharged with good QOL. (author)

  7. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in

  8. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, H. IV; Derr, D.D. (Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)); Vehar, D.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author).

  9. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation II: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Makito; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (10^6-10^7 solar masses) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like globular clusters (GCs) if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semi-cosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a "supersonic infall" cloud, since photo-dissociating radiation supp...

  10. External radiation protection audit in National Health Service hospitals. Radiation protecgtion advisors (RPA) of the Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust and the Oxford Radcliffe Hospital NHS Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A T; Crawley, M T; Dixon-Brown, A; Dudley, N J; Nicholas, D; Pearson, D; Przeslak, A; Weatherburn, H

    1996-11-01

    Radiation protection advisers are accustomed to carrying out internal audit in organizations for which they provide services but, traditionally, external audit has not been a part of the radiation protection adviser function. To provide an external audit function, two teams of radiation protection advisers undertook external radiation protection audits of their respective organizations, including the radiation protection adviser function itself. These audits were more representative of audits or inspections carried out by government agencies, for example the Health and Safety Executive and the former Inspectorate of Pollution, now the Environment Agency. Subsequently, reports, including recommendations for remedial action, were prepared for each management by the external auditors. The process of setting up and carrying out the external audits is described. Guidelines are suggested for those seeking to carry out an external audit.

  11. External and internal exposure to natural radiations inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M. [National Institute for Standard, Radiation Measurements Department, P.O. Box 136 Giza code no. 12211 (Egypt)]. E-mail: abo_elmgd@hotmail.com; Metwally, S.M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Elmongy, S.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Safety, Cairo (Egypt); Salama, E. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); El-Fiki, S.A. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    Some ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara are closed for visit to undergo fixation processes. The workers inside these tombs exposed to natural radiations from natural Gamma emitters (external exposure) and inhale unknown radon doses (internal exposure) for long periods. The external exposure in all studied tombs is lower than the maximum recommended action level. The internal exposure in terms of annual effective dose in the south tomb is equal to 28.83mSv/year which highly exceed the recommended level (3-10mSv/year). In this tomb, the external exposure is equal to 21.43{mu}Sv/year. This reflects the hazards of radon over the other natural radiations in the closed area. Among the workers inside the studied tombs, the expected morality is equal to 0.0033%, 0.0199% and 0.0724% for the south entrance of Zoser pyramid, the Serapeum tomb, and the south tomb respectively. ctively.

  12. Pelvic complications after definitive treatment of prostate cancer by interstitial or external beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellhammer, P.F.; El-Mahdi, A.M.

    1983-05-01

    Radiation complications, after definitive treatment of localized prostatic carcinoma by either external beam or interstitial implantation with Iodine-125 seeds, are reviewed. Late serious complications to immediately adjacent structures of the anterior rectal wall, prostatic urethra, bladder neck, and external sphincter occurred with similar frequency in both treatment groups. However, late serious complications of the remotely adjacent structures of the bladder, urethra, distal ureters, and circumferential rectal wall occurred more frequently in the external beam treatment series, a reflection of the fact that larger tissue volumes were irradiated. Rectal ulceration, while occurring in both treatment groups, was amenable to surgical correction or underwent spontaneous healing only in the 125I group. At this point in our experience, morbidity from late radiation complications has been less among those patients having interstitial implantation for definitive treatment of localized prostatic carcinoma.

  13. Probe And Enhancement Of SBS Based Phonons In Infrared Fibers Using Waveguide Coupled External Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung; Chong, Yat C.; Fong, Chee K.

    1989-06-01

    Interaction of GHz and MHz radiation with CO2 laser propagation in a silver halide fiber using sBs based phonon coupling is furthet investigated. The external signal serves to both probe and enhance laser generated sBs phonons in the fiber. Efficient coupling of microwave radiation into the fiber is accomplished by placing the fiber in a hollow metallic waveguide, designed and constructed to transmit the dominant mode in the 0.9-2.0 GHz band. MHz radiation is conveniently coupled into the fiber using the guided microwave radiation as carrier. Phonon emissions from the fiber under CO2 laser pumping are first established on a spectrum analyzer; low frequency generators ale then tuned to match these frequencies and their maximum interaction recorded. Such interactions are systematically studied by monitoring the amplitude and waveform of the reflected and transmitted laser pulse at various power levels and frequencies of the externally coupled radiation. A plot of reflected laser power versus incident laser power reveals a distinct sBs generated phonon threshold. Variouslaunch directions of the GHz and MHz radiation with respect to the direction of laser propagation are realized to verify theory governing sBs interactions. The MHz radiation and its associated phonons in the fiber are convenient tools for probing sBs related phenomenon in infrared fibers.

  14. Revision of the ISO and EN radiation sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hansen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards, ISO 11137 and EN 552, are now being revised under "ISO lead", with the aim of producing only one international standard, although in four parts: (1) requirements. (2) dose-setting methods, (3) dose-substantiation methods and (4) dosimetry. Several aspects...

  15. Standards-Based External Exams and Students' Science-Related Career Expectations: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong Won

    2016-01-01

    Students' science-related career expectations are important for predicting their future science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related educational and occupational attainments. This study examines the degree to which standards-based external examinations are associated with a student's propensity for pursuing science-related…

  16. Effects of External Radiation Fields on Line Emission—Application to Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzikos, Marios; Ferland, G. J.; Williams, R. J. R.; Porter, Ryan; van Hoof, P. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background, as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus. These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field and show that about 60% of its emission lines are sensitive to background subtraction. We argue that this geometric approach could provide an additional tool toward understanding the complex radiation fields of starburst galaxies.

  17. Formation of globular clusters induced by external ultraviolet radiation - II. Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makito; Umemura, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters (GCs) under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (106-7 M⊙) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like GCs if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semicosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a `supersonic infall' cloud, since photodissociating radiation suppresses the formation of hydrogen molecules in the shadowed regions and the regions are compressed by UV heated ambient gas. The properties of resultant star clusters match those of GCs. On the other hand, in weak UV radiation fields, dark-matter-dominated star clusters with low stellar density form due to the self-shielding effect as well as the positive feedback by ionizing photons. Thus, we conclude that the `supersonic infall' under a strong UV background is a potential mechanism to form GCs.

  18. Radiation optic neuropathy after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly : report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, ACM; Hoving, MA; Links, TP; Dullaart, RPF; Ranchor, AV; ter Weeme, CA; Canrinus, AA; Szabo, BG; Pott, JWR

    2003-01-01

    For diagnosing radiation optic neuropathy (RON) ophthalmological and imaging data were evaluated from 63 acromegalic patients, irradiated between 1967 and 1998. Two patients developed RON: one patient in one optic nerve 10 years and another patient in both optic nerves 5 months after radiation thera

  19. A case report of a crisis caused by external radiation in the malignant pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Akiyo; Tena, Shinichi; Nomura, Kaoru; Demura, Hiroshi [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A case of a severe complication not described hitherto was reported, which was caused by external radiation to bone metastasis of malignant pheochromocytoma to resolve pain. The patient, a female of 59 y, with multiple bone metastasis gave MRI findings of tumor lesion and osteolysis at thoracic vertebra. Internal radiation was thought to be ineffective since the uptake of {sup 131}I-MIBG was insufficient in the tumor. Alpha-methyl tyrosine, phentolamine and propranolol were treated. After external irradiation of total dose of 20 Gy/week to thoracic vertebra was done at a single dose of 4 Gy to resolve pain, a crisis of hypertension (200/110 mmHg) was caused accompanying with tachycardia (160/min), perspiration, cold feeling of limb, dehydration and increase of serum LDH, ALP and K. The symptom was improved by the dose increase of alpha-methyltyrosine and other above drugs. This case indicates that even a small dose of external radiation can cause a crisis described above in pheochromocytoma and alpha- and beta-blockers together with inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis should be given before radiation. (K.H.)

  20. Transition Radiation as a Secondary Standard Source in the VUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, W; Labs, D

    1971-09-01

    The optical radiation caused by electron bombardment of metallic surfaces was tested for its use as a secondary standard source in the VUV. Aluminum of high purity was found to be a suitable target material. The reproducibility of the radiation is of the order of 4% to 2% for 0.11 source was calibrated absolutely by comparison with a deuterium lamp of known absolute intensity.

  1. Availability of solar radiation and standards for solar access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casabianca, G.A.; Evans, J.M. [Research Centre Habitat and Energy, Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseno y Urbanismo, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Capital Federal (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    In southern Argentina, a region between latitudes 38 deg C and 55 deg C S, the heating demand in the residential sector is high while the availability of solar radiation is limited. A new proposal for solar access standards has been developed, taking into account the climatic conditions of each location, the effective availability of solar radiation and the direct sunlight requirements. This study analyses the climatic conditions for the Patagonia, relating heating demand and solar radiation availability in different sites, and presents the development of new sunlight standards that respond to these regional conditions. As a result of this study, the new Argentine standard TRAM 11.603 includes new conditions to protect solar access and provide design recommendations. (orig.) 4 refs.

  2. Radiation hardness of Efratom M-100 rubidium frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T. C.; Vorwerk, H.; Rudie, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on rubidium gas cell frequency standards and components are presented, including the results of recent tests where a continuously operating rubidium frequency standard (Effratom, Model M-100) was subjected to simultaneous neutron/gamma radiation. At the highest neutron fluence 7.5 10 to the 12th power n/sq cm and total dose 11 krad(Si) tested, the unit operated satisfactorily; the total frequency change over the 2 1/2 hour test period due to all causes, including repeated retraction from and insertion into the reactor, was less than 1 x 10 to the -10th power. The effects of combined neutron/gamma radiation on rubidium frequency standard physics package components were also studied, and the results are presented.

  3. Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

  4. The direct measurement using an imaging plate for coincidence of radiation centre and laser position in external radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Tsunashima, Yoshikazu

    2003-02-21

    A new method of quality assurance has been studied to measure coincidence of the radiation centre and a patient-setup laser position on a transverse plane to the beam at the isocentre. This measurement is achieved by using an imaging plate (IP). When radiation is applied to an IP, the energy is stored as trapped electrons. The number of electrons is decreased by local laser exposure. As a result, the radiation field produced by external beam irradiation is recorded as 'positive' information and the position of the patient-setup laser is recorded as 'negative' on an IP. The advantages of this method are the direct measurement, short time and high resolution. These are required for daily and monthly quality checks. We confirmed the advantage of this method by an experiment using a proton beam.

  5. Solid cancer mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure at the French atomic energy commission and nuclear fuel company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2011-07-01

    Studies of nuclear workers make it possible to directly quantify the risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates. Studies of the CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique) and AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) cohort, currently the most informative such group in France, describe the long-term risk to nuclear workers associated with external exposure. Our aim is to assess the risk of mortality from solid cancers among CEA and AREVA NC nuclear workers and its association with external radiation exposure. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and internal Poisson regressions were conducted, controlling for the main confounding factors [sex, attained age, calendar period, company and socioeconomic status (SES)]. During the period 1968-2004, there were 2,035 solid cancers among the 36,769 CEA-AREVA NC workers. Cumulative external radiation exposure was assessed for the period 1950-2004, and the mean cumulative dose was 12.1 mSv. Mortality rates for all causes and all solid cancers were both significantly lower in this cohort than in the general population. A significant excess of deaths from pleural cancer, not associated with cumulative external dose, was observed, probably due to past asbestos exposure. We observed a significant excess of melanoma, also unassociated with dose. Although cumulative external dose was not associated with mortality from all solid cancers, the central estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv of 0.46 for solid cancer mortality was higher than the 0.26 calculated for male Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors 50 years or older and exposed at the age of 30 years or older. The modification of our results after stratification for SES demonstrates the importance of this characteristic in occupational studies, because it makes it possible to take class-based lifestyle differences into account, at least partly. These results show the great potential of a further joint international study of

  6. Effects of External Radiation Fields on Line Emission - Application to Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzikos, Marios; Williams, Robin; van Hoof, Peter; Porter, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background (CMB), as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN). These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field, and show that about 60 percent of it...

  7. Modeling of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High Temperature Superconductors under External Radiation in the Breakpoint Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukrinov Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-voltage (IV characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors under external electromagnetic radiation are calculated numerically in the parametric resonance region. We discuss a numerical method for calculation of the Shapiro step width on the amplitude of radiation. In order to accelerate computations we used parallelization by task parameter via Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM arrays and tested it in the case of a single junction. An analysis of the junction transitions between rotating and oscillating states in the branching region of IV-characteristics is presented.

  8. Modeling of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High Temperature Superconductors under External Radiation in the Breakpoint Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Plecenik, A.; Streltsova, O. I.; Zuev, M. I.; Ososkov, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    The current-voltage (IV) characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors under external electromagnetic radiation are calculated numerically in the parametric resonance region. We discuss a numerical method for calculation of the Shapiro step width on the amplitude of radiation. In order to accelerate computations we used parallelization by task parameter via Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) arrays and tested it in the case of a single junction. An analysis of the junction transitions between rotating and oscillating states in the branching region of IV-characteristics is presented.

  9. The external gamma radiation environment from the Kiwi Phoebus, and Pewee reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    During the past few years, ground tests of high-powered propulsion-prototype reactors have provided several opportunities to observe the external radiation environment. Reactor tests have been conducted in free air and inside of open well shields. Measurements were taken over distances ranging from contact with the pressure vessel out to greater than 5000' both during operation and after shutdown. Some measurements characteristic of each of the systems are presented and compared with results of calculations.

  10. Treatment of Head and Neck Paragangliomas With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, Charles, E-mail: c.dupin@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux (France); Lang, Philippe [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France); Dessard-Diana, Bernadette [Department of Radiotherapy, Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris (France); Simon, Jean-Marc; Cuenca, Xavier; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Feuvret, Loïc [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2009, 66 patients with 81 head and neck paragangliomas were treated by conventional external beam radiation therapy in 25 fractions at a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 41.4-68 Gy). One case was malignant. The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 30 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.9-243 cm{sup 3}) and 116 cm{sup 3} (range, 24-731 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Median age was 57.4 years (range, 15-84 years). Eleven patients had multicentric lesions, and 8 had family histories of paraganglioma. Paragangliomas were located in the temporal bone, the carotid body, and the glomus vagal in 51, 18, and 10 patients, respectively. Forty-six patients had exclusive radiation therapy, and 20 had salvage radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (range, 0.1-21.2 years). Results: One patient had a recurrence of temporal bone paraganglioma 8 years after treatment. The actuarial local control rates were 100% at 5 years and 98.7% at 10 years. Patients with multifocal tumors and family histories were significantly younger (42 years vs 58 years [P=.002] and 37 years vs 58 years [P=.0003], respectively). The association between family predisposition and multifocality was significant (P<.001). Two patients had cause-specific death within the 6 months after irradiation. During radiation therapy, 9 patients required hospitalization for weight loss, nausea, mucositis, or ophthalmic zoster. Two late vascular complications occurred (middle cerebral artery and carotid stenosis), and 2 late radiation-related meningiomas appeared 15 and 18 years after treatment. Conclusion: Conventional external beam radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that achieves excellent local control; it should be considered as a first-line treatment of choice for head and neck paragangliomas.

  11. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  12. Analysis of the mortality among Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Hitz, M.; Samson, E.; Rogel, A.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Caer, S.; Quesne, B. [Cogema, Coordination Medicale, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The present study follows 9287 Cogema workers exposed to low level of ionizing radiation from the beginning of employment to the end of 1994. This paper presents analyses of the mortality of Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure and the relation between their mortality and their cumulative external radiation dose. Workers were followed up for an average of 13 years. The percentage of subjects lost to follow up was less than 1%. during the follow-up period, 441 deaths occurred. The mean cumulative dose among the whole cohort was 19.4 mSv. As expected, the mortality of the cohort was lower than that of the French national population. The healthy worker effect is often observed in other nuclear workers studies. Part of the healthy worker effect is explained by a proportion of unemployed persons in general population, with a higher mortality rate. All causes S.M.R. increased with calendar period and duration of employment. this increase was not significant for all cancers S.M.R. by duration of employment. This could illustrate the decrease of the initial selection at employment with time. A significant increase in risk was observed for all cancers excluding leukemia mortality with increase of radiation dose in the 15-country study. Significant excess of leukemia by cumulative radiation exposure was observed in the 3-country study and was borderline significant in the 15-country study and in the UK National register for radiation workers study. A positive trend, not statistically significant, by level of external doses was observed in our study for all cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia mortality, but the analyses lack of statistical power. A significant trend was observed only for non-Hodgkin lymphoma death, but considering the large number of statistic tests computed, this result must be carefully interpreted. A borderline significant trend was observed for lung cancer death, a significant increase risk of lung cancer death

  13. Radiation therapy: model standards for determination of need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, L.G.; Devins, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    Contents: Health planning process; Health care requirements (model for projecting need for megavoltage radiation therapy); Operational objectives (manpower, megavoltage therapy and treatment planning equipment, support services, management and evaluation of patient care, organization and administration); Compliance with other standards imposed by law; Financial feasibility and capability; Reasonableness of expenditures and costs; Relative merit; Environmental impact.

  14. Radiative breaking of conformal symmetry in the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Pavlov, A. E.; Pervushin, V. N.; Zakharov, A. F.

    2016-02-01

    Radiative mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking in a comformal-invariant version of the Standard Model is considered. The Coleman-Weinberg mechanism of dimensional transmutation in this system gives rise to finite vacuum expectation values and, consequently, masses of scalar and spinor fields. A natural bootstrap between the energy scales of the top quark and Higgs boson is suggested.

  15. Influence of external magnetic and laser radiation fields on Feshbach resonances in collision of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Gazazyan, E A; Chaltykyan, V O

    2012-01-01

    We study collision of two atoms with formation of Feshbach resonance at combined interaction with the external magnetic field and laser radiation. In cases of one- and two-photon resonances of laser radiation with two discrete vibrational molecular levels, we show that Feshbach resonances appear at interaction of external magnetic field with dressed states formed via Autler-Townes effect. In addition, in case of one-photon resonance the lower vibrational molecular state is coupled by laser radiation with the continuum of the elastic channel and forms laser-induced Feshbach resonance via both Autler-Townes effect and LICS mechanism. We study the combined process of formation of Feshbach resonances; this enables the control of Feshbach resonance by varying the magnetic field and intensity and frequency of laser radiation. We obtain the cross-sections of elastic and inelastic scattering and show that quenching of resonance occurs at the energy equal to that of the systems ground state. Dependence of the cross-se...

  16. The Evolution of External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) from a Technological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorie, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    Since the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen in 1895 ionizing radiations have been used as a treatment for cancer. Such treatments have been based on either implantation of radioactive materials at the site of disease or by aiming external radiation beams at the diseased site. This later method is referred to as teletherapy because the beams originate from a location outside of the body distant from the disease site itself. A brief review of the basic radiation biology will be given to illustrate the rationale for therapeutic use of ionizing radiations and the effects of beam energy and beam type- particulate or photon. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the technological teletherapy developments supported by the required physical properties of the beams and their associated characteristics that make them suitable for patient treatments. Chronological highlights will include the following sources or devices: superficial x-rays, orthovaltage x-rays, megavoltage x-rays and Cobalt 60 photons, electron beams, neutron beams, negative pi mesons, protons, and heavy ions. The presentation will illustrate how the physical beam properties have been incorporated into modern radiation treatment devices, many of which are equipped with radiation imaging capability. Such devices include: linacs equipped with multileaf collimators for beam shaping and intensity modulation, the Gamma Knife for precise and accurate irradiation of brain tumors or arterial-venous malformations (AVM), the robotic arm based Cyber Knife, and the Helical Tomotherapy unit.

  17. ON STANDARDIZATION OF RADIATION PROTECTION INDEXES OF NATURAL MINERAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues connected with the standardization of radiation protection indexes of natural mineral waters are considered in the article. It is shown that classification of natural mineral waters according to their intended use which is accepted in GOST R 54316-2011 is close to their classification in the EU countries. Justification is given of the approaches to standardization of natural radionuclides content in natural mineral waters. It is shown that it is more acceptable to use the values of interventional levels for individual radionuclides given in Radiation Safety Standard-99/2009 for this purpose in comparing with the values given in WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.

  18. Reduction in stray radiation dose using a body-shielding device during external radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuxu; Jiang, Shaohui; Zhang, Quanbin; Lin, Shengqu; Wang, Ruihao; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Guoqian; Lei, Huaiyu; Yu, Hui

    2017-03-01

    With the purpose of reducing stray radiation dose (SRD) in out-of-field region (OFR) during radiotherapy with 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), a body-shielding device (BSD) was prepared according to the measurements obtained in experimental testing. In experimental testing, optimal shielding conditions, such as 1 mm lead, 2 mm lead, and 1 mm lead plus 10 mm bolus, were investigated along the medial axis of a phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The SRDs at distances from field edge were then measured and analyzed for a clinical IMRT treatment plan for nasopharyngeal carcinoma before and after shielding using the BSD. In addition, SRDs in anterior, posterior, left and right directions of phantom were investigated with and without shielding, respectively. Also, the SRD at the bottom of treatment couch was measured. SRD decreased exponentially to a constant value with increasing distance from field edge. The shielding rate was 50%-80%; however, there were no significant differences in SRDs when shielded by 1 mm lead, 2 mm lead, or 1 mm lead plus 10 mm bolus (P>0.05). Importantly, the 10 mm bolus absorbed back-scattering radiation due to the interaction between photons and lead. As a result, 1 mm lead plus 10 mm bolus was selected to prepare the BSD. After shielding with BSD, total SRDs in the OFR decreased to almost 50% of those without shielding when irradiated with IMRT beams. Due to the effects of treatment couch and gantry angle, SRDs at distances were not identical in anterior, posterior, left and right direction of phantom without BSD. As higher dose in anterior and lower dose in posterior, SRDs were substantial similarities after shielding. There was no significant difference in SRDs for left and right directions with or without shielding. Interestingly, SRDs in the four directions were similar after shielding. From these results, the BSD developed in this study may significantly reduce SRD in the OFR during

  19. External beam irradiation in the palliation of bone metastases: a practice analysis among Sicilian Departments of Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Stefano; Pontoriero, Antonio; Delia, Pietro; Santacaterina, Anna

    2004-01-01

    In the treatment of bone metastases, the choice of radiation fractionation, total radiation dose, delivery technique, and imaging studies before treatment varies among radiation oncologists. Surveys on this issue, using case scenarios, have been published by groups from Europe, North America, and Australia-New Zealand. Our objective was to analyze retrospectively the "real" practice in nine radiotherapy centers located in Sicily. A questionnaire including 17 items was distributed to 30 practicing radiation oncologists working in seven departments of four Sicilian cities (Messina, Catania, Ragusa and Palermo) during a meeting of the Sicilian Division of the Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica (AIRO). Participants were asked to answer the questions using a card for every patient treated with external beam irradiation from 1 January to 31 December, 2000. Six centers returned the questionnaires; 332 cards were valuable for a total of 5644 responses. All six responding departments used linear accelerators for treatment delivery. The most common dose fractionation was 30 Gy in 10 fractions and the most common technique used was opposed parallel local fields. Before the start of irradiation a bone scan was performed in 325 of the 332 (98%) patients treated and CT and/or MRI was performed in 320 (96%); surprisingly, standard roentgenograms were used in only 142 of 332 patients (42.8%). The "real" radiation practice for bone metastases in the region of Sicily confirms the results of the previously reported international surveys: there is a clear preference for fractionated treatment and local field therapy. The results of randomized studies, which demonstrated both the efficacy and the feasibility of a single 6-8 Gy fraction in the palliation of bone metastases, have little or no impact on the pattern of practice.

  20. Developing standards for malaria microscopy: external competency assessment for malaria microscopists in the Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Sania

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years, associated with the increasing accessibility of accurate diagnosis through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and new World Health Organization guidelines recommending parasite-based diagnosis prior to anti-malarial therapy. However, light microscopy, established over 100 years ago and frequently considered the reference standard for clinical diagnosis, has been neglected in control programmes and in the malaria literature and evidence suggests field standards are commonly poor. Microscopy remains the most accessible method for parasite quantitation, for drug efficacy monitoring, and as a reference of assessing other diagnostic tools. This mismatch between quality and need highlights the importance of the establishment of reliable standards and procedures for assessing and assuring quality. This paper describes the development, function and impact of a multi-country microscopy external quality assurance network set up for this purpose in Asia. Methods Surveys were used for key informants and past participants for feedback on the quality assurance programme. Competency scores for each country from 14 participating countries were compiled for analyses using paired sample t-tests. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants including the programme facilitators and national level microscopists. Results External assessments and limited retraining through a formalized programme based on a reference slide bank has demonstrated an increase in standards of competence of senior microscopists over a relatively short period of time, at a potentially sustainable cost. The network involved in the programme now exceeds 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific, and the methods are extended to other regions. Conclusions While the impact on national programmes varies, it has translated in some instances into a strengthening of national microscopy standards and offers a

  1. Statistical Modeling of the Eye for Multimodal Treatment Planning for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Intraocular Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueegsegger, Michael B. [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bach Cuadra, Meritxell [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Signal Processing Laboratory - LTS5, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Amstutz, Christoph A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Rudolph, Tobias [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland); Aebersold, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Kowal, Jens H., E-mail: jens.kowal@artorg.unibe.ch [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Ocular anatomy and radiation-associated toxicities provide unique challenges for external beam radiation therapy. For treatment planning, precise modeling of organs at risk and tumor volume are crucial. Development of a precise eye model and automatic adaptation of this model to patients' anatomy remain problematic because of organ shape variability. This work introduces the application of a 3-dimensional (3D) statistical shape model as a novel method for precise eye modeling for external beam radiation therapy of intraocular tumors. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentations were compared for 17 patients, based on head computed tomography (CT) volume scans. A 3D statistical shape model of the cornea, lens, and sclera as well as of the optic disc position was developed. Furthermore, an active shape model was built to enable automatic fitting of the eye model to CT slice stacks. Cross-validation was performed based on leave-one-out tests for all training shapes by measuring dice coefficients and mean segmentation errors between automatic segmentation and manual segmentation by an expert. Results: Cross-validation revealed a dice similarity of 95% {+-} 2% for the sclera and cornea and 91% {+-} 2% for the lens. Overall, mean segmentation error was found to be 0.3 {+-} 0.1 mm. Average segmentation time was 14 {+-} 2 s on a standard personal computer. Conclusions: Our results show that the solution presented outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy, reliability, and robustness. Moreover, the eye model shape as well as its variability is learned from a training set rather than by making shape assumptions (eg, as with the spherical or elliptical model). Therefore, the model appears to be capable of modeling nonspherically and nonelliptically shaped eyes.

  2. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  3. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU...... was accomplished, This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (H-p(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight...... services participated with extremity dosemeters which all used TL detectors. A description is given of the irradiation set-up, the characteristics of the irradiation fields, the calibration quantity applied and the performance criteria used for the evaluation of the results. The paper discusses in detail...

  4. The validity of skin care protocols followed by women with breast cancer receiving external radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aistars, Juli

    2006-08-01

    Skin care in women receiving external radiation to the breast varies among institutions. Studies have been conducted looking at the effect that various skin care products have on the onset and severity of radiation-induced skin reactions in those patients. Results show that no significant difference exists among these products. The practice of avoiding aluminum-based deodorant on the treated side and avoiding use of any skin care products four hours prior to treatment is not evidence based but often is part of skin care protocols for women receiving breast irradiation. A review of the literature since 1996 in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia revealed some evidence to refute the practice but no supporting evidence. Because minimal disruption in a woman's normal hygiene routine could mitigate anxiety and improve coping during a time of extreme stress brought on by a cancer diagnosis, further research is warranted to support changing the practice.

  5. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  6. Osteochondromas and growth retardation secondary to externally or internally administered radiation in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcovici, Peter A. [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Liebling, Melissa S. [Hackensack University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hackensack, NJ (United States)

    2007-03-15

    For over five decades, osteochondromas (exostoses) and associated growth retardation have been known to be caused by radiation damage to the growing skeleton.Patients can be divided into three exposure groups. Group I received external beam radiation therapy primarily for the treatment of childhood cancers (typical dose 3,500 cGy), and 6-20% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation within the radiation portal. Group II consists of recently described patients who received total body irradiation in preparation for bone marrow transplant (typical dose: 800-1,200 cGy), and about 20% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation. Group III consists of 206 German children who in the 1940s and early 1950s received intravenous radioactive Peteosthor (Ra-224) to treat bone tuberculosis (estimated typical dose: 1,000-2,000 cGy), and 14% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation, among other benign and malignant sequelae. Combining these three exposure groups, osteochondromas and growth retardation develop in at least 6-20% of children who receive therapeutic radiation to their growing skeletons. (orig.)

  7. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  8. Occupational external exposure to ionising radiation in France (2005-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuardent, J; Scanff, P; Crescini, D; Rannou, A

    2013-12-01

    The Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) produces the French annual report on occupational exposure to ionising radiation, collecting all national data and aggregating the results according to a unique activity classification expected to be shared by all involved in personal dosimetric monitoring (employers, external dosimetry services and IRSN). Nearly 344,000 monitored workers were counted in France in 2011, with a collective dose of 64.24 man.Sv. The average annual dose (as calculated over the number of measurably exposed workers) differed among the main activity fields: 0.54 mSv in medical and veterinary activities, 1.18 mSv in the nuclear field, 1.60 mSv in non-nuclear industry and 0.47 mSv in research activities. Because of improved knowledge about worker activities, the results for year 2011 are detailed per activity sectors in each field. Lasting limitations prevent from having complete and reliable worker activity information. Solutions are considered to reduce the inaccuracy in the annually published statistics. The evolution of occupational external exposure to ionising radiation from 2005 to 2011 in France is then presented for the main activity fields.

  9. The MCART radiation physics core: the quest for radiation dosimetry standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Abdul M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Lasio, Giovanni; Lu, Wei; Prado, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Dose-related radiobiological research results can only be compared meaningfully when radiation dosimetry is standardized. To this purpose, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium recently created a Radiation Physics Core (RPC) as an entity to assume responsibility of standardizing radiation dosimetry practices among its member laboratories. The animal research activities in these laboratories use a variety of ionizing photon beams from several irradiators such as 250-320 kVp x-ray generators, Cs irradiators, Co teletherapy machines, and medical linear accelerators (LINACs). In addition to this variety of sources, these centers use a range of irradiation techniques and make use of different dose calculation schemes to conduct their experiments. An extremely important objective in these research activities is to obtain a Dose Response Relationship (DRR) appropriate to their respective organ-specific models of acute and delayed radiation effects. A clear and unambiguous definition of the DRR is essential for the development of medical countermeasures. It is imperative that these DRRs are transparent between centers. The MCART RPC has initiated the establishment of standard dosimetry practices among member centers and is introducing a Remote Dosimetry Monitoring Service (RDMS) to ascertain ongoing quality assurance. This paper will describe the initial activities of the MCART RPC toward implementing these standardization goals. It is appropriate to report a summary of initial activities with the intent of reporting the full implementation at a later date.

  10. Specific Considerations on IEC Standardization of Externally Gapped Line Surge Arresters (EGLAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Yoshihiro; Tsuge, Kenji; Kobayashi, Misao; Izumi, Kunikazu; Kawamura, Tatsuo

    The application of externally gapped line surge arresters (EGLAs), which have been developed and established in Japan, is now expanding into many countries. Therefore, the maintenance team 4 (MT4) in the international electrotechnical commission (IEC) technical committee 37 (TC37) for surge arresters advances the standardization works to specify the minimum criteria for requirements and testing methods of EGLAs. EGLAs are effective lightning protection of overhead transmission lines, and have unique required performances originated from the external series gap. The unique required performances of EGLA are insulation coordination performance of EGLA sparkover voltage for lightning overvoltage with the insulator assembly to be protected, withstand voltage performance for switching surge overvoltage and TOV, and follow current interruption performance. This paper discusses the specific issues to be considered for the standardization, such as classification of lightning discharge current rating and a test procedure for follow current interruption performance, based on the Japanese technology through more than twenty years of experience with a large numbers of EGLAs in 22kV to 500kV systems.

  11. The patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy: specificity and methods; La radioprotection du patient en radiotherapie externe: specificites et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvais March, H. [Hopital Val de Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    The daily use of high level radiation doses to fight against carcinomas has often led to consider radiation protection as a marginal problem, in this area. But the therapeutic advances, by increasing the life time and life quality have made the side effects unacceptable and revealed the appearance of radioinduced carcinomas. So, it is necessary to practice a patient radiation protection. The general principles of radiation protection are applicable to radiotherapy. (justification, optimization and dose limit, planning of the treatment, quality control of installations). (N.C.)

  12. Radiation damage effects in standard float zone silicon diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoalino, Kelly C.; Camargo, Fabio; Barbosa, Renata F.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Tobias, Carmen C.B., E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the radiation damage effects on the electrical properties of standard float zone diodes (STFZ). Such effects were evaluated by measuring the current and capacitance of these devices as a function of the reverse voltage. For comparison, current and capacitance measurements were carried out with a non-irradiated STFZ device. The irradiation was performed in the Radiation Technology Center (CTR) at IPEN/CNEN-SP using a {sup 60}Co irradiator (Gammacell 220 - Nordion) with a dose rate of about 2.2 kGy/h. Samples were irradiated at room temperature in steps variable from 50 kGy up 140 kGy which lead to an accumulated dose of 460 kGy. The results obtained have shown that the upper dose limit for a 'damageless' STFZ diode is about 50 kGy. (author)

  13. Dose painting to treat single-lobe prostate cancer with hypofractionated high-dose radiation using targeted external beam radiation: Is it feasible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, Arya; Westerly, David C.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Ryan, Nicole; Raben, David, E-mail: david.raben@ucdenver.edu

    2015-10-01

    Targeted focal therapy strategies for treating single-lobe prostate cancer are under investigation. In this planning study, we investigate the feasibility of treating a portion of the prostate to full-dose external beam radiation with reduced dose to the opposite lobe, compared with full-dose radiation delivered to the entire gland using hypofractionated radiation. For 10 consecutive patients with low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer, 2 hypofractionated, single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were designed. The first plan (standard hypofractionation regimen [STD]) included the entire prostate gland, treated to 70 Gy delivered in 28 fractions. The second dose painting plan (DP) encompassed the involved lobe treated to 70 Gy delivered in 28 fractions, whereas the opposing, uninvolved lobe received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Mean dose to the opposing neurovascular bundle (NVB) was considerably lower for DP vs STD, with a mean dose of 53.9 vs 72.3 Gy (p < 0.001). Mean penile bulb dose was 18.6 Gy for DP vs 19.2 Gy for STD (p = 0.880). Mean rectal dose was 21.0 Gy for DP vs 22.8 Gy for STD (p = 0.356). Rectum V{sub 70} (the volume receiving ≥70 Gy) was 2.01% for DP vs 2.74% for STD (p = 0.328). Bladder V{sub 70} was 1.69% for DP vs 2.78% for STD (p = 0.232). Planning target volume (PTV) maximum dose points were 76.5 and 76.3 Gy for DP and STD, respectively (p = 0.760). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using VMAT for partial-lobe prostate radiation in patients with prostate cancer involving 1 lobe. Partial-lobe prostate plans appeared to spare adjacent critical structures including the opposite NVB.

  14. Hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy (HEBRT versus conventional external-beam radiation (CEBRT in patients with localized prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botrel TEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobias Engel Ayer Botrel,1 Otávio Clark,1 Antônio Carlos Lima Pompeo,2 Francisco Flávio Horta Bretas,2 Marcus Vinicius Sadi,2 Ubirajara Ferreira,2 Rodolfo Borges dos Reis21CoBEU and Evidencias, 2Comitê Brasileiro de Estudos em Uro-Oncologia – CoBEU, BrazilBackground: The purpose of this work was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and side effect profile of hypofractionated versus conventional external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer.Methods: Several databases were searched, including Medline, EmBase, LiLACS, and Central. The endpoints were freedom from biochemical failure and side effects. We performed a meta-analysis of the published data. The results are expressed as the hazard ratio (HR or risk ratio (RR, with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI.Results: The final analysis included nine trials comprising 2702 patients. Freedom from biochemical failure was reported in only three studies and was similar in patients who received hypofractionated or conventional radiotherapy (fixed effect, HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.88–1.20; P = 0.75, with heterogeneity [χ2 = 15.32, df = 2 (P = 0.0005; I2 = 87%]. The incidence of acute adverse gastrointestinal events was higher in the hypofractionated group (fixed effect, RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.45–2.81; P < 0.0001. We also found moderate heterogeneity on this analysis [χ2 = 7.47, df = 5 (P = 0.19; I2 = 33%]. Acute genitourinary toxicity was similar among the groups (fixed effect, RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.95–1.49; P = 0.13, with moderate heterogeneity [χ2 = 5.83, df = 4 (P = 0.21; I2 = 31%]. The incidence of all late adverse events was the same in both groups (fixed effect, gastrointestinal toxicity, RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.79–1.72, P = 0.44; and acute genitourinary toxicity, RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.80–1.68, P = 0.44.Conclusion: Hypofractionated radiotherapy in localized prostate cancer was not superior to conventional radiotherapy and

  15. New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R

    2008-01-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators.

  16. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The mandible; Dose de tolerance des tissus sains: la mandibule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, A.; Bensadoun, R.J. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, PRC, CHU de la Miletrie, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2010-07-15

    Describing dose constraints for organs at risk in external beam radiotherapy is a key-point in order to maximize the therapeutic ratio. In head and neck irradiation, mandible is frequently exposed to ionising radiation-related complications. Those complications will be exposed after a short description of anatomical and physiopathological aspects. A literature search was performed using the Pubmed-Medline database, with following keywords (Osteoradionecrosis, Radiotherapy, Mandible, Toxicity, Organ at risk, Trismus). Incidence and dose constraints will be reported. The incidence of osteoradionecrosis decreased since the 1990, but it remains a dreaded late complication of head and neck cancer radiotherapy. It essentially occurs with cumulative doses of 66 Gy on the mandible (standard fractionation) applied to a significant volume. Respecting oral care is crucial to avoid this kind of complication. The respect of the dose-constraint described should not lead to under treat tumor bed in a curative intent. Trismus related to ionising radiation is poorly described. Literature data cannot lead to describe precise dose constraints. (authors)

  17. Effects of external gamma radiation on femoral artery reimplantation in rats: morphometrical analyzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Regina de Faria Bittencourt da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of external gamma radiation on rat femoral artery reimplant. METHODS: Sixty-two male Wistar rats were distributed in two groups I (Control and II (Irradiated, both formed by three observation subgroups: 2 (10 animals, 7 (11 and 21(10 postoperative days (PO. The right femoral artery of each animal was split up and reimplanted (end-to-end anastomosis, through microsurgery technique. In the first PO day group II animals were irradiated with a single dose of 15Gy, external source. The histological analysis, qualitative and descriptive analysis, was accomplished through hematoxylin and eosin (HE, Verhoeff and Masson trichromium methodology. Morphometric analysis was realized in the same slides used to histological analysis stained by HE. Computer software was used to quantify morphological alterations of the vascular wall, by processing captured images from a microscope. It was analyzed the intimal layer (intimal hyperplasia and endothelium cells formation and the nuclei percentage of smooth muscular cell in the medium layer and in the intima hyperplasia. The data were treated applying the statistical tests: Fisher's exact, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (p < .05. RESULTS: The patency graft was observed by microscope distal to the autograft in 93.5% (29/31. It was observed that the gamma-radiation reduced the degree of covering of the vascular wall for the neo-formed endothelium. The nuclei percentage of smooth muscular cells, in the media, was smaller compared to control animals, although it was no significant for the studied sample size. The irradiated group showed a significant lower luminal stenosis and the intimal hyperplasia occurrence. In this group the percentage of smooth muscular cells proliferation, in the media, were significantly lower for 7 and 21 days of observation. CONCLUSION: The external single dose of 15 Gy gamma-radiation delivered at first postoperative day

  18. Assessment of population external irradiation doses with consideration of Rospotrebnadzor bodies equipment for monitoring of photon radiation dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides review of equipment and methodology for measurement of photon radiation dose; analysis of possible reasons for considerable deviation between the Russian Federation population annual effective external irradiation doses and the relevant average global value. Data on Rospotrebnadzor bodies dosimetry equipment used for measurement of gamma radiation dose are collected and systematized. Over 60 kinds of dosimeters are used for monitoring of population external irradiation doses. Most of dosimeters used in the country have gas-discharge detectors (Geiger-Mueller counters, minor biochemical annunciators, etc. which have higher total values of own background level and of space radiation response than the modern dosimeters with scintillation detectors. This feature of dosimeters is apparently one of most plausible reasons of a bit overstating assessment of population external irradiation doses. The options for specification of population external irradiation doses assessment are: correction of gamma radiation dose measurement results with consideration of dosimeters own background level and space radiation response, introduction of more up-to-date dosimeters with scintillation detectors, etc. The most promising direction of research in verification of population external irradiation doses assessment is account of dosimetry equipment.

  19. Improving standards of radiation protection in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X. [Institute of Energy Technology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - UPC (Spain); Carinou, E. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission - GAEC (Greece); Vanhavere, F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN (Belgium); Clairand, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Gualdrini, G. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente - ENEA (Italy); Sans-Merce, M. [University Hospital Center Vaudois - CHUV (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. However, new developments in medical technology and the increased complexity of medical radiation techniques can produce high doses to medical personnel. In particular, interventional radiology and cardiology and nuclear medicine have been identified as fields where medical staff can receive potentially high doses. Within this framework, the ORAMED project, a collaborative project funded by the EU FP7, proposes new methodologies to improve standards of protection for medical staff. The main studied topics presented in this paper include extremity and eye-lens protection in interventional radiology and cardiology, extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine, especially in therapy and positron emission tomography, and the evaluation and the improvement of active personal dosemeters used in pulsed medical radiation fields. An extensive dose measurement campaign of doses received in extremities and eye-lenses in more than 60 hospitals from 9 European countries has been undertaken. The analysis of the results highlights the most critical procedures and the effectiveness of the protection measures. (authors)

  20. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  1. 76 FR 38550 - Technical Standard DOE-STD-1095-2011, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation for External...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is issuing Technical Standard DOE-STD-1095-2011, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation for External Dosimetry, January 2011. This standard provides updated technical criteria for performance testing for, and provides a requirement for onsite quality assurance assessments of, whole body and extremity dosimetry programs in use at DOE......

  2. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  3. Optimization of cDNA microarrays procedures using criteria that do not rely on external standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisvag Vidar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The measurement of gene expression using microarray technology is a complicated process in which a large number of factors can be varied. Due to the lack of standard calibration samples such as are used in traditional chemical analysis it may be a problem to evaluate whether changes done to the microarray procedure actually improve the identification of truly differentially expressed genes. The purpose of the present work is to report the optimization of several steps in the microarray process both in laboratory practices and in data processing using criteria that do not rely on external standards. Results We performed a cDNA microarry experiment including RNA from samples with high expected differential gene expression termed "high contrasts" (rat cell lines AR42J and NRK52E compared to self-self hybridization, and optimized a pipeline to maximize the number of genes found to be differentially expressed in the "high contrasts" RNA samples by estimating the false discovery rate (FDR using a null distribution obtained from the self-self experiment. The proposed high-contrast versus self-self method (HCSSM requires only four microarrays per evaluation. The effects of blocking reagent dose, filtering, and background corrections methodologies were investigated. In our experiments a dose of 250 ng LNA (locked nucleic acid dT blocker, no background correction and weight based filtering gave the largest number of differentially expressed genes. The choice of background correction method had a stronger impact on the estimated number of differentially expressed genes than the choice of filtering method. Cross platform microarray (Illumina analysis was used to validate that the increase in the number of differentially expressed genes found by HCSSM was real. Conclusion The results show that HCSSM can be a useful and simple approach to optimize microarray procedures without including external standards. Our optimizing method is highly

  4. MO-G-9A-01: Imaging Refresher for Standard of Care Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labby, Z [The University of Michigan Hospital ' Health Sys, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sensakovic, W [Florida Hospital, Orlando, FL (United States); Hipp, E [NYULMC Clinical Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Altman, M [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Imaging techniques and technology which were previously the domain of diagnostic medicine are becoming increasingly integrated and utilized in radiation therapy (RT) clinical practice. As such, there are a number of specific imaging topics that are highly applicable to modern radiation therapy physics. As imaging becomes more widely integrated into standard clinical radiation oncology practice, the impetus is on RT physicists to be informed and up-to-date on those imaging modalities relevant to the design and delivery of therapeutic radiation treatments. For example, knowing that, for a given situation, a fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image set is most likely what the physician would like to import and contour is helpful, but may not be sufficient to providing the best quality of care. Understanding the physics of how that pulse sequence works and why it is used could help assess its utility and determine if it is the optimal sequence for aiding in that specific clinical situation. It is thus important that clinical medical physicists be able to understand and explain the physics behind the imaging techniques used in all aspects of clinical radiation oncology practice. This session will provide the basic physics for a variety of imaging modalities for applications that are highly relevant to radiation oncology practice: computed tomography (CT) (including kV, MV, cone beam CT [CBCT], and 4DCT), positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging specific to brachytherapy (including ultrasound and some brachytherapy specific topics in MR). For each unique modality, the image formation process will be reviewed, trade-offs between image quality and other factors (e.g. imaging time or radiation dose) will be clarified, and typically used cases for each modality will be introduced. The current and near-future uses of these modalities and techniques in radiation oncology clinical practice will also be discussed. Learning

  5. On a radiative origin of the Standard Model from trinification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Molina, José Eliel; Morais, António P.; Pasechnik, Roman; Wessén, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a trinification-based grand unified theory incorporating a global SU(3) family symmetry that after a spontaneous breaking leads to a left-right symmetric model. Already at the classical level, this model can accommodate the matter content and the quark Cabbibo mixing in the Standard Model (SM) with only one Yukawa coupling at the unification scale. Considering the minimal low-energy scenario with the least amount of light states, we show that the resulting effective theory enables dynamical breaking of its gauge group down to that of the SM by means of radiative corrections accounted for by the renormalisation group evolution at one loop. This result paves the way for a consistent explanation of the SM breaking scale and fermion mass hierarchies.

