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Sample records for external preference mapping

  1. Simple improvement of consumer fit in external preference mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, N.M.; Mojet, J.; Poelman, A.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the common implementation of external preference mapping consumer preferences are fitted as polynomial functions of the first two principal components (PCs) of the sensory data. A major weakness of the method is the relatively small number of consumers that can be significantly fitted. Several

  2. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  4. Preference mapping of apple varieties in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 – sweetne

  5. Preferred external power supplies; Fuentes electricas preferentes exteriores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Anton, L.

    2010-07-01

    In June 2008 ANAV and ENDESA DISTRIBUCION (EDE) undertook a joint study of Asco NPP Preferred External Power Supplies (PEPSs) to check the number of lines or power supplies to the 110 kV substation at Asco that met the criteria defined in the power supply regulations applicable to Asco NPP and primarily to confirm compliance with IEEE 765-2006 standard. (Author).

  6. Utopian preference mapping and the utopian preference method for group multiobjective optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuda; HONG Zhenjie; ZHOU Xuanwei

    2003-01-01

    The individual utopian preference and the group utopian preference on a set of alternatives, and the concept of the utopian preference mapping from the individual utopian preferences, to the group utopian preference, based on the utopian points of the corresponding multiobjective optimization models proposed by decision makers are introduced. Through studying the various fundamental properties of the utopian preference mapping, a method for solving group multiobjective optimization problems with multiple multiobjective optimization models is constructed.

  7. Preferred reporting items for studies mapping onto preference-based outcome measures: The MAPS statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-08-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. The primary audiences for the MAPS statement are researchers reporting mapping studies, the funders of the research, and peer reviewers and editors involved in assessing mapping studies for publication.A de novo list of 29 candidate reporting items and accompanying explanations was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. Following a two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, a final set of 23 items deemed essential for transparent reporting, and accompanying explanations, was developed. The items are contained in a user friendly 23 item checklist. They are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely: (i) title and abstract; (ii) introduction; (iii) methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion; and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document.It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by eight health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in five years' time.This statement was published jointly in Applied Health Economics

  8. Mapping Design Students' Aesthetic and Visual Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie; Ohrt, Ann Merete

    2016-01-01

    is to compare and map cultural differences, similarities and preferences in young designers design approach in order to understand how globalization and localization influence design. It is also the purpose to investigate how different teaching methods influence the way the young designers understand...... 2014). The students were asked to create a “Wunderkammer” of personal collected images and things from their local cultural and physical environment. The focus of the workshops is collecting and organizing objects from the studens visual explorations within the following topics: body, home, urban space...

  9. Preference Mapping of Fresh Tomatoes Across 3 Stages of Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Yates, M D; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    Tomatoes (Solanum lycoperiscum) are a popular produce choice and provide many bioactive compounds. Consumer choice of tomatoes is influenced by flavor and visual appearance and external texture cues including hand firmness and sliceability. The objective of this study was to determine drivers of liking for fresh tomatoes across 3 stages of consumption. Seven tomato cultivars were ripened to a 6 on the USDA color chart. Trained panelists documented appearance, flavor, and texture attributes of tomatoes in triplicate. Tomato consumers (n = 177) were provided with knives and cutting boards and evaluated tomatoes across 3 stages: appearance (stage 1), slicing (stage 2), and consumption (stage 3). Consumers evaluated overall liking at each stage. Analysis of variance and external preference mapping were conducted. Overall liking was highest during the appearance portion of the test and lowest during the consumption portion (P color intensity, even outside color, and overall aroma. Drivers of liking at stage 2 were wetness/juiciness and overall aroma. Wetness/juiciness, seed presence, ripe flavor, and sweet and umami tastes were drivers of liking for tomatoes at consumption (stage 3). Four separate clusters of tomato consumers were identified. Cluster 1 preferred tomatoes with even color, higher color intensity, and flavor intensity. Cluster 2 preferred firm tomatoes. Cluster 3 preferred tomatoes that were soft and at peak ripeness; this cluster also had the highest liking scores for all tomatoes. Cluster 4 consumers generally consumed tomatoes in sandwiches rather than as-is and preferred tomatoes with even and intense color. Tomato growers can utilize these results to target cultivars that are well liked by consumers.

  10. Mapping Design Students' Aesthetic and Visual Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie; Ohrt, Ann Merete

    2016-01-01

    The overall purpose of our research is to investigate young designers design processes and methods on a global scale, by conducting a series of workshops at selected design universities in among others Taiwan, China, Brazil, South Africa, India and Russia. The focus of the research project...... is to compare and map cultural differences, similarities and preferences in young designers design approach in order to understand how globalization and localization influence design. It is also the purpose to investigate how different teaching methods influence the way the young designers understand...... and of principles of collecting (Pomian 1990; Raahauge 1997 & 2001; Stjernfelt 1993), one of them being the Wunderkammer (Williams and Tsien 2013)), these perspectives have been at the core of our workshop, as a didactical method and as a way to combine diverse aesthetic, empirical and intuitive dimensions (Hansen...

  11. Preference mapping of dulce de leche commercialized in Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, L V; Oliveira, B R; Ferrao, L L; Granato, D; Cavalcanti, R N; Conte Júnior, C A; Cruz, A G; Freitas, M Q

    2015-03-01

    Dulce de leche samples available in the Brazilian market were submitted to sensory profiling by quantitative descriptive analysis and acceptance test, as well sensory evaluation using the just-about-right scale and purchase intent. External preference mapping and the ideal sensory characteristics of dulce de leche were determined. The results were also evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, partial least squares regression, artificial neural networks, and logistic regression. Overall, significant product acceptance was related to intermediate scores of the sensory attributes in the descriptive test, and this trend was observed even after consumer segmentation. The results obtained by sensometric techniques showed that optimizing an ideal dulce de leche from the sensory standpoint is a multidimensional process, with necessary adjustments on the appearance, aroma, taste, and texture attributes of the product for better consumer acceptance and purchase. The optimum dulce de leche was characterized by high scores for the attributes sweet taste, caramel taste, brightness, color, and caramel aroma in accordance with the preference mapping findings. In industrial terms, this means changing the parameters used in the thermal treatment and quantitative changes in the ingredients used in formulations.

  12. Internal versus external preference analysis : an exploratory study on end-user evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Internal and external preference analysis emphasise fundamentally different perspectives on the same data. We extend the literature on comparisons between internal and external preference analysis by incorporating the perspective of the end user of the preference analysis results. From a conceptual

  13. Learning style preference and student aptitude for concept maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostovich, Carol T; Poradzisz, Michele; Wood, Karen; O'Brien, Karen L

    2007-05-01

    Acknowledging that individuals' preferences for learning vary, faculty in an undergraduate nursing program questioned whether a student's learning style is an indicator of aptitude in developing concept maps. The purpose of this research was to describe the relationship between nursing students' learning style preference and aptitude for concept maps. The sample included 120 undergraduate students enrolled in the adult health nursing course. Students created one concept map and completed two instruments: the Learning Style Survey and the Concept Map Survey. Data included Learning Style Survey scores, grade for the concept map, and grade for the adult health course. No significant difference was found between learning style preference and concept map grades. Thematic analysis of the qualitative survey data yielded further insight into students' preferences for creating concept maps.

  14. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  15. An automated approach to mapping external terminologies to the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, María; Lalín, Rosario; Martínez, Diego

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays, providing interoperability between different biomedical terminologies is a critical issue for efficient information sharing. One problem making interoperability difficult is the lack of automated methods simplifying the mapping process. In this study, we propose an automated approach to mapping external terminologies to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Our approach applies a sequential combination of two basic matching methods classically used in ontology matching. First, a lexical technique identifies similar strings between the external terminology and the UMLS. Second, a structure-based technique validates, in part, the lexical alignment by computing paths to top-level concepts and checking the compatibility of these top-level concepts across the external terminology and the UMLS. The method was applied to the mapping of the large-scale biomedical thesaurus EMTREE to the complete UMLS Metathesaurus. In total, 47.9% coverage of EMTREE terms was reached, leading to 80% coverage of EMTREE concepts. Our method has revealed a high compatibility in 6 out of 15 top-level categories across terminologies. The validation of lexical mappings ranges over 75.8% of the total lexical alignment. Overall, the method rules out a total of 6927 (7.9%) lexical mappings, with a global precision of 78%.

  16. Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Wen, E-mail: wzhao7@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, Qing-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Santos, Larissa [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.

  17. Projective mapping based on choice or preference: An affective approach to projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Paula; Berget, Ingunn; Hersleth, Margrethe; Carlehög, Mats; Asioli, Daniele; Næs, Tormod

    2017-10-01

    This work explores a new affective approach to projective mapping, based on consumers' choices or preferences. Two sessions, one week apart, were performed with the same consumers, using whole bread as a case study. Overall liking ratings (OL) were gathered in blind conditions and samples were also profiled by a trained panel using generic descriptive analysis. Three projective mapping tests were performed in different scenarios. Consumers' categorization and product descriptions were explored when consumers based their positioning on the products' similarities and differences (analytical approach, "classic napping") both in blind and informed conditions, and when consumers were focusing on their preference or choice (affective approach). The affective approach to projective mapping successfully revealed consumers' drivers of liking and choice from a holistic perspective, where consumers summarized their main drivers for categorizing products as they would do when choosing in real life situations, based on their preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. But Why Would They Do That? European External Governance and Domestic Preferences of Rule Importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Rousselin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After having shown that the current European External Governance framework would fail to predict or explain the transfer of European environmental standards for the automotive industry towards the People’s Republic of China, the article proposes a revised framework which includes new assumptions regarding the domestic preferences of rule importers. The case study highlights the central explanatory role of the Chinese domestic preference in the rule transfer process. It also shows that the Chinese decision, although primarily motivated by considerations of effectiveness, was also influenced by the greater legitimacy of the Euro emission standards.

  19. Prevention Services for Externalizing and Anxiety Symptoms in Low-Income Children: the Role of Parent Preferences in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D; Godoy, Leandra; Eisenhower, Abbey S; Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of prevention programs targeting young children is impeded by challenges with parent engagement. Matching program characteristics to parent preferences is associated with increased retention in clinical/intervention settings, but little is known about the types of prevention programs that interest parents. The objectives of this study were to better understand parents' preferences for services designed to prevent externalizing and anxiety disorders and to identify factors associated with preferences. Ethnically diverse, low-income caregivers (n = 485) of young children (11-60 months) completed surveys on child anxiety and externalizing symptoms, parental worry about their children, parent anxiety symptoms, and preferences for prevention group topics. Parents were more likely to prefer a group targeting externalizing behaviors compared to anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of children: low symptoms, moderate anxiety-low externalizing, moderate externalizing-low anxiety, and high anxiety and externalizing. Parents' preferences varied according to co-occurrence of child anxiety and externalizing symptoms; interest in a program targeting externalizing problems was associated with elevated externalizing problems (regardless of anxiety symptom level), parent anxiety symptoms, and parent worry about their child. Only parent anxiety symptoms predicted parents' interest in an anxiety-focused program, and preference for an anxiety-focused program was actually reduced if children had co-occurring anxiety and externalizing symptoms versus only anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that parents' interest in a program to prevent externalizing problems was well-aligned with the presenting problem, whereas preferences for anxiety programming suggest a more complex interplay among factors. Parent preferences for targeted programming are discussed within a broader framework of parent engagement.

  20. A Preferred-Direction Statistic for Sky Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bunn, E F; Bunn, Emory F.; Scott, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    Large patterns could exist on the microwave sky as a result of various non-standard possibilities for the large-scale Universe -- rotation or shear, non-trivial topology, and single topological defects are specific examples. All-sky (or nearly all-sky) CMB data sets allow us, uniquely, to constrain such exotica, and it is therefore worthwhile to explore a wide range of statistical tests. We describe one such statistic here, which is based on determining gradients and is useful for assessing the level of 'preferred directionality' or 'stripiness' in the map. This method is more general than other techniques for picking out specific patterns on the sky, and it also has the advantage of being easily calculable for the mega-pixel maps which will soon be available. For the purposes of illustration, we apply this statistic to the four-year COBE DMR data. For future CMB maps we expect this to be a useful statistical test of the large-scale structure of the Universe. In principle, the same statistic could also be app...

  1. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P carbonation mouthfeel lovers, cluster 2 (C2) carbonation mouthfeel lovers, sweet and bitter taste acceptors, and cluster 3 (C3) bitter taste avoiders, mouthfeel and sweet taste lovers. User status (diet or regular beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Heavy Metal and Hip-Hop Style Preferences and Externalizing Problem Behavior: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines (a) the stability of Dutch adolescents' preferences for heavy metal and hip-hop youth culture styles, (b) longitudinal associations between their preferences and externalizing problem behavior, and (c) the moderating role of gender in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 931 adolescents between the ages of…

  3. Mapping between the Roland Morris Questionnaire and generic preference-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran A; Madan, Jason; Petrou, Stavros; Lamb, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    The Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ) is a widely used health status measure for low back pain (LBP). It is not preference-based, and there are currently no established algorithms for mapping between the RMQ and preference-based health-related quality-of-life measures. Using data from randomized controlled trials of treatment for LBP, we sought to develop algorithms for mapping between RMQ scores and health utilities derived using either the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) or the six-dimensional health state short form (derived from Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) (SF-6D). This study is based on data from the Back Skills Training Trial in which data were collected from 701 patients at baseline and subsequently at 3, 6, and 12 months postrandomization using a range of outcome measures, including the RMQ, the EQ-5D, and the Short Form 12 item Health Survey (SF-12) (from which SF-6D utilities can be derived). We used baseline trial data to estimate models using both direct and response mapping approaches to predict EQ-5D and SF-6D health utilities and dimension responses. A multistage model selection process was used to assess the predictive accuracy of the models. We then explored different techniques and mapping models that made use of repeated follow-up observations in the data. The estimated mapping algorithms were validated using external data from the UK Back Pain Exercise and Manipulation trial. A number of models were developed that accurately predict health utilities in this context. The best performing model for RMQ to EQ-5D mapping was a beta regression with Bayesian quasi-likelihood estimation that included 24 dummy variables for RMQ responses, age, and sex as covariates (mean squared error 0.0380) based on repeated data. The model selected for RMQ to SF-6D mapping was a finite mixture model that included the overall RMQ score, age, sex, RMQ score squared, age squared, and an interaction term for age and RMQ score as

  4. PREFERENCE OF THE LISTED ENTITIES REGARDING THE SELECTION OF THE EXTERNAL AUDITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulop Melinda Timea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to highlight the importance of the external auditing in supporting corporate governance and the preference of the listed entities to be audited by the big audit companies. Given the proposed objectives of the research, our scientific method is based on a deductive approach from general to particular that combines quantitative and qualitative studies. The role of the external audit was analyzed by conducting a study of literature on two levels: a theoretical-conceptual level in terms of economic theories and an empirical-practical level based on literature from which we extracted through a content analysis the defining elements of the audit work quality. Falling within the scope of the study, we evaluated the preference of the listed entities to be audited by the Big Four. To this end we used the content analysis of the publicly posted audit reports for the period 2005-2009. Our research results show that although we are a country with an emerging capital market development, the entities in the I-st category on the Bucharest Stock Exchange tend to an audit conducted by one of the big audit companies. Another result arising from our study is that the entities of the I-st category on the Bucharest Stock Exchange become more transparent from a year to another. Whether for the year 2005 we find only 12 audit reports publicly posted, in 2007 we can find 21 audit reports publicly posted. The trend of the large entities audited shows that the preference of the entities to be audited by one of the Big Four is higher from a year to another. The preparation of the financial statements and their audit must be done according to regulations for the currently period. The presumption found in the literature according to which the large entities are audited by the big audit companies which provide higher audit quality is confirmed in the case of our national country as well.