  6. On a radiative origin of the Standard Model from Trinification

    CERN Document Server

    Camargo-Molina, José Eliel; Pasechnik, Roman; Wessén, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a trinification-based Grand Unified Theory (GUT) incorporating a global $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$ flavor symmetry that after a spontaneous breaking leads to a Left-Right (LR) symmetric model. Already at the classical level, this model can accommodate the matter content and the quark Cabbibo mixing in the Standard Model (SM) with only one Yukawa coupling at the unification scale. Considering the minimal low-energy scenario with the least amount of light states, we show that the resulting effective theory enables dynamical breaking of its gauge group down to that of the SM by means of radiative corrections accounted for by the Renormalisation Group evolution at one loop. This result paves the way for a consistent explanation of the SM breaking scale and hierarchies.

  7. Dosimetry for the external radiation therapy. Dosimetry with alanine; Dosimetrie fuer die externe Strahlentherapie. Dosimetrie mit Alanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Mathias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Alanin-Dosimetrie'

    2013-06-15

    The alanine-ESR dosimetry in the PTB is described. The response power of alanine related to the water energy dose for X-rays with average energy of 10-1000 keV is presented. Furthermore the application of alanine for the quality assurance in the radiation therapy is described by means of the prostate irradiation and the therapy of a tumor in the neck region as examples. (HSI)

  8. Quality assurance in personal dosimetry of external radiation: present situation and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, N. [Malaysian Institue For Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    Whole body personal dosimetry is well established for the individual monitoring of radiation workers. High quality radiation dosimetry is essential for workers who rely upon personal dosemeters to record the amount of radiation to which they are exposed. The mandate has been given to the Personal Dosimetry, (secondary standard dosimetry laboratories) S.S.D.L., (Malaysian institute for nuclear energy research) M.I.N.T. to assure the individual monitoring for radiation workers in Malaysia. In 2005, the S.S.D.L;-M.I.N.T. supply, process and read out of personal dosemeters of nearly 13,000 dosimeters monthly, whereby. 12,000 are films and 1,000 are T.L.D.s. The objective of individual monitoring is not limited to the measurement of doses delivered to individuals, but it should demonstrate that limits of exposure have not been exceeded and that working conditions have not unexpectedly deteriorated. Dosimetry measurements are an important component of radiation protection programs and must be of high quality. The exposure of workers to radiation must be controlled and monitored in order to comply with regulatory requirements. S.S.D.L.-M.I.N.T; demonstrates that its performance is at an acceptable level by implementing overall system performance, as evidenced by the ISO 9001 certification of the Personal Dosimetry Service in 2002 and ISO/I.E.C. 17025 accreditation to the calibration laboratory in 2004. The certification and accreditation processes achieved the goal by formalizing the recognition of satisfactory performance, and providing evidence of this performance. Overall performances are assessed, personnel operating the system will be trained and are well qualified and all actions will be documented. The paper describes the overview of the Q.M.S. carried out at the S.S. D.L.-M.I.N.T.. During the implementation of Q.M.S. a few areas has been identified for future consideration. These include performance specification and type testing of dosemeters, which provide a

  9. [The role of external beam radiation therapy in the adjuvant treatment of pigmented villonodular synovitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyd, R; Seegenschmiedt, M H; Micke, O

    2011-12-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder arising from synovial cells of the tendon sheets and joint capsules. The potential value of external beam radiation therapy in the interdisciplinary management of PVNS is demonstrated by a comprehensive literature review on the clinical use of radiotherapy and the results of national patterns of care study (PCS) which was conducted by the German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy in Benign Diseases (GCG-BD) in 2008-2009. A structured questionnaire was mailed to all 227 RT institutions in Germany to assess all previous treatments, the RT indication and techniques, the rate of local control, the functional outcome and the possible adverse effects related to the use of external beam radiation therapy (RT). For comparison of the clinical outcome data, a systematic literature research in several international electronic databases and a conventional library search were performed to identify publications addressing the use of RT for PVNS. Based on an overall response rate of 83.2%, the PCS was nationally representative. Ten percent of institutions presented clinical experience with the use of RT for PVNS; from this database a total of 41 treated sites from 14 institutions were evaluable for long-term analysis. The primary therapeutic approach was cytoreductive surgery in all cases. In cases of residual tissue or complete resection of extensive local recurrences, RT was applied in 39 cases (95.1%). An excellent or good functional outcome was noted in 34 cases (82.9%). The use of RT was not associated with early or late toxicity larger than RTOG grade II. The literature review identified 19 published studies (1940-2009) which represented a total of 140 cases or patients, respectively. After follow-up periods ranging from 1-250 months and administration of total doses in the range of 16-50 Gy the overall rate of local control was 84.5%. Both the results of the national PCS and the literature review

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria for external beam radiation therapy treatment planning for clinically localized prostate cancer, part II of II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas G. Zaorsky, MD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: External beam radiation is a key component of the curative management of T1 and T2 prostate cancer. By combining the most recent medical literature, these Appropriateness Criteria can aid clinicians in determining the appropriate treatment delivery and personalized approaches for individual patients.

  11. Improving efficiency and safety in external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery using a Kaizen approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ajay; Adair, Nilda; O'Brien, Mildred; Naparstek, Nikoleta; Cangelosi, Thomas; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Meier, Jason; Bloom, Beatrice; Potters, Louis

    2017-06-29

    Modern external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery processes potentially increase the number of tasks to be performed by therapists and thus opportunities for errors, yet the need to treat a large number of patients daily requires a balanced allocation of time per treatment slot. The goal of this work was to streamline the underlying workflow in such time-interval constrained processes to enhance both execution efficiency and active safety surveillance using a Kaizen approach. A Kaizen project was initiated by mapping the workflow within each treatment slot for 3 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. More than 90 steps were identified, and average execution times for each were measured. The time-consuming steps were stratified into a 2 × 2 matrix arranged by potential workflow improvement versus the level of corrective effort required. A work plan was created to launch initiatives with high potential for workflow improvement but modest effort to implement. Time spent on safety surveillance and average durations of treatment slots were used to assess corresponding workflow improvements. Three initiatives were implemented to mitigate unnecessary therapist motion, overprocessing of data, and wait time for data transfer defects, respectively. A fourth initiative was implemented to make the division of labor by treating therapists as well as peer review more explicit. The average duration of treatment slots reduced by 6.7% in the 9 months following implementation of the initiatives (P = .001). A reduction of 21% in duration of treatment slots was observed on 1 of the machines (P Kaizen approach has the potential to improve operational efficiency and safety with quick turnaround in radiation therapy practice by addressing non-value-adding steps characteristic of individual department workflows. Higher effort opportunities are identified to guide continual downstream quality improvements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Discriminating Gene Expression Signature of Radiation-Induced Thyroid Tumors after Either External Exposure or Internal Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Chevillard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Both external radiation exposure and internal radionuclide contamination are well known risk factors in the development of thyroid epithelial tumors. The identification of specific molecular markers deregulated in radiation-induced thyroid tumors is important for the etiological diagnosis since neither histological features nor genetic alterations can discriminate between sporadic and radiation-induced tumors. Identification of highly discriminating markers in radiation-induced tumors is challenging as it relies on the ability to identify marker deregulation which is associated with a cellular stress that occurred many years before in the thyroid cells. The existence of such a signature is still controversial, as it was not found in several studies while a highly discriminating signature was found in both post-radiotherapy and post-Chernobyl series in other studies. Overall, published studies searching for radiation-induced thyroid tumor specificities, using transcriptomic, proteomic and comparative genomic hybridization approaches, and bearing in mind the analytical constraints required to analyze such small series of tumors, suggest that such a molecular signature could be found. In comparison with sporadic tumors, we highlight molecular similarities and specificities in tumors occurring after high-dose external radiation exposure, such as radiotherapy, and in post-Chernobyl tumors that occurred after internal 131I contamination. We discuss the relevance of signature extrapolation from series of tumors developing after high and low doses in the identification of tumors induced at very low doses of radiation.

  13. Discriminating gene expression signature of radiation-induced thyroid tumors after either external exposure or internal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Catherine; Ugolin, Nicolas; Schlumberger, Martin; Hofman, Paul; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2011-12-21

    Both external radiation exposure and internal radionuclide contamination are well known risk factors in the development of thyroid epithelial tumors. The identification of specific molecular markers deregulated in radiation-induced thyroid tumors is important for the etiological diagnosis since neither histological features nor genetic alterations can discriminate between sporadic and radiation-induced tumors. Identification of highly discriminating markers in radiation-induced tumors is challenging as it relies on the ability to identify marker deregulation which is associated with a cellular stress that occurred many years before in the thyroid cells. The existence of such a signature is still controversial, as it was not found in several studies while a highly discriminating signature was found in both post-radiotherapy and post-Chernobyl series in other studies. Overall, published studies searching for radiation-induced thyroid tumor specificities, using transcriptomic, proteomic and comparative genomic hybridization approaches, and bearing in mind the analytical constraints required to analyze such small series of tumors, suggest that such a molecular signature could be found. In comparison with sporadic tumors, we highlight molecular similarities and specificities in tumors occurring after high-dose external radiation exposure, such as radiotherapy, and in post-Chernobyl tumors that occurred after internal 131I contamination. We discuss the relevance of signature extrapolation from series of tumors developing after high and low doses in the identification of tumors induced at very low doses of radiation.

  14. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  15. Quantification of an External Motion Surrogate for Quality Assurance in Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Wölfelschneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to validate the stability of the end exhale position in deep expiration breath hold (DEBH technique for quality assurance in stereotactic lung tumor radiation therapy. Furthermore, a motion analysis was performed for 20 patients to evaluate breathing periods and baseline drifts based on an external surrogate. This trajectory was detected using stereo infrared (IR cameras and reflective body markers. The respiratory waveform showed large interpatient differences in the end exhale position during irradiation up to 18.8 mm compared to the global minimum. This position depends significantly on the tumor volume. Also the baseline drifts, which occur mostly in posterior direction, are affected by the tumor size. Breathing periods, which depend mostly on the patient age, were in a range between 2.4 s and 7.0 s. Fifteen out of 20 patients, who showed a reproducible end exhale position with a deviation of less than 5 mm, might benefit from DEBH due to smaller planning target volumes (PTV compared to free breathing irradiation and hence sparing of healthy tissue. Patients with larger uncertainties should be treated with more complex motion compensation techniques.

  16. The role of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma invading the trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Choi, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Kwang Sik [Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the effect of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on local failure-free survival rate (LFFS) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) invading the trachea. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced PTC invading the trachea were treated with surgical resection. After surgery, 21 patients received adjuvant EBRT and radioactive iodine therapy (EBRT group) and 35 patients were treated with radioactive iodine therapy (control group). The age range was 26–87 years (median, 56 years). The median follow-up period was 43 months (range, 4 to 145 months). EBRT doses ranged from 50.4 to 66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Esophagus invasion and gross residual disease was more frequent in the EBRT group. In the control group, local recurrence developed in 9 (9/35, 26%) and new distant metastasis in 2 (2/35, 6%) patients, occurring 4 to 68 months (median, 37 months) and 53 to 68 months (median, 60 months) after surgery, respectively. Two patients had simultaneous local recurrence and new distant metastasis. There was one local failure in the EBRT group at 18 months after surgery (1/21, 5%). The 5-year LFFS was 95% in the EBRT group and 63% in the control group (p = 0.103). In the EBRT group, one late grade 2 xerostomia was developed. Although, EBRT group had a higher incidence of esophagus invasion and gross residual disease, EBRT group showed a better 5-year LFFS. Adjuvant EBRT may have contributed to the better LFFS in these patients.

  17. Anomalously small blackbody radiation shift in the Tl+ frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhrianda, Z.; Safronova, M. S.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2012-02-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. In the present work, we used configuration interaction + coupled-cluster method to evaluate polarizabilities of the 6s21S0 and 6s6p3P0 states of the Tl+ ion; we find α0(1S0)=19.6 a.u. and α0(3P0)=21.4 a.u. The resulting BBR shift of the 6s6p3P0-6s21S0 Tl+ transition at 300 K is ΔνBBR=-0.0157(16) Hz. This result demonstrates that near cancellation of the 1S0 and 3P0 state polarizabilities in divalent B+, Al+, and In+ ions of group IIIB [M. S. Safronova , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.143006 107, 143006 (2011)] continues for much heavier Tl+, leading to anomalously small BBR shift for this system. This calculation demonstrates that the BBR contribution to the fractional frequency uncertainty of the Tl+ frequency standard at 300 K is 1×10-18. We find that Tl+ has the smallest fractional BBR shift among all present or proposed frequency standards with the exception of Al+.

  18. [Standardization in laboratory hematology by participating in external quality assurance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazor, Aida; Siftar, Zoran; Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata

    2011-09-01

    Since 1985, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Merkur University Hospital, Zagreb, has been participating in the International External Quality Assessment Scheme for Hematology (IEQAS-H) organized by the World Health Organization (WHO). Owing to very good results, in 1987 the Department received a certificate of participation in this control scheme. Department has been cooperating in the external quality assessment program in laboratory hematology which has been continuously performed in Croatia since 1986 by the Committee for External Quality Assessment Schemes under the auspices of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemists and School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb. Nowadays, 186 medical biochemical laboratories are included in the National External Quality Assessment program, which is performed three times per year. Our Department has participated in the international projects of the European Committee for External Quality Assurance Programs in Laboratory Medicine (EQALM).

  19. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  20. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Revised series of stylized anthropometric phantoms for internal and external radiation dose assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung

    At present, the dosimetry systems of both the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee utilize a series of stylized or mathematical anthropometric models of patient anatomy developed in 1987 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this study, substantial revisions to the ORNL phantom series are reported with tissue compositions, tissue densities, and organ masses adjusted to match their most recent values in the literature. In addition, both the ICRP and MIRD systems of internal dosimetry implicitly consider that electron and beta-particle energy emitted within the source organs of the patient are fully deposited within these organs. With the development of the revised ORNL phantom series, three additional applications were explored as part of this dissertation research. First, the phantoms were used in combination to assess external radiation exposures to family members caring or interacting with patients released from the hospital following radionuclide therapy with I-131. Values of family member effective dose are then compared to values obtained using NRC guidance and based on a simple point-source methodology which ignores the effects of photon attenuation and scatter within both the source individual (patient) and the target individual (family member). Second, the anatomical structures of the extrathoracic airways and thoracic airways (exclusive of the lungs themselves) have been included in the entire revised ORNL phantom series of pediatric individuals. Values of cross-region photon dose are explored for use in radioactive aerosol inhalation exposures to members of the general public, and comparisons are made to values given by the ICRP in which surrogate organ assignments were made in the absence of explicit models of these airways. Finally, the revised ORNL phantoms of the adult male and adult female are used to determine internal photon exposures to

  2. Natural convection and radiation heat transfer of an externally-finned tube vertically placed in a chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan; Tian, Maocheng; Guo, Zhixiong

    2013-03-01

    A three-dimensional numerical study was made to investigate effects of fin angle, fin surface emissivity, and tube wall temperature on heat transfer enhancement for a longitudinal externally-finned tube placed vertically in a small chamber. The numerical model was first validated through comparison with experimental measurements and the appropriateness of general boundary conditions was examined. The numerical results show that the mean Nusselt number increases with Rayleigh number for all the fin angles investigated. The maximum heat transfer rate per mass occurs when the fin angle is about 60° for fin surface emissivity between 0.7 and 0.8 and 55° when the surface emissivity increases to 0.9. With increasing tube wall temperature, both the natural convection and radiation heat transfer are enhanced, but the fraction of radiation heat transfer decreases in the temperature range studied. Radiation fraction increases with increasing fin surface emissivity. Both convection and radiation heat transfer modes are important.

  3. Hormonal changes after localized prostate cancer treatment. Comparison between external beam radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Maldonado, X; Trilla, E; Salvador, C; Lorente, D; Regis, L; Cuadras, M; Carles, J; Morote, J

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on the hypothalamic pituitary axis of 120 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with RP or EBRT exclusively. 120 patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled. Ninety two patients underwent RP and 28 patients EBRT exclusively. We measured serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (T), free testosterone, and estradiol at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after treatment completion. Patients undergoing RP were younger and presented a higher prostate volume (64.3 vs. 71.1 years, p<0.0001 and 55.1 vs. 36.5 g, p<0.0001; respectively). No differences regarding serum hormonal levels were found at baseline. Luteinizing hormone and FSH levels were significantly higher in those patients treated with EBRT at three months (luteinizing hormone 8,54 vs. 4,76 U/l, FSH 22,96 vs. 8,18 U/l, p<0,0001) while T and free testosterone levels were significantly lower (T 360,3 vs. 414,83ng/dl, p 0,039; free testosterone 5,94 vs. 7,5pg/ml, p 0,018). At 12 months FSH levels remained significantly higher in patients treated with EBRT compared to patients treated with RP (21,01 vs. 8,51 U/l, p<0,001) while T levels remained significantly lower (339,89 vs. 402,39ng/dl, p 0,03). Prostate cancer treatment influences the hypothalamic pituitary axis. This influence seems to be more important when patients with prostate cancer are treated with EBRT rather than RP. More studies are needed to elucidate the role that prostate may play as an endocrine organ. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Implication of new CEC recommendations for individual monitoring for external radiation doses to the skin and the extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Julius, H.W.; Marshall, T.O.

    1991-01-01

    to irradiation of the skin and the extremities and focusses on problems connected to exposure to weakly penetrating radiations. Concepts of individual monitoring for external radiation exposures to the skin of the whole body and to the extremities are discussed and guidance is given as regards dose quantities...... and dosemeter calibration procedures. A method of quantifying the overall accuracy of the dose measurements as a result of the various uncertainty components connected with the dosimetry system is suggested and requirements on the accuracy of the dose measurements complying with the ICRP requirements on overall...

  5. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...... materials and detector/filter geometry. Improvements in the energy and angular response of dosemeters for the measurements of doses from beta and low energy photon radiation can be achieved essentially through two different approaches: either by using thin detectors or multi-element dosemeters...

  6. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...... are outlined. The subjects dealt with compromise: the quantity to be measured, the required accuracy of measurement, calibration procedures, and dosemeter design including the main parameters influencing the energy and angular response of the dosemeter, such as detector thickness, filter thickness, dosemeter...

  7. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T. (Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-08-15

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.

  8. Prognostic Utility of Cell Cycle Progression Score in Men With Prostate Cancer After Primary External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedland, Stephen J., E-mail: steve.freedland@duke.edu [Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Gerber, Leah [Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S. [Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Salama, Joseph K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Stone, Steven [Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic utility of the cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their primary curative therapy. Methods and Materials: The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results: Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (P=.0017). The hazard ratio for BCR was 2.55 for 1-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis that included Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the hazard ratio for CCP changed only marginally and remained significant (P=.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (P=.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions: Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicted outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy.

  9. An integrative review of skin assessment tools used to evaluate skin injury related to external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Carol R; McGuiness, William; O'Rourke, Geraldine A

    2017-04-01

    To review literature associated with external beam radiotherapy and skin damage. A focus of the literature search is to highlight and discuss the myriad of skin assessment tools that are available to the clinician when assessing skin injury in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy. It is apparent that despite considerable work being progressed in the development of individualised skin assessment tools, uptake and use is poor. These tools are designed to assist the clinician in the evaluation of damaged skin and predict the radiation wound development pathway. An integrated review can be used to address a mature or new and emerging topic through a systematic methodology, which is either theoretical or empirical, gained from research, practice or policy initiatives (Whittemore & Knafl, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 2005, 546). This review is particularly concerned with the employment of skin assessment tools by clinicians in patients with radiation damaged skin. Using the search terms synonyms for radiation, skin and epidermal damage, PubMed/MEDLINE, Medical Complete and Web of Science databases were searched. Consulting professional peers was employed as part of the inclusion and exclusion process. There is a high level of unpredictability about which patient will have an uncomplicated course of external beam radiotherapy. Variables may include, but are not limited to, an acute reaction, a delayed reaction resulting in actual skin damage or no visible skin disturbance. The skin assessment tools that are readily available are not regularly referenced in clinical practice when attempting to manage the many side effects of radiation therapy. Skin assessment tools require ongoing clinical validation, so they can be used to guide practitioners to undertake further assessment of skin integrity. The current body of knowledge suggests clinicians caring for patients receiving therapeutic radiotherapy should consider integrating a recognised patient assessment

  10. External radiation and HDR-brachytherapy in the treatment of breast cancer. Externe Bestrahlung und interstitielle HDR-Brachytherapie in der Bestrahlung des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Track, C. (Abt. fuer Radioonkologie, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria)); Seewald, D.H. (Abt. fuer Radioonkologie, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria)); Zoidl, J.P. (Abt. fuer Radioonkologie, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria)); Hammer, J. (Abt. fuer Radioonkologie, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria))

    1994-04-01

    In the breast conserving management of mammary cancer a high-dose-rate (HDR)-Iridium-192 source is used for interstitial boosting of the primary tumor site after external radiotherapy. We want to show the clinical results and side effects and to demonstrate the safe use of a HDR source. From December 1984 until November 1988, 154 patients with breast cancer stage T1-2, N0-1 were treated by conservative surgery and radiation. A dose of 45 to 50 Gy was given to the whole breast by external radiotherapy, and the previous tumor area was boosted by an interstitial implant with Iridium-192 HDR. We applied 10 Gy in one or two fractions. The mean follow-up period of survivors is 76 months (range 57 to 107 months). In 36 patients failures occured: eight patients (5%) developed local recurrences, 31 patients (20%) had distant metastases, and 19 (12%) died with cancer. The Kaplan-Meier estimation for five year overall survival is 86.9%, for disease-specific survival 89.3%, for local control 95.8%, and for disease free survival 80.1%. The most frequent late effects were telangiectasia (11%), fibrotic masses in the previous tumor area (6.5%), and lymphedema of the arm (6.5%). No serious complications could be observed. (orig./MG)

  11. Increased risk of colon cancer after external radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiti, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gerald; Verkooijen, Helena M; Zanetti, Roberto; Schmidlin, Franz; Shubert, Hyma; Merglen, Arnaud; Miralbell, Raymond; Bouchardy, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Radiotherapy can induce second cancers. Controversies still exist regarding the risk of second malignancies after irradiation for prostate cancer. We evaluated the risk of developing colon and rectum cancers after prostate cancer in irradiated and nonirradiated patients. Using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry, we included in the study all men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1980 and 1998 who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. Of the 1,134 patients, 264 were treated with external radiotherapy. Patients were followed for occurrence of colorectal cancer up to 31 December, 2003. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates for the general population to obtain the expected cancer incidence. The cohort yielded to 3,798 person-years. At the end of follow-up 19 patients had developed a colorectal cancer. Among irradiated patients the SIR for colorectal cancer was 3.4 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7-6.0). Compared to the general population, the risk was significantly higher for colon cancer (SIR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.8-7.6), but not for rectal cancer (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.2-7.2). The risk of colon cancer was increased in the period of 5-9 years after diagnosis (SIR = 4.7, 95% CI: 2.0-9.2). The overall SIR of secondary cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy was 1.35 (p = 0.056). Nonirradiated patients did not have any increased risk of rectal or colon cancer. This study shows a significant increase of colon but not rectum cancer after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The risk of second cancer after irradiation, although probably small, needs nevertheless to be carefully monitored.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of radiotherapy during surgery compared with external radiation therapy in the treatment of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedie Mosalanezhad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intraoperative radiation therapy device (IORT is one of the several options for partial breast irradiation. IORT is sent to the tumor bed during surgery and can be replaced with conventional standard therapy (EBRT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of IORT machine compared with EBRT and to determine the dominant option in terms of the cost-effectiveness. Method: This study was conducted in two phases; the first phase was a comprehensive review of the electronic databases search that was extracted after extraction and selection of the articles used in this article on effectiveness outcomes. Data collection form was completed by professionals and experts to estimate the cost of treatment, intraoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy cost when using external radiation therapy process; direct costs were considered from the perspective of service provider and they were calculated in the second phase to determine the option of cost-effective ICER. Excel software was used for data analysis and sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the strength of the results of cost-effectiveness. Results:18 studies were selected but only 8 of them were shown to have acceptable quality. The consequences like “rate of cancer recurrence”, “seroma”, “necrosis”, “toxic”, “skin disorders and delayed wound healing” and “spread the pain” were among the consequences used in the selected articles. The total costs for each patient during a course of treatment for EBRT and IORT were estimated 1398 and $5337.5, respectively. During the analysis, cost-effectiveness of the consequences of cancer recurrence, seroma, necrosis and skin disorders and delayed wound healing ICER was calculated. And IORT was found to be the dominant supplier in all cases. Also, in terms of implications of toxicity and prevalence of pain, IORT had a lower cost and better effectiveness and consequently the result was more cost

  13. Points to be noted in using radiation treatment planning system; External photon beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irifune, Toraji (Tokyo Metropolitan Coll. of Allied Medical Sciences (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The accuracy of absorbed dose calculations for external photon beam therapy depends on the computational algorithms being used: the acquisition of basic beam data, the patient's anatomical information, the spacing of the points in the matrices, the interpolation routine, inhomogeneity corrections, etc. At present, the dose calculation algorithms employed in most commercially available treatment planning systems for absorbed dose calculation are two-dimensional methods for photon fluence and do not take electronic equilibrium into account. Therefore, their use for radiation treatment planning is limited. In particular, the problem of inhomogeneity correction for lung is the most significant. The inhomogeneity correction methods most commonly used are ratio of TAR (RTAR), power law TAR (PTAR) and equivalent TAR (ETAR) methods. One Japanese society for therapeutic radiology and oncology (JASTRO) task group has compared the three correction methods mentioned above with measured values using the same JARP level dosimeter and lung model phantom. The photon energies were [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays, 4, 6, 10 and 18 MV x rays, and field sizes were 5 x 5, 10 x 10 and 20 x 20 cm[sup 2] at SSD 100 cm. RTAR lead to errors (%) of 2.5 to 12.6, 1.7 to 10.9, 2.7 to 8.5, 3.1 to 9.9, and 1.0 to 19.1; PTAR errors were -0.7 to 2.3, -2.1 to 1.6, -1.1 to 2.2, -0.3 to 3.9, and -2.0 to 6.6; and ETAR errors were 0.7 to 2.5, 0 to 3.1, -0.1 to 6.8, 3.4 to 9.2, and 1.0 to 18.6 for [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays, 4, 6, 10 and 18 MV x rays, respectively. Survey results showed that about 50% of the institutions used measured data obtained by themselves. Basic beam data acquisition should be self-contained. (author).

  14. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Thyroid; Dose de tolerance des tissus sains: la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, O.; Giraud, P. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, universite Paris Descartes, 75 - Paris (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, CHU Henri-Mondor, universite Paris 12, 94 - Creteil (France)

    2010-07-15

    The thyroid is the most developed endocrine gland of the body. Due to its anatomical location, it may be exposed to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy involving head and neck. This review aims to describe the thyroid radiation disorders, probably under-reported in the literature, their risk factors and follow-up procedures. The functional changes after external beam radiation consists mainly of late effects occurring beyond 6 months, and are represented by the clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. Its incidence is approximately 20 to 30% and it can occur after more than 25 years after radiation exposure. Hyperthyroidism and auto-immune manifestations have been described in a lesser proportion. The morphological changes consist of benign lesions, primarily adenomas, and malignant lesions, the most feared and which incidence is 0.35%. The onset of hypothyroidism depends of the total dose delivered to the gland, and the irradiated. Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity could improve the preservation of the thyroid, at the expense of the increase in low doses and the theoretical risk of secondary cancers. (authors)

  15. Influence of an external axial magnetic field on betatron radiation from the interaction of a circularly polarized laser with plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bao; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, theoretical analyses and numerical calculations are carried out to investigate the influence of an externally applied axial constant magnetic field on electrons' betatron radiation when an ultra-short, circularly polarized laser pulse of a peak intensity I0 = 5 × 1019 W/cm2 propagates in plasma of an electron density n0 = 1020/cm3. Ring-like x-ray radiation is emitted from the electrons' betatron oscillations. The applied magnetic field can modulate the resonance process between an electron's betatron oscillation and the laser electric field, and the electron energy gain from the direct laser acceleration is thus changed. When a magnetic field of strength B0=3 × 103 T is applied, which is in anti-parallel to the self-generated axial magnetic field, both the trapping efficiency of electrons by the wakefield and the maximum accelerated energy are increased. The maximum electron energy, the peak of angular radiation, and the total radiation energy are increased by 11.0%, 45.6%, and 41.1%, respectively, and the radiation spectra are blue-shifted significantly.

  16. Abscess of the iliopsoas muscle associated external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Shigeru; Imazu, Hiroki; Matubara, Toshiki; Sakurai, Yoichi; Ochiai, Masahiro; Funabiki, Takahiko [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-12-01

    This paper deals with a case of abscess of the iliopsoas muscle, an intractable external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis in a 68-year-old man. There were previous histories of undergoing an A-C bypass operation for coronary stricture 10 years before; and undergoing aportial resection of the bladder with radiation therapy for urinary bladder cancer, followed by colostomy for hemorrhage and stricture of the rectum for radiation proctitis 2 years before admission. In April, 1997 when he had been treated at outpatient clinic, exhumation of pusfrom the sacurred that was diagnosed external fistula of the rectum on a fistulography and he was continuously treated on an ambulant basis. On November 17, 1997, the patient had a temperature 38.7deg C, the white blood cell count increased to 35 x 10{sup 4} /ml, inflammation reaction increased, and unconsciousness appeared. An emergency CT revealed retention of fluid in the retroperitoneum covering from the fistulation through the iliopsoas muscle to pelvis. An abscess of the iliopsoas muscle was diagnosed. It was determined that any operations under general anesthesia were impossible due to poor general condition, and an emergency incision drainage was performed under local anesthesia. Thereafter, the patient developed MRSA septicemia which demanded redrainage and strict general management, but he was successfully freed from the management. Although the intractable fistula in persistently present, he was discharged after a resection of sequestrum and is followed on an ambulant basis. (author)

  17. Novel Parameter Predicting Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Yutaka, E-mail: shiraishi@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Ohashi, Toshio [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yorozu, Atsunori; Toya, Kazuhito [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Shiro [Department of Urology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel parameter predicting rectal bleeding on the basis of generalized equivalent uniform doses (gEUD) after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy and to assess the predictive value of this parameter. Methods and Materials: To account for differences among radiation treatment modalities and fractionation schedules, rectal dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of 369 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing combined therapy retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems were converted to equivalent dose-based DVHs. The gEUDs for the rectum were calculated from these converted DVHs. The total gEUD (gEUD{sub sum}) was determined by a summation of the brachytherapy and external-beam radiation therapy components. Results: Thirty-eight patients (10.3%) developed grade 2+ rectal bleeding. The grade 2+ rectal bleeding rate increased as the gEUD{sub sum} increased: 2.0% (2 of 102 patients) for <70 Gy, 10.3% (15 of 145 patients) for 70-80 Gy, 15.8% (12 of 76 patients) for 80-90 Gy, and 19.6% (9 of 46 patients) for >90 Gy (P=.002). Multivariate analysis identified age (P=.024) and gEUD{sub sum} (P=.000) as risk factors for grade 2+ rectal bleeding. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate gEUD to be a potential predictive factor for grade 2+ late rectal bleeding after combined therapy for prostate cancer.

  18. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... March 27, 2012 Part III Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and... Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and...

  19. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.manley@ncahs.health.nsw.gov.au; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P [North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  20. [Dosimetric system for assessing doses received by people occupationally exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodecki, Marcin; Domienik, Joanna U; Zmyślony, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The current system of dosimetric quantities has been defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Complexity of the system implies the physical nature of ionizing radiation, resulting from the presence of different types of radiation of different ionization capabilities, as well as the individual radiation sensitivity of biological material exposed. According to the latest recommendations, there are three types of dosimeter quantities relevant to radiation protection and radiological assessment of occupational exposure. These are the basic quantities, safety quantities and operational quantities. Dose limits for occupational exposure relate directly to the protection quantities, i.e. the equivalent dose and effective dose, while these quantities are practically unmeasurable in real measurement conditions. For this reason, in the system of dosimetric quantities directly measurable operating volumes were defined. They represent equivalents of the protection quantities that allow for a reliable assessment of equivalent and effective dose by conducting routine monitoring of occupational exposure. This paper presents the characteristics of these quantities, their relationships and importance in assessing individual effects of radiation. Also the methods for their implementation in personal and environmental dosimetry were showcased. The material contained in the article is a compendium of essential information about dosimetric quantities with reference to the contemporary requirements of the law, including the changed annual occupational exposure limit for the lens of the eye. The material is especially addressed to those responsible for dosimetry monitoring in the workplace, radiation protection inspectors and occupational health physicians.

  1. A simple external resistance heating diamond anvil cell and its application for synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dawei; Zhou, Wenge; Wei, Shuyi; Liu, Yonggang; Ma, Maining; Xie, Hongsen

    2010-05-01

    A simple external heating assemblage allowing diamond anvil cell experiments at pressures up to 34 GPa and temperatures up to 653 K was constructed. This cell can be connected to the synchrotron radiation conveniently. The design and construction of this cell are fully described, as well as its applications for x-ray diffraction. Heating is carried out by using an external-heating system, which is made of NiCr resistance wire, and the temperature was measured by a NiCr-NiSi or PtRh-Pt thermocouple. We showed the performance of the new system by introducing the phase transition study of cinnabar (alpha-HgS) and thermal equation of state study of almandine at high pressure and temperature with this cell.

  2. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length.

  3. Blackbody radiation shift in 87Rb frequency standard

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Safronova, U I

    2010-01-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. Experimental measurements of the BBR shifts are difficult. In this work, we have calculated the blackbody radiation shift of the ground-state hyperfine microwave transition in 87Rb using the relativistic all-order method and carried out detailed evaluation of the accuracy of our final value. Particular care is taken to accurately account for the contributions from highly-excited states. Our predicted value for the Stark coefficient, k_S=-1.240(4)\\times 10^{-10}\\text{Hz/(V/m)}^{2} is three times more accurate than the previous calculation [1].

  4. Blackbody radiation shift in ^87Rb frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Marianna; Safronova, U. I.

    2010-03-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. Experimental measurements of the BBR shifts are difficult. In this work, we have calculated the blackbody radiation shift of the ground-state hyperfine microwave transition in ^87Rb using the relativistic all-order method and evaluated the accuracy of our final value. Particular care is taken to accurately account for the contributions from highly-excited states. Various Rb atomic properties, including E1, E2, and E3 ground state polarizabilities, np and nd E1 polarizabilities, and hyperfine constants are also calculated. The results are compared with experiment and other theory where available.

  5. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  6. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  7. An overview of current practice in external beam radiation oncology with consideration to potential benefits and challenges for nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Raymond B; McMahon, Stephen J; Hyland, Wendy B; Jain, Suneil; Butterworth, Karl T; Prise, Kevin M; Hounsell, Alan R; McGarry, Conor K

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a significant evolution in the technologies and techniques employed within the radiation oncology environment. Over the same period, extensive research into the use of nanotechnology in medicine has highlighted a range of potential benefits to its incorporation into clinical radiation oncology. This short communication describes key tools and techniques that have recently been introduced into specific stages of a patient's radiotherapy pathway, including diagnosis, external beam treatment and subsequent follow-up. At each pathway stage, consideration is given towards how nanotechnology may be combined with clinical developments to further enhance their benefit, with some potential opportunities for future research also highlighted. Prospective challenges that may influence the introduction of nanotechnology into clinical radiotherapy are also discussed, indicating the need for close collaboration between academic and clinical staff to realise the full clinical benefit of this exciting technology.

  8. Coupling External Radiation Transport Code Results to the GADRAS Detector Response Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection; Thoreson, Gregory G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection; Horne, Steven M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection

    2014-01-01

    Simulating gamma spectra is useful for analyzing special nuclear materials. Gamma spectra are influenced not only by the source and the detector, but also by the external, and potentially complex, scattering environment. The scattering environment can make accurate representations of gamma spectra difficult to obtain. By coupling the Monte Carlo Nuclear Particle (MCNP) code with the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) detector response function, gamma spectrum simulations can be computed with a high degree of fidelity even in the presence of a complex scattering environment. Traditionally, GADRAS represents the external scattering environment with empirically derived scattering parameters. By modeling the external scattering environment in MCNP and using the results as input for the GADRAS detector response function, gamma spectra can be obtained with a high degree of fidelity. This method was verified with experimental data obtained in an environment with a significant amount of scattering material. The experiment used both gamma-emitting sources and moderated and bare neutron-emitting sources. The sources were modeled using GADRAS and MCNP in the presence of the external scattering environment, producing accurate representations of the experimental data.

  9. Coupling External Radiation Transport Code Results to the GADRAS Detector Response Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection; Thoreson, Gregory G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection; Horne, Steven M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection

    2014-01-01

    Simulating gamma spectra is useful for analyzing special nuclear materials. Gamma spectra are influenced not only by the source and the detector, but also by the external, and potentially complex scattering environment. The scattering environment can make accurate representations of gamma spectra difficult to obtain. By coupling the Monte Carlo Nuclear Particle (MCNP) code with the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) detector response function, gamma spectrum simulations can be computed with a high degree of fidelity even in the presence of a complex scattering environment. Traditionally, GADRAS represents the external scattering environment with empirically derived scattering parameters. By modeling the external scattering environment in MCNP and using the results as input for the GADRAS detector response function, gamma spectra can be obtained with a high degree of fidelity. This method was verified with experimental data obtained in an environment with a significant amount of scattering material. The experiment used both gamma-emitting sources and moderated and bare neutron-emitting sources. The sources were modeled using GADRAS and MCNP in the presence of the external scattering environment, producing accurate representations of the experimental data.

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. External gamma radiation and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the German WISMUT uranium miners cohort study, 1946-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Sogl, M.; Schnelzer, M.; Walsh, L. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    It is currently unclear whether exposure of the heart and vascular system, at lifetime accumulated dose levels relevant to the general public (<500 mGy), is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, data from the German WISMUT cohort of uranium miners were investigated for evidence of a relationship between external gamma radiation and death from cardiovascular diseases. The cohort comprises 58,982 former employees of the Wismut company. There were 9,039 recorded deaths from cardiovascular diseases during the follow-up period from 1946 to 2008. Exposures to external gamma radiation were estimated using a detailed job-exposure matrix. The exposures were based on expert ratings for the period 1946-1954 and measurements thereafter. The excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative gamma dose was obtained with internal Poisson regression using a linear ERR model with baseline stratification by age and calendar year. The mean cumulative gamma dose was 47 mSv for exposed miners (86 %), with a maximum of 909 mSv. No evidence for an increase in risk with increasing cumulative dose was found for mortality from all cardiovascular diseases (ERR/Sv = -0.13; 95 % confidence interval (CI): -0.38; 0.12) and ischemic heart diseases (n = 4,613; ERR/Sv = -0.03; 95 % CI: -0.38, 0.32). However, a statistically insignificant increase (n = 2,073; ERR/Sv = 0.44; 95 % CI: -0.16, 1.04) for mortality from cerebrovascular diseases was observed. Data on smoking, diabetes, and overweight are available for subgroups of the cohort, indicating no major correlation with cumulative gamma radiation. Confounding by these factors or other risk factors, however, cannot be excluded. In conclusion, the results provide weak evidence for an increased risk of death due to gamma radiation only for cerebrovascular diseases. (orig.)

  12. Radiation Observations from CREAM & CREDO and Comparison with Standard Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, C.; Watson, C.; Truscott, P.; Peerless, C.

    1996-12-01

    The Cosmic Radiation Environment and Activation Monitor (CREAM) has flown on six Shuttle flights between September 1991 and February 1995, covering the full range of inclinations as well as altitudes between 210 and 550 km. Meanwhile the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiment (CREDO) has operated continuously on UOSAT-3 in 800 km, 98.7 degree orbit since April 1990. Similar detectors were launched on KITSAT-1 (1330 km, 66 degree inclination) in August 1992 and POSAT-l (790 km, 98.7 degree inclination) in September 1993. Since the summer of 1994, CREDO-II versions have been operating on APEX in an eccentric orbit (350x2486 km) at 70 degree inclination, and on STRV in geostationary transfer orbit (298x35953 km, 7 degree inclination). These experiments are designed to measure protons, cosmic rays and accumulated dose. Through the variety of missions employed they have now achieved wide coverage of the magnetosphere as well as a significant portion of a solar cycle. The LEO observations have shown the Westward drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly, new regimes of trapped protons in the region of L=2.6 following solar flare events in March 1991 and October 1992, and an altitude dependence of trapped protons which is at variance with AP8. On STRV the background channel of the Cold Ion Detector serves as a complementary electron detector and shows the extreme time variability of the outer radiation belt, while the total dose is significantly less than AE8 predictions. In addition to the data on trapped radiation, important results are being obtained on the linear energy transfer spectra from cosmic rays. Detailed shielding models of the APEX and STRV spacecraft have been constructed and used to compare the observations of dose and LET spectra with predictions from AE8, AP8 and CREME for a variety of shielding depths. Consistent results on the LET spectra are obtained from APEX and STRV when data are selected by cut-off rigidity. The influence of spacecraft

  13. Blackbody radiation shift in the Rb87 frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, M. S.; Jiang, Dansha; Safronova, U. I.

    2010-08-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature, of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. Experimental measurements of the BBR shifts are difficult. In this work, we have calculated the blackbody radiation shift of the ground-state hyperfine microwave transition in Rb87 using the relativistic all-order method and carried out a detailed evaluation of the accuracy of our final value. Particular care is taken to accurately account for the contributions from highly excited states. Our predicted value for the Stark coefficient, kS=-1.240(4)×10-10Hz/(V/m)2, is three times more accurate than the previous calculation [E. J. Angstman, V. A. Dzuba, and V. V. Flambaum, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.74.023405 74, 023405 (2006)].

  14. External Confirmation of Adherence to Standards: As Applicable to Academic Programmes as to Business and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Aaron W.; Burke, Monica G.

    2010-01-01

    The development of, and adherence to, performance standards is imperative for success in today's competitive global market. This is as true for academic programmes in higher education as it is for the manufacturing and service sectors. Just like their counterparts in business and industry, it is important that graduate career preparation…

  15. Anomalously small blackbody radiation shift in Tl+ frequency standard

    CERN Document Server

    Zuhrianda, Z; Kozlov, M G

    2012-01-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. In the present work, we used configuration interaction + coupled-cluster method to evaluate polarizabilities of the $6s^2 ^1S_0$ and $6s6p ^3P_0$ states of Tl$^+$ ion; we find $\\alpha_0(^1S_0)=19.6$ a.u. and $\\alpha_0(^3P_0)=21.4$ a.u.. The resulting BBR shift of the $6s6p ^3P_0 - 6s^2 ^1S_0$ Tl$^+$ transition at $300 K$ is $\\Delta \

  16. Reducing bending stress in external spur gears by redesign of the standard cutting tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2009-01-01

    . In this work the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimizing the tip of the standard cutting tool. By redesign of the tip of the standard cutting tool we achieve that the functional part of the teeth stays the same while at the same time the root shape is changed so that a reduction......For the design of gears the stress due to bending plays a significant role. The stress from bending is largest in the root of the gear teeth, and the magnitude of the maximum stress is controlled by the nominal bending stress and stress concentration due to the geometric shape of the tooth...... of the stresses results. The tool tip shape is described by different parameterizations that use the super ellipse as the central shape. For shape optimization it is important that the shape is given analytically. The shape of the cut tooth that is the envelope of the cutting tool is found analytically...

  17. Leukemia risk associated with chronic external exposure to ionizing radiation in a French cohort of nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2012-11-01

    Leukemia is one of the earliest cancer effects observed after acute exposure to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation. Leukemia mortality after external exposure at low doses and low-dose rates has been investigated at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Nuclear Fuel Company (AREVA NC) after an additional follow-up of 10 years. The cohort included radiation-monitored workers employed for at least one year during 1950-1994 at CEA or AREVA NC and followed during 1968-2004. Association between external exposure and leukemia mortality was estimated with excess relative risk (ERR) models and time-dependent modifying factors were investigated with time windows. The cohort included 36,769 workers, followed for an average of 28 years, among whom 73 leukemia deaths occurred. Among the workers with a positive recorded dose, the mean cumulative external dose was 21.7 mSv. Results under a 2-year lag assumption suggested that the risk of leukemia (except chronic lymphatic leukemia) increased significantly by 8% per 10 mSv. The magnitude of the association for myeloid leukemia was larger. The higher ERR/Sv for doses received 2-14 years earlier suggest that time since exposure modifies the effect. The ERR/Sv also appeared higher for doses received at exposure rates ≥20 mSv per year. These results are consistent with those found in other studies of nuclear workers. However, confidence intervals are still wide. Further analyses should be conducted in pooled cohorts of nuclear workers.