  5. Music Preferences, Friendship, and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescence: A SIENA Examination of the Music Marker Theory Using the SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-01-18

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first-year of secondary school. Two hypotheses were tested. First, adolescents were expected to select friends based both on a similarity in externalizing behavior and music genre preference. Second, a preference for rock, urban, or dance, music types was expected to predict the development of externalizing behavior, even when taking friends' influence on externalizing behavior into account. Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling indicated that adolescents select their friends based on both externalizing behavior and highbrow music preference. Moreover, both friends' externalizing behavior and a preference for dance music predicted the development of externalizing behavior. Intervention programs might focus on adolescents with dance music preferences.

  6. [Mapping stakeholders' preferences in prioritization criteria for horizon scanning in healthcare technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Aline do; Vidal, Avila Teixeira; Almeida, Rosimary Terezinha de

    2016-08-01

    Filtration and prioritization are two basics steps in horizon scanning systems. This article aimed to map stakeholders' preferences in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) regarding filtration and prioritization criteria. Two filtration criteria (time horizon and innovation) and eight prioritization criteria (relevance to epidemiology, health policies, and clinical practice; potential impact on SUS budget, healthcare providers' costs, and mortality; safety; and legal, ethical, and social aspects) were selected. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to map stakeholders' preferences within and between groups. Two groups were more homogeneous and determinant for selection of prioritization criteria. Stakeholders' professional experience had more influence than institutional affiliations. The approach showed transparent criteria selection and analysis of stakeholders' individual preferences.

  7. Map Matching Based on Conditional Random Fields and Route Preference Mining for Uncertain Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve offline map matching accuracy of uncertain GPS trajectories, a map matching algorithm based on conditional random fields (CRF and route preference mining is proposed. In this algorithm, road offset distance and the temporal-spatial relationship between the sampling points are used as features of GPS trajectory in a CRF model, which integrates the temporal-spatial context information flexibly. The driver route preference is also used to bolster the temporal-spatial context when a low GPS sampling rate impairs the resolving power of temporal-spatial context in CRF, allowing the map matching accuracy of uncertain GPS trajectories to get improved significantly. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is more accurate than existing methods, especially in the case of a low-sampling-rate.

  8. Conventional or adhesive external breast prosthesis? A prospective study of the patients' preference after mastectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs-Boer, FM; Thijs, JT; van de Wiel, HBM

    2001-01-01

    After having been subjected to radical mastectomy for breast cancer, women are usually Fitted with an external breast prosthesis. Different types of prostheses are available, but oncology nurses have few data enabling them to advise their patients adequately. in this prospective randomized crossover

  9. Conventional or adhesive external breast prosthesis? A prospective study of the patients' preference after mastectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs-Boer, FM; Thijs, JT; van de Wiel, HBM

    After having been subjected to radical mastectomy for breast cancer, women are usually Fitted with an external breast prosthesis. Different types of prostheses are available, but oncology nurses have few data enabling them to advise their patients adequately. in this prospective randomized crossover

  10. Music preferences, friendship, and externalizing behavior in early adolescence : A SIENA examination of the music marker theory using the SNARE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the

  11. Music preferences, friendship, and externalizing behavior in early adolescence : A SIENA examination of the music marker theory using the SNARE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the

  12. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, L.; Beck, L.; Walter, Ph.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.

    2010-06-01

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 μm diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  13. Mapa de preferência de sorvetes ricos em fibras Preference map of high-fiber ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Lopes de Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro amostras de sorvete foram preparadas adicionando-se diferentes concentrações de granola e Frutooligossacarídeo (FOS. Foi avaliado o teor de fibras segundo método AOAC. A avaliação da aceitabilidade sensorial foi realizada por 78 consumidores, com idade entre 15 e 25 anos. Estes avaliaram a aceitação global das formulações, utilizando a escala hedônica de nove pontos, em uma única seção, de forma monádica. O experimento foi estruturado segundo delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, ao teste de médias de Tuckey e à metodologia do Mapa de Preferência interno para análise dos componentes principais. As amostras controle e as adicionadas de FOS tiveram melhor aceitação. A amostra contendo somente FOS foi a que mais se aproximou do produto tradicional, não diferindo significativamente quanto à aceitação global. A granola distinguiu-se estatisticamente do produto tradicional. O teor de fibras analisado foi superior ao fornecido pelo fabricante da granola. As concentrações de fibras nos sorvetes variaram de 0,9 a 5,45 g.100 g-1 de sorvete, com a maior concentração de fibras provenientes do FOS. Esse resultado permite concluir que o FOS é um ingrediente promissor no desenvolvimento de produtos ricos em fibras.Four samples of ice cream were prepared with four different concentrations of granola and fructooligosaccharide (FOS. The concentration of fiber was evaluated using the AOAC method. The acceptance evaluation was conducted by 78 consumers between 15 and 25 years of age. The consumers evaluated the global acceptance of the formulations through the structured 9-point hedonic scale, in a single section, in a monadic form. The experiment was structured by a Randomized Complete Block Design. The results were submitted to the analysis of variance, Tukey test, and to the preference mapping technique for principal component analysis. The control samples

  14. Mapping landscape phenology preference of yellow-billed cuckoo with AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel; Van Riper, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We mapped habitat for threatened Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccycus americanus occidentalis) in the State of Arizona using the temporal greenness dynamics of the landscape, or the landscape phenology. Landscape phenometrics were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data for 1998 and 1999 by using Fourier harmonic analysis to analyze the waveform of the annual NDVI profile at each pixel. We modeled the spatial distribution of Yellow-billed Cuckoo habitat by coupling the field data of Cuckoo presence or absence and point-based samples of riparian and cottonwood-willow vegetation types with satellite phenometrics for 1998. Models were validated using field and satellite data collected in 1999. The results indicate that Yellow-billed Cuckoo occupy locations within their preferred habitat that exhibit peak greenness after the start of the summer monsoon and are greener and more dynamic than “average” habitat. Identification of preferred phenotypes within recognized habitat areas can be used to refine habitat models, inform predictions of habitat response to climate change, and suggest adaptation strategies.

  15. Mapping the mean monthly precipitation of a small island using kriging with external drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantet, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the spatial distribution of mean annual and monthly precipitation in a small island (1128 km2) named Martinique, located in the Lesser Antilles. Only 35 meteorological stations are available on the territory, which has a complex topography. With a digital elevation model (DEM), 17 covariates that are likely to explain precipitation were built. Several interpolation methods, such as regression-kriging (MLRK, PCRK,and PLSK) and external drift kriging (EDK) were tested using a cross-validation procedure. For the regression methods, predictors were chosen by established techniques whereas a new approach is proposed to select external drifts in a kriging which is based on a stepwise model selection by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The prediction accuracy was assessed at validation sites with three different skill scores. Results show that using methods with no predictors such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) or universal kriging (UK) is inappropriate in such a territory. EDK appears to outperform regression methods for any criteria, and selecting predictors by our approach improves the prediction of mean annual precipitation compared to kriging with only elevation as drift. Finally, the predicting performance was also studied by varying the size of the training set leading to less conclusive results for EDK and its performance. Nevertheless, the proposed method seems to be a good way to improve the mapping of climatic variables in a small island.

  16. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laight, David W

    2004-05-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities.