  18. Improving reproducibility and external validity. The role of standardization and data reporting of laboratory rat husbandry and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura-Andrade, José Luiz; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de; Sousa, João Batista de

    2017-03-01

    To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.

  19. Use of benefit-cost analysis in establishing Federal radiation protection standards: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This paper complements other work which has evaluated the cost impacts of radiation standards on the nuclear industry. It focuses on the approaches to valuation of the health and safety benefits of radiation standards and the actual and appropriate processes of benefit-cost comparison. A brief historical review of the rationale(s) for the levels of radiation standards prior to 1970 is given. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established numerical design objectives for light water reactors (LWRs). The process of establishing these numerical design criteria below the radiation protection standards set in 10 CFR 20 is reviewed. EPA's 40 CFR 190 environmental standards for the uranium fuel cycle have lower values than NRC's radiation protection standards in 10 CFR 20. The task of allocating EPA's 40 CFR 190 standards to the various portions of the fuel cycle was left to the implementing agency, NRC. So whether or not EPA's standards for the uranium fuel cycle are more stringent for LWRs than NRC's numerical design objectives depends on how EPA's standards are implemented by NRC. In setting the numerical levels in Appendix I to 10 CFR 50 and 40 CFR 190 NRC and EPA, respectively, focused on the costs of compliance with various levels of radiation control. A major portion of the paper is devoted to a review and critique of the available methods for valuing health and safety benefits. All current approaches try to estimate a constant value of life and use this to vaue the expected number of lives saved. This paper argues that it is more appropriate to seek a value of a reduction in risks to health and life that varies with the extent of these risks. Additional research to do this is recommended. (DC)

  20. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.

  1. Adaptive radiation therapy for postprostatectomy patients using real-time electromagnetic target motion tracking during external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bharat, Shyam; Michalski, Jeff M; Gay, Hiram A; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Parikh, Parag J

    2013-03-15

    Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: -0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of androgen deprivation therapy on setup errors during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem; Dolek, Yemliha; Ozdemir, Yurday [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Research and Treatment Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Adana (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether setup errors during external beam radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer are influenced by the combination of androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) and RT. Data from 175 patients treated for prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment was as follows: concurrent ADT plus RT, 33 patients (19%); neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT plus RT, 91 patients (52%); RT only, 51 patients (29%). Required couch shifts without rotations were recorded for each megavoltage (MV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, and corresponding alignment shifts were recorded as left-right (x), superior-inferior (y), and anterior-posterior (z). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare shifts by group. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the correlation of couch shifts between groups. Mean prostate shifts and standard deviations (SD) were calculated and pooled to obtain mean or group systematic error (M), SD of systematic error (Σ), and SD of random error (σ). No significant differences were observed in prostate shifts in any direction between the groups. Shifts on CBCT were all less than setup margins. A significant positive correlation was observed between prostate volume and the z-direction prostate shift (r = 0.19, p = 0.04), regardless of ADT group, but not between volume and x- or y-direction shifts (r = 0.04, p = 0.7; r = 0.03, p = 0.7). Random and systematic errors for all patient cohorts and ADT groups were similar. Hormone therapy given concurrently with RT was not found to significantly impact setup errors. Prostate volume was significantly correlated with shifts in the anterior-posterior direction only. (orig.) [German] Ziel war zu untersuchen, ob Konfigurationsfehler bei der externen Radiotherapie (RT) des Prostatakarzinoms durch die Kombination aus Androgendeprivationstherapie (ADT) und RT beeinflusst werden. Retrospektiv wurden die Daten von 175 wegen eines Prostatakarzinoms behandelten Patienten

  3. Oxidative Stress Markers in Prostate Cancer Patients after HDR Brachytherapy Combined with External Beam Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Woźniak; Rafał Masiak; Michał Szpinda; Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska; Bartosz Woźniak; Roman Makarewicz; Anna Szpinda

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of oxidative stress markers was perfomed in prostate cancer (PCa) patients subjected to high-dose brachytherapy (HDR) with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Sixty men with PCa were subjected to combined two-fraction treatment with HDR (tot. 20 Gy) and EBRT (46 Gy). Blood samples were taken before treatment, immediately afterwards, after 1.5–3 months, and approx. 2 years. Control group consisted of 30 healthy men. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity in the patients was lowe...

  4. Accurate and Fast Localization of Prostate for External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography in radiation therapy”, oral presentation in 2008 AAPM Annual Meeting, (selected for long presentation at...dose x- ray fluoroscopy”, poster presentation in 2008 AAPM Annual Meeting, Houston, TX 6. L. Zhu, J. Wang, Y. Xie, J. Starman, R. Fahrig, and L. Xing...A patient set-up protocol based on partially blocked cone-beam CT”, poster presentation in 2008 AAPM Annual Meeting, Houston, TX 7. J. Wang, T

  5. [Non-targeted effects (bystander, abscopal) of external beam radiation therapy: an overview for the clinician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Sbai, A; Ganem, G; Boudabous, M; Collin, F; Marcy, P-Y; Doglio, A; Thariat, J

    2014-12-01

    Radiotherapy is advocated in the treatment of cancer of over 50 % of patients. It has long been considered as a focal treatment only. However, the observation of effects, such as fatigue and lymphopenia, suggests that systemic effects may also occur. The description of bystander and abscopal effects suggests that irradiated cells may exert an action on nearby or distant unirradiated cells, respectively. A third type of effect that involves feedback interactions between irradiated cells was more recently described (cohort effect). This new field of radiation therapy is yet poorly understood and the definitions suffer from a lack of reproducibility in part due to the variety of experimental models. The bystander effect might induce genomic instability in non-irradiated cells and is thus extensively studied for a potential risk of radiation-induced cancer. From a therapeutic perspective, reproducing an abscopal effect by using a synergy between ionizing radiation and immunomodulatory agents to elicit or boost anticancer immune responses is an interesting area of research. Many applications are being developed in particular in the field of hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation of metastatic disease. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. External doses to 350 m zone residents due to anisotropic radiation from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, International Radiation Information Center, Kasumi, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The validity of method on the individual dose reconstruction based on the anisotropic radiation distribution was confirmed by comparison with dose from Na-24 whole body counting for the seven persons in the western side neighbor company of JCO campus. The successful coincidence between D{sub i} (Na-24) and D{sub i} (Present) also supports the validity of the second version of D(r) reported by Head Office of Countermeasure. The present dose reconstruction for the 350 m zone in the western side showed average value of 0.7 mSv and maximal value of 3.1 mSv, as indoor-dose under the assumption of effective transmittance of 0.4 for all the houses. If all the residents in 350 m zone were indoors during the accident, 83% of them might have received external doses of less than 1 mSv. Radiation exposure to the nearest residential area in the southern west direction was significantly reduced with I(O{sub j}) between 0.4 and 0.2 by several buildings in JCO campus. The present study on public dose confirms that the official report on public dose (the maximal value of 21 mSv for individual dose) from Head Office of Countermeasure is significantly overestimated due to their isotropic treatment of radiation from the source. (author)

  7. External doses to 350 m zone residents due to anisotropic radiation from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, J

    2001-09-01

    The validity of a method for individual dose reconstruction based on the anisotropic radiation distribution was confirmed by a comparison with the dose from Na-24 whole-body counting for seven persons at a neighboring company located on the western side of the JCO campus. The successful coincidence between Di (Na-24) and Di (present) also supports the validity of the second version of D(r) reported by the Head Office of Countermeasure. The present dose reconstruction for the 350 m zone at the western side showed an average value of 0.7 mSv and a maximal value of 3.1 mSv, as indoor-dose under the assumption of an effective transmittance of 0.4 for all of the houses. If all of the residents in 350 m zone were indoors during the accident, 83% of them might have received external doses of less than 1 mSv. The radiation exposure to the nearest residential area in the southern-west direction was significantly reduced with phi(theta(i)) between 0.4 and 0.2 by several buildings on the JCO campus. The present study on the public dose confirms that the official report on the public dose (the maximal value of 21 mSv for individual doses) from Head Office of Countermeasure is significantly overestimated due to their isotropic treatment of radiation from the source.

  8. Standards of external fixation in prolonged applications to allow safe conversion to definitive extremity surgery: the Aachen algorithm for acute ex fix conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Klemens; Andruszkow, Hagen; Weber, Christian; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Hildebrand, Frank; Tarkin, Ivan; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2015-09-01

    External fixation has become an important tool in orthopedic surgery. Technology has improved the design and material as well as the construct of the fixator. As most patients are converted from external fixation to definite stabilization during later clinical course, prevention of complications such as infection is of high importance. Based on the current literature, principles of temporary external fixation were summarized. We focused on minimizing the risk of infection and introduce a standardized algorithm how to proceed when converting from external to internal fixation, which also was examined for effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene expression analysis in rice plants after external radiation exposure in Iitate village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, G.; Fukumoto, M. [Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Japan); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Shibato, J. [Department of Anatomy I, School of Medicine, Showa University (Japan); Kubo, A. [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Plant Genome Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Japan); Rakwal, R. [Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Rice plants exposed to radiation respond to the stress by activating self-defense mechanisms. A well-established molecular approach to measure stress is by cataloging global gene expression profiles. Here, we examined the effect of radiation exposure in a cereal crop model plant - rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare - in the village of Iitate of Fukushima prefecture. Iitate village is a highly radio-contaminated site due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The experimental approach comprised of five steps. First, healthy rice seedlings were grown in the greenhouse facility at National Institute for Environmental Sciences. Post-germination at 30 deg. C similarly germinated seeds were placed in neat rows in seedling pots having commercial soil (JA Zen-Noh, Japan; http//www.zennoh.or.jp/) with recommended NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) doses at a controlled (25 deg. C, 70% relative humidity and natural light condition) greenhouse. Second, the seedlings were transported from a controlled greenhouse in Tsukuba to Iitate Farm (ITF) and placed, with no direct contact with soil, in a low-level gamma field where the rate of Cs-137 was 700 kBq/m{sup 2}. Third, exposure periods were set at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after arrival at ITF, and rice leaves at the 3. position (from the base) from 6 to 10 seedlings were sampled in dry ice. As control, rice leaves were sampled at the start in Tsukuba and immediately at arrival upon ITF; to know the radiation levels during growth and transport of the rice to ITF, accumulated radiation dose was calculated using a MYDOSE mini electronic pocket dosimeter (model PDM-222-52, ALOKA, Japan). A sample set was also taken at 72 h from healthy rice seedlings in the greenhouse at Tsukuba. All samples were stored at -80 deg. C. Accumulated total dose for exposed rice seedlings at 72 h was 200 mSv. Fourth, gene expression analysis was initiated by grinding the leaves to a

  10. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  11. Predictors of urinary and rectal toxicity after external conformed radiation therapy in prostate cancer: Correlation between clinical, tumour and dosimetric parameters and radical and postoperative radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Arribas, C M; González-San Segundo, C; Cuesta-Álvaro, P; Calvo-Manuel, F A

    2017-06-15

    To determine rectal and urinary toxicity after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), assessing the results of patients who undergo radical or postoperative therapy for prostate cancer (pancreatic cancer) and their correlation with potential risk factors. A total of 333 patients were treated with EBRT. Of these, 285 underwent radical therapy and 48 underwent postoperative therapy (39 cases of rescue and 9 of adjuvant therapy). We collected clinical, tumour and dosimetric variable to correlate with toxicity parameters. We developed decision trees based on the degree of statistical significance. The rate of severe acute toxicity, both urinary and rectal, was 5.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The rate of chronic toxicity was 4.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Twenty-seven patients presented haematuria, and 9 presented haemorrhagic rectitis. Twenty-five patients (7.5%) presented permanent limiting sequela. The patients with lower urinary tract symptoms prior to the radiation therapy presented poorer tolerance, with greater acute bladder toxicity (P=0.041). In terms of acute rectal toxicity, 63% of the patients with mean rectal doses >45Gy and anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy developed mild toxicity compared with 37% of the patients with mean rectal doses <45 Gy and without anticoagulant therapy. We were unable to establish predictors of chronic toxicity in the multivariate analysis. The long-term sequelae were greater in the patients who underwent urological operations prior to the radiation therapy and who were undergoing anticoagulant therapy. The tolerance to EBRT was good, and severe toxicity was uncommon. Baseline urinary symptoms constitute the predictor that most influenced the acute urinary toxicity. Rectal toxicity is related to the mean rectal dose and with anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy. There were no significant differences in severe toxicity between radical versus postoperative radiation therapy. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S

  12. Organ-confined prostate carcinoma radiation brachytherapy compared with external either photon- or hadron-beam radiation therapy. Just a short up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, C

    2011-07-01

    Both low dose rate (LDR) permanent either 1251 or 103Pd seed implant and high dose rate (HDR) 1921r temporary implant are an excellent way to release high dose of ionizing radiations to cancerous lesions while significantly sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, the radiation brachytherapy, among the established treatment options of organ-confined prostate carcinoma--interstitial radiofrequency, high intensity focused ultrasound, cryotherapy--has gained large acceptance in the last decades. The LDR permanent interstitial radioactive seed implantation is often used as monotherapy for low risk prostate carcinoma whereas the HDR temporary implant may useful to treat intermediate-to-high risk prostate tumors as a radiation boost to combined external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). On the other hand, with recent refinement of EBRT techniques--either three-dimensional conformal- or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, cyber-knife radiosurgery with even 4D-high resolution image-guided tracking--high doses of X-rays may be precisely delivered to prostate malignant lesions without increasing toxicity for surrounding normal structures. Also hadron therapy is an increasingly successful technique that allows the release of effective energy of protons (H+), neutrons or carbon ions (6(12)C) to the limited extent of the cancerous target site, thus destroying malignant lesion with millimetric precision--just as bloodless surgery--while less damaging the neighbouring healthy tissues. Looking to the near future, even more effective oncotherapy modality appears to be the use of antiprotons because of their highly confined energy deposition at well defined body dept around the annihilation point in contact with protons of the ordinary matter, so targeting only a very limited body volume.

  13. External meeting - Geneva University: Semileptonic and Radiative B-meson decays

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 4 April 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Semileptonic and Radiative B-meson decays by Dr Antonio Limosani / K2K, Japon The success of the B Factories at KEK and SLAC has furthered our knowledge of CP violation, a necessary ingredient for the creation of a matter-dominanted universe. Ever increasing data samples has ushered in a new era of precision CP measurements, in which the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is examined for signs of New Physics. One of the crucial pieces of information, surprisingly, comes not from CP violation but from studies of semileptonic decays of the B mesons. I will discuss how various measurements of semileptonic and radiative B decays combine together to provide a precision measurement of the CKM matrix element |Vcb| and to determine the value of s...

  14. Live-cell imaging to detect phosphatidylserine externalization in brain endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation: implications for the treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenjun; Johnson, Michael S; Chen, Biyi; Grace, Michael; Ukath, Jaysree; Lee, Vivienne S; McRobb, Lucinda S; Sedger, Lisa M; Stoodley, Marcus A

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established intervention for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The processes of AVM vessel occlusion after SRS are poorly understood. To improve SRS efficacy, it is important to understand the cellular response of blood vessels to radiation. The molecular changes on the surface of AVM endothelial cells after irradiation may also be used for vascular targeting. This study investigates radiation-induced externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on endothelial cells using live-cell imaging. METHODS An immortalized cell line generated from mouse brain endothelium, bEnd.3 cells, was cultured and irradiated at different radiation doses using a linear accelerator. PS externalization in the cells was subsequently visualized using polarity-sensitive indicator of viability and apoptosis (pSIVA)-IANBD, a polarity-sensitive probe. Live-cell imaging was used to monitor PS externalization in real time. The effects of radiation on the cell cycle of bEnd.3 cells were also examined by flow cytometry. RESULTS Ionizing radiation effects are dose dependent. Reduction in the cell proliferation rate was observed after exposure to 5 Gy radiation, whereas higher radiation doses (15 Gy and 25 Gy) totally inhibited proliferation. In comparison with cells treated with sham radiation, the irradiated cells showed distinct pseudopodial elongation with little or no spreading of the cell body. The percentages of pSIVA-positive cells were significantly higher (p = 0.04) 24 hours after treatment in the cultures that received 25- and 15-Gy doses of radiation. This effect was sustained until the end of the experiment (3 days). Radiation at 5 Gy did not induce significant PS externalization compared with the sham-radiation controls at any time points (p > 0.15). Flow cytometric analysis data indicate that irradiation induced growth arrest of bEnd.3 cells, with cells accumulating in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. CONCLUSIONS Ionizing radiation

  15. Generation of 13.9 m radiation from CO2 by cascade lasing or externally applied CO2 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utpal Nundy

    2010-11-01

    13.9 m radiation from the 1000–0110 transition can be obtained from a CO2 laser by saturating the 0001–1000, 10.6 m transition with an internally generated q-switched pulse or by the application of an external 10.6 m pulse. Because of Fermi resonance between the symmetric stretch and the bending modes, decay of population from the 1000 level is fast, and such lasers operate at low power and energies. A theoretical model was developed to study such lasers. The results of the calculations indicate that a large-aperture E-beam-sustained discharge is effective for excitation of the cryogenically cooled gain medium, which uses He rich mixture at low pressure. The system is scalable and capable of generating large powers and energies.

  16. Total heart volume as a function of clinical and anthropometric parameters in a population of external beam radiation therapy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadège Ilembe Badouna, Audrey; Veres, Cristina; Haddy, Nadia; Bidault, François; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Bridier, André; de Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine anthropometric parameters leading to the least uncertain estimate of heart size when connecting a computational phantom to an external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) patient. From computed tomography images, we segmented the heart and calculated its total volume (THV) in a population of 270 EBRT patients of both sexes, aged 0.7-83 years. Our data were fitted using logistic growth functions. The patient age, height, weight, body mass index and body surface area (BSA) were used as explanatory variables. For both genders, good fits were obtained with both weight (R2 = 0.89 for males and 0.83 for females) and BSA (R2 = 0.90 for males and 0.84 for females). These results demonstrate that, among anthropometric parameters, weight plays an important role in predicting THV. These findings should be taken into account when assigning a computational phantom to a patient.

  17. Calculations of internal and external radiation exposure based on voxel models. Final report; Berechnungen der internen und externen Strahlenexposition auf Grundlage von Voxel-Modellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zankl, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt, Muenchen (Germany). Inst fuer Strahlenschutz; Becker, J.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Schlattl, H.

    2012-02-15

    Dose estimations of internal and external radiation exposure were based so far on mathematical phantoms with rather simple geometrical descriptions of the human body and teh organs. Recently the mathematical phantoms are replaced by more realistic voxel models that allow a more realistic dose estimation for professional radiation exposed personnel, individuals and patients. The projects is aimed to calculate organ doses for exposure to environmental radiation, organ doses for patients during computed tomography and to develop a voxel model for pregnant (24th week of pregnancy) woman for the estimation of radiation doses for the unborn child.

  18. Noninvasive referencing of intraocular tumors for external beam radiation therapy using optical coherence tomography: A proof of concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüegsegger, Michael B.; Steiner, Patrick; Kowal, Jens H., E-mail: jens.kowal@artorg.unibe.ch [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern, Bern 3010 (Switzerland); Geiser, Dominik [Berne University of Applied Sciences, HuCE OptoLab, 2501 (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern 3010 (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy is currently considered the most common treatment modality for intraocular tumors. Localization of the tumor and efficient compensation of tumor misalignment with respect to the radiation beam are crucial. According to the state of the art procedure, localization of the target volume is indirectly performed by the invasive surgical implantation of radiopaque clips or is limited to positioning the head using stereoscopic radiographies. This work represents a proof-of-concept for direct and noninvasive tumor referencing based on anterior eye topography acquired using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A prototype of a head-mounted device has been developed for automatic monitoring of tumor position and orientation in the isocentric reference frame for LINAC based treatment of intraocular tumors. Noninvasive tumor referencing is performed with six degrees of freedom based on anterior eye topography acquired using OCT and registration of a statistical eye model. The proposed prototype was tested based on enucleated pig eyes and registration accuracy was measured by comparison of the resulting transformation with tilt and torsion angles manually induced using a custom-made test bench. Results: Validation based on 12 enucleated pig eyes revealed an overall average registration error of 0.26 ± 0.08° in 87 ± 0.7 ms for tilting and 0.52 ± 0.03° in 94 ± 1.4 ms for torsion. Furthermore, dependency of sampling density on mean registration error was quantitatively assessed. Conclusions: The tumor referencing method presented in combination with the statistical eye model introduced in the past has the potential to enable noninvasive treatment and may improve quality, efficacy, and flexibility of external beam radiotherapy of intraocular tumors.

  19. Evaluation of standard radiation atmosphere aerosol models for a coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Suttles, J. T.; Sebacher, D. I.; Fuller, W. H.; Lecroy, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations are compared with data from an experiment to evaluate the utility of standard radiation atmosphere (SRA) models for defining aerosol properties in atmospheric radiation computations. Initial calculations with only SRA aerosols in a four-layer atmospheric column simulation allowed a sensitivity study and the detection of spectral trends in optical depth, which differed from measurements. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis provided a revision in the stratospheric layer, which brought calculations in line with both optical depth and skylight radiance data. The simulation procedure allows determination of which atmospheric layers influence both downwelling and upwelling radiation spectra.

  20. Degradation of Standard Dyes and Textile Wastewater as a Pollutant Model Using Gamma Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sumartono

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradation and a decoloration of textile wastewater using ionizing radiation are already applied which some factors influence i.e. original wastewater, pH, pollutant concentration, solubility and variation of polutant. A dyes standard had been treated using ionizing radiation and the mechanism degradation will be discussed. The percentage of the dye degradation about 90-99% at doses of 2-10 kGy. The degradation of textile wastewater using gamma radiation is was carried out at doses of 25 kGy. The combination of irradiation and the addition of coagulant caused the decoloration and the degradation of the textile wastewater

  1. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident.

  2. External-beam radiation therapy after surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer. Long-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, C.V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Radiomedicina, Service of Radiation Oncology, Santiago (Chile); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, F.A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Lozano, M.A.; Gonzalez-Sansegundo, C. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Bayon, L. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of General Surgery, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Lizarraga, S. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Gynecology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sabrido, J.L. [Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of General Surgery, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Gynecology, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The goal of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors in patients treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy (IOERT) for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer (ORGC). From January 1995 to December 2012, 61 patients with ORGC [uterine cervix (52 %), endometrial (30 %), ovarian (15 %), vagina (3 %)] underwent IOERT (12.5 Gy, range 10-15 Gy), and surgical resection to the pelvic (57 %) and paraaortic (43 %) recurrence tumor bed. In addition, 29 patients (48 %) also received EBRT (range 30.6-50.4 Gy). Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Median follow-up time for the entire cohort of patients was 42 months (range 2-169 months). The 10-year rates for overall survival (OS) and locoregional control (LRC) were 17 and 65 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no tumor fragmentation (HR 0.22; p = 0.03), time interval from primary tumor diagnosis to locoregional recurrence (LRR) < 24 months (HR 4.02; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.95; p = 0.02) retained significance with regard to LRR. Time interval from primary tumor to LRR < 24 months (HR 2.32; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.77; p = 0.04) showed a significant association with OS after adjustment for other covariates. External-beam radiation therapy at the time of pelvic recurrence, time interval for relapse ≥24 months and not multi-involved fragmented resection specimens are associated with improved LRC in patients with ORGC. As suggested from the present analysis a significant group of ORGC patients could potentially benefit from multimodality rescue treatment. (orig.)

  3. Structural/functional relationships between internal and external MSH receptors: modulation of expression in Cloudman melanoma cells by UVB radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, A.K.; Orlow, S.J.; Bolognia, J.L.; Pawelek, J.M. (Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Expression of internal receptors for MSH is an important criterion for responsiveness to MSH by Cloudman melanoma cells. Here, we show that internal and external receptors for MSH are of identical molecular weights (50-53 kDa) and share common antigenic determinants, indicating a structural relationship between the 2 populations of molecules. The internal receptors co-purified with a sub-cellular fraction highly enriched for small vesicles, many of which were coated. Ultraviolet B light (UVB) acted synergistically with MSH to increase tyrosinase activity and melanin content of cultured Cloudman melanoma cells, consistent with previous findings in the skin of mice and guinea pigs. Preceding the rise in tyrosinase activity in cultured cells, UVB elicited a decrease in internal MSH binding sites and a concomitant increase in external sites. The time frame for the UVB effects on MSH receptors and melanogenesis, 48 hours, was similar to that for a response to solar radiation in humans. Together, the results indicate a key role for MSH receptors in the induction of melanogenesis by UVB and suggest a potential mechanism of action for UVB: redistribution of MSH receptors with a resultant increase in cellular responsiveness to MSH.

  4. DETERMINATION OF SUPERFICIAL ABSORBED DOSE FROM EXTERNAL EXPOSURE OF WEAKLY PENETRATING RADIATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽姝

    1994-01-01

    The methods of determining the superficial absorbed dose distributions in a water phantom by means of the experiments and available theories have been reported.The distributions of beta dose were measured by an extrapolation ionization chamber at definite depthes corresponding to some superficial organs and tissues such as the radiosensitive layer of the skin,cornea,sclera,anterior chamber and lens of eyeball.The ratios among superficial absorbed dose D(0.07) and average absorbed doses at the depthes 1,2,3,4,5 and 6mm are also obtained with Cross's methods.They can be used for confining the deterministic effects of some superficial tissues and organs such as the skin and the components of eyeball for weakly penetrating radiations.

  5. Estimation of participating media radiative properties with time dependent external illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Acevedo, Nancy I. [Universidade do Estado, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Dept. de Modelagem Computacional]. E-mail: nacevedo@iprj.uerj.br; Roberty, Nilson C.; Silva Neto, Antonio J. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: nilson@lmn.con.ufrj.br; ajsneto@lmn.con.ufrj.br; ajsneto@iprj.uerj.br

    2003-07-01

    In this work two methods for the absorption and scattering coefficients estimation in homogeneous participant media with transient data on the intensity of the radiation that leaves of the medium are investigated. The transient problem is reduced to a family of stationary problems with an absorption coefficient modified by Laplace's transform parameter s. The transient experimental data acquired at the boundaries of the medium are also Laplace transformed and the inverse problem is then solved in the transformed space. The source-detector methodology and Levenberg-Marquardt's method, are applied to investigate the simultaneous estimation of the total extinction and scattering coefficients. numerical test cases results are presented. (author)

  6. Oxidative Stress Markers in Prostate Cancer Patients after HDR Brachytherapy Combined with External Beam Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Woźniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of oxidative stress markers was perfomed in prostate cancer (PCa patients subjected to high-dose brachytherapy (HDR with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Sixty men with PCa were subjected to combined two-fraction treatment with HDR (tot. 20 Gy and EBRT (46 Gy. Blood samples were taken before treatment, immediately afterwards, after 1.5–3 months, and approx. 2 years. Control group consisted of 30 healthy men. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity in the patients was lower than in healthy subjects by 34% (, 50% (, 30% (, and 61% (, respectively, at all periods. No significant differences were found by comparing superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in PCa patients with that of the controls. After 2 years of the end of treatment, the activity of studied enzymes demonstrated a decreasing tendency versus before therapy. Blood plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentration was higher than in the controls at all periods, while erythrocyte TBARS decreased after 2 years to control levels. The results confirm that in the course of PCa, imbalance of oxidant-antioxidant processes occurs. The therapy did not alter the levels of oxidative stress markers, which may prove its applicability. Two years is too short a period to restore the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary....

  8. Margin selection to compensate for loss of target dose coverage due to target motion during external-beam radiation therapy of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, W Kyle; Osei, Ernest; Barnett, Rob

    2015-01-08

    The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for the selection of external-beam radiation therapy target margins to compensate for target motion in the lung during treatment planning. A convolution model was employed to predict the effect of target motion on the delivered dose distribution. The accuracy of the model was confirmed with radiochromic film measurements in both static and dynamic phantom modes. 502 unique patient breathing traces were recorded and used to simulate the effect of target motion on a dose distribution. A 1D probability density function (PDF) representing the position of the target throughout the breathing cycle was generated from each breathing trace obtained during 4D CT. Changes in the target D95 (the minimum dose received by 95% of the treatment target) due to target motion were analyzed and shown to correlate with the standard deviation of the PDF. Furthermore, the amount of target D95 recovered per millimeter of increased field width was also shown to correlate with the standard deviation of the PDF. The sensitivity of changes in dose coverage with respect to target size was also determined. Margin selection recommendations that can be used to compensate for loss of target D95 were generated based on the simulation results. These results are discussed in the context of clinical plans. We conclude that, for PDF standard deviations less than 0.4 cm with target sizes greater than 5 cm, little or no additional margins are required. Targets which are smaller than 5 cm with PDF standard deviations larger than 0.4 cm are most susceptible to loss of coverage. The largest additional required margin in this study was determined to be 8 mm.

  9. Pilot Study of the Delivery of Microcollimated Pars Plana External Beam Radiation in Porcine Eyes: 270-Day Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the dose response and toxicity threshold of micro-collimated X-rays delivered to porcine maculae by a stereotactic radiosurgical system after 270 days. Methods. Twelve eyes of six Yucatan mini-swine were randomized to receive up to 90 Gy to the retina, using an office-based trans-pars plana delivery system. To determine the safety profile of this radiation delivery, ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT were obtained at multiple time points up to 270 days post treatment. Results. No abnormalities were noted on external examination. Cataracts were noted in 4 of 12 eyes. Dose and time-dependent changes were noted on fundus examination, FA, ICG and SD-OCT. No significant abnormalities were seen in the control, 16 Gy or 24 Gy groups using any modality. Histopathology revealed a dose response effect with no discernable lesions in the 16 Gy group. Conclusion. The X-ray delivery system precisely targets the porcine retina in vivo with little effect on surrounding structures. No ophthalmic or intracranial adverse effects were noted at clinically relevant doses at 270 days following radiation delivery.

  10. Establishment and validation of standardized animal models of spinal cord injury by normal external force-caused fracture dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weibing Shuang; Qiang Liu; Shoubin Jiao; Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    The duplication of animal models plays a key role in spinal cord injury research; however, there has been limited study into normal, external force-derived fracture dislocation. This study adopted experimental devices, designed in-house, to construct standardized ventral and dorsal spinal cord injury animal models of 6 g and 17 g falling from a height of 2, 4, and 10 cm, and 15, 30 or 50 g transversal compression on the spinal cord. The results showed that gradual increases in the degree of histopathological injury led to decreased Tarlov and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores for the behavioral test, and increased Ashworth scores for the hind limb. Furthermore, there was a gradual decline in the slope test in the rats with dorsal spinal cord injury that correlated to increases in the falling substance weight or falling height. Similar alterations were observed in the ventral spinal cord injured rats, proportional to the increase in compression weight. Our experimental findings indicate that the standardized experimental rat models of dorsal and ventral spinal cord injury are stable, reliable and reproducible.

  11. Organ dose conversion coefficients for pediatric reference computational phantoms in external photon radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lienard A.

    In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to estimate the organ doses to those exposed. In general, it is difficult to measure organ dose directly in the field and therefore dose conversion coefficients (DCC) are needed to convert measurable values such as air kerma to organ dose. Previous work on these coefficients has been conducted mainly for adults with a focus on radiation protection workers. Hence, there is a large gap in the literature for pediatric values. This study coupled a Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code with International Council of Radiological Protection (ICRP)-adopted University of Florida and National Cancer Institute pediatric reference phantoms to calculate a comprehensive list of dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) to convert air-kerma to organ dose. Parameters included ten phantoms (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year old male and female), 28 organs over 33 energies between 0.01 and 20 MeV in six (6) irradiation geometries relevant to a child who might be exposed to a radiological release: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right-lateral (RLAT), left-lateral (LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). Dose conversion coefficients to the red bone marrow over 36 skeletal sites were also calculated. It was hypothesized that the pediatric organ dose conversion coefficients would follow similar trends to the published adult values as dictated by human anatomy, but be of a higher magnitude. It was found that while the pediatric coefficients did yield similar patterns to that of the adult coefficients, depending on the organ and irradiation geometry, the pediatric values could be lower or higher than that of the adult coefficients.

  12. Impact of Scattered Radiation onTestosterone Deficiency and MaleHypogonadism in Rectal Cancer Treatedwith External Beam Pelvic Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Khatoon Ahmadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of pelvic irradiation on FSH, LH and testosterone levels in male patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. Our aim was to compare the level of male sex hormones in peripheral blood serum before and after pelvic irradiation.Methods:The eligible participants were 40 men with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent pelvic radiotherapy as part of their treatment for primary tumor, either beforeor after surgery. All patients received a 50-Gy radiation dose to the pelvis, 2 Gy perfraction, five days per week. Blood was sampled three times during the study: once before radiation, at the end of the radiation course and 4 to 6 weeks after radiotherapy.Results:Median age of the patients was 58 years (range 18-82. The mean testis dose of radiation per fraction in all 40 patients was 16.3 cGy with a standard deviation of 15.22 (range 5.5-64.8. Serum levels of FSH revealed a significant increase from 7.5 ± 1.7 IU/L(before treatment to 20.9 ± 17.8 IU/L[end of radiotherapy (P<0.001]and 24.1 ± 20.5 IU/L[4 to 6 weeks after radiotherapy (P<0.001]. Serum LH levelswere significantly elevated from 8.04 ± 1.2 IU/L before radiation to 11.6 ± 11.5 IU/Lat the end of radiotherapy (P<0.001 and 12.5 ± 9.9 IU/L4 to 6 weeks after the final course of radiotherapy (P<0.001. There was a decrease in serum testosterone from5.3±2.1 ng/mL before radiation to 4.2 ± 1.9 ng/mLat the end of radiotherapy (P=0.004and 4.5 ± 2 ng/mL4 to 6 weeks after radiotherapy (P=0.035. No significant correlation was seen between age and differences in sex hormones (LH, P=0.605; FSH, P=0.380;testosterone,P=0.161.Conclusion:There was a significant change in serum levels of male sex hormones after pelvic irradiation for rectal cancer (total dose, 50 Gy that indicates considerable testicular damage under these circumstances. Thus, it seems logical to use techniques that reduce the radiation dose to the testicles and to consider the

  13. Standard Guide for Absorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Processing Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This document provides guidance in determining absorbed-dose distributions in products, materials or substances irradiated in gamma, X-ray (bremsstrahlung) and electron beam facilities. Note 1—For irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO and ISO/ASTM standards containing dose mapping requirements exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM 51204, Practice for Dosimetry in Gamma Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing and ISO/ASTM 51431, Practice for Dosimetry in Electron and Bremsstrahlung Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137: 1995, Sterilization of Health Care Products Requirements for Validation and Routine Control Radiation Sterilization. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence. ISO/ASTM Practice 51608, ISO/ASTM Practice 51649, and ISO/ASTM Practice 51702 also contain dose mapping requirements. 1.2 Methods of analyzing the dose map data ar...

  14. Quality control methodology and implementation of X-radiation standards beams, mammography level, following the standard IEC 61267.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, E L; Vivolo, V; Potiens, M P A

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the results of the establishment of a quality control program developed and applied for the X-ray system of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The X-ray standard beams, mammography level, using molybdenum and aluminum as additional filtration were established after the application of this quality control and the spectrometry of these qualities was made. The reference ionization chamber has traceability to the PTB. The radiation qualities RQR-M, RQA-M, RQN-M and RQB-M, following the recommendations of the IEC 61267 and the IAEA TRS 457 were established.

  15. Comparison of treatment using teletherapy (external beam radiation) alone versus teletherapy combined with brachytherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samea, Renato; Lourenco, Laercio Gomes, E-mail: renatosamea@globo.com [Department of Surgical Oncology of Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho Hospital, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Background - Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is still a difficult tumor to treat with very poor prognosis. Aim - To compare the response to teletherapy treatment (external beam radiotherapy) alone versus teletherapy combined with brachytherapy for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods - Were studied 49 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus on clinical stage III (TNM-1999). They were separated into two groups. The first, underwent radiation therapy alone with linear accelerator of particles, average dose of 6000 cGy and the second to external beam radiation therapy at a dose of 5040 cGy combined with brachytherapy with Iridium 192 at a dose of 1500 cGy. Brachytherapy started one to two weeks after the end of teletherapy, and it was divided into three weekly applications of 500 cGy. Age, gender, race, habits (smoking and drinking), body mass index (BMI), complications with treatment benefits (pain relief and food satisfaction) and survival were analyzed. Results - The quality of life (food satisfaction, and pain palliation of dysphagia) were better in the group treated with external beam radiation therapy combined with brachytherapy. Survival was higher in the brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy alone. Conclusion - Although the cure rate of squamous cell cancer of the esophagus is almost nil when treated with irradiation alone, this therapy is a form of palliative treatment for most patients in whom surgical contraindication exists. (author)

  16. To analyze the impact of intracavitary brachytherapy as boost radiation after external beam radiotherapy in carcinoma of the external auditory canal and middle ear: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Badakh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: ICBT as a boost after EBRT has got a positive impact on the OS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that radical radiation therapy (EBRT and ICBT is the treatment of choice for stage T2, carcinoma of EACMA.

  17. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Bladder; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: la vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointreau, Y.; Atean, I. [Service de radiotherapie Corad, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau-2, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Durdux, C. [Universite Paris-Descartes, 75 - Paris (France); Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    The bladder is a hollow visco-elastic organ involved in urinary continence. In relation to its anatomical location, bladder is exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy or in brachytherapy of the pelvic region. The acute and late functional changes after external beam radiation consist in urinary frequency, compliance defaults and hematuria. Incidence of urinary side-effects, as well as related modalities of radiotherapy, is poorly described in the literature. Medline literature searches were performed via PubMed using the keywords -bladder - radiotherapy - toxicity - radiation cystitis - tolerability - organ at risk- to describe urinary side-effects due to radiation. Some recommendations exist on the dose constraints applied to bladder. These were mainly established from prostate radiation therapy studies but without definitive consensus. In clinical practice, dose constraints take into account clinical settings: bladder cancer which requires total bladder irradiation or others pelvic tumours (prostate, uterus) in which the bladder is considered as an organ at risk. Risks of radiation cystitis increase with total dose (above 60 Gy), bladder irradiated volume and concomitant chemo radiation. Modern techniques using conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity will probably have beneficial impact on bladder toxicity. (authors)

  18. Salvage brachytherapy in combination with interstitial hyperthermia for locally recurrent prostate carcinoma following external beam radiation therapy: a prospective phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukiełka, Andrzej M; Strnad, Vratislav; Stauffer, Paul; Dąbrowski, Tomasz; Hetnał, Marcin; Nahajowski, Damian; Walasek, Tomasz; Brandys, Piotr; Matys, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Optimal treatment for patients with only local prostate cancer recurrence after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) failure remains unclear. Possible curative treatments are radical prostatectomy, cryosurgery, and brachytherapy. Several single institution series proved that high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) and pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy (PDRBT) are reasonable options for this group of patients with acceptable levels of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. A standard dose prescription and scheme have not been established yet, and the literature presents a wide range of fractionation protocols. Furthermore, hyperthermia has shown the potential to enhance the efficacy of re-irradiation. Consequently, a prospective trial is urgently needed to attain clear structured prospective data regarding the efficacy of salvage brachytherapy with adjuvant hyperthermia for locally recurrent prostate cancer. The purpose of this report is to introduce a new prospective phase II trial that would meet this need. The primary aim of this prospective phase II study combining Iridium-192 brachytherapy with interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) is to analyze toxicity of the combined treatment; a secondary aim is to define the efficacy (bNED, DFS, OS) of salvage brachytherapy. The dose prescribed to PTV will be 30 Gy in 3 fractions for HDRBT, and 60 Gy in 2 fractions for PDRBT. During IHT, the prostate will be heated to the range of 40-47°C for 60 minutes prior to brachytherapy dose delivery. The protocol plans for treatment of 77 patients.

  19. Standardization Process for Space Radiation Models Used for Space System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet; Daly, Eamonn; Brautigam, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The space system design community has three concerns related to models of the radiation belts and plasma: 1) AP-8 and AE-8 models are not adequate for modern applications; 2) Data that have become available since the creation of AP-8 and AE-8 are not being fully exploited for modeling purposes; 3) When new models are produced, there is no authorizing organization identified to evaluate the models or their datasets for accuracy and robustness. This viewgraph presentation provided an overview of the roadmap adopted by the Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models.

  20. Simulation study of enhancing laser driven multi-keV line-radiation through application of external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, G. E.; Colvin, J. D.; Blue, B. E.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-10-01

    We present a path forward for enhancing laser driven, multi-keV line-radiation from mid- to high-Z, sub-quarter-critical density, non-equilibrium plasmas through inhibited thermal transport in the presence of an externally generated magnetic field. Preliminary simulations with Kr and Ag suggest that as much as 50%-100% increases in peak electron temperatures are possible—without any changes in laser drive conditions—with magnetized interactions. The increase in temperature results in ˜2 -3 × enhancements in laser-to-x-ray conversion efficiency for K-shell emission with simultaneous ≲ 4 × reduction in L-shell emission using current field generation capabilities on the Omega laser and near-term capabilities on the National Ignition Facility laser. Increased plasma temperatures and enhanced K-shell emission are observed to come at the cost of degraded volumetric heating. Such enhancements in high-photon-energy x-ray sources could expand the existing laser platforms for increasingly penetrating x-ray radiography.

  1. Long-term Symptoms after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer with Three or Four Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abany, Massoud; Helgason, Asgeir R.; Aagren-Cronqvist, Anna-Karin; Svensson, Christer; Wersaell, Peter; Steineck, Gunnar [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology-Pathology

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether external beam radiation treatment with three or four fields affects the risk of long-term distressful symptoms. The study included 145 patients who had been treated in Stockholm from 1993 to 1996 for localized prostate cancer. Bowel, urinary and sexual function as well as symptom-induced distress were assessed by means of a postal questionnaire 29-59 months after therapy. Among patients treated with a multileaf collimator, defecation urgency, diarrhoea and loose stools were more common after four fields than after three fields, but faecal leakage necessitating the use of pads and distress from the gastrointestinal tract were less common (although not statistically significantly so). Among bowel symptoms, the strongest association with gastrointestinal distress was found for faecal leakage. Three fields without a multileaf collimator entailed a higher risk of defecation urgency than three fields with a multileaf collimator. We conclude that the choice of three or four fields may imply a contrasting risk scenario for defecation urgency or diarrhoea in comparison with faecal leakage.

  2. 基于太阳辐射模拟的外遮阳优化设计%Design optimization of external sunshade based on solar radiation simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓龙

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem on external sunshade design under the situation of complex configuration and orientation,solar radiation simula-tion is used to analyze the shelter effect of different types of external sunshade. The facades whose shelter effect is poor with fixed external sun-shade turn to use adjustable external sunshade,making the balance between energy saving rate and economy.%为解决在这种复杂建筑体型和朝向条件下的外遮阳优化,通过夏季太阳辐射量模拟分析了不同遮阳形式的遮阳效果,指出选择固定外遮阳效果不佳的立面采用可调节外遮阳,达到了节能率和经济性兼顾的效果。

  3. Standard fractionation intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT of primary and recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Clifton D

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT affords unparalleled capacity to deliver conformal radiation doses to tumors in the central nervous system. However, to date, there are few reported outcomes from using IMRT, either alone or as a boost technique, for standard fractionation radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. Methods Forty-two patients were treated with IMRT alone (72% or as a boost (28% after 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT. Thirty-three patients with primary disease and 9 patients with recurrent tumors were included. Thirty-four patients (81% had surgery, with gross tumor resection in 13 patients (36%; 22 patients (53% received chemo-radiotherapy. The median total radiation dose for all patients was 60 Gy with a range from 30.6 to 74 Gy. Standard fractions of 1.8 Gy/day to 2.0 Gy/day were utilized. Results Median survival was 8.7 months, with 37 patients (88% deceased at last contact. Nonparametric analysis showed no survival difference in IMRT-boost vs. IMRT-only groups. Conclusion While technically feasible, preliminary results suggest delivering standard radiation doses by IMRT did not improve survival outcomes in this series compared to historical controls. In light of this lack of a survival benefit and the costs associated with use of IMRT, future prospective trials are needed to evaluate non-survival endpoints such as quality of life and functional preservation. Short of such evidence, the use of IMRT for treatment of GBM needs to be carefully rationalized.

  4. Compliance of Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit with IEC standard - Radiation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, G; Kumar, Munish; Dash Sharma, P K; Sharma, D N; Chhokra, Kanta; Mishra, Bibekananda; Agarwal, S P; Kher, R K

    2009-04-28

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India designed and developed a telecobalt unit, which was named as Bhabhatron-II. In this paper, the results pertaining to radiation safety of indigenously developed Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit are reported. The various tests were carried out as per requirements of International Electrotechnical Commission standard and acceptance criteria developed nationally. Various devices such as CaSO4:Dy based thermoluminescent dosimeters, farmer type ionization chamber, water phantom and radiographic films were used. All the parameters pertaining to radiation leakage/transmission were within the tolerance limits as per IEC-60601-2-11 standard except the collimator transmission through X collimators (upper jaw), which marginally exceeds the tolerance limit.

  5. Calibration of the Standards and Calibration Laboratory`s Co{sup 60} Radiation Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtenson, G.R.; White, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report measurements of dose rates at various locations in the LLNL Standards and Calibrations Laboratory`s Co{sup 60} Radiation Pool. Plots show the dependence of dose rate on radius near the bottom of the pool and the dependence of dose rate on height at a fixed distance from the pool center. The effect of varying sample location within the pool`s dry-well was also investigated.

  6. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ying [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the χ{sup 2} test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone

  7. A survey of techniques to reduce and manage external beam radiation-induced xerostomia in British oncology and radiotherapy departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknelly, Andrew [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital (United Kingdom); Day, Jane [Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Waterfront Building, Neptune Quay, Ipswich (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.day@ucs.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Xerostomia is the most common side effect of external beam radiotherapy to the head and neck [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et-al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia? - A feasibility study for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical Oncology 2006;18(6):497-504.]. A survey was carried out in British oncology departments to determine what treatment regimes, to minimise xerostomia, are used for patients with head-and-neck cancers treated with external beam radiotherapy. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was designed that asked departments which of the identified methods they used, why a method might not be currently employed, and whether its use had ever been considered. The study found that there are wide disparities between the techniques employed by oncology departments to avoid and reduce xerostomia in patients with cancers of the head and neck. The National Institute of Clinical Health and Excellence, [National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence (NICE). Improving outcomes in head and neck cancers: the manual. London: Office of Public Sector Information; 2004.] for example, recommends that patients are given dental care and dietary advice but some departments did not appear to be doing this. Less than half of departments stated that they offer complementary therapies and less than 40% prescribed pilocarpine, a saliva-stimulant. Only two respondents stated that they use amifostine, a radioprotector, during radiotherapy treatment to the head and neck. The results also suggested a move toward using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) for treating head-and-neck cancers which offers better normal tissue sparing than three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia

  8. Natural gas pyrolysis in double-walled reactor tubes using thermal plasma or concentrated solar radiation as external heating source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stèphane Abanades; Stefania Tescari; Sylvain Rodat; Gilles Flamant

    2009-01-01

    The thermal pyrolysis of natural gas as a clean hydrogen production route is examined.The concept of a double-walled reactor tube is proposed and implemented.Preliminary experiments using an external plasma heating source are carded out to validate this concept.The results point out the efficient CH4 dissociation above 1850 K (CH4 conversion over 90%) and the key influence of the gas residence time.Simulations are performed to predict the conversion rate of CH4 at the reactor outlet,and are consistent with experimental tendencies.A solar reactor prototype featuring four independent double-walled tubes is then developed.The heat in high temperature process required for the endothermic reaction of natural gas pyrolysis is supplied by concentrated solar energy.The tubes are heated uniformly by radiation using the blackbody effect of a cavity-receiver absorbing the concentrated solar irradiation through a quartz window.The gas composition at the reactor outlet,the chemical conversion of CH4,and the yield to H2 are determined with respect to reaction temperature,inlet gas flow-rates,and feed gas composition.The longer the gas residence time,the higher the CH4 conversion and H2 yield,whereas the lower the amount of acetylene.A CH4 conversion of 99% and H2 yield of about 85% are measured at 1880 K with 30% CH4 in the feed gas (6 L/min injected and residence time of 18 ms).A temperature increase from 1870 K to 1970 K does not improve the H2 yield.

  9. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  10. Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Doležal, Miroslav; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B R; King, Steven A; Jones, Jonathan M; Klein, Hugh A; Gill, Patrick; Lindvall, Thomas; Wallin, Anders E; Merimaa, Mikko; Tamm, Christian; Sanner, Christian; Huntemann, Nils; Scharnhorst, Nils; Leroux, Ian D; Schmidt, Piet O; Burgermeister, Tobias; Mehlstäubler, Tanja E; Peik, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    In many of the high-precision optical frequency standards with trapped atoms or ions that are under development to date, the AC Stark shift induced by thermal radiation leads to a major contribution to the systematic uncertainty. We present an analysis of the inhomogeneous thermal environment experienced by ions in various types of ion traps. Finite element models which allow the determination of the temperature of the trap structure and the temperature of the radiation were developed for 5 ion trap designs, including operational traps at PTB and NPL and further optimized designs. Models were refined based on comparison with infrared camera measurement until an agreement of better than 10% of the measured temperature rise at critical test points was reached. The effective temperature rises of the radiation seen by the ion range from 0.8 K to 2.1 K at standard working conditions. The corresponding fractional frequency shift uncertainties resulting from the uncertainty in temperature are in the 10-18 range for ...

  11. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36-6.23) and 1.00 (0.67-1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident.

  12. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36–6.23) and 1.00 (0.67–1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  13. Standard Guide for Performance Characterization of Dosimeters and Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation Processing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance on determining the performance characteristics of dosimeters and dosimetry systems used in radiation processing. 1.2 This guide describes the influence quantities that might affect the performance of dosimeters and dosimetry systems and that should be considered during dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization. 1.3 Users of this guide are directed to existing standards and literature for procedures to determine the effects from individual influence quantities and from combinations of more than one influence quantity. 1.4 Guidance is provided regarding the roles of the manufacturers, suppliers, and users in the characterization of dosimeters and dosimetry systems. 1.5 This guide does not address how the dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information is to be used in radiation processing applications or in the calibration of dosimetry systems. Note 1—For guidance on the use of dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information for the selection and use o...

  14. Beyond the Standard Curriculum: A Review of Available Opportunities for Medical Students to Prepare for a Career in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ankit; DeNunzio, Nicholas J.; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E., E-mail: Ariel.hirsch@bmc.org

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review currently available opportunities for medical students to supplement their standard medical education to prepare for a career in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: Google and PubMed were used to identify existing clinical, health policy, and research programs for medical students in radiation oncology. In addition, results publicly available by the National Resident Matching Program were used to explore opportunities that successful radiation oncology applicants pursued during their medical education, including obtaining additional graduate degrees. Results: Medical students can pursue a wide variety of opportunities before entering radiation oncology. Several national specialty societies, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology and the Radiological Society of North America, offer summer internships for medical students interested in radiation oncology. In 2011, 30% of allopathic senior medical students in the United States who matched into radiation oncology had an additional graduate degree, including PhD, MPH, MBA, and MA degrees. Some medical schools are beginning to further integrate dedicated education in radiation oncology into the standard 4-year medical curriculum. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of available opportunities for medical students interested in radiation oncology. Early exposure to radiation oncology and additional educational training beyond the standard medical curriculum have the potential to create more successful radiation oncology applicants and practicing radiation oncologists while also promoting the growth of the field. We hope this review can serve as guide to radiation oncology applicants and mentors as well as encourage discussion regarding initiatives in radiation oncology opportunities for medical students.

  15. Trends of international standard procedures on dosimetry systems and irradiated foods applied in the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Kwan Soo; Park, Soon Yeon [Greenpia Technology Inc., Yeojoo (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Recently, with new radiation technology being developed and used in advanced industries, the business opportunity of radiation processing has been increasing. For the industrial application of developed products, it is required to review scientific and technical aspects of standard procedures applied to radiation processes. Standard procedures describe requirements of products manufactured under standard processing conditions. In fields related to the operation control of the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities, the ISO 11137 and Codex stan-106 are famous standards adopted as national standards in the advanced countries. The ISO 11137 is applied to supply criteria of medical devices for the validation and routine control of radiation sterilization including variability and uncertainty of dosimetry systems. Korean national standards on the food irradiation are significantly different from Codex stan-106 in parts such as the labelling. Therefore, prior to implementation of the labelling on the labelling on irradiated foods starting from year 2010, it is necessary to revise the inconsistent labelling to the reasonable level of international standard for the promotion and reenforcement of competition in industries using radiation processing technology.

  16. Hypofractionated Versus Standard Radiation Therapy With or Without Temozolomide for Older Glioblastoma Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvold, Nils D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tanguturi, Shyam K. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Aizer, Ayal A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wen, Patrick Y.; Reardon, David A.; Lee, Eudocia Q.; Nayak, Lakshmi [Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Christianson, Laura W.; Horvath, Margaret C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dunn, Ian F.; Golby, Alexandra J.; Johnson, Mark D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Claus, Elizabeth B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Chiocca, E. Antonio [Department of Neurosurgery, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ligon, Keith L. [Department of Pathology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Alexander, Brian M., E-mail: bmalexander@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Older patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma have poor outcomes, and optimal treatment is controversial. Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HRT) is frequently used but has not been compared to patients receiving standard fractionated radiation therapy (SRT) and temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients ≥65 years of age who received radiation for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma from 1994 to 2013. The distribution of clinical covariates across various radiation regimens was analyzed for possible selection bias. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison of hypofractionated radiation (typically, 40 Gy/15 fractions) versus standard fractionation (typically, 60 Gy/30 fractions) in the setting of temozolomide was conducted using Cox regression and propensity score analysis. Results: Patients received SRT + TMZ (n=57), SRT (n=35), HRT + TMZ (n=34), or HRT (n=9). Patients receiving HRT were significantly older (median: 79 vs 69 years of age; P<.001) and had worse baseline performance status (P<.001) than those receiving SRT. On multivariate analysis, older age (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.10, P=.01), lower Karnofsky performance status (AHR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03; P=.01), multifocal disease (AHR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.23-3.61, P=.007), and radiation alone (vs SRT + TMZ; SRT: AHR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.06-2.79; P=.03; HRT: AHR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.44-10.60, P=.007) were associated with decreased overall survival. After propensity score adjustment, patients receiving HRT with TMZ had similar overall survival compared with those receiving SRT with TMZ (AHR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.50-2.4, P=.82). Conclusions: With no randomized data demonstrating equivalence between HRT and SRT in the setting of TMZ for glioblastoma, significant selection bias exists in the implementation of HRT. Controlling for this bias, we observed similar overall

  17. [The effect of long-term external ionizing radiation on the functional activity of rat thyroid under enhanced potassium iodide consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupachik, S V; Nadol'nik, L I

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to the effect of long-term (20 days) external ionizing radiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy on the iodide metabolism in the rat thyroid under supplementation of high iodine doses (10 daily KI doses). It was found that the potassium iodide administration partially prevented the effects of a post radiation decrease of serum thyroid hormone levels (the level of T4 was normal and that of T3 was 77.4% of the controls). After the supplementation of 10 daily iodide doses, the rat thyroid tissue showed the most pronounced increase in the levels of total, free and protein-bound iodide compared to the groups of animals consuming normal and elevated KI doses. Pronounced inhibition of thyroid peroxidase activity (3.1-fold) was noted in the same group. The data obtained indicate a radiation-induced activation of iodide uptake during its enhanced supplementation and disturbed iodide enzymatic oxidation and organification.

  18. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2. Licenses... radiography, nuclear medicine technology, or radiation therapy technology. 2. Special eligibility to take...

  19. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Esophagus; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: l'oesophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, G.; Pointreau, Y. [Clinique d' oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Denis, F.; Dupuis, O. [Centre Jean-Bernard, clinique Victor-Hugo, 72 - Le-Mans (France); Orain, I. [Service d' anatomie et cytologie pathologiques, hopital Trousseau, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Crehange, G. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2010-07-15

    The esophagus is a musculo-membranous tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. Due to its anatomical location, it can be exposed to ionizing radiation in many external radiotherapy indications. Radiation-induced esophageal mucositis is clinically revealed by dysphagia and odynophagia, and usually begins 3 to 4 weeks after the start of radiation treatment. With the rise of multimodality treatments (e.g., concurrent chemoradiotherapy, dose escalation and accelerated fractionation schemes), esophageal toxicity has become a significant dose-limiting issue. Understanding the predictive factors of esophageal injury may improve the optimal delivery of treatment plans. It may help to minimize the risks, hence increasing the therapeutic ratio. Based on a large literature review, our study describes both early and late radiation-induced esophageal injuries and highlights some of the predictive factors for cervical and thoracic esophagus toxicity. These clinical and dosimetric parameters are numerous but none is consensual. The large number of dosimetric parameters strengthens the need of an overall analysis of the dose/volume histograms. The data provided is insufficient to recommend their routine use to prevent radiation-induced esophagitis. Defining guidelines for the tolerance of the esophagus to ionizing radiation remains essential for a safe and efficient treatment. (authors)

  20. Validation and standardization of gene expression data for microarray and real time quantitative PCR using universal external RNA controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will introduce newly developed universal external ribonucleic acid (RNA) controls and their applications on different platforms of microarray and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) including SYBR Green® and TaqMan® probe-based chemistries. Data obtained fro...

  1. Organisational standards for the delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, A; Warde, P; Sharpe, M; Oliver, T K; Bak, K; Leszczynski, K; Etheridge, S; Fleming, K; Gutierrez, E; Favell, L; Green, E

    2009-04-01

    By minimising the effect of irradiation on surrounding tissue, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can deliver higher, more effective doses to the targeted tumour site, minimising treatment-related morbidity and possibly improving cancer control and cure. A multidisciplinary IMRT Expert Panel was convened to develop the organisational standards for the delivery of IMRT. The systematic literature search used MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database, the National Guidelines Clearing House and the Health Technology Assessment Database. An environmental scan of unpublished literature used the Google search engine to review the websites of key organisations, cancer agencies/centres and vendor sites in Canada, the USA, Australia and Europe. In total, 22 relevant guidance documents were identified; 12 from the published literature and 10 from the environmental scan. Professional and organisational standards for the provision of IMRT were developed through the analysis of this evidence and the consensus opinion of the IMRT Expert Panel. The resulting standards address the following domains: planning of new IMRT programmes, practice setting requirements, tools, devices and equipment requirements; professional training requirements; role of personnel; and requirements for quality assurance and safety. Here the IMRT Expert Panel offers organisational and professional standards for the delivery of IMRT, with the intent of promoting innovation, improving access and enhancing patient care.

  2. Radiation-based quantitative bioimaging at the national institute of standards and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on a long history of providing physical measurements and standards for medical x rays and nuclear medicine radionuclides, the laboratory has expanded its focus to better support the extensive use of medical physics in the United States today, providing confidence in key results needed for drug and device development and marketing, therapy planning and efficacy and disease screening. In particular, to support more quantitative medical imaging, this laboratory has implemented a program to provide key measurement infrastructure to support radiation-based imaging through developing standard, benchmark phantoms, which contain radioactive sources calibrated to national measurement standards, to allow more quantitative imaging through traceable instrument calibration for clinical trials or patient management. Working closely with colleagues at the National Institutes of Health, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the Food and Drug Administration and Cornell University, this laboratory has taken the initial steps in developing phantoms, and the protocols to use them, for more accurate calibration of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT cameras, including recently standardizing 68 Ge. X-ray measurements of the laboratory′s recently developed small, resilient and inexpensive length standard phantom have shown the potential usefulness of such a "pocket" phantom for patient-based calibration of computed tomography (alone or with PET systems. The ability to calibrate diagnostic imaging tools in a way that is traceable to national standards will lead to a more quantitative approach; both physician and patient benefit from increased accuracy in treatment planning, as well as increased safety for the patient.

  3. Study on radiation dose in the medical image data display method-focus on the DICOM standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su [Dept. of Radio-technology, Health Welfare, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standards are generally introduced as de facto and de jure standards in modern medical imaging devices to store and to transmit medical image information. DICOM Dose Structured Report (DICOM dose SR) is implemented to report radiation exposure information in image acquiring process. and DIOCM Modality Performed Procedure Step (DICOM MPPS) is also partly used to report this exposure with the information in its DICOM tag. This article is focused on three type of radiation exposure information of DICOM standards, 1) DICOM dose SR, 2) DICOM MPPS and 3) Radiation Exposure Monitoring(REM) profile by Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise(IHE), to study on radiation exposure reporting. Healthcare facility and its staff of medical imaging related to radiation exposure should have a deep understanding of radiation exposure, and it required a standards to enhance the quality control of medical imaging and the safety of patients and staffs. Staff member have to pay attention on radiation exposures and controlling processes from the purchasing stage of X-ray devices.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.

  5. Didactic revision of the operative magnitudes system ICRU for the evaluation of the equivalent dose in radiation external fields; Revision didactica del sistema de magnitudes operativas ICRU para la evaluacion de la dosis equivalente en campos externos de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work is presented in a didactic way the operative magnitudes system ICRU, showing as these magnitudes carry out an appropriate estimate of the effective equivalent doses H{sub E} and the effective dose. The objective is to present the basic concepts of the dosimetry for radiation external fields with purposes of radiological protection, because the assimilation lack and technological development of this dosimetric magnitudes system has persisted for near 50 years, in terms of practice of the radiological protection in Mexico. Also, this system is an essential part of safety basic standards of the IAEA and ICRP recommendations 26, 60, 74 and 103, as well as of the ICRU 25, 39, 43, 51 and 57. (Author)

  6. Effect of External Radiation Filed on the Properties of the Atoms and Cavity Field in the Tavis-Cummings Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠纯

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the properties of the atoms and cavity field in the Tavis-Cummings Model where the two atoms interact each other and also are driven by an external classical field.We consider the special case that the cavity is initially in a coherent state.After work out the atomic inversion, the average photons number and the Mandel parameter in the driven Tavis-Cummings Model, we do numerical analysis of them, and pay special attention to the dynamical behavior of the atoms and the cavity field modified by the external field.

  7. Supplementary comparison CCRI(I)-S2 of standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at radiation processing dose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, D. T.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Desrosiers, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Eight national standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 1 kGy to 30 kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The comparison was organized by the B......Eight national standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 1 kGy to 30 kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The comparison was organized...... by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, who also participated at the lowest dose level using their radiotherapy-level standard for the same quantity. The national standards are in general agreement within the standard uncertainties, which are in the range from 1 to 2 parts in 102. Evidence of a dose...

  8. Determination of dose conversion factors for external gamma radiation in dwellings; Determinacao de fatores de conversao de dose para radiacao gama externa em residencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis

    2000-07-01

    The use of building materials containing natural radionuclides in dwelling construction may lead to an increment of both external and internal radiation exposure of the population. External exposure in dwellings arises from gamma-emitter radionuclides existing in the walls, floor and ceiling. Mathematical models can be used to predict external dose rates inside the room, provided the radionuclide concentration activities in dwelling constituents and the building geometry are known. In this work, a methodology and a computer code, called EDVOS, for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses in the air, due to radionuclides present in the constituents of an hypothetical room, were developed. The room is modeled as three pairs of rectangular sheets with finite thickness. Evaluation of doses was performed through the application of a photon transport model, taking into account self-absorption and radiation buildup. The radionuclides were assumed to be uniformly distributed in the building materials. Calculations were performed for concrete walls and results are presented for {sup 40}K, {sup 226} Ra, and {sup 232}Th, taking into account, for dose calculations, all gamma emitters from {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th decay chains. The response of the model to the input parameters was studied by varying each of them within a reasonable range of applicability, while leaving the other ones at fixed selected values. The results obtained showed a good agreement with those presented in the literature and with data obtained by running RESRAD-BUILD code. Dose conversions factors are presented in a form suitable for the use in radiological impact studies applied to practical situations. (author)

  9. Short-term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Improves Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kalikstein, Abraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kuk, Deborah; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: We investigated the benefit of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study comprised 710 intermediate-risk PC patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with doses of ≥81 Gy at a single institution from 1992 to 2005, including 357 patients receiving neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) and distant metastasis (DM) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. PC-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed using competing-risks analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 7.9 years. Despite being more likely to have higher PSA levels, Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, multiple National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk factors, and older age (P≤.001 for all comparisons), patients receiving ADT had improved PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.598; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.435-0.841; P=.003), DM (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.219-0.819; P=.011), and PCSM (HR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.157-0.921; P=.032) on univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, ADT was an even stronger predictor of improved PSA-RFS (adjusted HR [AHR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.360-0.739; P<.001), DM (AHR, 0.347; 95% CI, 0.176-0.685; P=.002), and PCSM (AHR, 0.297; 95% CI, 0.128-0.685; P=.004). Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 and ≥50% positive biopsy cores were other independent predictors of PCSM. Conclusions: Short-term ADT improves PSA-RFS, DM, and PCSM in patients with intermediate-risk PC undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy.

  10. Olfactory Neuroblastoma Treated by Endoscopic Surgery Followed by Combined External Beam Radiation and Gamma Knife for Optic Nerve and Chiasm Sparing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Z. Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the multimodality treatment regimen of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with olfactory neuroblastoma (Kadish stage C in the right nasal cavity extending into the ethmoid sinus and across the cribriform plate. Endoscopic surgery for tumor resection was followed by a combination of external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery boost with concurrent chemotherapy. The novel combination of dual radiation therapies allowed for the preservation of the nearby optic structures while providing an adequate dosage to a sufficient volume of the afflicted tissue.

  11. An assessment of bias and uncertainty in recorded dose from external sources of radiation for workers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.; Baumgartner, W.V.

    1994-08-01

    Worker dose estimates are used in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. A major objective of these studies is to provide a direct assessment of the carcinogenic risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. If dose estimates used in analyses of worker data are biased, then risk estimates expressed per unit of dose will also be biased. In addition, random error in dose estimates may lead to underestimation of risk coefficients and can also distort dose-response analyses. Analyses of data from nuclear worker studies, including Hanford, have typically not been adjusted for biases and uncertainties in dose estimates in part because of the lack of adequate information on the nature and magnitude of these biases and uncertainties. This report describes an approach used to assess bias and uncertainty in radiation dose for Hanford dosimetry systems. The approach can be considered as an elaboration of work conducted by a technical committee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) used to quantify the bias and uncertainty in estimated doses for personnel exposed to radiation as a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons between 1945 and 1962. In addition, laboratory studies were conducted to measure bias for selected sources of photon radiation resulting from angular response characteristics of Hanford dosimeter systems. An overall assessment is presented of bias and uncertainty for photon radiation greater than 100 keV. This radiation is expected to have caused the vast majority of recorded dose for Hanford workers.

  12. Supplementary comparison CCRI(I)-S2 of standards for absorbed dose to water in {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at radiation processing dose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.T.; Allisy-Roberts, P.J. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Desrosiers, M.F. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Sharpe, P.H.G. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Pimpinella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Lourenco, V. [CEA Saclay, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zhang, Y.L. [National Institute of Metrology, Beijing (China); Miller, A. [Riso High Dose reference Laboratory, Riso DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Generalova, V. [Institute for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sochor, V. [Czech Metrology Institute, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Eight national standards for absorbed dose to water in {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 1 kGy to 30 kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The comparison was organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, who also participated at the lowest dose level using their radiotherapy-level standard for the same quantity. The national standards are in general agreement within the standard uncertainties, which are in the range from 1 to 2 parts in 10{sup 2}. Evidence of a dose rate effect is presented and discussed briefly. (authors)

  13. Revised standards for protection against radiation; minor amendments--NRC. Final rule: minor corrective and conforming amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This final rule makes a number of minor corrective and conforming amendments to the NRC's revised standards for protection against radiation. The final rule is necessary to correct recently discovered errors in the text of the revised standards, to conform portions of regulatory text to the Commission's decision to defer mandatory implementation of the revised standards until 1994, and to reflect the recent OMB approval of the use of NRC Forms 4 and 5.

  14. Personnel radiation protection. Situation of the dosimetry surveillance of external exposure in 2003; La radioprotection des travailleurs. Bilan de la surveillance dosimetrique de l'exposition externe en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The situation of external exposure of workers for the year 2003 has been realised according to the same method than this one of the year 2002. It does not show big variations of trends, both in term of workforce watched and collective doses alike associated in the different sectors of activity. Some differences observed between the two years can explain by real evolutions of situations. For example, the 2800 workers registered in the veterinary sector are the result of a better awareness of this profession for the radiation protection during the last months. Some variations can be the results of artefacts in the data processing. The centralization at I.R.S.N. of the whole of dosimetry data should allow to make easy the data treatment and to improve the statistics of occupational exposure. (N.C.)

  15. Assessing Interpersonal and Communication Skills in Radiation Oncology Residents: A Pilot Standardized Patient Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Melody [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berman, Abigail T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); LaMarra, Denise [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vapiwala, Neha, E-mail: Neha.Vapiwala@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Methods and Materials: Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of “bad news” to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Results: Overall resident performance ratings were “good” to “excellent,” with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. Conclusions: The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills.

  16. 3D dosimetry in patients with early breast cancer undergoing Intraoperative Avidination for Radionuclide Therapy (IART {sup registered}) combined with external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Mahila E.; Cremonesi, Marta; Di Dia, Amalia; Botta, Francesca; Pedroli, Guido [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); De Cicco, Concetta; Calabrese, Michele; Paganelli, Giovanni [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Sarnelli, Anna [IRCCS Istituto Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Meldola, FC (Italy); Pedicini, Piernicola [Centro Regionale Oncologico Basilicata (IRCCS-CROB), Department of Radiation Oncology, Rionero in Vulture, PZ (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Radiotherapy, Milan (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Intraoperative Avidination for Radionuclide Therapy (IART {sup registered}) is a novel targeted radionuclide therapy recently used in patients with early breast cancer. It is a radionuclide approach with {sup 90}Y-biotin combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to release a boost of radiation in the tumour bed. Two previous clinical trials using dosimetry based on the calculation of mean absorbed dose values with the hypothesis of uniform activity distribution (MIRD 16 method) assessed the feasibility and safety of IART {sup registered}. In the present retrospective study, a voxel dosimetry analysis was performed to investigate heterogeneity in distribution of the absorbed dose. The aim of this work was to compare dosimetric and radiobiological evaluations derived from average absorbed dose vs. voxel absorbed dose approaches. We evaluated 14 patients who were injected with avidin into the tumour bed after conservative surgery and 1 day later received an intravenous injection of 3.7 GBq of {sup 90}Y-biotin (together with 185 MBq {sup 111}In-biotin for imaging). Sequential images were used to estimate the absorbed dose in the target region according to the standard dosimetry method (SDM) and the voxel dosimetry method (VDM). The biologically effective dose (BED) distribution was also evaluated. Dose/volume and BED volume histograms were generated to derive equivalent uniform BED (EUBED) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) values. No ''cold spots'' were highlighted by voxel dosimetry. The median absorbed-dose in the target region was 20 Gy (range 15-27 Gy) by SDM, and the median EUD was 20.4 Gy (range 16.5-29.4 Gy) by the VDM; SDM and VDM estimates differed by about 6 %. The EUD/mean voxel absorbed dose ratio was >0.9 in all patients, indicative of acceptable uniformity in the target. The median BED and EUBED values were 21.8 Gy (range 15.9-29.3 Gy) and 22.8 Gy (range 17.3-31.8 Gy), respectively. VDM highlighted the absence of significant

  17. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  18. Operation of the Metrology Light Source as a primary radiation source standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Klein

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Metrology Light Source (MLS, the new electron storage ring of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB located in Berlin, is dedicated to metrology and technological developments in the UV and extreme UV spectral range as well as in the IR and THz region. The MLS can be operated at any electron beam energy between 105 and 630 MeV and at electron beam currents varying from 1 pA (one stored electron up to 200 mA. Moreover, it is optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the far IR/THz range. Of special interest for PTB is the operation of the MLS as a primary radiation source standard from the near IR up to the soft x-ray region. Therefore, the MLS is equipped with all the instrumentation necessary to measure the storage ring parameters and geometrical parameters needed for the calculation of the spectral photon flux according to the Schwinger theory with low uncertainty.

  19. [Standardization of measurement of catalytic activity concentration of enzymes--current situation regarding the external quality assessment program provided by the Japan Medical Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been standardized using a traceability chain, consisting a reference measurement system for enzyme catalytic activity and reference standard-JSCC enzyme. The Japan Medical Association (JMA) has provided an external quality assessment (EQA) survey program for clinical laboratory testing. More than 3,100 clinical laboratories participated in 2008. The EQA program indicated that standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been completed for AST, ALT, LD, ALP, gammaGT, and CK in more than 90% laboratories, and for Amy and ChE in nearly 80% of laboratories. Because such a large survey program must use artificial specimens, a matrix effect cannot be avoided, especially in dry chemistry. However, the bias produced by a matrix effect usually has a predictable tendency: it can be corrected. Next, after standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes, we should develop and use common reference intervals. On completing the standardization, we can make standard medical decisions using reference measurement systems and rules.

  20. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  1. Coherence properties and diagnostics of betatron radiation emitted by an externally-injected electron beam propagating in a plasma channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paroli, B., E-mail: bruno.paroli@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, via G. Celoria, 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M. [INFN-LNF, via E. Fermi, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A. [“La Sapienza” University, SBAI Department, via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); INFN-LNF, via E. Fermi, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Petrillo, V.; Potenza, M.A.C.; Rossi, A.R.; Serafini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, via G. Celoria, 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    A 3-dimensional time-domain simulation of X-ray produced by a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam was performed in order to know its properties like intensity, spectrum, divergence and coherence. Particular attention was paid to the coherence around the acceleration axis. The broad spectrum of betatron radiation (1–10 keV) leads to a short coherence length. Nevertheless we observe that under particular detection condition the spatial coherence has a characteristic enlargement. We give a simplified interpretation of this effect in terms of phase shift of the electric field on a virtual detector. Moreover we describe a near field scattering technique to characterize the betatron radiation. This diagnostics will be used to map the transverse spatio-temporal coherence of X-ray radiation in the laser wakefield accelerator under development at Frascati National Laboratories (LNF)

  2. Coherence properties and diagnostics of betatron radiation emitted by an externally-injected electron beam propagating in a plasma channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroli, B.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Petrillo, V.; Potenza, M. A. C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.

    2015-07-01

    A 3-dimensional time-domain simulation of X-ray produced by a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam was performed in order to know its properties like intensity, spectrum, divergence and coherence. Particular attention was paid to the coherence around the acceleration axis. The broad spectrum of betatron radiation (1-10 keV) leads to a short coherence length. Nevertheless we observe that under particular detection condition the spatial coherence has a characteristic enlargement. We give a simplified interpretation of this effect in terms of phase shift of the electric field on a virtual detector. Moreover we describe a near field scattering technique to characterize the betatron radiation. This diagnostics will be used to map the transverse spatio-temporal coherence of X-ray radiation in the laser wakefield accelerator under development at Frascati National Laboratories (LNF).

  3. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  4. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Small bowel; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: intestin grele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Pointreau, Y.; Barillot, I. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHRU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Roche-Forestier, S. [Centre Jean-Bernard, 72 - Le Mans (France); Barillot, I. [Universite Francois-Rabelais, centre de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France)

    2010-07-15

    The small bowel is a hollow organ involved in the transit and absorption of food. In relation to its anatomical location, a significant amount of this organ is exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy during abdominal or pelvic irradiation either for primary cancers or metastasis. The acute functional changes during external beam radiation are mainly leading to diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating. The main late side effects of irradiation of the small intestine are chronic diarrhea, malabsorption with steatorrhoea, abdominal spasms, intestinal obstruction, bleeding and fistulas. The architecture of the small intestine may be considered as parallel with a significant correlation between the irradiated volume of small bowel and the likelihood of acute toxicity, whatever the dose. The literature analysis recommends to consider the volume of small bowel receiving 15 Gy (threshold of 100 to 200 cm{sup 3}) but also 30 and 50 Gy (thresholds of 35 to 300 cm{sup 3}, depending on the level of dose considered). Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity will probably have beneficial impact on small bowel toxicity. (authors)

  5. Optical CT scanner for in-air readout of gels for external radiation beam 3D dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Daniel; Rutten, Thomas P; Shepherd, Justin; Bezak, Eva

    2012-06-21

    Optical CT scanners for a 3D readout of externally irradiated radiosensitive hydrogels currently require the use of a refractive index (RI) matching liquid bath to obtain suitable optical ray paths through the gel sample to the detector. The requirement for a RI matching liquid bath has been negated by the design of a plastic cylindrical gel container that provides parallel beam geometry through the gel sample for the majority of the projection. The design method can be used for various hydrogels. Preliminary test results for the prototype laser beam scanner with ferrous xylenol-orange gel show geometric distortion of 0.2 mm maximum, spatial resolution limited to beam spot size of about 0.4 mm and 0.8% noise (1 SD) for a uniform irradiation. Reconstruction of a star pattern irradiated through the cylinder walls demonstrates the suitability for external beam applications. The extremely simple and cost-effective construction of this optical CT scanner, together with the simplicity of scanning gel samples without RI matching fluid increases the feasibility of using 3D gel dosimetry for clinical external beam dose verifications.

  6. An influential factor for external radiation dose estimation for residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-time spent outdoors for residents in Iitate Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted on radiation doses to residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Time spent outdoors is an influential factor for external dose estimation. Since little information was available on actual time spent outdoors for residents, different values of average time spent outdoors per day have been used in dose estimation studies on the FDNPP accident. The most conservative value of 24 h was sometimes used, while 2.4 h was adopted for indoor workers in the UNSCEAR 2013 report. Fukushima Medical University has been estimating individual external doses received by residents as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey by collecting information on the records of moves and activities (the Basic Survey) after the accident from each resident. In the present study, these records were analyzed to estimate an average time spent outdoors per day. As an example, in Iitate Village, its arithmetic mean was 2.08 h (95% CI: 1.64-2.51) for a total of 170 persons selected from respondents to the Basic Survey. This is a much smaller value than commonly assumed. When 2.08 h is used for the external dose estimation, the dose is about 25% (23-26% when using the above 95% CI) less compared with the dose estimated for the commonly used value of 8 h.

  7. External validation of a normal tissue complication probability model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in an independent cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønjom, Marianne F; Brink, Carsten; Bentzen, Søren M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RIHT) was previously derived in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) discerning thyroid volume (Vthyroid), mean thyroid dose (Dmean), and latency as predictive...

  8. Comparing Environmental Dose Rate Meters: A Method to Determine Natural and Non-natural Variations in External Radiation Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinen, A.J.M.; Slaper, H.; Overwater, R.M.W.; Stoop, P

    2000-07-01

    A method is described to determine low excess dose rates from a radiation source in the environment, which are small compared to the natural fluctuations of the background radiation. First a 'virtual reference dose rate meter' is constructed from data of the national monitoring network, to know the natural variations of the background radiation. Results from this virtual monitor are then compared to data of dose rate meters at sites of interest, to determine non-natural or very local natural variations and excess dose rates. Daily averaged excess dose rates down to 2 to 3 nSv.h{sup -1} can be identified. The method is applied successfully near nuclear installations in the Netherlands and can be used for all types of dose rate meters and sample frequencies. Finally, the calculations to derive the 'virtual reference dose rate meter' can also be used as a quality assessment tool for environmental radiation monitoring networks. (author)

  9. Integration of FDG-PET/CT into external beam radiation therapy planning Technical aspects and recommendations on methodological approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorwarth, D.; Beyer, T.; Boellaard, R.; De Ruysscher, D.; Grgic, A.; Lee, J. A.; Pietrzyk, U.; Sattler, B.; Schaefer, A.; van Elmpt, W.; Vogel, W.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Nestle, U.

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the clinical adoption of FDG-PET/CT for image-guided radiation therapy planning (RIP). As such, important technical and methodological aspects of PET/CT-based RIP are reviewed and practical recommendations are given for routine patient management and clinical studies. First, rece

  10. Integration of FDG-PET/CT into external beam radiation therapy planning. Technical aspects and recommendations on methodological approaches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorwarth, D.; Beyer, T.; Boellaard, R.; Ruysscher, D. de; Grgic, A.; Lee, J.A.; Pietrzyk, U.; Sattler, B.; Schaefer, A.; Elmpt, W. van; Vogel, W.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Nestle, U.

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the clinical adoption of FDG-PET/CT for image-guided radiation therapy planning (RTP). As such, important technical and methodological aspects of PET/CT-based RTP are reviewed and practical recommendations are given for routine patient management and clinical studies. First, rece

  11. External Beam Radiation Therapy and Abiraterone in Men With Localized Prostate Cancer: Safety and Effect on Tissue Androgens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eunpi [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Mostaghel, Elahe A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Russell, Kenneth J.; Liao, Jay J.; Konodi, Mark A. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kurland, Brenda F. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Marck, Brett T. [Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington (United States); Matsumoto, Alvin M. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington (United States); Dalkin, Bruce L. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Montgomery, R. Bruce, E-mail: rbmontgo@uw.edu [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Optimizing androgen suppression may provide better control of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Numerous trials have supported the benefit of combining androgen deprivation therapy with definitive radiation therapy in men with locally advanced or high-grade disease. Addition of abiraterone to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) with radiation has not been reported. We examined the safety of this combination as well as its impact on androgen suppression. Methods and Materials: A prospective, phase 2 study was conducted in men with localized PCa treated with 6 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent abiraterone with LHRHa and radiation. Duration of adjuvant LHRHa was at the discretion of the treating clinician. Prostate biopsy assays were obtained prior to the start of therapy and prior to radiation. Sera and tissue androgen levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 22 men with intermediate- (n=3) and high-risk PCa (n=19) received study therapy. Sixteen men completed the intended course of abiraterone, and 19 men completed planned radiation to 77.4 to 81 Gy. Radiation to pelvic nodes was administered in 20 men. The following grade 3 toxicities were reported: lymphopenia (14 patients), fatigue (1 patient), transaminitis (2 patients), hypertension (2 patients), and hypokalemia (1 patient). There were no grade 4 toxicities. All 21 men who complied with at least 3 months of abiraterone therapy had a preradiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration nadir of <0.3 ng/mL. Median levels of tissue androgen downstream of CYP17A were significantly suppressed after treatment with abiraterone, and upstream steroids were increased. At median follow-up of 21 months (range: 3-37 months), only 1 patient (who had discontinued abiraterone at 3 months) had biochemical relapse. Conclusions: Addition of abiraterone to LHRHa with radiation is safe and achieves effective prostatic androgen suppression

  12. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  13. Predicting Overall Survival After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Lung Cancer: Development and External Validation of the Amsterdam Prognostic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mokhles, Sahar [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rodrigues, George B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Palma, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Warner, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Takkenberg, Johanna J.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Maat, Alex P.W.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Woody, Neil M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic model for 5-year overall survival (OS), consisting of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and a nomogram, was developed for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: A primary dataset of 703 ES-NSCLC SABR patients was randomly divided into a training (67%) and an internal validation (33%) dataset. In the former group, 21 unique parameters consisting of patient, treatment, and tumor factors were entered into an RPA model to predict OS. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed for RPA-selected factors to evaluate their relationship with OS. A nomogram for OS was constructed based on factors significant in multivariate modeling and validated with calibration plots. Both the RPA and the nomogram were externally validated in independent surgical (n=193) and SABR (n=543) datasets. Results: RPA identified 2 distinct risk classes based on tumor diameter, age, World Health Organization performance status (PS) and Charlson comorbidity index. This RPA had moderate discrimination in SABR datasets (c-index range: 0.52-0.60) but was of limited value in the surgical validation cohort. The nomogram predicting OS included smoking history in addition to RPA-identified factors. In contrast to RPA, validation of the nomogram performed well in internal validation (r{sup 2}=0.97) and external SABR (r{sup 2}=0.79) and surgical cohorts (r{sup 2}=0.91). Conclusions: The Amsterdam prognostic model is the first externally validated prognostication tool for OS in ES-NSCLC treated with SABR available to individualize patient decision making. The nomogram retained strong performance across surgical and SABR external validation datasets. RPA performance was poor in surgical patients, suggesting that 2 different distinct patient populations are being treated with these 2 effective modalities.

  14. Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vredenburgh, James J., E-mail: vrede001@mc.duke.edu [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Desjardins, Annick [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Reardon, David A. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Peters, Katherine B. [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer [Department of Cancer Center Biostatistics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

  15. A Comparison of Radiation Dose Between Standard and 3D Angiography in Congenital Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manica, João Luiz Langer, E-mail: joca.pesquisa@gmail.com; Borges, Mônica Scott; Medeiros, Rogério Fachel de; Fischer, Leandro dos Santos; Broetto, Gabriel; Rossi, Raul Ivo Filho [Instituto de Cardiologia / Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The use of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3D-RA) to assess patients with congenital heart diseases appears to be a promising technique despite the scarce literature available. The objective of this study was to describe our initial experience with 3D-RA and to compare its radiation dose to that of standard two-dimensional angiography (2D-SA). Between September 2011 and April 2012, 18 patients underwent simultaneous 3D-RA and 2D-SA during diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Radiation dose was assessed using the dose-area-product (DAP). The median patient age and weight were 12.5 years and 47.5 Kg, respectively. The median DAP of each 3D-RA acquisition was 1093µGy.m{sup 2} and 190µGy.m{sup 2} for each 2D-SA acquisition (p<0.01). In patients weighing more than 45Kg (n=7), this difference was attenuated but still significant (1525 µGy.m{sup 2} vs.413µGy.m{sup 2}, p=0.01). No difference was found between one 3D-RA and three 2D-SA (1525µGy.m{sup 2} vs.1238 µGy.m{sup 2}, p = 0.575) in this population. This difference was significantly higher in patients weighing less than 45Kg (n=9) (713µGy.m{sup 2} vs.81µGy.m{sup 2}, P = 0.008), even when comparing one 3D-RA with three 2D-SA (242µGy.m{sup 2}, respectively, p<0.008). 3D-RA was extremely useful for the assessment of conduits of univentricular hearts, tortuous branches of the pulmonary artery, and aorta relative to 2D-SA acquisitions. The radiation dose of 3D-RA used in our institution was higher than those previously reported in the literature and this difference was more evident in children. This type of assessment is of paramount importance when starting to perform 3D-RA.

  16. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Skin; Dose de tolerance des tissus sains: la peau et les phaneres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginot, A.; Doyen, J.; Hannoun-Levi, J.M.; Courdi, A. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France)

    2010-07-15

    Acute skin toxicity is frequent during radiation therapy and can lead to temporary arrest of the treatment. Chronic toxicity can occur and conduct to cosmetic problems. Alopecia is the most frequent toxicity concerning hair and is most of the time reversible. Several factors linked to patients influence skin toxicity, such as under-nutrition, old age, obesity, smoking, skin diseases, autoimmune diseases, failure of DNA reparation. Skin, hair and nail toxicities depend also on radiation schedule. Acute toxicity is greater when dose per fraction increases. Chronic and acute toxicities are more often when total dose increases. Under 45 Gy, the risk of severe skin toxicity is low, and begins above 50 Gy. Skin toxicity depends also on the duration of radiotherapy and split course schedules are associated with less toxicities. Irradiation surface seems to influence skin toxicity but interaction is more complex. Reirradiation is often feasible in case of cancer recurrence but with a risk of grade 3-4 toxicity above all in head and neck cancer. The benefit/risk ratio has to be always precisely evaluated. Permanent alopecia is correlated with the follicle dose. Modern techniques of radiation therapy allow to spare skin. (authors)

  17. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Cardiac structures; Dose de tolerance des tissus sains: le coeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyen, J. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Giraud, P. [Universite Rene-Descartes Paris 5, 75 - Paris (France); Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Faculte de medecine de Creteil, universite Paris 12, 94 - Creteil (France); Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, CHU Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France)

    2010-07-15

    Radiation thoracic tumors may be associated with cardiac toxicity because of the central position of the heart in the thorax. The present review aims to describe the cardiotoxicity during radiotherapy of different tumor sites most associated with this complication and the risk factors of cardiotoxicity during radiation therapy. Medline literature searches were performed using the following cardiac - heart - radiotherapy - toxicity - cardiotoxicity - breast cancer - lymphoma. Cardiac toxicity after breast cancer and mediastinal lymphoma is the most reported radiation-induced complication. The most frequent clinical complications are pericarditis, congestive heart failure, and heart infarction. These events are mostly asymptomatic. Thus clinicians have to give particular attention to these complications. Anthracycline treatment is a major risk factor for additional cardiotoxicity during radiotherapy with a synergistic effect. Correction of cardiovascular risk is an important point of the prevention of heart complications. Total dose delivered to the planned target volume (PTV), the dose per fraction and the irradiated volume were correlated to the risk of cardiotoxicity. Volume of heart receiving 35 Gy must be inferior to 30% and dose per fraction should not exceed 2 Gy when dose of prescription exceeds 30 Gy. Maximum heart distance (maximal thickness of heart irradiated) must be less than 1 cm during irradiation of breast cancer. Modern irradiation techniques seem to be associated with a limited risk of heart complication. The use of anthracycline, other cardio-toxic chemotherapies and targeted therapies should incite for great caution by performing a careful treatment planning and optimisation. (authors)

  18. Mortality through 1990 among white male workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: considering exposures to plutonium and external ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, L D; Johnson, E R; Cox-DeVore, C A; Voelz, G L

    1994-12-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted of 15,727 white men employed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear research and development facility. Some of the workers at this facility have been exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation and other potentially hazardous materials. These analyses focused on whole-body ionizing radiation exposures and internal depositions of plutonium. The results indicated that overall mortality among this cohort is quite low, even after nearly 30 y of follow-up. No cause of death was significantly elevated among plutonium-exposed workers when compared with their unexposed coworkers; however, a rate ratio for lung cancer of 1.78 (95% CI = 0.79-3.99) was observed. A case of osteogenic sarcoma, a type of cancer related to plutonium exposure in animal studies, was also observed. Dose-response relationships for whole-body dose from external ionizing radiation and tritium were observed for cancers of the brain/central nervous system, the esophagus, and Hodgkin's disease.