  17. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Gemina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1 formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2 formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3 formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on typical food products of Bandung and Cianjur. The survey research method and form of research were verification, while the sampling method conducted was the simple random sampling by distributing questionnaires to 100 respondents. The data quality testing performed were the validity test and the reliability test. For the path analysis research model, data transformation from ordinal to interval was previously conducted using the method of successive interval. Results of the study revealed that consumer external and internal environmental factors together have a positive effect towards consumer perception. The effect of consumer external environmental factors are greater than the consumer internal environmental factors towards consumer perception. The more mature consumers are, either from the aspect of their way of thinking or educative factors obtained from education and insight, the more developed are their perception towards food products. Consumer perception has a positive effect towards consumer attitude and preference. The variable of consumer attitude and preference has a positive effect towards consumer behavior in consuming typical regional food products.

  18. Mapping the distribution of packing topologies within protein interiors shows predominant preference for specific packing motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Rahul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping protein primary sequences to their three dimensional folds referred to as the 'second genetic code' remains an unsolved scientific problem. A crucial part of the problem concerns the geometrical specificity in side chain association leading to densely packed protein cores, a hallmark of correctly folded native structures. Thus, any model of packing within proteins should constitute an indispensable component of protein folding and design. Results In this study an attempt has been made to find, characterize and classify recurring patterns in the packing of side chain atoms within a protein which sustains its native fold. The interaction of side chain atoms within the protein core has been represented as a contact network based on the surface complementarity and overlap between associating side chain surfaces. Some network topologies definitely appear to be preferred and they have been termed 'packing motifs', analogous to super secondary structures in proteins. Study of the distribution of these motifs reveals the ubiquitous presence of typical smaller graphs, which appear to get linked or coalesce to give larger graphs, reminiscent of the nucleation-condensation model in protein folding. One such frequently occurring motif, also envisaged as the unit of clustering, the three residue clique was invariably found in regions of dense packing. Finally, topological measures based on surface contact networks appeared to be effective in discriminating sequences native to a specific fold amongst a set of decoys. Conclusions Out of innumerable topological possibilities, only a finite number of specific packing motifs are actually realized in proteins. This small number of motifs could serve as a basis set in the construction of larger networks. Of these, the triplet clique exhibits distinct preference both in terms of composition and geometry.

  19. Mapping the distribution of packing topologies within protein interiors shows predominant preference for specific packing motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Banerjee, Rahul

    2011-05-24

    Mapping protein primary sequences to their three dimensional folds referred to as the 'second genetic code' remains an unsolved scientific problem. A crucial part of the problem concerns the geometrical specificity in side chain association leading to densely packed protein cores, a hallmark of correctly folded native structures. Thus, any model of packing within proteins should constitute an indispensable component of protein folding and design. In this study an attempt has been made to find, characterize and classify recurring patterns in the packing of side chain atoms within a protein which sustains its native fold. The interaction of side chain atoms within the protein core has been represented as a contact network based on the surface complementarity and overlap between associating side chain surfaces. Some network topologies definitely appear to be preferred and they have been termed 'packing motifs', analogous to super secondary structures in proteins. Study of the distribution of these motifs reveals the ubiquitous presence of typical smaller graphs, which appear to get linked or coalesce to give larger graphs, reminiscent of the nucleation-condensation model in protein folding. One such frequently occurring motif, also envisaged as the unit of clustering, the three residue clique was invariably found in regions of dense packing. Finally, topological measures based on surface contact networks appeared to be effective in discriminating sequences native to a specific fold amongst a set of decoys. Out of innumerable topological possibilities, only a finite number of specific packing motifs are actually realized in proteins. This small number of motifs could serve as a basis set in the construction of larger networks. Of these, the triplet clique exhibits distinct preference both in terms of composition and geometry.

  20. Mapping the mean monthly precipitation of a small island using kriging with external drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the spatial distribution of mean annual and monthly precipitation in a small island (1128 km2) named Martinique, located in the Lesser Antilles. Only 35 meteorological stations are available on the territory, which has a complex topography. With a digital elevation model (DEM), 17 covariates that are likely to explain precipitation were built. Several interpolation methods, such as regression-kriging (𝖬𝖫𝖱𝖪, 𝖯𝖢𝖱𝖪, and 𝖯𝖫𝖲𝖪) and external drift kriging (𝖤𝖣𝖪) were tested using a cross-validation procedure. For the regression methods, predictors were chosen by established techniques whereas a new approach is proposed to select external drifts in a kriging which is based on a stepwise model selection by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The prediction accuracy was assessed at validation sites with three different skill scores. Results show that using methods with no predictors such as inverse distance weighting (𝖨𝖣𝖶) or universal kriging (𝖴𝖪) is inappropriate in such a territory. 𝖤𝖣𝖪 appears to outperform regression methods for any criteria, and selecting predictors by our approach improves the prediction of mean annual precipitation compared to kriging with only elevation as drift. Finally, the predicting performance was also studied by varying the size of the training set leading to less conclusive results for 𝖤𝖣𝖪 and its performance. Nevertheless, the proposed method seems to be a good way to improve the mapping of climatic variables in a small island.

  1. Mapping Landscape Phenology Preference of Yellow-billed Cuckoo with AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, C.; Villarreal, M. L.; Van Riper, C., III

    2011-12-01

    The yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccycus americanus occidentalis) is a neo-tropical migrant bird that travels north from South America into the southwestern United States during the summer to nest. In Arizona, favored riparian forest and woodland nesting habitat has declined in recent decades, due primarily to human activities and the prolonged drought conditions. As a result, western yellow-billed cuckoos have been petitioned for possible listing under the Endangered Species Act. In this study, we map yellow-billed cuckoo habitat in the state of Arizona using the temporal greenness dynamics of the landscape, or the landscape phenology. Landscape phenometrics were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite data using Fourier harmonic analysis. Applying Fourier analysis to the waveform composed of the 26 annual composite NDVI values produces phenometrics related to the overall vegetation amount, variability and timing. Field data on Cuckoo presence were obtained from 1998 surveys conducted by Northern Arizona University (NAU), the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). To focus the research within probable landscapes, an AGFD vegetation map (derived from the Arizona GAP program) was used to extract polygons of riparian vegetation and cottonwood-willow riparian vegetation. To create the models, we coupled the satellite phenometrics with field data of cuckoo presence or absence and with points sampling the entirety of mapped riparian and cottonwood-willow vegetation types. Statistical tests reveal that locations with cuckoos present are landscapes with greenness that is significantly more variable and that peaks significantly later than locations in average riparian vegetation, average cottonwood-willow vegetation, or with cuckoos absent. Interestingly, the mean peak greenness date of July 3 for survey locations with cuckoos present coincides with the

  2. Role of Dentate Gyrus in Aligning Internal Spatial Map to External Landmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Woon Ryoung; Sun, Woong; Jung, Min Whan

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals form internal representations of external space based on their own body movement (dead reckoning) as well as external landmarks. It is poorly understood, however, how different types of information are integrated to form a unified representation of external space. To examine the role of dentate gyrus (DG) in this process, we…

  3. Mapping An Internal-External (I-E) Matrix Using Traditional And Extended Matrix Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher M. Cassidy; Michael D. Glissmeyer; Charles J. Capps III

    2013-01-01

      Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) and External Factor Evaluation (EFE) matrices allow an organization to visualize their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats while a Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM...

  4. Are Internal or External Pancreatic Duct Stents the Preferred Choice for Patients Undergoing Pancreaticoduodenectomy? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yajie; Zhang, Jianwei; Lan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Qinglong; Zhang, Shuisheng; Chu, Yunmian; Chen, Yingtai; Wang, Chengfeng

    2017-01-01

    The technique of pancreatic duct stenting during pancreatic anastomosis can markedly reduce the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (PF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The method of drainage includes using either an external or an internal stent; the meta-analysis result shows us that there were no differences in the rates of postoperative complications between PD using internal stents and PD using external stents; internal stents may be more favorable during postoperative management of drainage tube. What is more, internal stents could reduce the digestive fluid loss and benefit the digestive function.

  5. Assessment of training needs and preferences for geographic information systems (GIS) mapping in state comprehensive cancer-control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Suellen; Chadwick, Amy E; Parrott, Roxanne L; Ghetian, Christie B; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2009-10-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) mapping technologies have potential to advance public health promotion by mapping regional differences in attributes (e.g., disease burden, environmental exposures, access to health care services) to suggest priorities for public health interventions. Training in GIS for comprehensive cancer control (CCC) has been overlooked. State CCC programs' GIS training needs were assessed by interviewing 49 state CCC directors. A majority perceived a need for GIS training, slightly more than half of state CCC programs had access to geocoded data, and the majority of programs did not require continuing education credits of their staff. CCC directors perceived judging maps and realizing their limitations as important skills and identified epidemiologists, CCC staff, public health officials, policy makers, and cancer coalition members as training audiences. They preferred in-class training sessions that last a few hours to a day. Lessons learned are shared to develop training programs with translatable GIS skills for CCC.

  6. Behind the wheel and on the map: Genetic and environmental associations between drunk driving and other externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Harden, K Paige

    2013-11-01

    Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined 3 conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidence for drunk driving as a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a spectrum of alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. Most notably, multidimensional scaling analyses produced a genetic "map" with drunk driving located near its center, supporting the strength of drunk driving's genetic relations with a broad range of externalizing behaviors. In contrast, nonshared environmental associations with drunk driving were weaker and more diffuse. Drunk driving may be a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a broad externalizing spectrum. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. External knowledge sourcing in the Spanish archaeological sector: Mapping the emergent stage of a business activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Parga-Dans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of innovation highlight the importance of external knowledge sourcing. Existing empirical works are based on national surveys and specific industries. The present study contributes to the analysis of strategies for sourcing external knowledge, based on a specific case study and moment in time: the Spanish archaeological sector and its emergence as a new business activity. Our results show that external knowledge sourcing involves diverse mechanisms, agents and two main strategies: cooperation and knowledge acquisition. In an expanding knowledge-based sector emerging in an uncertain context and whose sources of knowledge are scattered, innovation strategy should focus on the search for external knowledge –cooperation and acquisition strategies-, rather than on internal sources.

  8. A computational vector-map model of neonate saccades: modulating the externality effect through refraction periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peter A; Fiacconi, Chris M; Gibson, Laura C

    2010-11-23

    The present study develops an explicit and predictive computational model of neonate saccades based on the interaction of several simple mechanisms, including the tendency to fixate towards areas of high contrast, and the decay and recovery of a world-centered contrast representation simulating a low-level inhibition of return mechanism. Emergent properties similar to early visual behaviors develop, including the externality effect (or tendency to focus on external then internal features). The age-associated progression of this effect is modulated by the decay period of the model's contrast representation, where the high-level behavior of either scanning broadly or locally is modulated by a single decay parameter.

  9. External Contamination Environment at ISS Included: Selected Results from Payloads Contamination Mapping Delivery 3 Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randy; Huang, Alvin; Steagall, Courtney; Kohl, Nathaniel; Koontz, Steve; Worthy, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  10. A Digital Map From External Forcing to the Final Surface Warming Pattern and its Seasonal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, only the thermodynamic processes (e.g., water vapor, cloud, surface albedo, and atmospheric lapse rate) that directly influence the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative energy flux balance are considered in climate feedback analysis. One of my recent research areas is to develop a new framework for climate feedback analysis that explicitly takes into consideration not only the thermodynamic processes that the directly influence the TOA radiative energy flux balance but also the local dynamical (e.g., evaporation, surface sensible heat flux, vertical convections etc) and non-local dynamical (large-scale horizontal energy transport) processes in aiming to explain the warming asymmetry between high and low latitudes, between ocean and land, and between the surface and atmosphere. In the last 5-6 years, we have developed a coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) as a new framework for estimating climate feedback and sensitivity in coupled general circulation models with a full physical parameterization package. In the CFRAM, the isolation of partial temperature changes due to an external forcing alone or an individual feedback is achieved by solving the linearized infrared radiation transfer model subject to individual energy flux perturbations (external or due to feedbacks). The partial temperature changes are addable and their sum is equal to the (total) temperature change (in the linear sense). The CFRAM is used to isolate the partial temperature changes due to the external forcing, due to water vapor feedback, clouds, surface albedo, local vertical convection, and non-local atmospheric dynamical feedbacks, as well as oceanic heat storage. It has been shown that seasonal variations in the cloud feedback, surface albedo feedback, and ocean heat storage/dynamics feedback, directly caused by the strong annual cycle of insolation, contribute primarily to the large seasonal variation of polar warming. Furthermore, the

  11. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael A Carlsson

    Full Text Available Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+ activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants.

  12. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Schäpers, Alexander; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Hansson, Bill S; Janz, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+) activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants.

  13. Mapping physical properties of Swiss forest soils by robust external-drift kriging from legacy soil data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papritz, Andreas; Ramirez Lopez, Leo; Baltensweiler, Andri; Walthert, Lorenz

    2015-04-01

    Climate change scenario predict for Switzerland increasing summer temperature and decreasing precipitation. In coming decades forests will therefore likely experience more often drought. However, it is not clear to what extent these changes will occur and where in Switzerland they will be most pronounced. Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) models allow to explore likely changes in the water regime of forest under changing climate. Such process models require information of soil physical properties that largely control water storage in forest soils. Spatial information on physical properties of forest soils is currently lacking in Switzerland. Therefore one objective of the project "Soils and water regime of Swiss forests and forest sites under present and future climate BOWA-CH" (http://www.wsl.ch/fe/boden/projekte/bowa_ch/index_EN) was to predict basic physical properties of forest soils at high spatial resolution for the whole Swiss territory. Based on legacy data of about 2000 forest soil profiles, we mapped particle size composition, volumetric content of rock fragments, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil density for fixed-depth soil layers (0-10, 10-30, 30-60, ..., 120-150 cm) by robust external drift kriging (Nussbaum et al., 2014). Comprehensive, digitally available information on climate, topography, vegetation and geology were used as covariates for statistical modelling. Preliminary sets of covariates were chosen by LASSO, and the selection was refined by cross-validating the model for the external drift. External validation with 20 % of the data revealed that clay and sand content, soil density and SOC could be predicted with acceptable precision. Predictions of rock fragment content and silt content were less precise, and the developed model failed to spatially predict soil depth. This is unfortunate because soil depth and rock fragment content largely control water storage in soils. Nussbaum, M., Papritz, A., Baltensweiler, A

  14. Genome wide nucleosome mapping for HSV-1 shows nucleosomes are deposited at preferred positions during lytic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaewook; Sanders, Iryna F; Chen, Eric Z; Li, Hongzhe; Tobias, John W; Isett, R Benjamin; Penubarthi, Sindura; Sun, Hao; Baldwin, Don A; Fraser, Nigel W

    2015-01-01

    HSV is a large double stranded DNA virus, capable of causing a variety of diseases from the common cold sore to devastating encephalitis. Although DNA within the HSV virion does not contain any histone protein, within 1 h of infecting a cell and entering its nucleus the viral genome acquires some histone protein (nucleosomes). During lytic infection, partial micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion does not give the classic ladder band pattern, seen on digestion of cell DNA or latent viral DNA. However, complete digestion does give a mono-nucleosome band, strongly suggesting that there are some nucleosomes present on the viral genome during the lytic infection, but that they are not evenly positioned, with a 200 bp repeat pattern, like cell DNA. Where then are the nucleosomes positioned? Here we perform HSV-1 genome wide nucleosome mapping, at a time when viral replication is in full swing (6 hr PI), using a microarray consisting of 50mer oligonucleotides, covering the whole viral genome (152 kb). Arrays were probed with MNase-protected fragments of DNA from infected cells. Cells were not treated with crosslinking agents, thus we are only mapping tightly bound nucleosomes. The data show that nucleosome deposition is not random. The distribution of signal on the arrays suggest that nucleosomes are located at preferred positions on the genome, and that there are some positions that are not occupied (nucleosome free regions -NFR or Nucleosome depleted regions -NDR), or occupied at frequency below our limit of detection in the population of genomes. Occupancy of only a fraction of the possible sites may explain the lack of a typical MNase partial digestion band ladder pattern for HSV DNA during lytic infection. On average, DNA encoding Immediate Early (IE), Early (E) and Late (L) genes appear to have a similar density of nucleosomes.