  19. Comparison of in vivo translocation frequencies with in vitro G{sub 2} radiosensitivity in radiation workers occupationally exposed to external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, Kevin K; Whitehouse, Caroline A; Tawn, E Janet [Westlakes Research Institute, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3JY (United Kingdom); Tarone, Robert E [International Epidemiology Institute, 1455 Research Boulevard, Rockcliffe, MD 20850 (United States)], E-mail: ejtawn@uclan.ac.uk

    2008-03-01

    A group of retired workers from the British Nuclear Fuels plc facility at Sellafield who had been studied for in vivo translocation frequencies in blood lymphocytes were resampled and analysed for in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity. Significant variation in response to a dose of 0.5 Gy given at the G{sub 2} stage of the cell cycle was observed between individuals (P < 0.001). In a regression analysis that included age, cumulative occupational radiation dose and in vitro G{sub 2} radiation-induced aberration frequencies as independent variables, only cumulative occupational radiation dose had a significant influence on chromosomal translocation frequency (P = 0.0036). G{sub 2} in vitro radiosensitivity is assumed to be a marker for genetic polymorphic variation in DNA damage recognition and repair genes. Therefore, since in vivo translocation frequencies can be considered a surrogate for cancer risk, this lack of association with G{sub 2} in vitro radiosensitivity suggests that such genetic variation has no impact on the response to low dose chronic exposure. (note)

  20. Radiative Symmetry Breaking in the Supersymmetric Minimal B-L Extended Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Burell, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is a precise model of electroweak interactions, however there is growing tension between the SM and observations (neutrino oscillations, dark matter, dark energy, baryogenesis, among others). There is no reason to expect the validity of the ad hoc SM to remain intact at energy scales above a few TeV, thus a more fundamental theory will almost certainly be required. Motivated by these considerations, we investigate a Supersymmetric version of a natural extension of the SM, the $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, that is obtained by gauging the accidental B-L symmetry that exists in the ordinary SM. The Supersymmetric $U(1)_{B-L}$ extended SM can resolve the neutrino mass problem, the dark matter problem, the hierarchy problem, and provides a mechanism for establishing the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. When we include quantum corrections to the Higgs potential of the model, we find that Radiative $B-L$ symmetry breaking occurs through the interplay between large Majorana...

  1. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  2. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  3. Determination of dose factors for external gamma radiation at residences; Determinacao de fatores de dose para radiacao gama externa em residencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    A significant contribution to the global population exposure to ionizing radiation arises from natural sources, especially from radionuclides present in terrestrial crust. Human activities can eventually concentrate such radionuclides to significant levels from the point of view of radiological protection. Phosphogypsum, a by product of fertilizers industry, shows radionuclide concentrations in these conditions. Therefore, the viability of its use as an alternative material for natural gypsum in dwellings construction is conditioned, among several additional aspects, to optimization studies. This paper presents a methodology for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses due to radionuclides present in wall in an hypothetical room constructed of phosphogypsum sheets. Assessment of dose is being carried out through the application of photon transport model, taking into account self-absorption and buildup factors. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Structural transformation of NANOPERM-type metallic glasses followed in situ by synchrotron radiation during thermal annealing in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procházka, V., E-mail: v.prochazka@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Vrba, V.; Smrčka, D. [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rüffer, R. [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Matúš, P. [Institute of Laboratory Research on Geomaterials, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Mašláň, M. [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Miglierini, M.B. [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • On-fly inspection of structural transformations during magnetic annealing. • Crystallization starts by ∼100 K earlier during magnetic annealing. • Potential for modification of the material properties using magnetic field. • The whole crystallization process was followed with high time resolution. - Abstract: Kinetics of the crystallization process of Fe–Mo–Cu–B-type metallic glass is studied to fine details during heat treatment under weak external magnetic field (0.652 T). Structural arrangement as well as magnetic microstructure is followed on-fly using sophisticated method of in situ nuclear forward scattering (NFS) of synchrotron radiation. The latter provides both quantitative (relative fractions) and qualitative (hyperfine magnetic fields) temperature dependencies of all structurally different samples’ components. They belong to the amorphous residual matrix, the newly formed nanocrystalline grains, and to their surfaces, respectively. The onset of crystallization during in-field magnetic annealing starts ∼100 K earlier than that in zero field.

  5. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal...

  6. Validation testing of ANSI/IEEE n42.49 standard requirements for personal emergency radiation detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pibida, L; Minniti, R; O'Brien, M

    2010-04-01

    Various radiation detectors including electronic personal emergency radiation detectors (PERDs), radiochromic film cards and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to validate a subset of the radiological test requirements listed in the American National Standards Institute/The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (ANSI/IEEE) N42.49 standard. The subset of tests included the following: comparing the readout of the detectors with the value given at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); testing of the alarm settings (when applicable) in air-kerma (or exposure) and air-kerma rate (or exposure rate) mode; and investigating the effect of testing the detectors mounted on a phantom and free in air. The purpose of this work was not to test the performance of the sample of detectors used. Instead, the detectors were used to validate the requirements of the written standard being developed. For this purpose, the performance and response of these instruments were recorded when placed in (137)Cs, and x-ray beams at different air-kerma rates and test conditions. The measurements described in this report were performed at the NIST x-ray and gamma-ray radiation calibration facilities. The data in this report provide a benchmark in support of the development of the ANSI/IEEE N42.49 standard.

  7. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  8. Prevalence and Predicting Factors for Commonly Neglected Sexual Side Effects to External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders; Pedersen, Christian; Lindberg, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. AIM: To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis...... increased. Eleven percent reported anejaculation. Fifteen percent reported orgasm-associated pain. Only 4% reported urinary incontinence during sexual activity. Subjective penile length loss in excess of 1 cm was reported by 42%. Twelve percent reported an altered curvature of their penis after EBRT. Six...... percent reported painful erections. Twenty-seven percent reported decreased sensitivity in the penis after EBRT, 2% reported a cold sensation, and 2% reported paresthesia. Increasing time since final treatment increased the risk of penile sensory disturbances (odds ratio = 1.05; P = .028). CONCLUSION...

  9. 中美外部雷电防护系统设计规范比较%Comparation of External Lightning Protection Systems Design Requirements between American Standards and Chinese Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅剑锋; 杨凯; 徐定成

    2012-01-01

    The related technical requirements of external lightning protection in NFPA 780—2011,such as earthing electrode,downlead,air-termination system,materials of lightning protection system,risk assessment were introduced.NFPA 780—2011 was compared with the related Chinese lightning protection standard,regulations and standards.It could provide reference for more and more overseas project.%从风险评估、防雷系统的材料、接闪器、引下线、接地体等几个方面,介绍了NFPA780—2011外部防雷的相关技术要求,并与中国防雷设计规范的要求进行比较,为海外设计项目提供了设计参考。

  10. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Post-Prostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bharat, Shyam; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, H; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Parikh, Parag J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso® 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in post-prostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for post-prostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Results Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: − 0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5 degrees, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion Target rotational motion could cause under-dosage to partial volume of the post-prostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery. PMID:23021439

  11. Stereotactic Ablative Radiosurgery for Locally-Advanced or Recurrent Skull Base Malignancies with Prior External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Mann Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR is an attractive modality to treat malignancies invading the skull base as it can deliver a highly conformal dose with minimal toxicity. However, variation exists in the prescribed dose and fractionation. The purpose of our study is to examine the local control, survival and toxicities in SABR for the treatment of malignant skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 patients and 40 locally-advanced or recurrent head and neck malignancies involving the skull base treated with a common SABR regimen which delivers a radiation dose of 44 Gy in 5 fractions from January 1st, 2004 to December 31st, 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The local control rate (LC, progression-free survival rate (PFS, overall survival rate (OS and toxicities were reported.Results: The median follow-up time of all patients was 11.4 months (range: 0.6-67.2 months. The median tumor volume was 27 cm3 (range: 2.4-205 cm3. All patients received prior EBRT with a median radiation dose of 64 Gy (range: 24-75.6 Gy delivered in 12 to 42 fractions. 20 patients had surgeries prior to SABR. 19 patients received chemotherapy. Specifically, 8 patients received concurrent cetuximab (ErbituxTM with SABR. The median time-to-progression (TTP was 3.3 months (range: 0-16.9 months. For the 29 patients (93.5% who died, the median time from the end of first SABR to death was 10.3 months (range: 0.5-41.4 months. The estimated 1-year overall survival (OS rate was 35%. The estimated 2-year OS rate was 12%. Treatment was well-tolerated without grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicities.Conclusions: SABR has been shown to achieve low toxicities in locally-advanced or recurrent, previously irradiated head and neck malignancies invading the skull base.

  12. Leukaemia and low dose radiation. Is there an association between leukaemia and cumulative external dose amongst the British Nuclear Fuel plc. (BNFL) workers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeoghegan, D.; Binks, K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    A detailed examination of the BNFL leukaemia data is presented, for the period 1941-1995, using the recently assembled company wide BNFL epidemiological database and the BNFL leukaemia case-control data set. The association of this occupationally exposed cohort is examined with respect to both leukaemia mortality and leukaemia morbidity. The excess relative risk for total leukaemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia amongst the BNFL radiation workers was found to be 3.64 Sv{sup -1} (90% CI -0.13-11.22); for Sellafield and Springfields this figure was 7.99 Sv{sup -1} (90% CI 1.50-29.5) and -1.97 Sv{sup -1} (90% CI<-2.23-6.11) respectively. A 14-20% increase in risk is noted when dosimetry adjusted for measurement error, is used to determine the excess relative risk. The association between leukaemia and cumulative external radiation is found to be particularly associated with the Sellafield plant; the Springfields plant gave consistently negative risk estimates. (author)

  13. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology; standardization of input parameters for the calculation of annual dose from routine releases from commercial reactor effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, I. H.; Cho, D.; Youn, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, S. J.; Ahn, H. K. [Soonchunhyang University, Ahsan (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This research is to develop a standard methodology for determining the input parameters that impose a substantial impact on radiation doses of residential individuals in the vicinity of four nuclear power plants in Korea. We have selected critical nuclei, pathways and organs related to the human exposure via simulated estimation with K-DOSE 60 based on the updated ICRP-60 and sensitivity analyses. From the results, we found that 1) the critical nuclides were found to be {sup 3}H, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 60}Co for Kori plants and {sup 14}C, {sup 41}Ar for Wolsong plants. The most critical pathway was 'vegetable intake' for adults and 'milk intake' for infants. However, there was no preference in the effective organs, and 2) sensitivity analyses showed that the chemical composition in a nuclide much more influenced upon the radiation dose than any other input parameters such as food intake, radiation discharge, and transfer/concentration coefficients by more than 102 factor. The effect of transfer/concentration coefficients on the radiation dose was negligible. All input parameters showed highly estimated correlation with the radiation dose, approximated to 1.0, except for food intake in Wolsong power plant (partial correlation coefficient (PCC)=0.877). Consequently, we suggest that a prediction model or scenarios for food intake reflecting the current living trend and a formal publications including details of chemical components in the critical nuclei from each plant are needed. Also, standardized domestic values of the parameters used in the calculation must replace the values of the existed or default-set imported factors via properly designed experiments and/or modelling such as transport of liquid discharge in waters nearby the plants, exposure tests on corps and plants so on. 4 figs., 576 tabs. (Author)

  14. Study of external exposure doses received by Cuban population due to terrestrial component of the environmental radiation sources; Estudio de las dosis por exposicion externa que recibe la poblacion cubana debidas a la componente terrestre de la radiacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerquera, Juan Tomas; Prendes Alonso, Miguel [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba); Brigido Flores, Osvaldo [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Camaguey (Cuba); Hernandez Perez, Alberto [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Oriente, Holguin (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The work presents the results of the study carried out to evaluate the doses that the Cuban population receives for the external exposition to the terrestrial component of the environmental sources of radiation. Starting from the carried out measurements it was possible to estimate the doses effective representative annual stockings that the Cuban population receives for external exposition to the terrestrial radiation, considering the permanency in indoors and outdoors. The dose received due to this component was 180{+-}14 mSv/year. These values are in the range of those reported internationally. (author)

  15. State-of-the-art of external photon beam radiation treatment planning. Photon Treatment Planning Collaborative Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-15

    A virtual revolution in computer capability has occurred in the last few years, largely based on rapidly decreasing costs and increasing reliability of digital memory and mass-storage capability. These developments have now made it possible to consider the application of both computer and display technologies to a much broader range of problems in radiation therapy, including planning of treatment, dose computation, and treatment verification. Several methods of three-dimensional dose computations in heterogeneous media capable of 3% accuracy are likely to be available, but significant work still remains, particularly for high energy x-rays where electron transport, and possibly pair production, need to be considered. Innovative display and planning techniques, as well as plan evaluation schemes, are emerging and show great promise for the future. No doubt these advances will lead to substantially improved treatment planning systems in the next few years. However, it must be emphasized that for many of these applications a tremendous software and hardware development effort is required.

  16. Quality assurance standards drive improvements in the profile of radiation therapy departments participating in trials of the EORTC Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Warren; Hurkmans, Coen W; Poortmans, Philip M; Maingon, Philippe; Monti, Angelo F; van Os, Marjolein J H; Weber, Damien C

    2014-09-01

    The Facility Questionnaire (FQ) of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Radiation Oncology Group (EORTC-ROG) evaluates the human, technical and organizational resources at each EORTC member institution. The purpose of this study is to use the FQ database to assess the improvement of radiation therapy (RT) structures and resources within the EORTC compared to the previous surveys performed by our group. We report the content of the current FQ database, completed online by 156 EORTC candidate member institutions from 22 countries between February 2011 and February 2013. Results are compared to FQ-published data from 1992 and 2007. The average number of patients per year per EORTC institution is 2381 (range 350-12,000) an 18.2% increase compared to the 2007 figures. From 2007 to 2013 the average number of radiation oncologists, physicists and radiation technologists per EORTC institution has increased by 27% (from 8.5 to 10.8), 41% (from 5.2 to 7.4) and 38% (from 26.1 to 36.1) respectively. Consequently the number of patients per year per radiation oncologist has decreased from 258 to 243, for physicists from 426 to 354 and for radiation technologists from 107 to 86. One hundred and forty-six (94%) and 101 (65%) institutions can now deliver IMRT and SBRT, compared to 77 (79%) and 53 (54%) in 2007. The standards set by the EORTC-ROG are met by a continually improving number of institutions, helping to safeguard use of advanced technologies in EORTC-ROG clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A one step real time PCR method for the quantification of hepatitis delta virus RNA using an external armored RNA standard and intrinsic internal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataylı, Ersin; Altunoğlu, Yasemin Çelik; Karataylı, Senem Ceren; Alagöz, S Gökçe K; Cınar, Kubilay; Yalçın, Kendal; Idilman, Ramazan; Yurdaydın, Cihan; Bozdayı, A Mithat

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA viral load measurement is critical in diagnosis and monitoring the response to antiviral treatment. Our aim is to design a real time PCR method for accurate quantitation of HDV RNA in clinical specimens using an armored RNA as external standard, and an intrinsic internal control. A plasmid bearing delta antigen region of genotype I HDV genome was used to develop an armored RNA. Serial dilutions of the armored HDV RNA standard with 10(12)copy/mL were used as standards for quantitation. A primer-probe set derived from HDAg region was used in one step EZ RT PCR kit chemistry which uses rTth enzyme allowing reverse transcription and polymerization in the same tube. The kit also uses the advantage of uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) enzyme treatment to prevent PCR contamination. The established assay has a dynamic range of 10(2)-10(11)copy/mL with a PCR efficiency of 96.9%. Detection limit was 858±32copy/mL with 95% confidence interval. Intra- and inter-assay variabilities were low for high, medium and low levels of viremia. Incorporation of freely circulating GAPDH in serum into the assay as an intrinsic internal control prevented false negative results and failures in PCR amplifications due to inhibitors, inefficient extraction procedures or enzymatic reactions. In conclusion, this study defines a novel assay for sensitive and reliable quantification of HDV RNA using an armored HDV RNA as a standard and GAPDH in plasma or serum as an intrinsic internal control in a single tube. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy: the need for evidence-based data and perioperative technical/technological standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Alberto; Lianos, Georgios D; Boni, Luigi; Kim, Hoon Yub; Roukos, Dimitrios H; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) is surgically relevant since its close anatomical proximity to the superior thyroid vessels. There is heterogeneity in the EBSLN anatomy and EBSLN damage produces changes in voice that are very heterogenous and difficult to diagnose. The reported prevalence of EBSLN injury widely ranges. EBSLN iatrogenic injury is considered the most commonly underestimated complication in endocrine surgery because vocal assessment underestimates such event and laryngoscopic postsurgical evaluation does not show standardized findings. In order to decrease the risk for EBSLN injury, multiple surgical approaches have been described so far. IONM provides multiple advantages in the EBSLN surgical approach. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of the monitored approach to the EBSLN. In particular, we summarize, providing our additional remarks, the most relevant aspects of the standardized technique brilliantly described by the INMSG (International Neuromonitoring Study Group). In conclusion, in our opinion, there is currently the need for more prospective randomized trials investigating the electrophysiological and pathological aspects of the EBSLN for a better understanding of the role of IONM in the EBSLN surgery.

  19. Intraoperative Neuromonitoring of the External Branch of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve during Thyroidectomy: The Need for Evidence-Based Data and Perioperative Technical/Technological Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mangano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN is surgically relevant since its close anatomical proximity to the superior thyroid vessels. There is heterogeneity in the EBSLN anatomy and EBSLN damage produces changes in voice that are very heterogenous and difficult to diagnose. The reported prevalence of EBSLN injury widely ranges. EBSLN iatrogenic injury is considered the most commonly underestimated complication in endocrine surgery because vocal assessment underestimates such event and laryngoscopic postsurgical evaluation does not show standardized findings. In order to decrease the risk for EBSLN injury, multiple surgical approaches have been described so far. IONM provides multiple advantages in the EBSLN surgical approach. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of the monitored approach to the EBSLN. In particular, we summarize, providing our additional remarks, the most relevant aspects of the standardized technique brilliantly described by the INMSG (International Neuromonitoring Study Group. In conclusion, in our opinion, there is currently the need for more prospective randomized trials investigating the electrophysiological and pathological aspects of the EBSLN for a better understanding of the role of IONM in the EBSLN surgery.

  20. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer: is the technology ready to be the standard of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Studenski, Matthew T; Dicker, Adam P; Gomella, Leonard; Den, Robert B

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent solid tumor diagnosed in men in the United States and Western Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is touted as a superior type of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for the treatment of various tumors. SBRT developed from the theory that high doses of radiation from brachytherapy implant seeds could be recapitulated from advanced technology of radiation treatment planning and delivery. Moreover, SBRT has been theorized to be advantageous compared to other RT techniques because it has a treatment course shorter than that of conventionally fractionated EBRT (a single session, five days per week, for about two weeks vs. eight weeks), is non-invasive, is more effective at killing tumor cells, and is less likely to cause damage to normal tissue. In areas of the US and Europe where there is limited access to RT centers, SBRT is frequently being used to treat prostate cancer, even though long-term data about its efficacy and safety are not well established. We review the impetus behind SBRT and the current clinical evidence supporting its use for prostate cancer, thus providing oncologists and primary care physicians with an understanding of the continually evolving field of prostate radiation therapy. Studies of SBRT provide encouraging results of biochemical control and late toxicity. However, they are limited by a number of factors, including short follow-up, exclusion of intermediate- and high-risk patients, and relatively small number of patients treated. Currently, SBRT regimens should only be used in the context of clinical trials.

  1. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist--developing a reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth A; Rangarajan, Sriram S; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Langford, J Scott; Sur, Roger L

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave lithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source.

  2. Occupational Hazard: Radiation Exposure for the Urologist – Developing a Reference Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth A. Cohen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and Methods We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results The total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE, 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE, and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE. Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs, 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs, 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave lithotripsies (SWLs, 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs, 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2, LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2, or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2. Conclusions Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem. Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source.

  3. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist: developing a reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Rangarajan, Sriram S.; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Langford, J. Scott; Sur, Roger L., E-mail: rlsur@ucsd.edu [Department of Surgery and Division of Urology, U C San Diego Health Science System, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Introduction: to date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and methods: We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: the total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave ithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions: Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source. (author)

  4. Comparison of the standards for air kerma of the NRC and the BIPM for {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, C.; Allisy, P.J.; Burns, D.T. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); McCaffrey, J.P.; Ross, C.K. [National Research Council (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    An indirect comparison of the standards for air kerma of the National Research Council (NRC), Canada, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the {sup 60}Co radiation beam of the BIPM in May 2009. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the NRC and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 1.0032 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.8 * 10{sup -3}. The result of the previous direct comparison in {sup 60}Cogamma rays, made in 1998 and modified in 2007 was 1.0025 (27). The degrees of equivalence between the NRC and the other participants in the key comparison have been calculated and the results are presented in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  5. SU-E-T-447: Growth of Metal Whiskers Under External Beam Irradiation: Experimental Evidence and Implications in Medical Electronic Devices for Radiation Therapy Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvydka, D; Warrell, G; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH (United States); Karpov, V; Vasko, A [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Thin metallic protrusions, termed “whiskers,” have been identified as a cause of failure in devices ranging from satellites to pacemakers. For decades, lead was used in tin-based soldering alloys to suppress whisker formation. With the adoption of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances act and the expiration of its exemption on medical devices, including implanted medical devices (IMDs), electronic circuits are required to be lead-free as of July 2014. The effect of radiation on such soldering components remains unknown. Methods: We have irradiated a thin (150 nm) tin metal layer, deposited on a 3 mm thick glass substrate, with a 6 MeV medical linac (Varian TrueBeam) electron beam in five 2-hour long sessions. After receiving ∼10 kGy, whisker growth on the sample was assessed with scanning electron microscopy and compared to a reference sample not exposed to radiation. Results: After 10 hours of irradiation, the sample was found to develop intense whisker infestation, while the reference sample remained in its pristine as-deposited condition. Repeating the same irradiation schedule generated more and longer whiskers. The observed phenomenon can be explained through charge accumulation in the glass substrate, generating an electric field that promotes whisker growth. The observed substrate glass darkening under irradiation points towards development of color centers related to charge trapping. Experiments on the same type of samples with direct application of the external field in a capacitor-like setting also resulted in intense whisker growth. Conclusion: Extreme care should be taken in dealing with all electronic devices, especially IMDs, produced with lead-free solder and components, subject to radiation exposure. While in our experiments strong electric fields were intentionally generated to accelerate whisker growth over hours, in everyday use the circuit soldering may cause problems in a matter of days or months. Designated reliability testing

  6. Finding the Radiation Amplitude Zero in $W\\gamma$ Production is it Unique to the Standard Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Mark A; Samuel, Mark A; Abraha, Tesfaye

    1997-01-01

    In the light of recent experimental observation of the radiation amplitude zero (RAZ) in W\\gamma production by CDF at Fermilab, we consider its consequences. is the RAZ unique to the standard model? Although it is not for neutrino-electron scattering, in the case of d-ubar scattering which is the case of experimental interest, observation of the RAZ implies that the SM must be correct.

  7. Finding the Radiation Amplitude Zero in W\\GAMMA Production- is it Unique to the Standard Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Mark A.; Abraha, TESFAYE

    1997-01-01

    In the light of recent experimental observation of the radiation amplitude zero (RAZ) in W\\gamma production by CDF at Fermilab, we consider its consequences. is the RAZ unique to the standard model? Although it is not for neutrino-electron scattering, in the case of d-ubar scattering which is the case of experimental interest, observation of the RAZ implies that the SM must be correct.

  8. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Photosynthetically available radiation, Monthly, 4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes photosynthetically available radiation data from ther NPP-Suomi spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by VIIRS instrument carried aboard...

  9. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Photosynthetically available radiation, 8-Day, 4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes photosynthetically available radiation data from the NPP-Suomi Spacecraft Measurements are gathered by the VIIRS instrument carried...

  10. Evaluation of standardized management of external equipment in operating room%手术室外来器械规范化管理及效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛白云; 毛可珍

    2011-01-01

    目的:对手术室外来器械进行规范化管理,以提高手术室外来器械的清洗、灭菌质量,降低手术感染风险.方法:将外来手术器械统一到医院的消毒供应中心进行专业化清洗、打包、灭菌后再送至手术室无菌储物间备用,经护士及医生检验后方可使用.结果:对比实施规范化管理前后各290包外来器械的卫生及手术感染情况显示,实施规范化管理前,外来器械包合格率为76.9%,手术室因外来器械不合格而导致手术延误率为5.2%;规范化管理后,外来器械包合格率为100%,未出现因外来器械不合格而致手术延误的事例.结论:对手术室外来器械进行规范化统一管理,能使手术器械的卫生及质量状况明显改善,确保手术按时进行并降低手术感染率.%Objective: To proceed standardized management of external equipment, in order to improve the wash and sterilization quality of external surgical equipment, and reduce the infection risk of operating room. Methods: A.

  11. Can we predict plan quality for external beam partial breast irradiation: results of a multicenter feasibility study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Willis, David; Link, Emma; Lehman, Margot; Campbell, Gillian; O'Brien, Peter; Chua, Boon

    2013-11-15

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose-volume parameters of organs at risk. Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose-volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kron, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Kron@petermac.org [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Willis, David; Link, Emma [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lehman, Margot [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Campbell, Gillian [Auckland City Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland (New Zealand); O' Brien, Peter [Newcastle Calvary Mater Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Chua, Boon [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

  13. CyProQuant-PCR: a real time RT-PCR technique for profiling human cytokines, based on external RNA standards, readily automatable for clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercereau-Puijalon Odile

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is becoming a common tool for detecting and quantifying expression profiling of selected genes. Cytokines mRNA quantification is widely used in immunological research to dissect the early steps of immune responses or pathophysiological pathways. It is also growing to be of clinical relevancy to immuno-monitoring and evaluation of the disease status of patients. The techniques currently used for "absolute quantification" of cytokine mRNA are based on a DNA standard curve and do not take into account the critical impact of RT efficiency. Results To overcome this pitfall, we designed a strategy using external RNA as standard in the RT-PCR. Use of synthetic RNA standards, by comparison with the corresponding DNA standard, showed significant variations in the yield of retro-transcription depending the target amplified and the experiment. We then developed primers to be used under one single experimental condition for the specific amplification of human IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, IFN-γ, MIF, TGF-β1 and TNF-α mRNA. We showed that the beta-2 microglobulin (β2-MG gene was suitable for data normalisation since the level of β2-MG transcripts in naïve PBMC varied less than 5 times between individuals and was not affected by LPS or PHA stimulation. The technique, we named CyProQuant-PCR (Cytokine Profiling Quantitative PCR was validated using a kinetic measurement of cytokine transcripts under in vitro stimulation of human PBMC by lipopolysaccharide (LPS or Staphylococcus aureus strain Cowan (SAC. Results obtained show that CyProQuant-PCR is powerful enough to precociously detect slight cytokine induction. Finally, having demonstrated the reproducibility of the method, it was applied to malaria patients and asymptomatic controls for the quantification of TGF-β1 transcripts and showed an increased capacity of cells from malaria patients to accumulate TGF-β1 mRNA in response to LPS. Conclusion

  14. The Bland-Altman analysis: Does it have a role in assessing radiation dosimeter performance relative to an established standard?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.F., E-mail: robin.hill@email.cs.nsw.gov.a [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown NSW 2050 (Australia); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton BN1 9RR (United Kingdom); Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom); Baldock, C. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Bland-Altman analysis is used to compare two different methods of measurement and to determine whether a new method of measurement may replace an existing accepted 'gold standard' method. In this work, Bland-Altman analysis has been applied to radiation dosimetry to compare the PTW Markus and Roos parallel plate ionisation chambers and a PTW PinPoint chamber against a Farmer type ionisation chamber which is accepted as the gold standard for radiation dosimetry in the clinic. Depth doses for low energy x-rays beams with energies of 50, 75 and 100 kVp were measured using each of the ionisation chambers. Depth doses were also calculated by interpolation of the data in the British Journal of Radiology (BJR) Report 25. From the Bland-Altman analysis, the mean dose difference between the two parallel plate chambers and the Farmer chambers was 1% over the range of depths measured. The PinPoint chamber gave significant dose differences compared to the Farmer chamber. There were also differences of up to 12% between the BJR Report 25 depth doses and the measured data. For the Bland-Altman plots, the lines representing the limits of agreement were selected to be a particular percentage agreement e.g. 1 or 2%, instead of being based on the standard deviation ({sigma}) of the differences. The Bland-Altman statistical analysis is a powerful tool for making comparisons of ionisation chambers with an ionisation chamber that has been accepted as a 'gold standard'. Therefore we conclude that Bland-Altman analysis does have a role in assessing radiation dosimeter performance relative to an established standard.

  15. [Long-term oncologic outcomes of localized high-risk prostate cancer undergoing brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiation therapy and maximal androgen blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y; Li, M C; Qi, H Z; Zhao, J H; Han, Y L; Lin, Y H; Hou, Z; Jiang, Y G

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To investigate the oncologic outcome and PSA kinetics of localized high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with combination strategy of radiation therapy (RT) and maximal androgen blockade (MAB). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 320 localized PCa patients undergoing RT+ MAB from 2001 to 2015. And radiation treatment protocol consisted of permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) at 110 Gy and EBRT at 45 Gy/23 fractions. Results: The median follow-up time was 90 (range: 12-186) months. And 117 (36.6%) cases underwent MAB + external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and other 203 (63.4%) cases received MAB+ EBRT+ PPB. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that PSA kinetics were positive indicators of oncologic outcomes. Furthermore, PSA kinetics were aberrantly improved by supplemental PPB to MAB+ EBRT as following, PSA nadir (1.3±0.7)μg/L vs(0.11±0.06)μg/L, time of PSA decrease to nadir (7.5±1.8)months vs (3.2±2.1)months, PSA doubling time (15.6±4.2)months vs (22.6±6.1)months, PSA decreasing amplitude (84.6±6.2)%vs(95.8±3.4)%. Additionally, the median time of several important oncologic events in MAB+ EBRT+ PPB group were also prolonged than that in MAB+ EBRT group as following, overall survival (12.3 years vs 9.1 years, PPPB is extremely effective combination strategy for localized high-risk PCa patients, and PPB plays the important synergistic role in improving PSA kinetics, which are independent predictor for oncologic outcomes.

  16. External beam radiation therapy and a low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Tobin J.; Hutchinson, Sean Z.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Cruz, Alex A.; Figura, Nicholas B.; Nethers, Kevin; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Heysek, Randy V.; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To assess outcomes with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 through August 2011, 120 intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with EBRT to a total dose of 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions and a palladium-103 LDR brachytherapy boost of 10,000 cGy (n = 90) or an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost of 11,000 cGy (n = 30). ADT, consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ± an anti-androgen, was administered to 29/92 (32%) intermediate-risk patients for a median duration of 4 months and 26/28 (93%) high-risk patients for a median duration of 28 months. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-12.8 years). There was no statistically-significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), or overall survival (OS) without or with ADT. Also, there was no statistically-significant difference in bDFS, DMFS, or OS with a palladium-103 vs. an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost. Conclusions: There was no statistically-significant difference in outcomes with the addition of ADT, though the power of the current study was limited. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0815 and 0924 phase III trials, which have accrual targets of more than 1,500 men, will help to clarify the role ADT in locally-advanced prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT and a brachytherapy boost. Palladium-103 and iodine-125 provide similar bDFS, DMFS, and OS. (author)

  17. Do high radiation doses in locally advanced prostate cancer patients treated with 103Pd implant plus external beam irradiation cause increased urinary, rectal, and sexual morbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nelson N; Cesaretti, Jamie A; Rosenstein, Barry; Stock, Richard G

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the morbidity of higher radiation doses in prostate cancer patients. Five hundred eighty-five men treated with seed implantation and external beam irradiation were followed a median of 5 years (range, 2-11). Hormonal therapy (HT) of 9 months duration was used in 504 (86.2%) patients. The biologic effective dose (BED) was calculated using an alpha/beta of 2. Urinary incontinence (UI) and symptoms (IPSS) were prospectively collected. Rectal morbidity was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale. Two BED dose groups of 220 Gy (n=136) were used. Comparisons of means were made by Student's t test, and the associations were tested by chi-square analysis (Pearson). Urinary retention developed in 36 (6.2%) and was not associated with BED or IPSS. Retention occurred more often with prostate volume >50 cc (17%, p=0.001). The median change in urinary symptoms (IPSS) was 1. Sixty-one percent with high BED were more likely to have increased postimplant symptoms compared with 39% with lower BED (p=0.025; odds ratio [OR], 1.107; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.21). UI occurred in 25 patients (4.3%) and was only associated with a postimplant transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (n=25), 16% vs. 2.3% for no TURP (p=0.001; OR, 8; 95% CI, 2.4-27). Of the 373 patients initially potent, 204 (54.7%) maintained potency. Impotence was only associated with age at implant (p=0.001) and HT (p=0.004). Sixty-two (10.6%) patients had Grade 1-2 and 4 patients had Grade 3-4 (0.7%, 2 ulcers and 2 fistulas) rectal complications. Three of the Grade 3/4 complications occurred with a dose 220 Gy does not seem to increase morbidity. (c) 2010 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Skin toxicity from external beam radiation therapy in breast cancer patients: protective effects of Resveratrol, Lycopene, Vitamin C and anthocianin (Ixor®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rossella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This is an observational study and the aim is to evaluate the effect of dietary supplements based on Resveratrol, Lycopene, Vitamin C and Anthocyanins (Ixor® in reducing skin toxicity due to external beam radiotherapy in patients affected by breast cancer. Materials and methods 71 patients were enrolled and they were divided in two different groups: a control group (CG of 41 patients treated with prophylactic topical therapy based on hyaluronic acid and topical steroid therapy in case of occurrence of radiodermatitis, and a Ixor-Group (IG of 30 patients treated also with an oral therapy based on Resveratrol, Lycopene, Vitamin C and Anthocyanin (Ixor® at a dose of 2 tablets/day, starting from 10 days before the radiation treatment until 10 days after the end of treatment. Skin toxicity has been related to PTV, to breast volume that received a radiation dose equal or lower than 107%, included between 107% and 110%, or greater than 110% of the prescribed dose. Moreover it's been studied the relationship between skin toxicity and the chemotherapy schedule used before treatment. We calculated in both groups the percentage of patients who had a skin toxicity of grade 2 or 3 (according to RTOG scale. Absolute risk reduction (ARR, relative risk (RR and odds ratio (OR have been calculated for each relationship. Results Control Group (CG patients with a PTV > 500 ml presented skin toxicity G2 + G3 in 30% of cases, versus 25% of Ixor-Group (IG [OR 0.77]. In patients with a PTV Conclusions The protective effect of Resveratrol, Lycopene, Vitamin C and Anthocyanin (Ixor® is more detected in patients with PTV

  19. Dynamics of patient reported quality of life and symptoms in the acute phase of online adaptive external beam radiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijkoop, S T; Nout, R A; Quint, S; Mens, J W M; Heijmen, B J M; Hoogeman, M S

    2017-08-19

    For locally advanced cervical cancer patients, treated with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT), Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaires arefrequently used to evaluate treatment-related symptoms and functioning scales. Currently, it is unknown how those evolve during the radiation treatment course. In this prospective study we report on weekly-captured patient-reported QoL and symptoms during image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) of cervical cancer patients. Between January 2012 and September 2016, all locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with IGART and brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy or hyperthermia, were eligible. QoL was assessed at baseline; weekly during the first five weeks of treatment; 1week, 1 and 3months after treatment, using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the QLQ-CX24 questionnaires. Comparisons were made with an age-matched norm population. Among the 138 (70%) responders, most symptoms showed a moderate-to-large increase, reaching a maximum at the end of treatment, or first week after treatment with return to baseline value at 3months after treatment. While most symptoms gradually increased during the first five weeks, diarrhea and bowel cramps already markedly increased within the first three weeks to reach a plateau at the 5th week of treatment. Global health and functioning were temporarily decreased and returned to a plateau at baseline level 3months after treatment, except for cognitive functioning. A profound impact on QoL was observed during the radiation treatment course, temporarily affecting functioning. The maximum impaired was reached at the end of EBRT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Population-Based Validation of the 2014 ISUP Gleason Grade Groups in Patients Treated With Radical Prostatectomy, Brachytherapy, External Beam Radiation, or no Local Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompe, Raisa S; Davis-Bondarenko, Helen; Zaffuto, Emanuele; Tian, Zhe; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi; Schiffmann, Jonas; Saad, Fred; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Tilki, Derya; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2017-05-01

    To test discriminant ability of the 2014 ISUP Gleason grade groups (GGG) for prediction of prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy (BT), external beam radiation (EBRT) or no local treatment (NLT) relative to traditional Gleason grading (TGG). In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-database (2004-2009), 2,42,531 non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients were identified, who underwent local treatment (RP, BT, EBRT only) or NLT. Follow-up endpoint was PCSM. Biopsy and/or pathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized as TGG ≤6, 7, 8-10 or GGG: I (≤6), II (3 + 4), III (4 + 3), IV (8), and V (9-10). Kaplan-Meier plots, multivariable Cox regression analyses and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) area under the curve analyses (AUC) were used. Median follow-up was 76 months (IQR: 59-94). For the four examined treatment modalities, all five GGG strata and all three TGG strata independently predicted PCSM. GGG yielded 1.5-fold or greater HR differences between GGG II and GGG III, and twofold or greater HR differences between GGG IV and GGG V. Relative to TGG, GGG added 0.4-1.1% to AUC. This large population-based cohort study confirms the added discriminant properties of the novel GGG strata and confirms a modest gain in predictive accuracy. Prostate 77: 686-693, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Núria, E-mail: nrodriguez@parcdesalutmar.cat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Dengra, Josefa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Foro, Palmira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Membrive, Ismael; Reig, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Quera, Jaume [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Óscar; Lio, Jackson; Lozano, Joan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Algara, Manuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P<.01). Late skin toxicity was no worse than grade 2 in either group, without significant differences between the 2 groups. In the ipsilateral breast, the areas that received the highest doses (ie, the boost or quadrant) showed the greatest loss of elasticity. WBI resulted in a greater loss of elasticity in the high-dose area compared with APBI (P<.05). Physician assessment showed that >75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with

  2. Long-Term Results of an RTOG Phase II Trial (00-19) of External-Beam Radiation Therapy Combined With Permanent Source Brachytherapy for Intermediate-Risk Clinically Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Colleen A., E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Yan, Yan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Firat, Selim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Baikadi, Madhava [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Scranton, PA (United States); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Kuettel, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Morton, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low-doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high-dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high-dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low-doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to

  3. Determination of As, Cd, Pb and Tl in coal by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using slurry sampling and external calibration against aqueous standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, D.L.G.; Welz, B.; Curtius, A.J. [University of Federal Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    A method was developed for the determination of As, Cd, Pb and Tl by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) with slurry sample introduction using certified reference coal samples. The As-75, Cd-111, Pb-208 and Tl-205 isotopes were monitored, considering the lower probabilities of these isotopes in suffering interferences. The carrier and modifier effect of Ru added in solution was evaluated, demonstrating that sensitivity for all elements is considerably improved by the addition of 15 mg of Ru to each individual measurement. This confirms its ability to act as a physical carrier particularly for the analytes in aqueous solution. After optimization of the operational parameters, the determination of the four elements in six certified reference coal samples was carried out by external calibration against aqueous standards in 5% v= v HNO{sub 3}, resulting in good agreement between the certified or given values and the determined ones. For Tl, due to the absence of certified values, a comparison was established considering previously published data using solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Detection limits ({mu} g g{sup -1}) of 0.1, 0.004, 0.045 and 0.001 were achieved for As, Cd, Pb and Tl, respectively, and the precision was typically better than 10%.

  4. Radiation Dose and Image Quality of Low-dose Protocol in Chest CT: Comparison of Standard-dose Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong [Occupational Lung Diseases Institute, KCOMWEL, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Bong Seon; Park, Young Sun [Department of Radiological Technology, Daejeon Health Science College, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare radiation dose and image quality between low-dose (LDP) and standard-dose protocol (SDP). LDP (120 kVp, 30 mAs, 2-mm thickness) and SDP (120 kVp, 180 mAs, 1.2-mm thickness) images obtained from 61 subjects were retrospectively evaluated at level of carina bifurcation, using multi-detector CT (Brilliance 16, Philips Medical Systems). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated at ascending aorta and infraspinatus muscle, from CT number and back-ground noise. Radiation dose from two protocols measured at 5-point using acrylic-phantom, and CT number and noise measured at 4-point using water-phantom. All statistical analysis were performed using SPSS 19.0 program. LDP images showed significantly more noise and a significantly lower SNR and CNR than did SDP images at ascending aorta and infraspinatus muscle. Noise, SNR and CNR were significantly correlated with body mass index (p<0.001). Radiation dose, SNR and CNR from phantom were significant differences between two protocols. LDP showed a significant reduction of radiation dose with a significant change in SNR and CNR compared with SDP. Therefore, exposure dose on LDP in clinical applications needs resetting highly more considering image quality.

  5. Assessment of the image contrast improvement and dose reduction in mammography with synchrotron radiation compared to standard units

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckli, R; Fiedler, S; Pachoud, M; Hessler, C; Meuli, R; Valley, J F

    2001-01-01

    An objective method was used to evaluate image quality and dose in mammography with synchrotron radiation and to compare them to standard units. It was performed systematically in the energy range of interest for mammography through the evaluation of the contrast and the measurement of the mean glandular dose. Synchrotron radiation measurements were performed at the ESRF and a slit was placed between the test object and the screen-film system in order to reduce scatter. The conventional films were obtained on mammography units with an anti-scatter grid. In a recent paper, it was shown that the use of synchrotron radiation leads to a noticeable improvement of the image quality-dose relationship (Moeckli et al. Phys. Med. Biol. 45(12)3509). The reason of that enhancement is partly due to the monochromaticity of the synchrotron beam and partly due to the use of a slit instead of a grid. The dose reduction with synchrotron radiation can be attributed to a better X-ray total transmission of the slit and the contra...

  6. Environmental standards for ionizing radiation: theoretical basis for dose-response curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, A C

    1983-10-01

    The types of injury attributable to ionizing radiation are subdivided, for purposes of risk assessment and radiological protection, into two broad categories: stochastic effects and nonstochastic effects. Stochastic effects are viewed as probablistic phenomena, varying in frequency but not severity as a function of the dose, without any threshold; nonstochastic effects are viewed as deterministic phenomena, varying in both frequency and severity as a function of the dose, with clinical thresholds. Included among stochastic effects are heritable effects (mutations and chromosome aberrations) and carcinogenic effects. Both types of effects are envisioned as unicellular phenomena which can result from nonlethal injury of individual cells, without the necessity of damage to other cells. For the induction of mutations and chromosome aberrations in the low-to-intermediate dose range, the dose-response curve with high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation generally conforms to a linear nonthreshold relationship and varies relatively little with the dose rate. In contrast, the curve with low-LET radiation generally conforms to a linear-quadratic relationship, rising less steeply than the curve with high-LET radiation and increasing in slope with increasing dose and dose rate. The dose-response curve for carcinogenic effects varies widely from one type of neoplasm to another in the intermediate-to-high dose range, in part because of differences in the way large doses of radiation can affect the promotion and progression of different neoplasms. Information about dose-response relations for low-level irradiation is fragmentary but consistent, in general, with the hypothesis that the neoplastic transformation may result from mutation, chromosome aberration or genetic recombination in a single susceptible cell.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Single Fraction of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Single Fraction of External Beam Radiation Therapy for Palliation of Vertebral Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hayeon, E-mail: kimh2@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Smith, Kenneth J. [Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been proposed for the palliation of painful vertebral bone metastases because higher radiation doses may result in superior and more durable pain control. A phase III clinical trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631) comparing single fraction SBRT with single fraction external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in palliative treatment of painful vertebral bone metastases is now ongoing. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare these strategies. Methods and Materials: A Markov model, using a 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon, was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of SBRT (16 or 18 Gy in 1 fraction) with that of 8 Gy in 1 fraction of EBRT. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and EBRT were captured in the model. Costs were based on Medicare reimbursement in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for uncertainty, 1-way, 2-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: Base case pain relief after the treatment was assumed as 20% higher in SBRT. Base case treatment costs for SBRT and EBRT were $9000 and $1087, respectively. In the base case analysis, SBRT resulted in an ICER of $124,552 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of the utility of unrelieved pain; the utility of relieved pain after initial treatment and median survival were also sensitive to variation. If median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. Conclusion: SBRT for palliation of vertebral bone metastases is not cost-effective compared with EBRT at a $100,000 per QALY gained WTP threshold. However, if median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT costs ≤$100

  8. Standard Guide for Dosimetry In Radiation Processing of Fluidized Beds and Fluid Streams

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes several dosimetry systems and methods suitable for the documentation of the irradiation of product transported as fluid or in a fluidized bed. 1.2 The sources of penetrating ionizing radiation included in this guide are electron beams, X-rays (bremsstrahlung) and gamma rays. 1.3 Absorbed doses from 10 to 100,000 gray are considered, including applications such as disinfestation, disinfection, bioburden reduction, sterilization, crosslinking and graft modification of products, particularly powders and aggregates. 1.4 This guide does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with the use of fluidized beds and streams incorporating sources of ionizing radiation. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine compliance with regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Development of functional adsorbent from PU foam waste via radiation induced grafting I: Process parameter standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, N. K.; Kumar, Virendra; Dubey, K. A.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Varshney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mutual radiation grafting process has been used to covalently link polymer chains of poly(acrylic acid) to polyurethane foam waste using 60Co-gamma radiation source. Various experimental parameters were investigated in order to optimize the grafting process. The grafted samples have been characterized for water-uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability. Grafting extent increased with dose, dose rate and monomer concentration but decreased with increase in density of PU foam. The matrix grafted up to an extent of ˜90% showed uptake capacity of 220 mg/g (0.09 mol of dye/mol of acrylic acid) for a monovalent dye (basic red 29) within 3 h of contact time in a batch process.