  15. Prebiotic Low Sugar Chocolate Dairy Desserts: Physical and Optical Characteristics and Performance of PARAFAC and PCA Preference Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, E C; Esmerino, E A; Monteiro, R A; Pinheiro, C M; Nunes, C A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-01-01

    The addition of prebiotic and sweeteners in chocolate dairy desserts opens up new opportunities to develop dairy desserts that besides having a lower calorie intake still has functional properties. In this study, prebiotic low sugar dairy desserts were evaluated by 120 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale, in relation to the attributes of appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking. Internal preference map using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the consumer data. In addition, physical (texture profile) and optical (instrumental color) analyses were also performed. Prebiotic dairy desserts containing sucrose and sucralose were equally liked by the consumers. These samples were characterized by firmness and gumminess, which can be considered drivers of liking by the consumers. Optimization of the prebiotic low sugar dessert formulation should take in account the choice of ingredients that contribute in a positive manner for these parameters. PARAFAC allowed the extraction of more relevant information in relation to PCA, demonstrating that consumer acceptance analysis can be evaluated by simultaneously considering several attributes. Multiple factor analysis reported Rv value of 0.964, suggesting excellent concordance for both methods.

  16. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    Full Text Available Right internal jugular vein (IJV is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed dialysis catheters (TDCs, and both right external jugular vein (EJV and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn't available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs.49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21 or left IJV (n = 28 as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI.A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262-605 catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007. Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363-3.588; p = 0.001.Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable.

  17. Improving anatomical mapping of complexly deformed anatomy for external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy dose accumulation in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vásquez Osorio, Eliana M., E-mail: e.vasquezosorio@erasmusmc.nl; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Schuring-Pereira, Monica; Zolnay, András; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam 3075 (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: In the treatment of cervical cancer, large anatomical deformations, caused by, e.g., tumor shrinkage, bladder and rectum filling changes, organ sliding, and the presence of the brachytherapy (BT) applicator, prohibit the accumulation of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and BT dose distributions. This work proposes a structure-wise registration with vector field integration (SW+VF) to map the largely deformed anatomies between EBRT and BT, paving the way for 3D dose accumulation between EBRT and BT. Methods: T2w-MRIs acquired before EBRT and as a part of the MRI-guided BT procedure for 12 cervical cancer patients, along with the manual delineations of the bladder, cervix-uterus, and rectum-sigmoid, were used for this study. A rigid transformation was used to align the bony anatomy in the MRIs. The proposed SW+VF method starts by automatically segmenting features in the area surrounding the delineated organs. Then, each organ and feature pair is registered independently using a feature-based nonrigid registration algorithm developed in-house. Additionally, a background transformation is calculated to account for areas far from all organs and features. In order to obtain one transformation that can be used for dose accumulation, the organ-based, feature-based, and the background transformations are combined into one vector field using a weighted sum, where the contribution of each transformation can be directly controlled by its extent of influence (scope size). The optimal scope sizes for organ-based and feature-based transformations were found by an exhaustive analysis. The anatomical correctness of the mapping was independently validated by measuring the residual distances after transformation for delineated structures inside the cervix-uterus (inner anatomical correctness), and for anatomical landmarks outside the organs in the surrounding region (outer anatomical correctness). The results of the proposed method were compared with the results of the

  18. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred approach to learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laight, David W

    2006-03-01

    Pre-prepared concept maps that organise knowledge in a non-linear fashion appeal to a variety of cognitive learning styles and may thus represent an educational tool that supports 'teaching to all types'. However, another central cognitive factor, learning approach, may have a bearing on student take-up of this learning resource. Student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were therefore examined in relation to the principal learning orientations according to Duff's 30-item revised approaches to study inventory (RASI). Approximately one half of students (49.6 +/- 4.5%) reported pre-prepared concept maps to be useful to their learning (n = 121). When preferred learning approach was examined, derived from the highest RASI score per individual and excluding ties, 31.9 +/- 4.3%, 29.3 +/- 4.2% and 38.8 +/- 4.5% of students demonstrated a preference for the deep approach (DA), strategic approach (STA) and surface approach (SUA), respectively (P > 0.05, chi2 goodness-of-fit test, n = 116). There was a weak but statistically significant association between preferred learning approach identified by Duff's 30-item RASI and the self-reported usefulness of concept maps (P learning orientations vis-à-vis student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps when employed alongside more traditional teaching/learning activities in medical and biomedical science education, and may further suggest a role for concept maps in the support of deep learning.

  19. Mapping the MMPI-2-RF Substantive Scales Onto Internalizing, Externalizing, and Thought Dysfunction Dimensions in a Forensic Inpatient Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabella E; Toorabally, Nasreen; Burchett, Danielle; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Glassmire, David M

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary models of psychopathology-encompassing internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction factors-have gained significant support. Although research indicates the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) measures these domains of psychopathology, this study addresses extant limitations in MMPI-2-RF diagnostic validity research by examining associations between all MMPI-2-RF substantive scales and broad dichotomous indicators of internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction diagnoses in a sample of 1,110 forensic inpatients. Comparing those with and without internalizing diagnoses, notable effects were observed for Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism-Revised (NEGE-r), Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction (EID), Dysfunctional Negative Emotions (RC7), Demoralization (RCd), and several other internalizing and somatic/cognitive scales. Comparing those with and without thought dysfunction diagnoses, the largest hypothesized differences occurred for Thought Dysfunction (THD), Aberrant Experiences (RC8), and Psychoticism-Revised (PSYC-r), although unanticipated differences were observed on internalizing and interpersonal scales, likely reflecting the high prevalence of internalizing dysfunction in forensic inpatients not experiencing thought dysfunction. Comparing those with and without externalizing diagnoses, the largest effects were for Substance Abuse (SUB), Antisocial Behavior (RC4), Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction (BXD), Juvenile Conduct Problems (JCP), and Disconstraint-Revised (DISC-r). Multivariate models evidenced similar results. Findings support the construct validity of MMPI-2-RF scales as measures of internalizing, thought, and externalizing dysfunction.

  20. Some Rational Conditions of Group Utopian Preference Mapping%群体理想偏爱映射的若干理性条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪振杰; 徐贤胜; 叶帆

    2007-01-01

    本文研究求解群体多目标最优化问题的理想偏爱法的性质,证明了对应的理想偏爱映射满足基数型群体决策规则的匿名性,中立性,正响应性,非负响应性,强Pareto原则以及局部非独裁性等理性条件.%Some cardinal rational conditions as anonymity, neutrality, positive responsiveness, nonnegative responsiveness, Pareto rule and local nondictatorship are defined and the group utopian preference mapping relative to group utopian preference method is proved to satisfy all these rational conditions.

  1. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  2. Electronic structure and its external electric field modulation of PbPdO2 ultrathin slabs with (002) and (211) preferred orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanmin; Zhong, Kehua; Xu, Guigui; Zhang, Jian-Min; Huang, Zhigao

    2017-07-31

    The Electronic structure of PbPdO2 with (002) and (211) preferred orientations were investigated using first-principles calculation. The calculated results indicate that, (002) and (211) orientations exhibit different electric field dependence of band-gap and carrier concentration. The small band gap and more sensitive electric field modulation of band gap were found in (002) orientation. Moreover, the electric field modulation of the resistivity up to 3-4 orders of magnitude is also observed in (002) slab, which reveals that origin of colossal electroresistance. Lastly, electric field modulation of band gap is well explained. This work should be significant for repeating the colossal electroresistance.

  3. Is more always up? Evidence for a preference of hand-based associations over vertical number mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemers, M.; Bekkering, H.; Lindemann, O.

    2017-01-01

    It has been argued that the cognitive mapping of vertical space and number plays a fundamental role for our understanding of numerical concepts and should therefore dominate over other numerical associations. However, convincing evidence for an association of numbers and vertical bimanual responses

  4. Adaptive plasticity of the auditory space map in the optic tectum of adult and baby barn owls in response to external ear modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, E I; Esterly, S D; Olsen, J F

    1994-01-01

    1. This study demonstrates the influence of experience on the establishment and maintenance of the auditory map of space in the optic tectum of the barn owl. Auditory experience was altered either by preventing the structures of the external ears (the facial ruff and preaural flaps) from appearing in baby barn owls (baby ruff-cut owls) or by removing these structures in adults (adult ruff-cut owls). These structures shape the binaural cues used for localizing sounds in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. 2. The acoustic effects of removing the external ear structures were measured using probe tube microphones placed in the ear canals. In both baby and adult ruff-cut owls, the spatial pattern of binaural localization cues was dramatically different from normal: interaural level difference (ILD) changed with azimuth instead of with elevation, the rate of change of ILD across space was decreased relative to normal, and the rate of change of interaural time difference (ITD) across frontal space was increased relative to normal. 3. The neurophysiological representations of ITD and ILD in the optic tectum were measured before and > or = 3 mo after ruff removal in adults and beginning at 4.5 months of age in baby ruff-cut owls. Multiunit tuning to ITD and to ILD was measured using dichotic stimulation in ketamine-anesthetized owls. The tectal maps of ITD and ILD were reconstructed using visual receptive field location as a marker for recording site location in the optic tectum. 4. Adjustment of the tectal map of ITD to the altered spatial pattern of acoustic ITD was essentially complete in adults as well as in baby ruff-cut owls. This adjustment changed the magnification of ITD across the tectum, with resultant changes in ITD tuning at individual tectal sites of up to approximately 25 microseconds (approximately 5% of the physiological range) relative to normal values. 5. Adaptation of the tectal ILD map to the ruff-cut spatial pattern of acoustic ILD was

  5. Mapping medical careers: Questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final-year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus IC

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the workforce planning of health-care services. However, there is little theoretical understanding of how different medical specialities are perceived or how choices are made, despite there being much work in general on this topic in occupational psychology, which is influenced by Holland's RIASEC (Realistic-Investigative-Artistic-Social-Enterprising-Conventional typology of careers, and Gottfredson's model of circumscription and compromise. In this study, we use three large-scale cohorts of medical students to produce maps of medical careers. Methods Information on between 24 and 28 specialities was collected in three UK cohorts of medical students (1981, 1986 and 1991 entry, in applicants (1981 and 1986 cohorts, N = 1135 and 2032 or entrants (1991 cohort, N = 2973 and in final-year students (N = 330, 376, and 1437. Mapping used Individual Differences Scaling (INDSCAL on sub-groups broken down by age and sex. The method was validated in a population sample using a full range of careers, and demonstrating that the RIASEC structure could be extracted. Results Medical specialities in each cohort, at application and in the final-year, were well represented by a two-dimensional space. The representations showed a close similarity to Holland's RIASEC typology, with the main orthogonal dimensions appearing similar to Prediger's derived orthogonal dimensions of 'Things-People' and 'Data-Ideas'. Conclusions There are close parallels between Holland's general typology of careers, and the structure we have found in medical careers. Medical specialities typical of Holland's six RIASEC categories are Surgery (Realistic, Hospital Medicine (Investigative, Psychiatry (Artistic, Public Health (Social, Administrative Medicine (Enterprising, and Laboratory Medicine (Conventional. The homology between medical careers and RIASEC may mean that the map can be

  6. Mapping medical careers: questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final-year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, K V; McManus, I C

    2004-10-01

    The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the workforce planning of health-care services. However, there is little theoretical understanding of how different medical specialities are perceived or how choices are made, despite there being much work in general on this topic in occupational psychology, which is influenced by Holland's RIASEC (Realistic-Investigative-Artistic-Social-Enterprising-Conventional) typology of careers, and Gottfredson's model of circumscription and compromise. In this study, we use three large-scale cohorts of medical students to produce maps of medical careers. Information on between 24 and 28 specialities was collected in three UK cohorts of medical students (1981, 1986 and 1991 entry), in applicants (1981 and 1986 cohorts, N = 1135 and 2032) or entrants (1991 cohort, N = 2973) and in final-year students (N = 330, 376, and 1437). Mapping used Individual Differences Scaling (INDSCAL) on sub-groups broken down by age and sex. The method was validated in a population sample using a full range of careers, and demonstrating that the RIASEC structure could be extracted. Medical specialities in each cohort, at application and in the final-year, were well represented by a two-dimensional space. The representations showed a close similarity to Holland's RIASEC typology, with the main orthogonal dimensions appearing similar to Prediger's derived orthogonal dimensions of 'Things-People' and 'Data-Ideas'. There are close parallels between Holland's general typology of careers, and the structure we have found in medical careers. Medical specialities typical of Holland's six RIASEC categories are Surgery (Realistic), Hospital Medicine (Investigative), Psychiatry (Artistic), Public Health (Social), Administrative Medicine (Enterprising), and Laboratory Medicine (Conventional). The homology between medical careers and RIASEC may mean that the map can be used as the basis for understanding career choice, and for

  7. Mapping the FACT-P to the preference-based EQ-5D questionnaire in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaltsa, Konstantina; Longworth, Louise; Ivanescu, Cristina; Phung, De; Holmstrom, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    To develop a mapping algorithm for estimating EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire values from the prostate cancer-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instrument Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) instrument. The EQ-5D questionnaire and FACT-P instrument data were collected for a subset of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. We compared three statistical techniques to estimate patients' EQ-5D questionnaire index scores determined by using the UK tariff: 1) generalized estimating equations, 2) two-part model combining logistic regression and generalized estimating equation, and 3) separate mapping algorithms for patients with poor health defined as a FACT-P score of 76 or less (group-specific model). Four different sets of explanatory variables were compared. The models were cross-validated by using a 10-fold in-sample cross-validation. Values for both instruments were available for 236 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The group-specific model including the FACT-P subscale scores and baseline variables had the best predictive performance with R(2) 0.718, root mean square error 0.162, and mean absolute error 0.117. The two-part model and the generalized estimating equation model including the FACT-P subdomain scores and baseline variables also had good predictive performance. The developed algorithms for mapping the FACT-P instrument to the EQ-5D questionnaire enable the estimation of preference-based health-related quality-of-life scores for use in cost-effectiveness analyses when directly elicited EQ-5D questionnaire data are missing. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fine-mapping quantitative trait loci affecting murine external ear tissue regeneration in the LG/J by SM/J advanced intercross line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverud, J M; Lawson, H A; Bouckaert, K; Kossenkov, A V; Showe, L C; Cort, L; Blankenhorn, E P; Bedelbaeva, K; Gourevitch, D; Zhang, Y; Heber-Katz, E

    2014-05-01

    External ear hole closure in LG/J mice represents a model of regenerative response. It is accompanied by the formation of a blastema-like structure and the re-growth of multiple tissues, including cartilage. The ability to regenerate tissue is heritable. An F34 advanced intercross line of mice (Wustl:LG,SM-G34) was generated to identify genomic loci involved in ear hole closure over a 30-day healing period. We mapped 19 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ear hole closure. Individual gene effects are relatively small (0.08 mm), and most loci have co-dominant effects with phenotypically intermediate heterozygotes. QTL support regions were limited to a median size of 2 Mb containing a median of 19 genes. Positional candidate genes were evaluated using differential transcript expression between LG/J and SM/J healing tissue, function analysis and bioinformatic analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in and around positional candidate genes of interest. Analysis of the set of 34 positional candidate genes and those displaying expression differences revealed over-representation of genes involved in cell cycle regulation/DNA damage, cell migration and adhesion, developmentally related genes and metabolism. This indicates that the healing phenotype in LG/J mice involves multiple physiological mechanisms.