  10. Anticipated Intraoperative Electron Beam Boost, External Beam Radiation Therapy, and Limb-Sparing Surgical Resection for Patients with Pediatric Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity: A Multicentric Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: cvsole@uc.cl [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Calvo, Felipe A. [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Polo, Alfredo [Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Cambeiro, Mauricio [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Alvarez, Ana; Gonzalez, Carmen [Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Jose [Service of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); San Julian, Mikel [Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To perform a joint analysis of data from 3 contributing centers within the intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT)-Spanish program, to determine the potential of IOERT as an anticipated boost before external beam radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of pediatric extremity soft-tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: From June 1993 to May 2013, 62 patients (aged <21 years) with a histologic diagnosis of primary extremity soft-tissue sarcoma with absence of distant metastases, undergoing limb-sparing grossly resected surgery, external beam radiation therapy (median dose 40 Gy) and IOERT (median dose 10 Gy) were considered eligible for this analysis. Results: After a median follow-up of 66 months (range, 4-235 months), 10-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival was 85%, 76%, and 81%, respectively. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for other covariates, tumor size >5 cm (P=.04) and R1 margin status (P=.04) remained significantly associated with local relapse. In regard to overall survival only margin status (P=.04) retained association on multivariate analysis. Ten patients (16%) reported severe chronic toxicity events (all grade 3). Conclusions: An anticipated IOERT boost allowed for external beam radiation therapy dose reduction, with high local control and acceptably low toxicity rates. The combined radiosurgical approach needs to be tested in a prospective trial to confirm these results.

  11. European reference standards on radiation protection training; Estandares de referencia europeos en formacion en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorente Herranz, C.; Marco Arboli, M.; Coeck, M.

    2011-07-01

    The PR is a very important challenge in applications of ionizing radiation (IR) in both industrial and medical and research. In Europe today we face a declining trend in the number of experts in PR for various reasons that may impact on maintaining a high level of competition in PR. This is essential to ensure future safe use of the Rl and the development of new technologies.

  12. Prognostic Importance of Gleason 7 Disease Among Patients Treated With External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Detailed Biopsy Core Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Zumsteg, Zach; Ghadjar, Pirus; Pangasa, Misha; Pei, Xin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Fine, Samson W. [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of primary Gleason (pG) grade among a large cohort of Gleason 7 prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: From May 1989 to January 2011, 1190 Gleason 7 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with EBRT at a single institution. Of these patients, 613 had a Gleason 7 with a minimum of a sextant biopsy with nonfragmented cores and full biopsy core details available, including number of cores of cancer involved, percentage individual core involvement, location of disease, bilaterality, and presence of perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 1-16 years). The prognostic implication for the following outcomes was analyzed: biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: The 8-year bRFS rate for pG3 versus pG4 was 77.6% versus 61.3% (P<.0001), DMFS was 96.8% versus 84.3% (P<.0001), and PCSM was 3.7% versus 8.1% (P=.002). On multivariate analysis, pG4 predicted for significantly worse outcome in all parameters. Location of disease (apex, base, mid-gland), perineural involvement, maximum individual core involvement, and the number of Gleason 3+3, 3+4, or 4+3 cores did not predict for distant metastases. Conclusions: Primary Gleason grade 4 independently predicts for worse bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM among Gleason 7 patients. Using complete core information can allow clinicians to utilize pG grade as a prognostic factor, despite not having the full pathologic details from a prostatectomy specimen. Future staging and risk grouping should investigate the incorporation of primary Gleason grade when complete biopsy core information is used.

  13. Optimization of dose and fractionation of endobronchial brachytherapy with or without external radiation in the palliative management of non-small cell lung cancer: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallick I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Endobronchial brachytherapy (EBBT is an established modality for the palliation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We compared three different schedules using EBBT with or without external radiation (XRT in this setting. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients were randomized to three treatment arms. Arm A received XRT to a dose of 30 Gy/ 10 fr/ 2 weeks and two sessions of EBBT 8 Gy each. Arm B received the same XRT and a single session of EBBT 10 Gy at 1 cm. Arm C received only a single fraction of brachytherapy to a dose of 15 Gy at 1 cm without XRT. Symptomatic response rates, duration of symptom palliation, obstruction scores, quality of life outcomes and complications were assessed and compared. Results: The overall symptomatic response rates were 91% for dyspnea, 84% for cough, 94% for hemoptysis and 83% for obstructive pneumonia. There was no significant difference between the arms. The median time to symptom relapse was 4-8 months for all symptoms and the median time to symptom progression was 6-11 months. The results were comparable between groups except for hemoptysis, where a shorter palliation was seen in Arm C that achieved statistical significance ( P < 0.01. Quality of life showed significant improvement, with maximum benefit in Arm A. Complication rates were low. Only one patient died of fatal hemoptysis. Conclusion: EBBT is thus a safe and effective palliative tool in advanced non-small cell lung cancer, either alone or in conjunction with XRT. The difference between the treatment arms were not statistically significant in most categories, but patients treated with XRT and two endobronchial sessions of 8 Gy had the most consistent benefit in terms of all the parameters studied.

  14. Prognostic Value of External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients Treated With Surgical Resection and Intraoperative Electron Beam Radiation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Multicentric Long-Term Outcome Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Felipe A. [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: cvsole@uc.cl [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Cambeiro, Mauricio [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Montero, Angel; Polo, Alfredo [Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Carmen [School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Cuervo, Miguel [Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); San Julian, Mikel [Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); and others

    2014-01-01

    Background: A joint analysis of data from centers involved in the Spanish Cooperative Initiative for Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy was performed to investigate long-term outcomes of locally recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (LR-STS) patients treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Methods and Materials: Patients with a histologic diagnosis of LR-STS (extremity, 43%; trunk wall, 24%; retroperitoneum, 33%) and no distant metastases who underwent radical surgery and intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT; median dose, 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study. In addition, 62% received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; median dose, 50 Gy). Results: From 1986 to 2012, a total of 103 patients from 3 Spanish expert IOERT institutions were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 57 months (range, 2-311 months), 5-year local control (LC) was 60%. The 5-year IORT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were 73%, 43%, and 52%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, no EBRT to treat the LR-STS (P=.02) and microscopically involved margin resection status (P=.04) retained significance in relation to LC. With regard to IORT in-field control, only not delivering EBRT to the LR-STS retained significance in the multivariate analysis (P=.03). Conclusion: This joint analysis revealed that surgical margin and EBRT affect LC but that, given the high risk of distant metastases, DFS remains modest. Intensified local treatment needs to be further tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant systemic therapy.

  15. History of the development of radiation protection standards for space activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1997-04-30

    Initial recommendations for limitations on radiation exposures in space were made in 1970 by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the Committee on Space Medicine, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Using a risk-based approach and taking into consideration a range of factors, the Panel recommended an overall career limit of 4 Sv. Because it was assumed that only small numbers of people would be involved, most of whom would be in excess of 30 y of age, the question of genetic effects did not appear to be of concern. On the basis of subsequent epidemiological findings, the values of the risk coefficients were increased. As a result of this and other considerations, NASA in the early 1980s asked the NCRP to re-examine both the risks and the philosophy for protecting astronauts. In undertaking this task, the NCRP decided to treat the radiation exposures of crew members and payload specialists as an occupational hazard and to evaluate their risks in terms of those to radiation workers and to workers in other industries. Noting that in the less safe but not the most hazardous occupations, workers had an average lifetime risk of mortality of about three percent, the NCRP concluded that a reasonable career limit for astronauts should be based on a lifetime absolute excess risk of mortality of three percent. Using this as a base, the NCRP recommended a career limit for 25 y olds of 1 Sv for females and 1.5 Sv for males. Since the risk decreases the older the age at which the exposures begin, the limits culminated with a career limit of 3 Sv for females and 4 Sv for males whose initial exposure occurred at age 55. These recommendations were based on an assumed nominal value of a lifetime risk of fatal cancers for all ages of about 2 {times} 10{sup -2} Sv{sup -1}.

  16. Calculation of residence times and radiation doses using the standard PC software Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, H; Zilken, H; Niederbremer, A; Friedrich, W; Müller-Gärtner, H W

    1997-12-01

    We developed a program which aims to facilitate the calculation of radiation doses to single organs and the whole body. IMEDOSE uses Excel to include calculations, graphical displays, and interactions with the user in a single general-purpose PC software tool. To start the procedure the input data are copied into a spreadsheet. They must represent percentage uptake values of several organs derived from measurements in animals or humans. To extrapolate these data up to seven half-lives of the radionuclide, fitting to one or two exponentional functions is included and can be checked by the user. By means of the approximate time-activity information the cumulated activity or residence times are calculated. Finally these data are combined with the absorbed fraction doses (S-values) given by MIRD pamphlet No. 11 to yield radiation doses, the effective dose equivalent and the effective dose. These results are presented in a final table. Interactions are realized with push-buttons and drop-down menus. Calculations use the Visual Basic tool of Excel. In order to test our program, biodistribution data of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose were taken from the literature (Meija et al., J Nucl Med 1991; 32:699-706). For a 70-kg adult the resulting radiation doses of all target organs listed in MIRD 11 were different from the ICRP 53 values by 1%+/-18% on the average. When the residence times were introduced into MIRDOSE3 (Stabin, J Nucl Med 1996; 37:538-546) the mean difference between our results and those of MIRDOSE3 was -3%+/-6%. Both outcomes indicate the validity of the present approach.

  17. Viable dark matter via radiative symmetry breaking in a scalar singlet Higgs portal extension of the standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, T G; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Contreras, D; Mann, R B

    2014-05-02

    We consider the generation of dark matter mass via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an extension of the conformal standard model containing a singlet scalar field with a Higgs portal interaction. Generating the mass from a sequential process of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking followed by a conventional Higgs mechanism can account for less than 35% of the cosmological dark matter abundance for dark matter mass M(s)>80 GeV. However, in a dynamical approach where both Higgs and scalar singlet masses are generated via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, we obtain much higher levels of dark matter abundance. At one-loop level we find abundances of 10%-100% with 106 GeVdark matter mass. The dynamical approach also predicts a small scalar-singlet self-coupling, providing a natural explanation for the astrophysical observations that place upper bounds on dark matter self-interaction. The predictions in all three approaches are within the M(s)>80 GeV detection region of the next generation XENON experiment.

  18. 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla for Early Response Assessment of Glioblastoma Patients During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muruganandham, Manickam; Clerkin, Patrick P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Smith, Brian J. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Anderson, Carryn M.; Morris, Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Capizzano, Aristides A.; Magnotta, Vincent [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); McGuire, Sarah M.; Smith, Mark C.; Bayouth, John E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Buatti, John M., E-mail: john-buatti@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) proton spectroscopic imaging for treatment planning and its implications for early response assessment in glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma had 3D-MR proton spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) along with T2 and T1 gadolinium-enhanced MR images at simulation and at boost treatment planning after 17 to 20 fractions of radiation therapy. All patients received standard radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Imaging for response assessment consisted of MR scans every 2 months. Progression-free survival was defined by the criteria of MacDonald et al. MRSI images obtained at initial simulation were analyzed for choline/N-acetylaspartate ratios (Cho/NAA) on a voxel-by-voxel basis with abnormal activity defined as Cho/NAA ≥2. These images were compared on anatomically matched MRSI data collected after 3 weeks of RT. Changes in Cho/NAA between pretherapy and third-week RT scans were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests and correlated with progression-free survival, radiation dose and location of recurrence using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.6 months, 50% of patients had experienced progression based on imaging. Patients with a decreased or stable mean or median Cho/NAA values had less risk of progression (P<.01). Patients with an increase in mean or median Cho/NAA values at the third-week RT scan had a significantly greater chance of early progression (P<.01). An increased Cho/NAA at the third-week MRSI scan carried a hazard ratio of 2.72 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.71; P=.03). Most patients received the prescription dose of RT to the Cho/NAA ≥2 volume, where recurrence most often occurred. Conclusion: Change in mean and median Cho/NAA detected at 3 weeks was a significant predictor of

  19. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  20. Angular dependence of TL and OSL responses of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C commercial detectors in standard beta radiation beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The luminescent response of radiation detectors was evaluated by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) phenomena, for verification of its application in radiation dosimetry. An angular dependence study was performed in this work, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C commercial detectors, which were exposed to the radiation beams of a {sup 90}Sr +{sup 90}Y source from a beta radiation secondary standard system. The detectors were irradiated with an angle variation from -60° to +60°, and the results obtained using the TL and OSL techniques were within the international recommendation limits. (author)

  1. Standard Practice for Calculation of Photometric Transmittance and Reflectance of Materials to Solar Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1988-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the calculation of luminous (photometric) transmittance and reflectance of materials from spectral radiant transmittance and reflectance data obtained from Test Method E 903. 1.2 Determination of luminous transmittance by this practice is preferred over measurement of photometric transmittance by methods using the sun as a source and a photometer as detector except for transmitting sheet materials that are inhomogeneous, patterned, or corrugated. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Neuropsychological Outcome of Children Treated for Standard Risk Medulloblastoma in the PNET4 European Randomized Controlled Trial of Hyperfractionated Versus Standard Radiation Therapy and Maintenance Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Câmara-Costa, Hugo, E-mail: hugocamaracosta@gmail.com [National Institute of Health and Medical Research, INSERM U1178, Paris (France); Resch, Anika [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kieffer, Virginie [Saint Maurice Hospitals, Saint Maurice (France); Lalande, Clémence [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Poggi, Geraldina [Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco (Italy); Kennedy, Colin; Bull, Kim [University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton (United Kingdom); Calaminus, Gabriele [Paediatric Oncology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Grill, Jacques [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Doz, François [Institut Curie and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Rutkowski, Stefan [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Massimino, Maura [Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lannering, Birgitta [Paediatric Oncology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Dellatolas, Georges [National Institute of Health and Medical Research, INSERM U1178, Paris (France); Chevignard, Mathilde [Rehabilitation Department for Children With Acquired Neurological Injury, Saint Maurice Hospitals, Saint Maurice, and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Universités Paris, INSERM CNRS, Paris (France)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: In the European HIT-SIOP PNET4 randomized controlled trial, children with standard risk medulloblastoma were allocated to hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT arm, including a partially focused boost) or standard radiation therapy (STRT arm), followed, in both arms, by maintenance chemotherapy. Event-free survival was similar in both arms. Previous work showed that the HFRT arm was associated with worse growth and better questionnaire-based executive function, especially in children <8 years of age at diagnosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare performance-based cognitive outcomes between treatment arms. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological data were collected prospectively in 137 patients. Using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, and Raven's Progressive Matrices, we estimated full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and, when available, verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), working memory index (WMI), and processing speed index (PSI). Results: Among the 137 participants (HFRT arm n=71, STRT arm n=66, 63.5% males), mean (±SD) ages at diagnosis and assessment respectively were 9.3 (±3.2) years of age (40.8% < 8 years of age at diagnosis) and 14.6 (±4.3) years of age. Mean (±SD) FSIQ was 88 (±19), and mean intergroup difference was 3.88 (95% confidence interval: −2.66 to 10.42, P=.24). No significant differences were found in children >8 years of age at diagnosis. In children <8 years of age at diagnosis, a marginally significant trend toward higher VIQ was found in those treated in the HFRT arm; a similar trend was found for PSI but not for PIQ, WMI, or FSIQ (mean intergroup differences were: 12.02 for VIQ [95% CI: 2.37-21.67; P=.02]; 3.77 for PIQ [95% CI: −5.19 to 12.74; P>.10]; 5.20 for WMI [95% CI: −2.07 to 12.47; P>.10]; 10.90 for PSI [95% CI: −1.54 to 23.36; P=.08]; and 5.28 for FSIQ [95% CI: −4.23 to 14.79; P>.10]). Conclusions: HFRT was associated with

  3. SU-E-P-22: AAPM Task Group 263 Tackling Standardization of Nomenclature for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszak, M; Feng, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moran, J [Univ Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mayo, C; Miller, R [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Bosch, W [Washington Univ, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Popple, R [Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Marks, L [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Molineu, A; Martel, M [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yock, T [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Severna Park, MD (United States); Brown, N [Baptist Medical Center, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Purdie, T [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yorke, E [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Santanam, L [Washington University School of Medicine, St.louis, MO (United States); Gabriel, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Michalski, J [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing recognition of need for increased clarity and consistency in the nomenclatures used for body and organ structures, DVH metrics, toxicity, dose and volume units, etc. Standardization has multiple benefits; e.g. facilitating data collection for clinical trials, enabling the pooling of data between institutions, making transfers (i.e. hand-offs) between centers safer, and enabling vendors to define “default” settings. Towards this goal, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a task group (TG263) in July of 2014, operating under the Work Group on Clinical Trials to develop consensus statements. Guiding principles derived from the investigation and example nomenclatures will be presented for public feedback. Methods: We formed a multi-institutional and multi-vendor collaborative group of 39 physicists, physicians and others involved in clinical use and electronic transfer of information. Members include individuals from IROC, NRG, IHE-RO, DICOM WG-7, ASTRO and EORTC groups with overlapping interests to maximize the quality of the consensus and increase the likelihood of adoption. Surveys of group and NRG members were used to define current nomenclatures and requirements. Technical requirements of vendor systems and the proposed DICOM standards were examined. Results: There is a marked degree of inter and intra institutional variation in current approaches, resulting from inter-vendor differences in capabilities, clinic specific conceptualizations and inconsistencies. Using a consensus approach, the group defined optimal formats for the naming of targets and normal structures. A formal objective assessment of 13 existing clinically-used software packages show that all had capabilities to accommodate these recommended nomenclatures. Conclusions: A multi-stakeholder effort is making significant steps forward in developing a standard nomenclature that will work across platforms. Our current working list includes > 550

  4. Impact of ASTM Standard E722 update on radiation damage metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, Kendall Russell

    2014-06-01

    The impact of recent changes to the ASTM Standard E722 is investigated. The methodological changes in the production of the displacement kerma factors for silicon has significant impact for some energy regions of the 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence response function. When evaluating the integral over all neutrons energies in various spectra important to the SNL electronics testing community, the change in the response results in an increase in the total 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence of 2 7%. Response functions have been produced and are available for users of both the NuGET and MCNP codes.

  5. State of dose prescription and compliance to international standard (ICRU-83) in intensity modulated radiation therapy among academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indra J; Andersen, Aaron; Chen, Zhe Jay; Dimofte, Andrea; Glatstein, Eli; Hoisak, Jeremy; Huang, Long; Langer, Mark P; Lee, Choonik; Pacella, Matthew; Popple, Richard A; Rice, Roger; Smilowitz, Jennifer; Sponseller, Patricia; Zhu, Timothy

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose prescription and recording compliance to international standard (International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements [ICRU]-83) in patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) among academic institutions. Ten institutions participated in this study to collect IMRT data to evaluate compliance to ICRU-83. Under institutional review board clearance, data from 5094 patients-including treatment site, technique, planner, physician, prescribed dose, target volume, monitor units, planning system, and dose calculation algorithm-were collected anonymously. The dose-volume histogram of each patient, as well as dose points, doses delivered to 100% (D100), 98% (D98), 95% (D95), 50% (D50), and 2% (D2), of sites was collected and sent to a central location for analysis. Homogeneity index (HI) as a measure of the steepness of target and is a measure of the shape of the dose-volume histogram was calculated for every patient and analyzed. In general, ICRU recommendations for naming the target, reporting dose prescription, and achieving desired levels of dose to target were relatively poor. The nomenclature for the target in the dose prescription had large variations, having every permutation of name and number contrary to ICRU recommendations. There was statistically significant variability in D95, D50, and HI among institutions, tumor site, and technique with P values < .01. Nearly 95% of patients had D50 higher than 100% (103.5 ± 6.9) of prescribed dose and varied among institutions. On the other hand, D95 was close to 100% (97.1 ± 9.4) of prescribed dose. Liver and lung sites had a higher D50 compared with other sites. Pelvic sites had a lower variability indicated by HI (0.13 ± 1.21). Variability in D50 is 101.2 ± 8.5, 103.4 ± 6.8, 103.4 ± 8.2, and 109.5 ± 11.5 for IMRT, tomotherapy, volume modulated arc therapy, and stereotactic body radiation therapy with IMRT, respectively. Nearly 95% of

  6. Ethylene vinyl acetate based radiation grafted hydrophilic matrices: Process parameter standardization, grafting kinetics and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, C. V.; Mondal, R. K.; Dubey, K. A.; Grover, V.; Panicker, L.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Varshney, L.

    2016-08-01

    A transparent, elastomeric, grafted matrix for several potential applications was synthesized by single-step simultaneous radiation grafting of methacrylic acid onto ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). CuSO4 was found to be the most suitable homo-polymerization inhibitor among different inhibitors tried. The grafting kinetics was found to be a strong function of dose rate (D) and monomer content (M) and an equation relating grafting rate Rg=Kg [M]1.13D0.23 was deduced. Crystallinity of the grafted matrices as assessed from XRD and DSC measurements indicated decrease in crystalline content with increase in grafting yield, suggesting crystalline domain of EVA get disrupted on grafting. Elastic modulus increased linearly with the increase in grafting yield, though elongation at break decreased precipitously from 900% to 30% at even ~9% grafting. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed three step weight loss of the grafted EVA matrix. The grafting of MAA resulted in increase in surface energy mainly due to enhanced polar component.

  7. Facilities for external radiation accessible for investigation on biological studies - progress report may 2004; Les installations d'irradiation externe accessibles aux etudes de biologie - etat d'avancement mai 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Lecanu, E. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/Carmin), 92 (France); Authier, N.; Verrey, B. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Recherche sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Bailly, I. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee; Baldacchino, G.; Pin, S.; Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bordy, J.M. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique (DRT/DETECS/LNHB/LMD), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Coffigny, H. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie, 92 (France); Cortela, L. [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, 38 (France); Duval, D. [CEA Saclay, Schering - CIS bio International, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Leplat, J.J. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DRR/LREG), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Poncy, J.L. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/DRR/SRCA), 92 (France); Testard, I. [CEA Caen (DSV/DRR/LRO-LARIA), 14 - Caen (France); Thuret, J.Y. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DBJC/SBGM), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    The Life Science Division of the Atomic Energy Commission is making an inventory of the various radiation sources accessible for investigation on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In this field, a wide range of studies is being carried out at the Life Science Division, attempting to characterize the kind of lesions with their early biological consequences (on the various cell compartments) and their late biological consequences (deterministic or stochastic effects), in relation to the radiation type and dose, especially at low doses. Several experimental models are available: plants, bacteria, eukaryotic cells from yeast up to mammalian cells and in vivo studies, mostly on rodents, in order to characterize the somatic late effects and the hereditary effects. Due to the significant cost of these facilities, also to their specific properties (nature of the radiation, dose and dose rate, possible accuracy of the irradiation at the molecular level), the closeness is no longer the only criteria for biologists to make a choice. The current evolution is to set up irradiation infrastructures combining ionizing radiation sources themselves and specific tools dedicated to biological studies: cell or molecular biology laboratories, animal facilities. The purpose, in this new frame, is to provide biologists with the most suitable facilities, and, if possible, to change these facilities according to requirements in radiobiology. In this report, the basics of interactions of ionizing radiation with biological tissues are briefly introduced, followed by a presentation of some of the facilities available at the CEA for radiobiological studies. This panorama is not a comprehensive one, new data will be included as they advance, whether reporting existing facilities or if a new one is developed. (authors)

  8. COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buermann, L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Oborin, A.V. [D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dobrovosky, J. [3 Slovensky Metrologicky Ustav (SMU), Bratislava (Slovakia); Milevsky, V.S. [Belarussian State Institute for Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Walwyn Salas, G. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Habana (Cuba); Lapenas, A. [Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre of the Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia)

    2009-12-15

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. (authors)

  9. Modeling of beams in a treatment planning system for external radiation with the help of external tool; Modelado de haces en un sistema de planificacion de tratamientos de radioterapia externa con la ayuda de herramientas externas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we attempt a statistical analysis as directed Protocol Control Systems Quality Planning Radiation Therapy published by the Spanish Society of Medical Physics. Also performed an analysis with the parameter gamma (Low et al.), Which is represented on the graph, allowing an overview of the goodness of fit intuitively.

  10. Study of direct beam radiation and standardization of (Engineering) insolation data in korea. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H.S.; Auh, C.M.; Lee, T.K.; Kim, E.I.; Jo, D.K.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, D.H.; Jeon, M.S.; Lee, S.M.; Chun, I.S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Owing to the world-wide environmental issue and the unbalance on energy demands-offers, it is inevitable to conduct the research and development on clean alternative energy resource. The solar energy resource is recognized as one of the alternatives. A preparation for basic data should, therefore, arise for the extensive utilization of solar energy. Engineering solar (weather) data measured for at least a 30-year period should be needed for solar energy and energy conservation applications. These data should contain hourly averages of global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiation with hourly observations of other meteorological parameters such as sky cover, temperature, humidity, and wind speed. Normals, means, and extremes serving as system design data are to be selected from the 30 years basic data. However, collection of reasonable solar data has merely been carried out for global horizontal insolation since 1882 and direct normal insolation since 1991 in Korea. It still requires the considerable effort and time to square the reliability and to standardize the solar data. In parallel, the related techniques are to be developed such as data quality assessments and control, missing data and inconsistent data treatments, inter- and extra-potation techniques for the intermediate region among the weather stations. The R and D on these subject should be done advancing the practical applications. (author). 43 refs., 31 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities and measurement standard in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Park, T. S.; Ha, S. H.; Oh, P. J.; Jun, K. J

    1999-03-01

    A study on the fabrication of a new personal thermo-luminescence dosimeter, which can evaluate the personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(d), has been performed. Optimum conditions for fabrications of a LiF:Mg, Cu, Na, Si TL phosphor powder has been determined and a disc type TL pellet has been fabricated from this TL powder. Another type of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, Mo TL material has been also fabricated. These two TL materials have shown greater TL sensitivity than the foreign-made commercial TL materials. Mono-energetic florescence X-rays from 8.6 response have been constructed and evaluated for the performance of the purity, air kerma, beam uniformity and distribution,and scattered fraction of X-rays.A free-air ionization chamber for the absolute measurement of air kerma in medium X-ray has been designed and constructed. Experimental results showed that the homemade chamber leaves nothing to be desired, compared with the national standard chambers in other advanced countries. Gas proportional counting system has been designed and constructed for absolute activity measurements of gaseous radionuclides. Unattached fractions of radon progeny were evaluated in the characteristic study on the detection of radon progeny.

  12. COOMET regional comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 137Cs γ radiation at protection level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büermann, L.; Oborin, A. V.; Milevsky, V. S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Sukhishvili, S.; Ginga, I.; Ivanov, R.; Gudelis, A.; Gomola, I.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET supplementary comparison of the national measurement standards for air kerma in 137Cs γ radiation at protection level (~10 mGy/h). Ten National Metrology Institutes from the COOMET organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency participated in this COOMET project no. 445. The PTB acted as pilot laboratory. Two of the participants, the SMU (Slovakia) and the NSC-'IM' (Ukraine) participated in the measurements but did not submit a valid report of results. The comparison reference value (CRV) was obtained as the mean result of the PTB and the VNIIM, both of which had previously taken part in the key comparison BIPM-RI(I)-K5. The degree of equivalence with the CRV was evaluated. The results were consistent within the relative standard uncertainties of the comparison ranging from 0.28% to 1.3% and deviated from the CRV by less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Motion-Compensated Estimation of Delivered Dose during External BeamRadiation Therapy: Implementation in Philips’ Pinnacle3 Treatment Planning System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharat, S.; Parikh, P.; Noel, C.; Meltsner, M.; Bzdusek, K.; Kaus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research efforts investigating dose escalation techniques for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) andintensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have demonstrated great benefit when high-dose hypofractionated treatment schemes are implemented16,21. The use of the

  14. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007; Comparacao entre a norma brasileira de radioprotecao e a recomendacao da International Commission on Radiological Protection - ICRP, publicadas em 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Itatiaia, RJ (Brazil). Fabrica do Combustivel Nuclear. Servico de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, J.R.S. [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Direito

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection.

  15. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  16. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  17. External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for Patients with Malignant Pheochromocytoma and Non-Head and Neck Paraganglioma: Combination with 131I-MIBG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Lauren; Bonner, Lara; Torigian, Drew A.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Cohen, Debbie L.; Pryma, Daniel; Cengel, Keith

    2015-01-01

    In patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, 131I-MIBG radiotherapy can achieve an objective response rate of 30–50% with the dose limiting toxicity being hematologic. Patients with disseminated disease, who also have a few index bulky or symptomatic lesions, may benefit from the addition of targeted external beam radiotherapy alone or in combination with systemic 131I-MIBG. The records of patients with malignant paraganglioma who were treated with external beam radiotherapy at the University of Pennsylvania from February 1973 to February 2011 were reviewed in an institutional review board approved retrospective study. Of the 17 patients with tumors in the thorax, abdomen, or pelvis, 76% had local control or clinically significant symptomatic relief for at least one year or until death. As expected, the predominant toxicity was due to irradiation of tumor-adjacent normal tissues without clinically significant hematologic toxicity. Due to widespread systemic metastases with areas of bulky, symptomatic tumor, five of the 17 patients were treated with sequential 131I-MIBG (2 mCi/kg per treatment) and external beam radiotherapy to nine sites. In these patients, all areas that were irradiated with external beam radiotherapy showed durable objective response despite all patients eventually experiencing out-of-field systemic progression requiring other treatment. Four of these patients remain alive with excellent performance status 16, 18, 23, and 24 months after external beam radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy can be highly effective in local management of malignant paraganglioma and can be used in conjunction with 131I-MIBG due to non-overlapping toxicities with excellent control of locally bulky tumors. PMID:22566196

  18. Effect of an external radiation field on the properties of the atoms and cavity field in the two-atom Tavis-Cummings model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠纯; 王琪; 张永生; 郭光灿

    2005-01-01

    We study the properties of atoms and cavity field in the two-atom Tavis-Cummings model where the two atoms interact with each other and are also driven by an external classical field. We consider the special case that the cavity is initially in a coherent state. The atomic inversion, the average photons number and the Mandel parameter in the driven Tavis-Cummings model are given and analysed numerically. We pay special attention to the dynamical behaviour of the atoms and the cavity field modified by the external field.

  19. Evaluation of parotid function using dynamic parotid scintigraphy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with external beam radiation therapy%腮腺动态显像评价鼻咽癌放疗对腮腺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小江; 黄劲雄; 俞浩; 吴华

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluation of the parotid function using dynamic parotid scintigraphy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with external beam radiation therapy. Methods Twenty-one nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were included into this study. Dynamic parotid scintigraphy was performed before and after external beam radiation therapy. Semi-qnantitative parameters of parotid (uptake index, excretion rate and excretion index) was used to evaluate the changes of parotid function. Results UI, ER and El of parotid were decreased markedly after external beam radiation therapy, t is 56.65, 41.34, 30.69 respectively, P<0.001. The uptake and excretion function of the parotid were all impaired, which correlated with the dry mouth symptom of the patients. Conclusion Dynamic parotid scintigraphy can play a key role in the evaluation of parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with external beam radiation therapy.%目的 探讨腮腺动态显像评价鼻咽癌放疗对腮腺功能影响的价值.方法 21例鼻咽癌患者分别于放疗前、后行放射性核素腮腺动态显像,计算腮腺摄取指数(UI)、酸刺激后的分泌率(ER)、分泌指数(EI)等半定量指标以评价放疗前后腮腺功能的变化.结果 放疗后与放疗前比较,所有患者UI、ER、EI均显著下降,t值分别为56.65、41.34、30.69, P<0.001,腮腺摄取与分泌功能均明显受损.与患者临床口干症状相符.结论 腮腺动态显像是一种评价鼻咽癌放疗对腮腺功能的影响的有用方法,具有临床应用价值.

  20. Evaluation of the WIPP Project`s compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP`s compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA`s proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA`s responses to EEG`s comments.

  1. A 55-Year-Old Man with Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Right Groin after External Beam Radiation for Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ibilibor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating testicular cancer with adjuvant radiation has been associated with a number of second malignancies affecting the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal structures; however, there have been few reported cases of cutaneous second malignancies. We report the case of a man who developed stage IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of a condyloma after orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation for testicular cancer. We also review relevant literature available to date. A 55-year-old Caucasian man presented to the hospital with a large growth at the right groin which had grown into his right thigh preventing ambulation. His past medical history was significant for right testicular cancer of unknown pathology treated with orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation twenty years ago. Punch biopsy of the lesion revealed superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent excision of the growth with subsequent Cisplatin, radiation boost, and Paclitaxel regimens. Despite an aggressive treatment regimen and an initial good response, the patient’s cancer progressed requiring palliative care. It is unclear whether or not therapeutic radiation in this case promoted the conversion of the patient’s condyloma to a malignant lesion. Further studies are required at this time to clarify the clinical implications of these findings.

  2. Quality of Survival and Growth in Children and Young Adults in the PNET4 European Controlled Trial of Hyperfractionated Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Colin, E-mail: crk1@soton.ac.uk [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Bull, Kim [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Chevignard, Mathilde [Hôpitaux de Saint Maurice, Saint Maurice (France); Neurophysiology, University of Pierre et Marie-Curie Paris 6, Paris (France); Culliford, David [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dörr, Helmuth G. [Kinder- und Jugendklinik der Universität Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Doz, François [Institut Curie and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lannering, Birgitta [Department of Pediatrics, The Sahlgren Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Massimino, Maura [Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Navajas Gutiérrez, Aurora [Hospital Universitario Cruces, Baracaldo-Vizcaya (Spain); Rutkowski, Stefan [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Spoudeas, Helen A. [Center for Pediatric Endocrinology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Calaminus, Gabriele [Pediatric Oncology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of survival in “standard-risk” medulloblastoma after hyperfractionated radiation therapy of the central nervous system with that after standard radiation therapy, combined with a chemotherapy regimen common to both treatment arms, in the PNET4 randomised controlled trial. Methods and Materials: Participants in the PNET4 trial and their parents/caregivers in 7 participating anonymized countries completed standardized questionnaires in their own language on executive function, health status, behavior, health-related quality of life, and medical, educational, employment, and social information. Pre- and postoperative neurologic status and serial heights and weights were also recorded. Results: Data were provided by 151 of 244 eligible survivors (62%) at a median age at assessment of 15.2 years and median interval from diagnosis of 5.8 years. Compared with standard radiation therapy, hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with lower (ie, better) z-scores for executive function in all participants (mean intergroup difference 0.48 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.81, P=.004), but health status, behavioral difficulties, and health-related quality of life z-scores were similar in the 2 treatment arms. Data on hearing impairment were equivocal. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was also associated with greater decrement in height z-scores (mean intergroup difference 0.43 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.76, P=.011). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with better executive function and worse growth but without accompanying change in health status, behavior, or quality of life.

  3. Evaluation of the occupational exposure to external sources of ionizing radiation in Cuba in the period 2001-2005; Evaluacion de la exposicion ocupacional a fuentes externas de radiacion ionizante en Cuba en el periodo 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Martinez H, E.; Castro S, A. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Externa, CPHR, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: daniel@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The single radiological surveillance of the occupational exposure to external radiation sources in Cuba it is carried out by the Radiation Protection and Hygiene Center (CPHR). The data corresponding to the external exposure are presented. The service it covers to all the occupationally exposed workers (TOEs) of the country that work fundamentally the radiodiagnostic practices, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and research. The purpose of this work is to carry out an analysis of the occupational exposures of the TOE of the country starting of the results registered by the service of single radiological surveillance in the period 2001 to 2005, keeping in mind the indicators used by the UNSCEAR. The annual average effective dose (E) for each practice is shown. The obtained results showed that the values of annual average effective dose (E) its are bigger for the radiodiagnostic practices, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. In a general way, all the E values are inferior to 2.00 mSv. The number of TOEs that overcame the 20 mSv established as annual dose limit, it went inferior to 1% of the controlled total universe. (Author)

  4. LED灯具光辐射安全相关标准介绍%Standards about Optical Radiation Safety of LED Luminaires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓晨; 蔡喆; 彭振坚

    2011-01-01

    This is a introduction of standard publications about optical radiation safety of LED luminaries,including ICNIRP optical radiation guidelines,IEC laser products safety,and the IEC,CIE,EU,ANSI/IESNA standards for photobiological safety of lamp and lamp systems.The difference and relations of these standards are analyzed.%介绍了关于LED光辐射安全的主要标准,包括国际非电离辐射防护委员会的光辐射导则、国际照明委员会、国际电工委员会、欧盟、北美的激光产品或灯和灯系统的光生物安全性标准,分析了这些标准的差异和联系。

  5. Fundaments for creation of national radiation protection standard for nuclear gauges; Fundamentos para implantacao de norma nacional de protecao radiologica para medidores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Luiz Cavalcante

    2016-11-01

    The present work It aims to provide fundaments for the creation of a national standard of practice, safety and responsible use of nuclear gauges in accordance with the recommendations already existing national and international. The work deals with the protection against ionizing radiation, an outline of a proposal for a standard that discriminates in its articles and paragraphs, the basic principles of a proposal for a standard that discriminates in its articles and paragraphs, the basic principles of safety and security, and some pointes that are also relevant such as the responsibilities of those involved in acquisition and nuclear gauge operation, storage, maintenance, testing and emergency situations. The result is to provide a means to limit the dose of operators and people from the public and maintain these limits within the recommended by CNEN, reducing exposure do ionizing radiation, and having greater control in operating the equipment. (author)

  6. Phase III trial of postoperative cisplatin, interferon alpha-2b, and 5-FU combined with external radiation treatment versus 5-FU alone for patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma – CapRI: study protocol [ISRCTN62866759

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz-Winnenthal H

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After surgical intervention with curative intention in specialised centres the five-year survival of patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas is only 15%. The ESPAC-1 trial showed an increased five-year survival of 21% achieved with adjuvant chemotherapy. Investigators from the Virginia Mason Clinic have reported a 5-year survival rate of 55% in a phase II trial evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external-beam radiation. Design The CapRI study is an open, controlled, prospective, randomised multi-centre phase III trial. Patients in study arm A will be treated as outpatients with 5-Fluorouracil; Cisplatin and 3 million units Interferon alpha-2b for 5 1/2 weeks combined with external beam radiation. After chemo-radiation the patients receive continuous 5-FU infusions for two more cycles. Patients in study arm B will be treated as outpatients with intravenous bolus injections of folinic acid, followed by intravenous bolus injections of 5-FU given on 5 consecutive days every 28 days for 6 cycles. A total of 110 patients with specimen-proven R0 or R1 resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma will be enrolled. An interim analysis for patient safety reasons will be done one year after start of recruitment. Evaluation of the primary endpoint will be performed two years after the last patients' enrolment. Discussion The aim of this study is to evaluate the overall survival period attained by chemo-radiotherapy including interferon alpha 2b administration with adjuvant chemotherapy. The influence of interferon alpha on the effectiveness of the patients' chemoradiation regimen, the toxicity, the disease-free interval and the quality of life are analysed. Different factors are tested in terms of their potential role as predictive markers.

  7. The search for a standard model Higgs at the LHC and electron identification using transition radiation in the ATLAS tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede, U.

    1998-01-01

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be ready for proton-proton collisions in the year 2005 and the ATLAS detector will be one of the two experiments at the LHC which will explore a new and higher energy range for particle physics. In this thesis, an analysis of the power of the ATLAS detector to detect a Standard Model Higgs boson has been performed. It is shown that it will be possible to discover a Higgs particle across the complete mass range from the lower limit defined by the reach of the LEP2 collider experiments to the upper theoretical limit around 1 TeV. The role of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS for the detection of conversions and the identification of the primary vertex in the detection of a Higgs particle in the Higgs to two photon decay channel is demonstrated with a detailed detector simulation. The identification of a 1 TeV Higgs particle requires a good understanding of both the signal and the backgrounds. The related uncertainties are covered in detail and it is shown that the Higgs can be identified in the H{yields}WW{yields}lvjj, H{yields}ZZ{yields}llvv and H{yields}ZZ{yields}lljj decay channels. The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a combined tracking and electron identification device which will be a part of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS. For a prototype of the TRT the electron identification performance is analysed and it is shown that the full scale TRT together with the calorimeters will provide the electron identification power required for a clean electron and photon signal at the LHC. For the prototype a rejection factor of 100 against pions was achieved with an electron efficiency of 90%. the importance of the TRT for a clear detection of a Higgs particle is demonstrated. 82 refs, figs, tabs.

  8. [Corrective effects of electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range on the parameters of oxidative stress after standard anti-helicobacterial therapy in patients with ulcer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanishkina, E V; Podoprigorova, V G

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the possibilities of correction of oxidative stress parameters in the serum and gastroduodenal mucosa using electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range in 127 patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer after eradication therapy. Control group included 230 healthy subjects. Parameter of lipid oxidation by free radicals were measured by direct methods (hemiluminescence and EPR-spectroscopy). The results show that standard eradication therapy does not influence parameters of oxidative stress. More pronounced effect of electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range may be due to the correction of prooxidant-antioxidant and antioxidant disbalance. This observation provides pathogenetic substantiation for the inclusion of this physical method in modern therapeutic modalities.

  9. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The stomach; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: l'estomac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberdiac, P. [Service de radiotherapie, hopital de Bellevue, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France); Mineur, L. [Unite d' oncologie digestive et radiotherapie, institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    2010-07-15

    In the following article, we will discuss general issues relating to acute and late gastric's radiation toxicities. The tolerance of the stomach to complete or partial organ irradiation is more un-appreciated than for most other organs. We consulted the Medline database via PubMed and used the key words gastric - radiotherapy - toxicity. Currently, 60 Gy or less is prescribed in gastric radiation therapy. Acute clinical toxicity symptoms are predominantly nausea and vomiting. Although there is a general agreement that the whole stomach tolerance is for doses of 40 to 45 Gy without unacceptable complication, it is well established that a stomach dose of 35 Gy increases the risk of ulcer complications. (authors)

  10. Thin film flow and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching sheet with thermal radiation, internal heating in presence of external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Metri, Prashant G; Abel, M Subhash

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical analysis of thin film flow and heat transfer to a laminar liquid film from a horizontal stretching sheet. The flow of thin liquid film and subsequent heat transfer from the stretching surface is investigated with the aid of similarity transformations. Similarity transformations are used to convert unsteady boundary layer equations to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting non-linear differential equations are solved numerically using Runge-kutta-Fehlberg and Newton-Raphson schemes. A relationship between film thickness $\\beta$ and the unsteadiness parameter $S$ is found, the effect of unsteadiness parameter $S$, and the Prandtl number $Pr$, Magnetic field parameter $Mn$, Radiation parameter $Nr$ and viscous dissipation parameter $Ec$ and heat source parameter $\\gamma$ on the temperature distributions are presented and discussed in detail. Present analysis shows that the combined effect of magnetic field, thermal radiation, heat source and ...

  11. On the Nonlinear Response of Lower Stratospheric Ozone to External Forces-The Inclusion of BrOx and Radiation Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Geli; YAN Jianjun; YANG Peicai

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the bromine family and radiative effects are considered in an updated box model under the framework of ozone temperature feedback,in order to further analyze the possible behavior of atmospheric ozone in the lower mid-latitude stratosphere.Results show that this updated photochemical system can present several different solutions,within a certain domain of parameters,with fixed-point and periodic states appearing in turn.The temperature feedback effect introduced in this box model has not changed the topology of the ozone system.This result presents nonlinear characteristics of the ozone system,and possible trends in the stratospheric atmosphere between complex chemistry and radiation processes.

  12. Multi-institutional Prospective Evaluation of Bowel Quality of Life After Prostate External Beam Radiation Therapy Identifies Patient and Treatment Factors Associated With Patient-Reported Outcomes: The PROSTQA Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Conlon, Anna S.C.; Daignault, Stephanie [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dunn, Rodney L. [Department of Urology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hembroff, A. Larry [Office for Survey Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaplan, Irving [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ciezki, Jay [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, John T. [Department of Urology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sanda, Martin G. [Department of Urology, Emory University Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients treated with external beam radiation therapy as part of the multicenter Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Treatment Quality Assessment (PROSTQA), to identify factors associated with posttreatment patient-reported bowel health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment characteristics and treatment details among 292 men were evaluated using a general linear mixed model for their association with measured HRQOL by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite instrument through 2 years after enrollment. Results: Bowel HRQOL had a median score of 100 (interquartile range 91.7-100) pretreatment and 95.8 (interquartile range 83.3-100) at 2 years, representing new moderate/big problems in 11% for urgency, 7% for frequency, 4% for bloody stools, and 8% for an overall bowel problems. Baseline bowel score was the strongest predictor for all 2-year endpoints. In multivariable models, a volume of rectum ≥25% treated to 70 Gy (V70) yielded a clinically significant 9.3-point lower bowel score (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.8-1.7, P=.015) and predicted increased risks for moderate to big fecal incontinence (P=.0008). No other radiation therapy treatment-related variables influenced moderate to big changes in rectal HRQOL. However, on multivariate analyses V70 ≥25% was associated with increases in small, moderate, or big problems with the following: incontinence (3.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-13.4, P=.03), rectal bleeding (3.6-fold; 95% CI 1.3-10.2, P=.018), and bowel urgency (2.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-7.6, P=.026). Aspirin use correlated with a clinically significant 4.7-point lower bowel summary score (95% CI 9.0-0.4, P=.03) and an increase in small, moderate, or big problems with bloody stools (2.8-fold; 95% CI 1.2-6.4, P=.018). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was associated with higher radiation therapy doses to the prostate and lower doses to the rectum but did not independently correlate with bowel HRQOL

  13. [Implementation of quality standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17043 in the External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda Gabaldón, Marta; Ovies, María Rosario; Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Avila, Javier; Giménez, Alicia; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The quality standard "UNE-EN-ISO 17043: 2010. Conformity assessment. General requirements for proficiency testing" applies to centers that organize intercomparisons in all areas. In the case of clinical microbiology laboratories, these intercomparisons must meet the management and technical standards required to achieve maximum quality in the performance of microbiological analysis and the preparation of test items (sample, product, data or other information used in the proficiency test) to enable them to be accredited. Once accredited, these laboratories can operate as a tool for quality control laboratories and competency assessment. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body [Entidad Nacional de Acreditación (ENAC)]. The objective of this review is to explain how to apply the requirements of the standard to laboratories providing intercomparisons in the field of clinical microbiology (the organization responsible for all the tasks related to the development and operation of a proficiency testing program). This requires defining the scope and specifying the technical requirements (personnel management, control of equipment, facilities and environment, the design of the proficiency testing and data analysis for performance evaluation, communication with participants and confidentiality) and management requirements (document control, purchasing control, monitoring of complaints / claims, non-compliance, internal audits and management reviews).

  14. Local control and survival in patients with soft tissue sarcomas treated with limb sparing surgery in combination with interstitial brachytherapy and external radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhic, A.; Hovgaard, D.; Mork, Petersen M.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate local control, survival and complication rate after treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) with limb-sparing surgery combined with pulsed-dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS...... surgery, combined with PDR BRT and EBRT can result in good local control in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. BRT is an effective modality with good cosmetic results and acceptable toxicity Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate local control, survival and complication rate after treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) with limb-sparing surgery combined with pulsed-dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS......: A retrospective review of 39 adult patients (female/male=25/14, mean age 51(range 21-78) years) with STS who underwent primary limb-sparing surgery combined with PDR BRT (20Gy) and additional post-operative EBRT (50Gy) during the years 1995-2004. RESULTS: Five patients developed local recurrence after a mean...

  15. A study on a dental device for the prevention of mucosal dose enhancement caused by backscatter radiation from dental alloy during external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Kouji; Utsunomiya, Satoru; Abe, Eisuke; Sakai, Hironori; Kushima, Naotaka; Tanabe, Satoshi; Yamada, Takumi; Hayakawa, Takahide; Yamanoi, Yoshihiko; Kimura, Syuhei; Wada, Shinichi; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Takafumi

    2016-11-01

    The changes in dose distribution caused by backscatter radiation from a common commercial dental alloy (Au-Ag-Pd dental alloy; DA) were investigated to identify the optimal material and thicknesses of a dental device (DD) for effective prevention of mucositis. To this end, 1 cm(3) of DA was irradiated with a 6-MV X-ray beam (100 MU) in a field size of 10 × 10 cm(2) using a Novalis TX linear accelerator. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyolefin elastomer, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were selected as DD materials. The depth dose along the central axis was determined with respect to the presence/absence of DA and DDs at thicknesses of 1-10 mm using a parallel-plate ionization chamber. The dose in the absence of DDs showed the lowest value at a distance of 5 mm from the DA surface and gradually increased with distance between the measurement point and the DA surface for distances of ≥5 mm. Except for PET, no significant difference between the DA dose curves for the presence and absence of DDs was observed. In the dose curve, PET showed a slightly higher dose for DA with DD than for DA without DD for thicknesses of ≥4 mm. The findings herein suggest that the optimal DD material for preventing local dose enhancement of the mucosa caused by DA backscatter radiation should have a relatively low atomic number and physical density and that optimal DD thickness should be chosen considering backscatter radiation and percentage depth dose.

  16. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Liver; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: le foie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bari, B.; Mornex, F. [Departement de radiotherapie-oncologie, centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon 1 et EA3738, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Pointreau, Y. [Service de radiotherapie, hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, 37 - Tours (France); Rio, E. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional de lutte contre le cancer Nantes-Atlantique, 44 - Saint-Herblain (France); Mirabel, X. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France)

    2010-07-15

    The liver is a large abdominal organ in the right hypondrium. Because of its anatomical situation, it is near many abdominal PTVs as well as some lower thoracic PVTs. The liver could also be at the same time the target (for irradiation of liver metastases or primary liver tumours) and organ at risk (OAR). Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) is radio-biologically the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), i.e., the clinical event limiting the total dose that could be delivered. This review describes radiobiological criteria justifying the NTCP data, and recommendations for conformal 3D radiotherapy and stereotactic liver irradiation. (authors)

  17. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Spinal cord; Tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: moelle epiniere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habrand, J.L. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Centre de protontherapie, institut Curie, 91 - Orsay (France); Drouet, F. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2010-07-15

    Radiation myelopathy is one of the most dreadful complications of radiation therapy. Despite multiple animal experiments and human autopsic series, its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. In most instances, the classical aspect of myelomalacia combines glial and vascular injuries in various sequences. Recent studies point out the role of oligo-dendrocytes and their precursors, as well as of intercellular mediators (cytokines and stress molecules). The clinical presentation comprises a spectrum of non specific neurological symptoms whose evolution is sometimes regressive but more commonly progressive and life-threatening. Usually, it occurs following a latent period of six months to two years after irradiation of the cervical, thoracic or upper lumbar spine to a dose in excess of 50 Gy, conventionally fractionated. Nonetheless, these typical features can be altered by extrinsic factors, such as hypo fractionation/acceleration of the dose, multiple surgical procedures, chemotherapy especially mega therapy, or neurotoxic drugs. Conversely, hyperfractionated regimens that take into account protracted half-time repair of sublethal damages to the CNS, as well as sophisticated estimates of the dose to the cord and QA programs during the treatment course minimize such risks. (authors)

  18. Development and application of a set of mesh-based and age-dependent Chinese family phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: Preliminary Data for external photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yifei; Zhang, Lian; Huo, Wanli; Feng, Mang; Chen, Zhi; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    A group of mesh-based and age-dependent family phantoms for Chinese populations were developed in this study. We implemented a method for deforming original RPI-AM and RPI-AF models into phantoms of different ages: 5, 10 ,15 and adult. More than 120 organs for each model were processed to match with the values of the Chinese reference parameters within 0.5%. All of these phantoms were then converted to voxel format for Monte Carlo simulations. Dose coefficients for adult models were counted to compare with those of RPI-AM and RPI-AF. The results show that there are significant differences between absorbed doses of RPI phantoms and these of our adult phantoms at low energies. Comparisons for the dose coefficients among different ages and genders were also made. it was found that teenagers receive more radiation doses than adults under the same irradiation condition. This set of phantoms can be utilized to estimate dosimetry for Chinese population for radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy.

  19. PREPARATION OF SQUEEZED STATE OF RADIATION FIELD IN A MESOSCOPIC RLC CIRCUIT DRIVEN BY AN EXTERNAL SOURCE%利用外源驱动介观RLC电路来制备压缩态光场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆怡; 韦联福

    2001-01-01

    A time-dependent Hermitian Hamiltonian with SU(1,1)H(3) algebraic structure is constructed to describe a mesoscopic RLC circuit with a source by quantizating the relevant classical equation of motion.Quantum dynamical problem corresponding to such a system is exactly solved by evolution operator method.It is shown that the squeezed state of radiation field in a mesoscopic RLC circuit driven by an external source can be prepared by the time-evolution of the vacuum state.%通过严格求解具有SU(1,1)H(3)代数结构的含源介观RLC电路系统,我们证明在外源驱动下的介观RLC电路可得到具有明显量子压缩特性的光辐射.

  20. Online fibre optic OSL in vivo dosimetry for quality assurance of external beam radiation therapy treatments: The ANR-TECSAN Codofer Project; Dosimetrie in vivo par OSL, en ligne par fibre optique, pour l'assurance qualite des traitements par radiotherapie externe: le projet ANR-TECSAN Codofer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, S.; Ferdinand, P. [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire de mesures optiques, CEA LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Carlan, L. [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire national Henri-Becquerel, CEA LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bridier, A.; Isambert, A. [Service de physique, institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille-Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Hugon, R. [CEA Saclay, Departement capteur, signal et informations, CEA LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guillon, J. [Societe Fimel, 18, rue Marie-et-Pierre-Curie, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-05-15

    The Codofer Project (2007-2009), led under the ANR-TECSAN Call, was coordinated by CEA LIST, in partnership with IGR and the Fimel company. The aim of the project was to design and test both metrologically and in clinical conditions OSL optical fiber sensors dedicated to in vivo dosimetry during external beam radiation therapy treatment with high-energy electrons. This study, combined with the results of clinical tests obtained within the European Project Maestro, has demonstrated the advantages of OSL/FO dosimetry for providing quality assurance of treatments. However, the French market for dosimetry has greatly changed as a result of the rules decreed by the French government in 2007. The OSL/FO product is now targeted for other treatment modalities lacking suitable dosimeters (ANR-INTRADOSE Project [2009-2011]). (authors)

  1. 宁波市2011年放射工作人员外照射个人剂量监测结果分析%Personal Dose of Occupational External Radiation Exposure for Radiological Professionals in Ningbo,2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈凌燕; 史珊珊; 边国林; 应正巨; 章群

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective ] To analyze personal dose of occupational external for radiation in radiological professionals in Ningbo, and to provide basis for the assessment of radiation protection and physical dose of radiological accidents in workplace. [ Methods ] Thermoluminescence dosimetry was used to detect the personal radiation dose of radiological professionals in selected medical institutions and factories in Ningbo. [ Results ] Of the 1563 participants investigated, the average annual individual dose equivalent was 0.2980mSv in 2011, among whom 1528 participants were at individual averages lower than 2mSv, 28 were between 2mSv and 5mSv, 5 were between 5 mSv and 20mSv, and 2 exceeded 20mSv. The highest average annual dose equivalent were found in medical staff from township and private clinics, followed by professionals that engaged in county level hospitals, factories, and municipal hospitals. The radiotherapists received the highest personal dose of external radiation, while the technicians responsible for accelerators did the lowest. [ Conclusion ] The occupational external radiation exposure is generally at a low level for radiological professionals in Ningbo and the radition protection work goes well.%[目的]了解宁波市放射工作人员职业外照射个人剂量水平,为评价放射工作场所防护状况及估算突发放射事故物理剂量提供依据. [方法]采用热释光个人剂量测定方法对宁波市接触职业放射的医疗单位及工厂企业工作人员进行监测. [结果]共监测宁波市放射工作人员1563人,2011年的人均年剂量当量为0.2980 mSv,其中,1528人的人均年剂量当量低于2 mSv,28人在2~5 mSv之间,5人在5~20mSv之间,2人超过20mSv;不同单位中,以乡镇卫生院及个体诊所工作人员职业外照射人均年剂量当量最高,其次为县级医院工作人员,工厂企业、市级医院工作人员最低;不同工种中,放射治疗学工作人员职业外照射人均年剂量当量

  2. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Testicles; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sain: les testicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champetier, C.; Gross, E.; Zaccariotto, A.; Duberge, T.; Guerder, C. [Service de radiotherapie, hopital de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France); Pointreau, Y. [Pole Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Ortholan, C. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Chauvet, B. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    2010-07-15

    Although there is very little evidence for direct irradiation of the testes, they may receive significant doses, especially in the treatment of pelvic tumors in adults and in pediatrics. The exocrine function of the testis seems to be more sensitive to radiotherapy. There is a risk of sterility, even after low doses of radiation. In the adult or the child who has reached puberty, we should propose a self-preservation of semen prior to radiotherapy. In pre-pubescent children, the problem is more delicate. In all cases, it is necessary to limit the dose to the testicles without affecting the coverage of tumour volume. Patients and/or their care-givers should be systematically informed of the risk of infertility related to irradiation. (authors)

  3. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Peripheral nerves; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: les nerfs peripheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Dejean, C.; Sargos, P.; Kantor, G. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Bergonie, centre regional de lutte contre le cancer, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Huchet, A.; Mamou, N. [Service d' oncologie medicale et de radiotherapie, CHU Saint-Andre, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Loiseau, H. [Service de neurochirurgie, CHU Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2010-07-15

    Plexopathies and peripheral neuropathies appear progressively and with several years delay after radiotherapy. These lesions are observed principally after three clinical situations: supraclavicular and axillar irradiations for breast cancer, pelvic irradiations for various pathologies and limb irradiations for soft tissue sarcomas. Peripheral nerves and plexus (brachial and lumbosacral) are described as serial structures and are supposed to receive less than a given maximum dose linked to the occurrence of late injury. Literature data, mostly ancient, define the maximum tolerable dose to a threshold of 60 Gy and highlight also a great influence of fractionation and high fraction doses. For peripheral nerves, most frequent late effects are pain with significant differences of occurrence between 50 and 60 Gy. At last, associated pathologies (diabetes, vascular pathology, neuropathy) and associated treatments have probably to be taken into account as additional factors, which may increase the risk of these late radiation complications. (authors)

  4. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum breaker...

  5. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  6. Estimation of delivered doses to the fetus in a external radiation therapy treatment of megavoltage; Estimacion de dosis impartida al feto en un tratamiento de radioterapia externa de megavoltaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggeri, Ricardo M.; Mairal, Liliana, E-mail: ricardoruggeri@gmail.com [Centro Medico Mevaterapia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scarabino, Mara L.; Colombo, Soledad; Sardi, Mabel, E-mail: maliscarabino@gmail.com [Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    This work, stimulated by the entrance to our radiotherapy service several cases of central nervous system injury in pregnant patients, involves the estimation of doses to the fetus from the comparative analysis and verification of theoretical and experimental data. Um phantom was designed with the pregnant morphology about 28 weeks gestation, with inserts for waterproof ionization chamber in the head and abdominal area. From the scan of the anthropomorphic phantom were reproduced in 3D planner treatments comprised of pregnant patients, estimating the dose in the lesion and at different points in the abdominal area. With the phantom in the beam of radiation treatment conditions were measured with the camera dose at the same points of the abdomen mentioned and the isocenter of the injury. The dose was also measured on surface of the abdominal area with diode array to establish correlation with the measured dose ionization chamber calibrated with water. The work provided medical radiotherapists fundamental experimental data for elevated risk assessment framework for radiation protection of the fetus. It also set the reference calibration for in vivo dosimetry in the abdominal area in pregnant patients treated for external radiotherapy. The results obtained with the implemented dosimetry design will determine the procedures that will form the operating rules institution and thus how professionals working within it.

  7. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  8. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation therapy uses ... spread. This is called palliative treatment . Types of radiation therapy External beam radiation therapy: For this treatment, ...

  9. Radioluminescence characterization of in situ x-ray nanodosimeters: Potential real-time monitors and modulators of external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souris, Jeffrey S.; La Riviere, Patrick; Chen, Chin-Tu [Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Chen, Nai-Tzu; Lo, Leu-Wei, E-mail: lwlo@nhri.org.tw [Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Mioli 35053, Taiwan (China); Pelizzari, Charles [Deaprtment of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Europium-doped yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu) has garnered considerable interest recently for its use as a highly efficient, red phosphor in a variety of lighting applications that include fluorescent lamps, plasma, and field emission display panels, light emitting diodes (LEDs), and lasers. In the present work, we describe the development of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanoparticles for a very different application: in situ, in vivo x-ray dosimetry. Spectroscopic analyses of these nanoparticles during x-ray irradiation reveal surprisingly bright and stable radioluminescence at near-infrared wavelengths, with markedly linear response to changes in x-ray flux and energy. Monte Carlo modeling of incident flux and broadband, wide-field imaging of mouse phantoms bearing both Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanoparticles and calibrated LEDs of similar spectral emission demonstrated significant transmission of radioluminescence, in agreement with spectroscopic studies; with approximately 15 visible photons being generated for every x-ray photon incident. Unlike the dosimeters currently employed in clinical practice, these nanodosimeters can sample both dose and dose rate rapidly enough as to provide real-time feedback for x-ray based external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The technique's use of remote sensing and absence of supporting structures enable perturbation-free dosing of the targeted region and complete sampling from any direction. With the conjugation of pathology-targeting ligands onto their surfaces, these nanodosimeters offer a potential paradigm shift in the real-time monitoring and modulation of delivered dose in the EBRT of cancer in situ.

  10. Weekly monitoring of the effects of conventional external beam radiation therapy on patients with head and neck, chest, and pelvis cancer by means of blood cells count

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, Maria da Salete Fonseca dos Santos [Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE (Brazil). Radiotherapy Unit]. E-mail: salete@lundgren.med.br; Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro de Mendonca [Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Sampaio, Divaldo de Almeida [Centro de Hematologia de Pernambuco (Hemope), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the necessity of weekly monitoring by means of leukocyte and platelet counts of patients with head and neck, chest, and pelvis cancer submitted to conventional radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A hundred and one adult patients with cancer of head and neck (n = 11), chest (n = 35) and pelvis (n = 55), submitted to radiotherapy were assessed by means of leukocyte and platelet counts on a weekly basis, with a comparison between the results before and during the treatment and in correlation with the area treated, patient's sex and age group. Results: The most significant decrease in leukocytes was observed in the fourth week, when lymphocytes, total leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and platelets presented a decrease of 53.5%, 26.8%, 19.4%, 22.2% and 14.6%, respectively, in comparison with the values found before the beginning of the therapy. Geometric means for pelvis during the treatment were lower than those for chest, and head and neck. Lymphocytes demonstrated to be more sensitive to radiation therapy. No alteration was found in leukocyte or platelet counts in correlation with patients' sex or age. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, weekly leukocyte and platelet counts do not seem to be useful in the assessment patients submitted to conventional radiotherapy for localized cancer. (author)

  11. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Larynx and pharynx; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: larynx et pharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelleix, C. [Service de radiotherapie, centre hospitalier Dax-Cote d' Argent, 40 - Dax (France); Service de radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Andre, CHU de Bordeaux, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Pointreau, Y.; Calais, G. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, 37 - Tours (France); Pointreau, Y. [CNRS, UMR 6239 Genetique, immunotherapie, chimie et cancer, 37 - Tours (France); Laboratoire de pharmacologie-toxicologie, CHRU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Lafond, C.; Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, clinique Victor-Hugo, 72 - Le Mans (France); Bourhis, J.H. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2010-07-15

    For head and neck cancers, the radiation dose usually needed to sterilize a macroscopic tumour is at least 70 Gy in conventional fractionation. In the larynx, this dose level enables optimal tumour control while exposing the patient to a limited risk of severe complications. For oropharynx and nasopharynx tumors, it is sometimes possible to limit the dose received by the larynx according to the extent of the primary lesion. Thus, if the tumour constraints permit, the maximum dose to the larynx must be less than 63 to 66 Gy. To reduce the risk of laryngeal edema, it is recommended if possible to limit the mean non-involved larynx dose to 40 to 45 Gy. In the pharynx, literature's data suggested to minimize the volume of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles receiving a dose greater than or equal to 60 Gy. Limiting the volume receiving a dose greater than or equal to 50 Gy reduces the risk of dysphagia. These dose constraints should be tailored to each patient taking into account the extent of the initial primary lesion, the possible addition of chemotherapy or a modified fractionation radiotherapy. (authors)

  12. Trends in the Utilization of Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and/or External Beam Radiation Treatment in Stage I and II Endometrial Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Mehul K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Cote, Michele L. [Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Ali-Fehmi, Rouba [Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Buekers, Thomas; Munkarah, Adnan R. [Department of Women' s Health Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I-II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I-II EC.

  13. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K5 of the air kerma standards of the NIM, China, and the BIPM in 137Cs gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Li, D.; Wang, P.

    2015-01-01

    A direct comparison of the standards for air kerma of the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing, China, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 137Cs radiation beam of the BIPM in September 2014. The comparison result, evaluated as a ratio of the NIM and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 0.9967 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.1 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Radiation protection in odontology: French regulation and new European standards; La radioprotection en odontologie: reglementation francaise et nouvelles normes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucart, J.M

    2004-07-01

    This a point on the regulatory evolutions in the field of radiation protection in the daily practice of odontology, consecutive to the transposition in French law of European directives. This work proposes practical cards to manage installation in radiodiagnosis in order to protect professional personnel and patients. (N.C.)

  15. Comparison of two treatment strategies for irradiation of regional lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer: Lymph flow guided portals versus standard radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Kanaev, Sergey Vasilevich; Semiglazov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Jukova, Ludmila Alekseevna; Krzhivitckiy, Pavel Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy being an essential part of breast cancer treatment, we evaluate various radiotherapy strategies in patients with breast cancer. Lymph node (LN) scintigraphy was performed in 172 primary patients with BC. LN visualization started 30-360 min after intratumoral injection of 75-150 MBq of 99mTc-nanocolloids. Our standard recommendation for postoperative radiotherapy in patients with LN invasion by BC were as follows: for patients with external localization of tumour - breast + axillary (Ax) + sub-supraclavicular (SSCL) regions; with internal localization - all above + internal mammary nodes (IM). Proposed strategy of lymph flow guided radiotherapy is based on the assumption that only regions that contain 'hot' LNs must be included in a treatment volume. Among 110 patients with external localization of BC, Ax LNs were visualized in all cases and in 62 patients it was the only region with 'hot' LN. Twenty-three patients (20.9%) had drainage to Ax + SSCL, 12 (10.9%) - Ax + IM, 13 (11.8%) - Ax + SSCL + IM regions. After the visualization of lymph flow patterns, standard treatment volume was changed in 87/110 cases (79.1%): in 56.4%, reduced, in 22.7%, enlarged or changed. In 62 patients with tumours in internal quadrants, we revealed the following patterns of lymph-flow: only to the Ax region in 23 (37.1%); Ax + IM, 13 (21%); Ax + SSCL, 15 (24.2%); Ax + IM + ISSCL, 11 (17.7%) cases. After lymph-flow visualization, the standard irradiation volume was reduced in 53/62 (85.5%) cases. Visualization of an individual lymph flow pattern from BC can be used for the optimization of standard fields used for irradiation of regional LNs.

  16. VUV radiometry below 100 nm: the high-power hydrogen arc as a standard source of continuum radiation between 53 nm and 92 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, K; Thoma, P

    1979-08-01

    A stationary hydrogen arc discharge may be used as a standard source of radiation in the VUV below 100 nm. The Lyman resonance continuum is used, the cross sections of which are theoretically well known. The method described is based on optically thin radiation, requiring high plasma temperatures and an effective helium gas separation in the arc. The investigations demonstrate that, in appropriate experimental conditions, the plasma is indeed transparent down to the onset of the He ground-state absorption. Above that, the VUV spectral radiance can be predicted within less than 15% uncertainty from conventional plasma diagnostics. For a first application, the He continuum has been measured between 65 nm and 92 nm. The consistency of these results with theoretical calculations confirms the validity of the concept presented.

  17. WE-EF-BRA-03: Catheter- Free Ablation with External Photon Radiation: Treatment Planning, Delivery Considerations, and Correlation of Effects with Delivered Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deisher, A; Anderson, S; Cusma, J; Herman, M; Johnson, S; Lehmann, H; Packer, D; Parker, K; Song, L; Takami, M; Kruse, J [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To plan, target, and calculate delivered dose in atrioventricular node (AVN) ablation with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in an intact porcine model. Methods: Seven pigs underwent AVN irradiation, with prescription doses ranging between 25 and 55Gy in a single fraction. Cardiac CT scans were acquired at expiration. Two physicians contoured AVN targets on 10 phases, providing estimates of target motion and inter-physician variability. Treatment planning was conducted on a static phase-averaged CT. The volume designated to receive prescription dose covered the full extent of AVN cardiac motion, expanded by 4mm for setup uncertainty. Optimization limited doses to risk structures according to single-fraction tumor treatment protocols. Orthogonal kV images were used to align bony anatomy at time of treatment. Localization was further refined with respiratory-gated cone-beam CT, and range of cardiac motion was verified under fluoroscopy. Beam delivery was respiratory-gated for expiration with a mean efficiency of 60%. Deformable registration of the 10 cardiac CT phases was used to calculate actual delivered dose for comparison to electro-anatomical and visually evident lesions. Results: The mean [minimum,maximum] amplitude of AVN cardiac motion was LR 2.9 [1.7,3.9]mm, AP 6.6 [4.4,10.4]mm, and SI 5.6 [2.0,9.9]mm. Incorporating cardiac motion into the dose calculation showed the volume receiving full dose was 40–80% of the volume indicated on the static planning image, although the contoured AVN target received full dose in all animals. Initial results suggest the dimensions of the electro-anatomical lesion are correlated with the 40Gy isodose volume. Conclusion: Image-guidance techniques allow for accurate and precise delivery of VMAT for catheter-free arrhythmia ablation. An arsenal of advanced radiation planning, dose optimization, and image-guided delivery techniques was employed to assess and mitigate effects of cardiac and respiratory motion

  18. Development of Chinese adult male mathematical phantom and external radiation dose calculations%中国数字人体男性数学模型建立及外辐射模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文娟; 谢添武; 韩道; 刘谦

    2013-01-01

    基于“中国数字人男一号”高分辨人体结构数据集,通过最小包围盒方法获取中国数字人体男性体素模型各器官空间位置和尺寸信息,建立了中国数字人体男性数学模型,并通过变形实现了不同身高模型的构建.采用蒙特卡罗方法进行了不同能量下光子中子的外部辐射模拟.通过结果对比发现,数学模型与体素模型模拟结果趋势一致,但器官位置和质量对剂量影响较大,低能级下尤为明显.对于不同身高模型,小型个体剂量大于大型个体,深层器官剂量较浅层器官对器官尺寸更为敏感.数学模型定义简单,存储空间小,有利于人体辐射剂量的快速计算.%A new mathematical phantom, the Chinese MIRD (CMIRD), was developed based on the high-resolution data set of Visible Chinese Human (VCH). The position and size of organs were obtained from the voxel-based VCH model, using the minimal 3D bounding box method. According to the equations of the ORNL adult phantom, the original CMIRD based on that anatomic information was constructed and the method of proportional deformation was adopted in order to compare the external radiation dose of different height models for different radiation directions and particles with MCNPX. The stimulation results obtained from CMIRD present comparable to those published dose values. The analysis of the discrepancies indicates that the shape, location and mass of organs have great influence on radiation dose especially at low energies. The comparison of the effective doses for models with different size shows that the size of the model is important, and the smaller models receive larger doses. Also, the deeper organs present more sensitive to the organ size than the shallower ones. In addition, the mathematical model is superior in speed of the radiation dose calculation, which requires simpler definition and less memory space.

  19. Search for Physics beyond the Standard Model with the ATLAS detector and the development of radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, Yiftah

    We are investigating a radiation detector based on plasma display panel technology, the principal component of plasma television displays. This Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS) technology is a variant of micro-pattern gas radiation detectors. Based on the properties of existing plasma display panels, we expect eventually to be able to build a sealed array of plasma discharge gas cells to detect ionizing radiation with fast rise time of less than 10ns and high spatial resolution using a pixel pitch of less than 100 micrometer. In this thesis I shall describe our program of testing plasma display panels as detectors, including simulations, design and the first laboratory and beam studies that demonstrate the detection of cosmic ray muons, beta rays and medium energy protons. The ATLAS detector is used to search for high-mass resonances, in particular heavy neutral gauge bosons (Z') and excited states of Kaluza-Klein γ/Z bosons decaying to an electron-positron pair or a muon-antimuon pair. Results are presented based ...

  20. KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for air kerma of the LNE-LNHB and the BIPM for 137Cs gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Delaunay, F.; Donois, M.

    2009-01-01

    A direct comparison of the standards for air kerma of the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 137Cs radiation beam of the BIPM in November 2008. The result, expressed as a ratio of the LNE-LNHB and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 0.9984 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.6 × 10-3. The result of the earlier direct comparison in 137Cs γ rays, made in 1995, was 1.0019(30); taking into account the changes made to the BIPM standard and using the present correction factors for the LNE-LNHB standard, the 1995 result becomes 0.9989(26), which is in agreement with the present comparison result. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. Radiative leptonic decay B-c→τ-(v)τγ in the standard model and the two-Higgs-doublet model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhen-Xing; FENG Guan-Qiu; GUO Xin-Heng

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the radiative leptonic Be decay B-→τ-(v)τγ in the Standard Model and the twoHiggs-doublet model using the non-relativistic constituent quark model.The results confirm that this channel is experimentally promising in view of the large number of Bc mesons which are expected to be produced at future hadron facilities.We also find that this decay is sensitive to the parameters of the two-Higgs-doublet model,and it can be tested in future experiments.

  2. National Solar Radiation Measurement Standards and Quality Control%国家级太阳辐射测量标准及其质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云; 权继梅; 丁蕾; 边泽强

    2015-01-01

    太阳辐射测量标准仅采取定期参加国际比对的溯源方法不能完全满足质量保证的要求。只有联合国际比对和期间核查的控制方法,才能确保测量标准的测量不确定度持续控制在误差允许范围之内。我国太阳辐射测量标准与世界辐射测量基准(WRR)比对结果的不确定度为0.17%,满足世界气象组织(WMO)要求,并达到世界先进水平。为了保证在两次国际周期比对间隔之间的准确可靠,并保证其处于良好置信度的校准状态,定期对测量标准的重复性和稳定性进行期间核查,以图形记忆方式对太阳辐射测量标准的测量过程进行连续和长期的统计控制。通过期间核查,保证了太阳辐射测量标准的重复性不大于0.1%,年稳定性小于0.25%,未超出控制界限且分布呈随机状态,保证了测量过程处于稳定受控状态,满足建标要求。%In order to ensure the accuracy of national solar radiation measurements and the world radiometric ref-erence (WRR)transfer,quality control is carried out on the solar radiation measurement standards.There is a full set of sound management system and quality guarantee measure over many years’improvement, including the measurement standard of value transfer and traceability,the selection and validation of cali-bration method,calibration process and data quality control,staffed and personnel skill requirements and so on.It also passes the measurement standard reexamination organized by General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ). The radiation value is directly traceable to the WRR every five years through attending the World Me-teorological Organization (WMO)International Pyrheliometer Comparisons (IPC),and then the metrolog-ical verification or calibration method is adopted for the standard radiation instrument value transfer,to en-sure the accuracy of WRR in China and neighboring

  3. A study of the shielding used to reduce leakage and scattered radiation to the fetus in a pregnant patient treated with a 6-MV external X-ray beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Bednarz, Bryan; Xu, X George

    2009-12-01

    A Monte Carlo-based procedure has been developed to assess the shielded fetal doses from 6 MV external photon beam radiation treatments and improve upon existing techniques that are based on AAPM Task Group Report 36 (TG-36). Anatomically realistic models of the pregnant patient representing 3- and 6-mo gestational stages were implemented into the MCNPX code together with a detailed accelerator model that is capable of simulating scattered and leakage radiation from the accelerator head. The phantom was shielded using suggested lead and Cerrobend in different locations and with different thicknesses. Absorbed doses to the fetus both with and without shielding were calculated considering typical mantle, head and neck, and brain treatment plans. The unshielded fetal doses tended to increase with decreasing distance from the field edge to the nearest fetal point and increasing of the field size. The unshielded absorbed doses to the fetus for all treatment plans ranged from a maximum of 4.08 microGy/MU (monitor unit) to a minimum 0.09 microGy/MU. The use of lead or Cerrobend shielding reduced the fetal doses by factors of up to 4. For an optimal shield half-value layer, the dose reduction between lead and Cerrobend was statistically insignificant. The maximum permitted MUs for the mantle treatments with shielding were calculated based on 5 cGy dose limits suggested by TG-36. The study demonstrates an accurate assessing tool that can be used to determine the absorbed dose to the fetus and to design the shielding as part of the treatment planning and risk management.

  4. Prognostic Impact of External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients Treated With and Without Extended Surgery and Intraoperative Electrons for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer: 16-Year Experience in a Single Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Felipe A. [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: cvsole@uc.cl [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Alvarez de Sierra, Pedro [Service of General Surgery, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Espí, Marina [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Jose [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors associated with survival in patients after intraoperative electrons containing resective surgical rescue of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Methods and Materials: From January 1995 to December 2011, 60 patients with LRRC underwent extended surgery (n=38: multiorgan [43%], bone [28%], soft tissue [38%]) or nonextended (n=22) surgical resection, including a component of intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT) to the pelvic recurrence tumor bed. Twenty-eight (47%) of these patients also received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (range, 30.6-50.4 Gy). Survival outcomes were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 36 months (range, 2-189 months), and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year rates for locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) were 86%, 52%, and 44%; and 78%, 53%, 43%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, R1 resection, EBRT at the time of pelvic rerecurrence, no tumor fragmentation, and non-lymph node metastasis retained significance with regard to LRR. R1 resection and no tumor fragmentation showed a significant association with OS after adjustment for other covariates. Conclusions: EBRT treatment integrated for rescue, resection radicality, and not involved fragmented resection specimens are associated with improved LRC in patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer. Additionally, tumor fragmentation could be compensated by EBRT. Present results suggest that a significant group of patients with LRRC may benefit from EBRT treatment integrated with extended surgery and IOERT.

  5. Radiation tolerant VLSI circuits in standard deep submicron CMOS technologies for the LHC experiments practical design aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, G; Delmastro, M; Faccio, F; Floria, S; Giraldo, A; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Snoeys, W

    1999-01-01

    We discuss design issues related to the extensive use of Enclosed Layout Transistors (ELT's) and guard rings in deep submicron CMOS technologies in order to improve radiation tolerance of ASIC's designed for the LHC experiments (the Large Hadron Collider at present under construction at CERN). We present novel aspects related to the use of ELT's: noise measured before and after irradiation up to 100 Mrad (SiO/sub 2/), a model to calculate the W/L ratio and matching properties of these devices. Some conclusions concerning the density and the speed of IC's conceived with this design approach are finally drawn. (16 refs).

  6. Radiation-induced second primary cancer risks from modern external beam radiotherapy for early prostate cancer: impact of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and flattening filter free (FFF) radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louise J.; Thompson, Christopher M.; Lilley, John; Cosgrove, Vivian; Franks, Kevin; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Henry, Ann M.

    2015-02-01

    Risks of radiation-induced second primary cancer following prostate radiotherapy using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), flattening filter free (FFF) and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) were evaluated. Prostate plans were created using 10 MV 3D-CRT (78 Gy in 39 fractions) and 6 MV 5-field IMRT (78 Gy in 39 fractions), VMAT (78 Gy in 39 fractions, with standard flattened and energy-matched FFF beams) and SABR (42.7 Gy in 7 fractions with standard flattened and energy-matched FFF beams). Dose-volume histograms from pelvic planning CT scans of three prostate patients, each planned using all 6 techniques, were used to calculate organ equivalent doses (OED) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of second rectal and bladder cancers, and pelvic bone and soft tissue sarcomas, using mechanistic, bell-shaped and plateau models. For organs distant to the treatment field, chamber measurements recorded in an anthropomorphic phantom were used to calculate OEDs and EARs using a linear model. Ratios of OED give relative radiation-induced second cancer risks. SABR resulted in lower second cancer risks at all sites relative to 3D-CRT. FFF resulted in lower second cancer risks in out-of-field tissues relative to equivalent flattened techniques, with increasing impact in organs at greater distances from the field. For example, FFF reduced second cancer risk by up to 20% in the stomach and up to 56% in the brain, relative to the equivalent flattened technique. Relative to 10 MV 3D-CRT, 6 MV IMRT or VMAT with flattening filter increased second cancer risks in several out-of-field organs, by up to 26% and 55%, respectively. For all techniques, EARs were consistently low. The observed large relative differences between techniques, in absolute terms, were very low, highlighting the importance of considering absolute risks alongside the corresponding relative risks, since when absolute

  7. Impact of radiation dose and standardized uptake value of (18)FDG PET on nodal control in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Kroon, Petra S; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M

    2015-01-01

    by dose-maps from EBRT and IGABT. All PET/CT scans were re-evaluated and nodal maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) was determined. Nodal failures were registered to planning scans and related to boosted nodes and treated volume. Relation between SUVmax and nodal control as well as the pattern...

  8. A Randomized Multicentre Phase II Trial Comparing Adjuvant Therapy in Patients with Interferon Alpha-2b and 5-FU Alone or in Combination with Either External Radiation Treatment and Cisplatin (CapRI or Radiation alone regarding Event-Free Survival – CapRI-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friess Helmut

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5-year survival of patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma is still unsatisfying. The ESPAC-1 and the CONKO 001 trial proofed that adjuvant chemotherapy improves 5-year survival significantly from approximately 14% to 21%. In parallel, investigators from the Virginia Mason Clinic reported a 5-year survival rate of 55% in a phase II trial evaluating a combination of adjuvant chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiation (CapRI-scheme. Two other groups confirmed in phase II trials these results to a certain extent. However, these groups reported severe gastrointestinal toxicity (up to 93% grade 3 or 4 toxicity. In a randomized controlled phase III trial, called CapRI, 110 patients were enrolled from 2004 to 2007 in Germany and Italy to check for reproducibility. Interestingly, much less gastrointestinal toxicity was observed. However, dose-reduction due to haematological side effects had to be performed in nearly all patients. First clinical results are expected for the end of 2009. Methods/Design CapRI-2 is an open, controlled, prospective, randomized, multicentre phase II trial with three parallel arms. A de-escalation of the CapRI-scheme will be tested in two different modifications. Patients in study arm A will be treated as outpatients with the complete CapRI-scheme consisting of cisplatin, Interferon alpha-2b and external beam radiation and three cycles of 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion. In study arm B the first de-escalation will be realised by omitting cisplatin. Next, patients in study arm C will additionally not receive external beam radiation. A total of 135 patients with pathologically confirmed R0 or R1 resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma are planned to be enrolled. Primary endpoint is the comparison of the treatment groups with respect to six-month event-free-survival. An event is defined as grade 3 or grade 4 toxicity, objective tumour recurrence, or death. Discussion The aim of this

  9. Standard Guide for Predicting Radiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shift in Reactor Vessel Materials, E706 (IIF)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents a method for predicting reference transition temperature adjustments for irradiated light-water cooled power reactor pressure vessel materials based on Charpy V-notch 30-ftlbf (41-J) data. Radiation damage calculative procedures have been developed from a statistical analysis of an irradiated material database that was available as of May 2000. The embrittlement correlation used in this guide was developed using the following variables: copper and nickel contents, irradiation temperature, and neutron fluence. The form of the model was based on current understanding for two mechanisms of embrittlement: stable matrix damage (SMD) and copper-rich precipitation (CRP); saturation of copper effects (for different weld materials) was included. This guide is applicable for the following specific materials, copper, nickel, and phosphorus contents, range of irradiation temperature, and neutron fluence based on the overall database: 1.1.1 MaterialsA 533 Type B Class 1 and 2, A302 Grade B, A302 G...

  10. A national approach for automated collection of standardized and population-based radiation therapy data in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Tufve; Olsson, Caroline; Agrup, Måns; Björk, Peter; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Grinaker, Hanne; Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn; Gustafsson, Anders; Gustafsson, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt; Johnsson, Stefan; Karlsson, Magnus; Kristensen, Ingrid; Nilsson, Per; Nyström, Leif; Onjukka, Eva; Reizenstein, Johan; Skönevik, Johan; Söderström, Karin; Valdman, Alexander; Zackrisson, Björn; Montelius, Anders

    2016-05-01

    To develop an infrastructure for structured and automated collection of interoperable radiation therapy (RT) data into a national clinical quality registry. The present study was initiated in 2012 with the participation of seven of the 15 hospital departments delivering RT in Sweden. A national RT nomenclature and a database for structured unified storage of RT data at each site (Medical Information Quality Archive, MIQA) have been developed. Aggregated data from the MIQA databases are sent to a national RT registry located on the same IT platform (INCA) as the national clinical cancer registries. The suggested naming convention has to date been integrated into the clinical workflow at 12 of 15 sites, and MIQA is installed at six of these. Involvement of the remaining 3/15 RT departments is ongoing, and they are expected to be part of the infrastructure by 2016. RT data collection from ARIA®, Mosaiq®, Eclipse™, and Oncentra® is supported. Manual curation of RT-structure information is needed for approximately 10% of target volumes, but rarely for normal tissue structures, demonstrating a good compliance to the RT nomenclature. Aggregated dose/volume descriptors are calculated based on the information in MIQA and sent to INCA using a dedicated service (MIQA2INCA). Correct linkage of data for each patient to the clinical cancer registries on the INCA platform is assured by the unique Swedish personal identity number. An infrastructure for structured and automated prospective collection of syntactically interoperable RT data into a national clinical quality registry for RT data is under implementation. Future developments include adapting MIQA to other treatment modalities (e.g. proton therapy and brachytherapy) and finding strategies to harmonize structure delineations. How the RT registry should comply with domain-specific ontologies such as the Radiation Oncology Ontology (ROO) is under discussion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 柚子籽的脂肪酸组成与含量分析%Fatty acid analysis of grapefruit seed by external standard method and peak area normalization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿薇; 曹蕾; 陈燕

    2015-01-01

    通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)测定柚子籽中的脂肪酸含量,用外标法与峰面积归一法两种方法,进行对比定量分析。柚子籽脂肪酸种类丰富,以不饱和脂肪酸为主,柚子籽中不饱和脂肪酸为67.42%。柚子籽中4种脂肪酸含量:亚油酸>棕榈酸>油酸>硬脂酸。%This article analyzed the fatty acid in grapefruit seed by GC-MS,compared external standard method and peak area normalisation method to analyze quantitatively. There are different kinds of fatty acid in grapefruit seed. The main kind is unsaturated fatty acid,which is 67.42%. The content of the four fatty acids in grapefruit seed:linoleic acid>palmitic acid>oleic acid>stearic acid.

  12. GC-MS外标法分析椰子果肉中的脂肪酸含量%Fatty Acid Analysis of Coconut Flesh by GC-MS External Standard Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿薇; 郑敏燕; 魏永生; 张君才

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid in coconut flesh were analyzed by GC-MS ,using the external standard method to analyze quantitatively. There are different kinds of fatty acid in coconut flesh. The content of the four fatty acids in coconut flesh: Palmitic acid > oleic acid > stearic acid , Linoleic acid was not checked out. The RSD of results was between 2.03%and 10.25%.The recovery rate of sample was from 77.0%to 110.0%.%通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)测定椰子果肉中的脂肪酸含量,用外标法进行定量分析。椰子果肉脂肪酸种类丰富,选取常见的4种脂肪酸,在椰子果肉中的含量:棕榈酸>油酸>硬脂酸,亚油酸未检出。相对标准偏差RSD (n=5)在2.03%~10.25%之间,样品回收率测定在77.0%~110.0%之间。

  13. Comparison of two treatment strategies for irradiation of regional lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer: Lymph flow guided portals versus standard radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Kanaev, Sergey Vasilevich; Semiglazov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Jukova, Ludmila Alekseevna; Krzhivitckiy, Pavel Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Aim and Background Radiotherapy being an essential part of breast cancer treatment, we evaluate various radiotherapy strategies in patients with breast cancer. Materials and methods Lymph node (LN) scintigraphy was performed in 172 primary patients with BC. LN visualization started 30–360 min after intratumoral injection of 75–150 MBq of 99mTc-nanocolloids. Our standard recommendation for postoperative radiotherapy in patients with LN invasion by BC were as follows: for patients with external localization of tumour – breast + axillary (Ax) + sub-supraclavicular (SSCL) regions; with internal localization – all above + internal mammary nodes (IM). Proposed strategy of lymph flow guided radiotherapy is based on the assumption that only regions that contain ‘hot’ LNs must be included in a treatment volume. Results Among 110 patients with external localization of BC, Ax LNs were visualized in all cases and in 62 patients it was the only region with ‘hot’ LN. Twenty-three patients (20.9%) had drainage to Ax + SSCL, 12 (10.9%) – Ax + IM, 13 (11.8%) – Ax + SSCL + IM regions. After the visualization of lymph flow patterns, standard treatment volume was changed in 87/110 cases (79.1%): in 56.4%, reduced, in 22.7%, enlarged or changed. In 62 patients with tumours in internal quadrants, we revealed the following patterns of lymph-flow: only to the Ax region in 23 (37.1%); Ax + IM, 13 (21%); Ax + SSCL, 15 (24.2%); Ax + IM + ISSCL, 11 (17.7%) cases. After lymph-flow visualization, the standard irradiation volume was reduced in 53/62 (85.5%) cases. Conclusion Visualization of an individual lymph flow pattern from BC can be used for the optimization of standard fields used for irradiation of regional LNs. PMID:25535581

  14. QCD radiative corrections for $h\\to b\\bar b$ in the Standard Model Dimension-6 EFT

    CERN Document Server

    Gauld, Rhorry; Scott, Darren J

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s)$ QCD corrections to the inclusive $h\\to b\\bar b$ decay rate in the dimension-6 Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). The QCD corrections multiplying the dimension-6 Wilson coefficients which alter the $hb\\bar b$-vertex at tree-level are proportional to the Standard Model (SM) ones, so next-to-leading order results can be obtained through a simple rescaling of the tree-level decay rate. On the other hand, contributions from the operators $Q_{bG}$ and $Q_{HG}$, which alter the $gb\\bar b$-vertex and introduce a $hgg$-vertex respectively, enter at $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s)$ and induce sizeable corrections which are unrelated to the SM ones and cannot be anticipated through a renormalisation-group analysis. We present compact analytic results for these contributions, which we recommend to be included in future phenomenological studies.

  15. Partial breast radiation therapy - external beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Breast redness, tenderness, sensitivity Breast swelling or edema Breast infection (rare) Long-term side effects may begin months or years after treatment and may include: Decreased breast size Increased firmness ...

  16. [Modern methods for cancer external radiation therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philippe; Henni, Mehdi; Housset, Martin

    2008-10-15

    Radiotherapy has been in constant progress for the past century. New technologies are based on modern imaging modalities, efficient 3D treatment planning systems, sophisticated immobilization systems and rigorous quality assurance and treatment verification. The central objective of conformal radiotherapy is to ensure a high dose distribution tailored to the limits of the target volume while reducing exposure of healthy tissues. These techniques would then allow a further tumor dose escalation. New systems like CyberKnife, tomotherapy and hadrontherapy represent major potential progress for the treatment of complex tumours that are very difficult to treat with conventional radiotherapy techniques.

  17. Standard and reduced radiation dose liver CT images: adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction versus model-based iterative reconstruction-comparison of findings and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, William P; Chan, Keith T; Busey, Janet M; Mitsumori, Lee M; Choi, Eunice; Koprowicz, Kent M; Kanal, Kalpana M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate whether reduced radiation dose liver computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction ( MBIR model-based iterative reconstruction ) might compromise depiction of clinically relevant findings or might have decreased image quality when compared with clinical standard radiation dose CT images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction ( ASIR adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction ). With institutional review board approval, informed consent, and HIPAA compliance, 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) were prospectively included who underwent liver CT. After a portal venous pass with ASIR adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction images, a 60% reduced radiation dose pass was added with MBIR model-based iterative reconstruction images. One reviewer scored ASIR adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction image quality and marked findings. Two additional independent reviewers noted whether marked findings were present on MBIR model-based iterative reconstruction images and assigned scores for relative conspicuity, spatial resolution, image noise, and image quality. Liver and aorta Hounsfield units and image noise were measured. Volume CT dose index and size-specific dose estimate ( SSDE size-specific dose estimate ) were recorded. Qualitative reviewer scores were summarized. Formal statistical inference for signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR signal-to-noise ratio ), contrast-to-noise ratio ( CNR contrast-to-noise ratio ), volume CT dose index, and SSDE size-specific dose estimate was made (paired t tests), with Bonferroni adjustment. Two independent reviewers identified all 136 ASIR adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction image findings (n = 272) on MBIR model-based iterative reconstruction images, scoring them as equal or better for conspicuity, spatial resolution, and image noise in 94.1% (256 of 272), 96.7% (263 of 272), and 99.3% (270 of 272), respectively. In 50 image sets, two reviewers

  18. Estimation of a Self-Consistent Set of Radiobiological Parameters From Hypofractionated Versus Standard Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Meldola (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine a self-consistent set of radiobiological parameters in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A method to estimate intrinsic radiosensitivity (α), fractionation sensitivity (α/β), repopulation doubling time, number of clonogens, and kick-off time for accelerated repopulation of prostate cancer has been developed. Based on the generalized linear-quadratic model and without assuming the isoeffective hypothesis, the potential applications of the method were investigated using the clinical outcome of biochemical relapse-free survival recently reviewed in the literature. The strengths and limitations of the method, regarding the fitted parameters and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), are also discussed. Results: Our best estimate of α/β is 2.96 Gy (95% CI 2.41-3.53 Gy). The corresponding α value is 0.16 Gy{sup −1} (95% CI 0.14-0.18 Gy{sup −1}), which is compatible with a realistic number of clonogens: 6.5 × 10{sup 6} (95% CI 1.5 × 10{sup 6}-2.1 × 10{sup 7}). The estimated cell doubling time is 5.1 days (95% CI 4.2-7.2 days), very low if compared with that reported in the literature. This corresponds to the dose required to offset the repopulation occurring in 1 day of 0.52 Gy/d (95% CI 0.32-0.68 Gy/d). However, a long kick-off time of 31 days (95% CI 22-41 days) from the start of radiation therapy was found. Conclusion: The proposed analytic/graphic method has allowed the fitting of clinical data, providing a self-consistent set of radiobiological parameters for prostate cancer. With our analysis we confirm a low value for α/β with a correspondingly high value of intrinsic radiosensitivity, a realistic average number of clonogens, a long kick-off time for accelerated repopulation, and a surprisingly fast repopulation that suggests the involvement of subpopulations of specifically tumorigenic stem cells during continuing radiation therapy.

  19. 气相色谱外标法测定生物柴油中的酯类组分%Determination of ester compounds in biodiesel using gas chromatography with external standard method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪; 张继龙; 王会刚; 王鹏; 马静红; 李瑞丰

    2013-01-01

    A method for determination of compounds in biodiesel such as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME),monoglyceride,diglyceride and triglyceride,is established using gas chromatography with external standard method.The sample is dissolved in pyridine and injected by automatic injection.Gas chromatography analysis is performed on a Agilent-DB-5ht capillary column couple with flame ionization detector (FID).The limitation of detection is 0.05-1.5 mg/mL with linearity correlation coefficient of 0.996 7-0.999 8.And the optimum sample concentration is 1.0-1.5 mg/mL.The detection recoveries of standard compounds of biodiesel are more than 99.7% with the relative standard deviation (n =5) of 0.13%-1.66%,which show the high accuracy of the detection method.This method can be routinely for the determination of four kinds of ester compounds in biodiesel products.%建立了测定生物柴油样品中脂肪酸甲酯、单脂肪酸甘油酯、二脂肪酸甘油酯和三脂肪酸甘油酯的气相色谱(外标法)检测方法.使用吡啶作溶剂,采用热柱头进样和DB-5ht毛细柱分离,全自动进样器程序控制进行氢火焰离子检测.检测得出最佳进样质量浓度为1.0 ~ 1.5 mg/mL,所选进样浓度范围内各样品回收率≥99.7%,线性良好(r=0.996 7 ~0.999 8).并测定了生物柴油主要组分的标样保留时间和线性回归方程,且本气相色谱分析方法具有非常好的重复性和高精确度,各组分相对标准偏差范围在0.13%~1.66%,在实际的生物柴油样品检测分析中体现了相当高的检测准确性.

  20. High-resolution global grids of revised Priestley–Taylor and Hargreaves–Samani coefficients for assessing ASCE-standardized reference crop evapotranspiration and solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Aschonitis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to provide global grids (0.5° of revised annual coefficients for the Priestley–Taylor (P-T and Hargreaves–Samani (H-S evapotranspiration methods after calibration based on the ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers-standardized Penman–Monteith method (the ASCE method includes two reference crops: short-clipped grass and tall alfalfa. The analysis also includes the development of a global grid of revised annual coefficients for solar radiation (Rs estimations using the respective Rs formula of H-S. The analysis was based on global gridded climatic data of the period 1950–2000. The method for deriving annual coefficients of the P-T and H-S methods was based on partial weighted averages (PWAs of their mean monthly values. This method estimates the annual values considering the amplitude of the parameter under investigation (ETo and Rs giving more weight to the monthly coefficients of the months with higher ETo values (or Rs values for the case of the H-S radiation formula. The method also eliminates the effect of unreasonably high or low monthly coefficients that may occur during periods where ETo and Rs fall below a specific threshold. The new coefficients were validated based on data from 140 stations located in various climatic zones of the USA and Australia with expanded observations up to 2016. The validation procedure for ETo estimations of the short reference crop showed that the P-T and H-S methods with the new revised coefficients outperformed the standard methods reducing the estimated root mean square error (RMSE in ETo values by 40 and 25 %, respectively. The estimations of Rs using the H-S formula with revised coefficients reduced the RMSE by 28 % in comparison to the standard H-S formula. Finally, a raster database was built consisting of (a global maps for the mean monthly ETo values estimated by ASCE-standardized method for both reference crops, (b global maps for the revised annual

  1. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  2. Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the NRC and the BIPM for {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, C.; Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); McCaffrey, J.P.; McEwen, M.R.; Ross, C.K. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the {sup 60}Co radiation beam of the BIPM in May 2009 under the auspices of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the NRC and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9980(52). This result replaces the 1998 NRC value of 0.9976(51) in this key comparison. The degrees of equivalence between the NRC and the other participants in this comparison have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix for the ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) with published results that have taken part in the ongoing comparison for absorbed dose to water. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  3. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K1 of the air-kerma standards of the LNE-LNHB, France and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Delaunay, F.; Donois, M.

    2013-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for air kerma of the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in April 2013. The comparison result, evaluated as a ratio of the LNE-LNHB and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 0.9994 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.8 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K1 of the air-kerma standards of the SCK.CEN, Belgium and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D.; Mihailescu, L. C.; Chiriotti, S.

    2017-01-01

    A first key comparison of the standards for air kerma of the Laboratory for Nuclear Calibrations (LNK) from the Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie—Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Belgium and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in September 2016. The comparison result, evaluated as a ratio of the SCK.CEN and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 1.0021 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.6 × 10-3. The results for an indirect comparison made at the same time are consistent with the direct results at the level of 7 parts in 104. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. 汽车气动噪声外辐射声场的数值仿真%Numerical Simulation on the External Radiation Sound Field of Vehicle Aerodynamic Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑拯宇; 李人宪

    2013-01-01

    Based on Lighthill acoustic analogy theory and combining boundary element method ( BEM) with computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) , the pulsating pressure data of flow field boundary are input into the BEM model for a passenger car, and the boundary conditions of aerodynamic dipole sound source near car surface are obtained through conversion and calculation. A numerical simulation on the external radiation sound field of vehicle aerodynamic noise is conducted by using direct BEM. The results show that the intensity of dipole sound source on car surface decreases with the increase of frequency, the sound pressure level of aerodynamic noise near rearview mirrors is up to some 78 dB at 2,000Hz with a vehicle speed of 120km/h, and at the same frequency, the radiation intensity of aerodynamic sound source on the longitudinal symmetric plane of vehicle is larger than that on horizontal plane.%从Lighthill声类比理论出发,将流体动力学技术与边界元法结合起来,在某轿车边界元模型中,导入流场边界脉动压力数据,并经转换和计算获得汽车表面附近的气动偶极子声源边界条件;采用直接边界元算法进行汽车气动噪声外辐射声场的数值仿真.结果表明:轿车表面的偶极子声源强度随频率增大而降低;在120km/h车速和2000Hz频率时后视镜附近声场的气动噪声声压级可达78dB左右;在同一频率下,轿车在纵向对称面上的气动声源辐射强度要大于地平面上的气动声源辐射强度.

  6. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT for High Risk Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten H. Ecke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa. Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79 with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index, Gleason score, D’Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE, PSA value after one/three/five year(s follow-up (FU, time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis (p = 0.009, PSA on date of first HDR-BT (p = 0.033, and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year (p = 0.025 have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.

  7. 随机取向内外混合凝聚粒子辐射特性%Radiative properties of internal/external mixture of agglomerates in random orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    类成新; 吴振森; 冯东太

    2013-01-01

    The discrete dipole approximation method was used to compute the radiative characteristic parameters including the optical cross-sections, single-scattering albedo and asymmetrical parameter for a variety of mixed agglomerates in different mixing states at a visible wavelength 0.55μm. It is shown that the influence of the mixing states on the asymmetrical parameter is very great, and that on the scattering cross section and single-scattering albedo is heavy, while that on the absorption and extinction cross sections is not obvious. The influence of mixing patterns on the asymmetrical parameter, scattering cross section and single-scattering albedo is becoming more obvious with the increase of the size of agglomerates. The mixture ratios has an obvious effect on the radiative characteristic quantities of agglomerates in internal and external mixing states, and the effect varies with the monomer diameters, and number of monomers in the agglomerates. The scattering cross-sections of external mixture of agglomerates are larger than those of their internally mixed counterparts, but the single-scattering albedo decreases accordingly at the same mixture ratios.%采用离散偶极子近似方法对随机取向混合凝聚粒子在内外混合状态下的光学截面、单次散射反照率以及非对称因子等辐射特性参量进行了数值计算,详细讨论了混合方式、混合比等因素对混合凝聚粒子辐射特性的影响。研究表明,混合凝聚粒子的混合方式对非对称因子的影响非常大,对散射截面和单次散射反照率的影响比较大,但是对吸收和消光截面的影响不明显。随着凝聚粒子中基本粒子粒径和数量的增大,非对称因子、散射截面以及单次散射反照率受混合方式的影响变得愈加明显。此外,混合比的变化对不同混合状态下的凝聚粒子的辐射特性参量均存在不同程度的影响,并且此影响随着基本粒子粒径和数量的变

  8. Localized External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) to the Pelvis Induces Systemic IL-1Beta and TNF-Alpha Production: Role of the TNF-Alpha Signaling in EBRT-Induced Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tasha L; Hung, Arthur Y; Thomas, Charles R; Wood, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients undergoing localized external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) can experience a progressive increase in fatigue, which can affect physical functioning and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to develop a mouse EBRT prostate cancer treatment model with which to determine the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the genesis of EBRT-related fatigue. We assessed voluntary wheel-running activity (VWRA) as a proxy for fatigue, food intake and body weight in male C57BL/6 mice undergoing EBRT to the pelvis. In the first experiment, anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice underwent fractionated EBRT to the pelvis for a total dose of 68.2 Gy, thereby mimicking a clinically relevant therapeutic dose and frequency. The day after the last treatment, levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in plasma along with mRNA levels in liver, colon and whole brain were measured. EBRT-induced fatigue resulted in reduced body weight, diminished food intake, and increased plasma and tissue levels of IL-1β and TNF-α. In a follow-up experiment, we used TNF-α-deficient mice to further delineate the role of TNF-α signaling in EBRT-induced sickness behavior. EBRT-induced changes in fatigue, food intake and body weight were no different between TNF-α deficient mice and their wild-type counterparts. Taken together our data demonstrate that a clinically relevant localized irradiation of the pelvis induces a systemic IL-1β and TNF-α response and sickness behavior in mice, but the TNF-α signaling pathway alone does not independently mediate these effects.

  9. Analysis of Components in Refinery Gases by Gas Chromatograph -External Standard Normalization%用气相色谱校正归一法分析炼厂气组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏然波; 李冬; 李保; 周晓哲

    2009-01-01

    建立了用HP7890A系列气相色谱仪分析炼厂气的方法,本方法操作简单,一次进样测定炼厂气组成,分析时间在7 min以内.炼厂气的分析由三个通道完成,FID A通道用于分析C_1~C_4和C_5~+烃类,TCD B通道用于分析永久性气体,包括CO_2、H_2S、O_2、N_2和CO,TCD C通道单独用于分析氢气.数据利用安捷伦工作站采集和输出,采用外标面积归一化法进行定量计算.结果表明,该方法准确、快速、简便,适用于炼厂气分析.%A method is established for analyzing refinery gases by HP7890A series gas chromatograph. The operation of this method was simple, all components of refinery gases can determined by injecting sample only once within 7 minutes. The refinery gases were analyzed by three channels. The FID A channel is used to analyze the hydrocarbon components from C_1~C_4 and C_5~+, TCD B channel is used to analyze inert gases, including CO_2, H_2S, O_2, N_2, CO, and TCD C channel is only used to analyze hydrogen. The chemstation of HP7890A can collect and output analysis data. External standard-area normalization was used in quantitative calculation. The result shows this method has the advantages of accuracy, rapidity and simplicity, being suitable for refinery gases analysis.

  10. GC with external standard method determination of menthol in Chuanbei Pipa syrup%气相色谱外标法测定川贝批杷糖浆中薄荷脑的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新新; 黄亮辉; 叶根德; 王燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To establish GC with external standard method to determine menthol in Chuanbei Pipa syrup. Methods : SE -30 ( 30 m × 0. 32 mm, 0. 25 μm) capillary column was used with nitrogen as carrier gas and FID as detector. The column temperature rise programming with split ratio of 10: 1. The detector temperature was 220 ℃ , and the sample injection temperature was 200 ℃ . Results : The linear range menthol was 0. 20 -0. 98 mg · mL-1 ( R2 =0. 9990) , which showed good linearity, and the average recovery was 99. 46% . Conclusion: The method is convenient, reliable and reproducible so that it can be used to determine menthol in Chuanbei Pipa syrup.%目的:建立气相色谱外标法测定川贝枇杷糖浆中薄荷脑的含量.方法:采用SE-30毛细管柱(30mx0.32mm,0.25μm);载气:N2 ; FID检测器;检测器温度220℃,进样口温度200℃,分流比10:1,程序升温.结果:采用外标法测定川贝枇杷糖浆中薄荷脑的含量,在0.20-0.98mg·mL-1范围内,呈良好的线性关系(R2=0.9990),平均回收率为99.46%.结论:所建立的方法(外标法)简便可行,重现性好,可用于川贝枇杷糖浆中薄荷脑含量的测定.

  11. 气相色谱外标法测定食品中甜蜜素含量方法的改进%An improved method for sodium cyclamate determination in food by external standard method of GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程水连; 王泽科; 祝正辉

    2013-01-01

    An improved determining method of Sodium Cyclamate in food with Gas-Chromatography in GB/T 5009.97-2003 was studied. The sample reacted with Sodium Nitrite in Sulfuric acid solution, then hydrolysis in sodium hydroxide solution and hexane extraction, the content of Cyclohexanol in hexane phase was determined with the external standard of Gas-Chromatography (GC) with reference substance of Cyclohexanol. This improved method, which can be used in qualitative and quantitative determination of Sodium Cyclamate in food, has advantage with good reproducibility and high accuracy and avoids the negative deviation and bad reproducibility in original method. The method has the advantages of good repeatability, high accuracy than GB/T 5009.97-2003, precision (n=5) in between 4.09%~4.28%, the recovery rate was 94.6.%~96.22%.%对GB/T 5009.97-2003中利用气相色谱法测定食品中的甜蜜素含量检测方法进行改进.试样在硫酸介质中与亚硝酸钠反应后,再经NaOH碱性水解,以环己醇为对照品,利用气相色谱外标法测定水解己烷提取液的环己醇含量,从而实现食品中甜蜜素的定性及定量检测.该方法与GB/T5009.97-2003相比具有重现性好、准确性高的优点,精密度(n=5)在4.09%~4.28%,回收率在94.60%~96.22%.

  12. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  13. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  14. 蒙特卡罗方法计算外照射所致红骨髓剂量方法的研究%Monte Carlo simulation methods of determining red bone marrow dose from external radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佚名; 刘海宽; 顾乃谷; 吴锦海; 黄卫琴; 王凤仙; 王力; 苏旭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide evidence for a more reasonable method of determining red bone marrow dose by analyzing and comparing existing simulation methods.Methods By utilizing Monte Carlo simulation software MCNPX,the absorbed doses of red hone marrow of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)adult female voxel phantom were calculated throush 4 different methods:direct energy deposition.dose response function(DRF),King-Spiers factor method and mass-energy absorption coefficient (MEAC).The radiation sources were defined as infinite plate.sources with the energy ranging from 20 keV to 10 MeV.and 23 sources with different energies were simulated in total.The source was placed right next to the front of the RPI model to achieve a homogeneous anteroposterior radiation scenario.The results of different simulated photon energy sources through different methods were compared.Results When the photon energy was lower than 100 key,the direct energy deposition method gave the highest result while the MEAC and King-Spiers factor methods showed more reasonable results.When the photon energy was higher than 150 keV taking into account of the higher absorption ability of red bone marrow at highcr photon energy,the result of the King-Spiers factor method was larger than those of other methods.Conclusions The King-Spiers factor method might be the most reasonable method to estimate the red bone marrow dose from external radiation.%目的 对现有的红骨髓剂量模拟计算方法进行比较和分析.为确定更为合理的计算方法提供依据.方法 借助MCNPX蒙特卡罗模拟软件,模拟了能量20 keV~10 MeV的γ光子源,对Rensselaer理工学院(RPI)体素人体模型进行前后(AP)全身均匀照射,分别采用直接能量沉积法、剂量响应函数法(DRF)、King-Spiers因子法和质能吸收系数法(MEAC),进行红骨髓剂量的模拟计算.结果 在入射γ光子能量低于100 keV时,直接能量沉积法的结果最大,而质能吸收系数法和King

  15. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  16. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  17. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  18. Limb-sparing management with surgical resection, external-beam and intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy boost for patients with primary soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity. A multicentric pooled analysis of long-term outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Felipe A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Sole, Claudio V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Radiomedicina, Service of Radiation Oncology, Santiago (Chile); Polo, Alfredo; Montero, Angel [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Cambeiro, Mauricio; Martinez-Monge, Rafael [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Service of Radiation Oncology, Pamplona (Spain); Alvarez, Ana [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Cuervo, Miguel [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Madrid (Spain); Julian, Mikel San [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    A joint analysis of data from three contributing centres within the intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT) Spanish program was performed to investigate the main contributions of IORT to the multidisciplinary treatment of high-risk extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients with an histologic diagnosis of primary extremity STS, with absence of distant metastases, undergoing limb-sparing surgery with radical intent, external beam radiotherapy (median dose 45 Gy) and IOERT (median dose 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study. From 1986-2012, a total of 159 patients were analysed in the study from three Spanish institutions. With a median follow-up time of 53 months (range 4-316 years), 5-year local control (LC) was 82 %. The 5-year IOERT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 86, 62 and 72 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only microscopically involved margin (R1) resection status retained significance in relation to LC (HR 5.20, p < 0.001). With regard to IOERT in-field control, incomplete resection (HR 4.88, p = 0.001) and higher IOERT dose (≥ 12.5 Gy; HR 0.32, p = 0.02) retained a significant association in multivariate analysis. From this joint analysis emerges the fact that an IOERT dose ≥ 12.5 Gy increases the rate of IOERT in-field control, but DFS remains modest, given the high risk of distant metastases. Intensified local treatment needs to be tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neo- and adjuvant systemic therapy. (orig.) [German] Um den therapeutischen Beitrag einer intraoperativen Bestrahlung mit Elektronen (IOERT) als Teil eines multidisziplinaeren Behandlungskonzepts von Weichteilsarkomen (STS) im Extremitaetenbereich mit hohem Risikoprofil evaluieren zu koennen, wurde anhand des spanischen IOERT-Programms eine gepoolte Datenanalyse von drei teilnehmenden Zentren vorgenommen. Eingeschlossen in diese Studie wurden Patienten mit histologisch

  19. Oncological results, functional outcomes and health-related quality-of-life in men who received a radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: a study on long-term patient outcome with risk stratification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itsuhiro Takizawa; Noboru Hara; Tsutomu Nishiyama; Masaaki Kaneko; Tatsuhiko Hoshii; Emiko Tsuchida; Kota Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) after a radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has not been studied in conjunction with oncological outcomes in relation to disease risk stratification. Moreover, the long-term outcomes of these treatment approaches have not been studied. We retrospectively analyzed ontological outcomes between consecutive patients receiving RP (n=86) and EBRT (n=76) for localized prostate cancer. HRQOL and functional outcomes could be assessed in 62 RP (79%) and 54 EBRT (79%) patients over a 3-year follow-up period (median: 41 months) using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the University of California Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA PCI). The 5-year biochemical progression-free survival did not differ between the RP and EBRT groups for low-risk (74.6% vs. 75.0%, P=0.931) and intermediate-risk (61.3% vs. 71.1%, P=0.691) patients. For high-risk patients, progression-free survival was lower in the RP group (45.1%) than in the EBRT group (79.7%) (P=0.002). The general HRQOL was comparable between the two groups. Regarding functional outcomes, the RP group reported lower scores on urinary function and less urinary bother and sexual bother than the EBRT group (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). With risk stratification, the low-and intermediate-risk patients in the RP group reported poorer urinary function than patients in the EBRT group (P<0.001 for each). The sexual function of the high-risk patients in the EBRT group was better than that of the same risk RP patients (P<0.001). Biochemical recurrence was not associated with the UCLA PCI score in either group. In conclusion, low- to intermediate-risk patients treated with an RP may report relatively decreased urinary function during long-term follow-up. The patient's HRQOL after treatment did not depend on biochemical recurrence.

  20. Adjuvant radiation therapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer: experience with combination of external radiation therapy and high-dose rate brachytherapy; Radioterapia adjuvante no tratamento do cancer de endometrio: experiencia com a associacao de radioterapia externa e braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Michael Jenwei; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro Soares; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio de Assis; Ferrigno, Robson; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Salvajoli, Joao Victor [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radioterapia]. E-mail: michael.chen@ig.com.br; Nishimoto, Ines Nobuko [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos

    2005-12-01

    Objective: To review the results of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) for the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 141 patients treated with EBRT and HDR-BT after surgery between January 1993 and January 2001. EBRT was performed with a median dose of 45 Gy, and HDR-BT was performed with a median dose of 24 Gy, with four weekly insertions of 6 Gy. The median age of the patients was 63 years and the disease stage distribution was: CS I (FIGO), 52.4%; CS II, 13.5%; CS III, 29.8%; CS IV, 4.3%. Results: With a median follow-up of 53.7 months, the disease free survival (DFS) at five years was: CS I, 88.0%; CS II, 70.8%; CS III, 55.1%; CS IV, 50.0% (p = 0.0003). Global survival after five years was: CS I, 79.6%; CS II, 74.0%; CS III, 53.6%; CS IV, 100.0% (p = 0.0062). Factors affecting the DFS were histological grade and serous-papillary histology. Recurrence of the disease was observed in 33 cases, 13 (9.2%) of these occurred in the pelvis, vagina or vaginal vault. EBRT + HDR-BT of the vaginal vault allowed disease control in 90.8% of the cases. Conclusion: Radiation therapy is essential for loco-regional control of endometrial cancer and can achieve excellent cure rates in the initial stages. In more advanced stages, therapeutic failure frequently appears as distant metastases suggesting the need for complementary systemic therapy using new treatment modalities, particularly chemotherapy. (author)

  1. Ion Plasma Responses to External Electromagnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The response of ion plasmas to external radiation fields is investigated in a quantum mechanical formalism.We focus on the total electric field within the plasma. For general bandpass signals three frequency regions can be distinguished in terms of the plasma frequency. For low frequencies, the exte

  2. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  3. Searching the Inclusive Lepton + Photon + Missing E(T) + b-quark Signature for Radiative Top Quark Decay and Non-Standard-Model Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, Jahred A.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, Dante E.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, Alberto; /Frascati; Antos, Jaroslav; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2009-06-01

    In a search for new phenomena in a signature suppressed in the standard model of elementary particles (SM), we compare the inclusive production of events containing a lepton ({ell}), a photon ({gamma}), significant transverse momentum imbalance (E{sub T}), and a jet identified as containing a b-quark, to SM predictions. The search uses data produced in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV corresponding to 1.9 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity taken with the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We find 28 {ell}{gamma}bE{sub T} events versus an expectation of 31.0{sub -3.5}{sup +4.1} events. If we further require events to contain at least three jets and large total transverse energy, simulations predict that the largest SM source is top-quark pair production with an additional radiated photon, t{bar t} + {gamma}. In the data we observe 16 t{bar t}{gamma} candidate events versus an expectation from non-top-quark SM sources of 11.2{sub -2.1}{sup +2.3}. Assuming the difference between the observed number and the predicted non-top-quark total is due to SM top quark production, we estimate the t{bar t} cross section to be 0.15 {+-} 0.08 pb.

  4. Radiative processes $\\tau \\to \\mu \\gamma, \\mu \\to e \\gamma$ and $(g-2)_{\\mu}$ as probes of the extended supersymmetric standard model in SO (10)

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; 10.1103/PhysRevD.68.035004

    2003-01-01

    The extended supersymmetric standard model (ESSM), motivated on several grounds, introduces two vectorlike families (16+16) of SO(10) with masses of the order of one TeV. It is noted that the successful predictions of prior work on fermion masses and mixings, based on the MSSM embedded in SO(10), can be retained rather simply within the ESSM extension. These include an understanding of the smallness of V /sub cb/ approximately=0.04 and the largeness of the nu /sub mu /- nu /sub tau / oscillation angle, sin/sup 2/2 theta /sub nu ( mu ) nu ( tau )//sup osc/ approximately=1. We analyze the new contributions arising through the exchange of the vectorlike families of the ESSM to radiative processes including tau to mu gamma , mu to e gamma , b to s gamma , the EDM of the muon and the muon (g-2). We show that the ESSM makes significant contributions especially to the decays tau to mu gamma and mu to e gamma and simultaneously to muon (g-2). For a large and plausible range of relevant parameters, we obtain a/sub mu ...

  5. KEY COMPARISON: COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büermann, L.; Oborin, A. V.; Dobrovosky, J.; Milevsky, V. S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Lapenas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. External Tonehole Interactions in Woodwind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, Antoine; Kergomard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is often used to calculate the input impedance of woodwind instruments but it ignores the possible influence of the radiated sound from toneholes on other open holes. In this paper, a method is proposed to account for external tonehole interactions. It is found that the external tonehole interactions increase the amount of radiated energy, reduce slightly the lower resonance frequencies, and modify significantly the response near and above the tonehole lattice cutoff frequency. The results of simulations with the Finite Element Method, as well as experimental measurements, are presented and compared to the calculation with the method presented in this paper, confirming that the external tonehole interactions play a significant role in woodwind instrument.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Radiographers about the Principles of Radiation Protection and Following Protective Standards in Medical Imaging Centers of Hospitals in Fasa in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alipoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Although ionizing radiation is effective in the diagnosis of illnesses, it is dangerous from the perspective of protection for patients and radiographers working in radiology sections. Therefore, knowledge, understanding, and application of radiation protection can play an important role. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the radiation protection principles in radiation workers in medical imaging centers and hospitals in Fasa, Fars, Iran. Materials & Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional one among all 50 radiation workers employed in radiology departments of this city. A questionnaire was the means of evaluation which contained demographic information and questions about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiology staff regarding the radiation protection. All of the completed questionnaires were analyzed, using SPSS19 software. Results: Radiographers’ participation rate was 100%, and the mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiation workers in the field of radiation protection was 42.36, 62.4, and 48.54, respectively. Depending on the degree of their knowledge, there was no statistically significant difference between the radiographers’ age, gender, and work experience, and the relationship between the following factors was not substantial. Conclusion: The results showed that by increasing the level of education, the awareness of radiation workers increases, too. To raise awareness of radiation protection for radiation workers, it is better to hold training courses.

  8. Otto engine beyond its standard quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a noncoherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for nonideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power.

  9. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddart, Robert A., E-mail: robert.huddart@icr.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden NHSFT (National Health Service Foundation Trust) (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); Hussain, Syed A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Peter [Gloucestershire Hospitals NHSFT (United Kingdom); Rawlings, Christine [South Devon Healthcare NHSFT (United Kingdom); Tremlett, Jean [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals (United Kingdom); Crundwell, Malcolm [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Adab, Fawzi A. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Sheehan, Denise [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Syndikus, Isabel [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHSFT (United Kingdom); Hendron, Carey [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); James, Nicholas D. [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 × 2 factorial design. The primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT − sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval −7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (−12.8%, 14.6%) in the “per-protocol” population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  10. [Thyroid and radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Namba, H; Nagataki, S

    1993-11-20

    The topic "Thyroid and Radiation" is both an old and a new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymphnodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed.

  11. Standardization Safety Management of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Supervision in Colleges and Universities%高校核与辐射安全监管规范化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪霞; 刘朋; 陈永清

    2016-01-01

    针对目前高校核与辐射安全监管方面存在的问题,以苏州大学核与辐射安全监管为研究对象,对高校核与辐射安全监管进行探索与实践。规范化核与辐射的安全监管可以促进大学的安全监管水平。%It has the important meaning to formulate university related safety administrative regulations and security standard, specially regarding standardized safety supervision of the nuclear and radiation, It can promote the university security supervision being scientiifc, standardized normative, and raise the university safety supervision being level. In view of the problems which exist in present university safety supervision on nuclear and radiation, taking the actual situation of Suzhou University safety supervision on nuclear and radiation as an example, it has been explored about the safety supervision on nuclear and radiation.

  12. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha [Department of Education and Training, Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO (United States); Goddu, S. Murty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  13. Results of a Quality Assurance Review of External Beam Radiation Therapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group's High-risk Neuroblastoma Trial: A SIOPEN Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaze, Mark N., E-mail: mark.gaze@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Dieckmann, Karin; Hoermann, Marcus [General Hospital Vienna, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Gains, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Kevin P. [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ladenstein, Ruth [Children' s Cancer Research Institute, St. Anna Children' s Hospital, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is important for local control in neuroblastoma. This study reviewed the compliance of plans with the radiation therapy guidelines of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group (SIOPEN) High-Risk Trial protocol. Methods and Materials: The SIOPEN trial central electronic database has sections to record diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy planning data. Individual centers may upload data remotely, but not all centers involved in the trial chose to use this system. A quality scoring system was devised based on how well the radiation therapy plan matched the protocol guidelines, to what extent deviations were justified, and whether adverse effects may result. Central review of radiation therapy planning was undertaken retrospectively in 100 patients for whom complete diagnostic and treatment sets were available. Data were reviewed and compared against protocol guidelines by an international team of radiation oncologists and radiologists. For each patient in the sample, the central review team assigned a quality assurance score. Results: It was found that in 48% of patients there was full compliance with protocol requirements. In 29%, there were deviations for justifiable reasons with no likely long-term adverse effects resulting. In 5%, deviations had occurred for justifiable reasons, but that might result in adverse effects. In 1%, there was a deviation with no discernible justification, which would not lead to long-term adverse events. In 17%, unjustified deviations were noted, with a risk of an adverse outcome resulting. Conclusions: Owing to concern over the proportion of patients in whom unjustified deviations were observed, a protocol amendment has been issued. This offers the opportunity for central review of radiation therapy plans before the start of treatment and the treating clinician a chance to modify plans.

  14. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 4. Organ doses for adults due to idealized external photon exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N; Regulla, D

    2002-01-01

    The present report contains extensive tables and figures of conversion coefficients of organ and tissue equivalent dose, normalised to air kerma free in air for voxel anthropomorphic phantoms and for standard geometries of external photon radiation, estimated with Monte Carlo techniques. Four realistic adult voxel phantoms were used for the calculations, based on computed tomographic data of real people: three male phantoms, two of them being of average size, one representing a big man, and one female phantom of a tall and somewhat over weighted woman.

  15. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  16. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  17. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  18. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-12-31

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report.

  19. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  20. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  1. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  2. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  3. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  5. Constraining the effective action by a method of external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, Bjorn

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method of evaluating the effective action, wherein the physical one- and two-point functions are obtained in the limit of non-vanishing external sources. We illustrate the self-consistency of this method by recovering the usual 2PI effective action due to Cornwall, Jackiw and Tomboulis, differing only by the fact that the saddle-point evaluation of the path integral is performed along the extremal quantum, rather than classical, path. As such, this approach is of particular relevance to situations where the dominant quantum and classical paths are non-perturbatively far away from one-another. A pertinent example is the decay of false vacua in radiatively-generated potentials, as may occur for the electroweak vacuum of the Standard Model. In addition, we describe how the external sources may instead be chosen so as to yield the two-particle-point-irreducible (2PPI) effective action of Coppens and Verschelde. Finally, in the spirit of the symmetry-improved effective action of Pilaftsis and Te...

  6. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Schwab, Alexander [University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Finances, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 {+-} 231.7 cGy*cm{sup 2} versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 {+-} 103.8 cGy*cm{sup 2}). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Cristobalite and a-Quartz in Bentonite by X-Ray Powder Diffraction Comparison Between External Standard and K-Value Method%膨润土中方石英和α-石英的定量相分析——X射线衍射外标法和K 值法的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁珂; 廖立兵; 万红波; 王川; 王春伟

    2011-01-01

    采用X射线衍射定量分析法的外标法和K值法(基体清洗法),对21个膨润土样品中的方石英和α-石英物相进行了定量分析,通过验证实验,对外标法和K值法的定量精度进行了评估.分析结果表明:对于同一种物相,外标法的定量分析结果均大于K值法,2种方法定量分析同一物相的差值随检测相含量的增加而增大;由于基体吸收效应的影响,外标法的定量误差无规律性且无法通过实验消除.K值法的误差主要来源于K值的误差.采用了一种作图求取K值的方法,用该法求取的K值进行分析,精度明显提高,并远高于外标法的分析精度.%X-ray diffraction methods including external standard method and K-value method (matrix flushing method) were used to quantify the cristobalite and a-quartz in 21 bentonite samples. Verification test of the samples with known mineral composition was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the two methods. The results show that the contents of cristobalite and a-quartz determined by the external standard method are higher than that by K-value method. The differences of the same phase contents measured by the two methods increase with the phase content. The error and its irregularity of external standard method result from the matrix absorption effect, which cannot be avoided in the experiment. The error of K-value method, however, is caused by the inaccuracy of K-values.Adopting the K-values determined by a mapping method, the accuracy of matrix flushing method is significantly improved, and it is much higher than that of external standard method.

  8. Less gastrointestinal toxicity after adjuvant radiotherapy on a small pelvic field compared to a standard pelvic field in patients with endometrial carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Renske A.; Pras, Elisabeth; Boezen, H. Marike; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Arts, Henriette J. G.; Aalders, Jan G.; Slot, Annerie; Timmer, Paul R.; Hollema, Harry; Nijman, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Radiotherapy is associated with short-term and long-term morbidity. This study compared toxicity rates among patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on a small pelvic field (SmPF) in comparison with a standard pelvic field (StP

  9. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  10. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  11. Study of radiation conditions for obtaining standard beam computed tomography; Estudo das condicoes de radiacao para obtencao do feixe padrao em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Lucio das Chagas de; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira, E-mail: lucio-andrade@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil there is a need to expand the traceability for the calibration of cameras used in dosimetry in CT. Thus, in order to promote the expansion of the radiation conditions RQT, LNMRI disseminate this greatness. These radiation conditions may be characterized in terms of tension in the X-ray tube (PPV), the first half-value layer (1{sup st} HVL) and homogeneity coefficient (CH). The LNMRI achieved satisfactory results within the international specifications suggested by IEC 61267 and TRS 457. (author)

  12. 纺织品电磁屏蔽效能评价标准的现状分析%Situation analysis of evaluation standard for measuring shielding effectiveness of anti-electromagnetic radiation textiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雄英; 张亚雯; 袁志磊

    2016-01-01

    Effective testing and evaluation for anti-electromagnetic radiation textiles is the key of products, development and application. This paper introduced the electromagnetic shielding principle of anti-electromagnetic radiation textiles and the development status of evaluation methods for measuring shielding effectiveness. It analyzed the test method of anti-electromagnetic radiation textiles standards. The problems of current standards and test methods of civil electromagnetic shielding textiles were discussed. The author pointed that professionals should improve the standards of electromagnetic shielding textiles. Besides, professionals should make clear the requirement of shielding effectiveness for civil anti-electromagnetic radiation clothing. In addition, comprehensive evaluation method of anti-electromagnetic radiation performance should be established based on the features of clothing structure. These will provide reasonable testing and evaluation basis for anti-electromagnetic radiation textiles,production guidance and market supervision.%有效地检测和评价防电磁辐射纺织品是产品开发和应用的关键,通过介绍防电磁辐射纺织品的电磁屏蔽原理及屏蔽效能评价方法的现状和发展趋势,比较分析防电磁辐射纺织品标准的评价指标、测试方法等,探讨了我国现有民用防电磁辐射标准和测试方法存在的问题。指出应不断完善防电磁辐射纺织品的标准,进一步明确民用防电磁辐射服装需达到的屏蔽效能要求,并根据服装的结构特点建立合适的防电磁辐射性能综合评价方法,为防电磁辐射纺织品的开发、市场监管提供合理的检测和评价依据。

  13. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil

    2015-10-01

    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  14. 地铁列车运行引起建筑物二次辐射噪声执行标准探讨%Implementation of Standards to Control Secondary Radiation Noise on Buildings Caused by Metro Train Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜小安; 谢咏梅; 刘扬

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the China's urban rail transit environmental impact assessment, especially the suitability of reference standard for control of building secondary radiation noise caused by train operation. According to the principles and definitions of secondary radiation noise, it discusses relevant standards and evaluation of the amount for proper control of the secondary radiation noise caused by the operation of urban train.%分析我国城市轨道交通环境影响评价中,关于列车运行引起的建筑物二次辐射噪声参考标准的适宜性,并根据二次辐射噪声原理和定义,探讨了城市轨道交通列车运行引起的建筑物二次辐射噪声宜执行的相关标准及评价量。

  15. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  16. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  17. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  18. 高效液相色谱外标工作曲线法测定大麻树脂中四氢大麻酚含量的不确定度评定%Uncertainty Evaluation of Determination of Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis Resin by HPLC External Standard Working Curve Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟晚枫; 张春水; 高利生

    2012-01-01

    依据JJF 1059-1999《测量不确定度评定与表示》,以检测大麻树脂中四氢大麻酚含量的实验为例,评定了采用高效液相色谱外标工作曲线法进行含量测定的不确定度.建立了高效色谱外标工作曲线法测定样品含量的数学模型,分析了不确定度的来源并给出了量化结果,合成扩展不确定度为0.15%(k=2).%The determination uncertainty of tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis resin by HPLC external standard working curve method was evaluated based on JJF 1059?999 Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The mathematical models to evaluate the uncertainty of quantitative results of HPLC external standard working curve method were established, and each source and uncertainty component was analysized, and the combined expanded uncertainty was 0.15%(k=2).

  19. [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET Standard Uptake Value as a Metabolic Predictor of Bone Marrow Response to Radiation: Impact on Acute and Late Hematological Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicin, Olgun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Callaway, Sharon [Velocity Medical Solutions, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Prior, John O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bourhis, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Mahmut, E-mail: mahmut.ozsahin@chuv.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Herrera, Fernanda G., E-mail: fernanda.herrera@chuv.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify the relationship between bone marrow (BM) response to radiation and radiation dose by using {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET standard uptake values (SUV) and to correlate these findings with hematological toxicity (HT) in cervical cancer (CC) patients treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen women with a diagnosis of CC were treated with standard doses of CRT. All patients underwent pre- and post-therapy [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT). Hemograms were obtained before and during treatment and 3 months after treatment and at last follow-up. Pelvic bone was autosegmented as total bone marrow (BM{sub TOT}). Active bone marrow (BM{sub ACT}) was contoured based on SUV greater than the mean SUV of BM{sub TOT}. The volumes (V) of each region receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy (V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40}, respectively) were calculated. Metabolic volume histograms and voxel SUV map response graphs were created. Relative changes in SUV before and after therapy were calculated by separating SUV voxels into radiation therapy dose ranges of 5 Gy. The relationships among SUV decrease, radiation dose, and HT were investigated using multiple regression models. Results: Mean relative pre-post-therapy SUV reductions in BM{sub TOT} and BM{sub ACT} were 27% and 38%, respectively. BM{sub ACT} volume was significantly reduced after treatment (from 651.5 to 231.6 cm{sup 3}, respectively; P<.0001). BM{sub ACT} V{sub 30} was significantly correlated with a reduction in BM{sub ACT} SUV (R{sup 2}, 0.14; P<.001). The reduction in BM{sub ACT} SUV significantly correlated with reduction in white blood cells (WBCs) at 3 months post-treatment (R{sup 2}, 0.27; P=.04) and at last follow-up (R{sup 2}, 0.25; P=.04). Different dosimetric parameters of BM{sub TOT} and BM{sub ACT} correlated with long-term hematological outcome. Conclusions: The volumes of BM

  20. Randomized, Multicenter Trial on the Effect of Radiation Therapy on Plantar Fasciitis (Painful Heel Spur) Comparing a Standard Dose With a Very Low Dose: Mature Results After 12 Months' Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewald, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.niewald@uks.eu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich [Radiotherapy Center, Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muecke, Ralf [Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany); Schaefer, Vera; Scheid, Christine; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for painful heel spur, comparing a standard dose with a very low dose. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive radiation therapy either with a total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy twice weekly (standard dose) or with a total dose of 0.6 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 0.1 Gy twice weekly (low dose). In all patients lateral opposing 4- to 6-MV photon beams were used. The results were measured using a visual analogue scale, the Calcaneodynia score, and the SF12 health survey. The fundamental phase of the study ended after 3 months, and the follow-up was continued up to 1 year. Patients with insufficient pain relief after 3 months were offered reirradiation with the standard dosage at any time afterward. Results: Of 66 patients, 4 were excluded because of withdrawal of consent or screening failures. After 3 months the results in the standard arm were highly significantly superior compared with those in the low-dose arm (visual analogue scale, P=.001; Calcaneodynia score, P=.027; SF12, P=.045). The accrual of patients was stopped at this point. Further evaluation after 12 months' follow-up showed the