  9. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  10. Preferred extensions as stable models

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Given an argumentation framework AF, we introduce a mapping function that constructs a disjunctive logic program P, such that the preferred extensions of AF correspond to the stable models of P, after intersecting each stable model with the relevant atoms. The given mapping function is of polynomial size w.r.t. AF. In particular, we identify that there is a direct relationship between the minimal models of a propositional formula and the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by w...

  11. Auditor Preference

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We analyze theoretically and empirically the effect of preference policies, which favor some auditors over others for reasons unrelated to the audit. For example, an auditee may prefer minority-owned auditors, all else equal. We construct an analytical model of the competitive bidding process for audit services. We show that preference policies can sometimes improve the audit procurement process by encouraging price concessions from non-preferenced auditors. We test model predictions in a set...

  12. Preference direction study of Job’s-tears ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Job's-tears (Coix lachryma-jobi L. is a kind of cereal commonly used in Asia as food and medicine, but it is still not widely consumed in Thailand. Four prototype products of Job’s-tears ice cream were developed by varying 2 levels of glucose syrup (16 and 32% of Job's-tears used and coconut milk (50 and 100 % of Job's-tears used. Their sensory attribute profiles were evaluated by 3 groups of 10 selected panelists using Ratio profile test (RPT, and their acceptances, hedonic scores, were evaluated by 100 consumers. Results showed that there were significant effects of coconut milk quantity on several attributes, such as appearance (whiteness, texture (hardness, smoothness, and flavour (coconut milk aroma, sweetness, saltiness, but the effect of glucose syrup quantity was significant on hardness only. Acceptance data were analyzed by cluster analysis to find out the difference of preference directions and 3 clusters (n1 = 39, n2 = 25, n3 = 36 were found. The first cluster preferred Job's tears ice cream containing high glucose syrup and low coconut milk, whilst the second preferred high level of only one of these two ingredients, and the third preferred high level of both ingredients. External preference maps were created from RPT and acceptance data to express the preference direction of each cluster.

  13. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  14. Preference Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Furnkranz, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The topic of preferences is a new branch of machine learning and data mining, and it has attracted considerable attention in artificial intelligence research in previous years. It involves learning from observations that reveal information about the preferences of an individual or a class of individuals. Representing and processing knowledge in terms of preferences is appealing as it allows one to specify desires in a declarative way, to combine qualitative and quantitative modes of reasoning, and to deal with inconsistencies and exceptions in a flexible manner. And, generalizing beyond traini

  15. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...

  16. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  17. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social......The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...

  18. Sequential effects in preference decision: Prior preference assimilates current preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seah; Kim, Chai-Youn; Cho, Yang Seok

    2017-01-01

    An important factor affecting preference formation is the context in which that preference decision takes place. The current research examined whether one's preference formed for a previously presented stimulus influences the processing of a subsequent preference decision, henceforth referred to as the preference sequence effect. Using a novel sequential rating/judgment paradigm, the present study demonstrated the presence of a preference sequence effect using artistic photographs and face stimuli: A neutral stimulus was preferred more following a preferable stimulus than a less preferable stimulus. Furthermore, a similar trend was found even when the potential influence of response bias was controlled. These results suggest that an assimilative sequential effect exists even when sequential judgments are made solely based on one's subjective feeling; preference formed for a preceding stimulus modulates preference for a subsequent stimulus. This implies the need for a consideration of trial sequence as a factor creating a psychological context affecting the subsequent preference decisions.

  19. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption...... and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  20. Aceitação de sobremesas lácteas dietéticas e formuladas com açúcar: teste afetivo e mapa de preferência interno Acceptability of sweetened and low calorie dairy desserts: affective tests and internal preference mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Vital de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A aceitação de sobremesas lácteas de chocolate (três pudins com açúcar, cinco pudins dietéticos e dois flans comerciais foi avaliada por 56 consumidores utilizando delineamento de blocos completos balanceados e empregando-se uma escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os provadores foram caracterizados através de um questionário para coleta de informações pessoais e hábitos de consumo de produtos dietéticos e pudins. Os dados de aceitação foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de médias. Empregou-se, também, a metodologia de Mapa de Preferência Interno utilizando diferentes técnicas estatísticas (Análise de Componentes Principais e Escala Multidimensional associadas à Análise de Agrupamentos, para segmentação dos consumidores. Considerando-se as notas médias, observou-se que os pudins dietéticos se destacaram pela boa aceitação. O emprego da técnica de Escala Multidimensional proporcionou uma avaliação mais abrangente do comportamento dos provadores do que a Análise de Componentes Principais, permitindo identificar dois grandes grupos de consumidores: os que preferiam os produtos (pudins e flan de uma determinada marca e os que preferiam os pudins dietéticos. Os resultados demonstram a eficiência do emprego do mapa na identificação e caracterização de preferências e de grupos de consumidores.The acceptance of commercial chocolate dairy desserts (three regular puddings, five dietetic puddings and two regular flans was evaluated by 56 consumers in a balanced-block design, using a nine-point structured hedonic scale. Panelists were characterized using a questionnaire asking for personal information and consumer's behavior towards dietary products and puddings consumption. The acceptance data were analyzed by ANOVA with means comparison and using the technique of Internal Preference Mapping (MDPREF applying different statistical methods (Principal Components Analysis and Muldimensional Scale associated to

  1. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  2. Parabolic-like maps

    CERN Document Server

    Lomonaco, Luciana Luna Anna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of parabolic-like mapping, which is an object similar to a polynomial-like mapping, but with a parabolic external class, i.e. an external map with a parabolic fixed point. We prove a straightening theorem for parabolic-like maps, which states that any parabolic-like map of degree 2 is hybrid conjugate to a member of the family Per_1(1), and this member is unique (up to holomorphic conjugacy) if the filled Julia set of the parabolic-like map is connected.

  3. Preferred extensions as stable models

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Ulises

    2008-01-01

    Given an argumentation framework AF, we introduce a mapping function that constructs a disjunctive logic program P, such that the preferred extensions of AF correspond to the stable models of P, after intersecting each stable model with the relevant atoms. The given mapping function is of polynomial size w.r.t. AF. In particular, we identify that there is a direct relationship between the minimal models of a propositional formula and the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by working on representing the defeated arguments. Then we show how to infer the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by using UNSAT algorithms and disjunctive stable model solvers. The relevance of this result is that we define a direct relationship between one of the most satisfactory argumentation semantics and one of the most successful approach of non-monotonic reasoning i.e., logic programming with the stable model semantics.

  4. Using fuzzy cognitive mapping as a participatory approach to analyze change, preferred states, and perceived resilience of social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the use of fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM as a participatory method for understanding social-ecological systems (SESs. In recent years, FCM has been used in a diverse set of contexts ranging from fisheries management to agricultural development, in an effort to generate transparent graphical models of complex systems that are useful for decision making, illuminate the core presumptions of environmental stakeholders, and structure environmental problems for scenario development. This increase in popularity is because of FCM's bottom-up approach and its ability to incorporate a range of individual, community-level, and expert knowledge into an accessible and standardized format. Although there has been an increase in the use of FCM as an environmental planning and learning tool, limited progress has been made with regard to the method's relationship to existing resilience frameworks and how the use of FCM compares with other participatory modeling/approaches available. Using case study data developed from community-driven models of the bushmeat trade in Tanzania, we examine the usefulness of FCM for promoting resilience analysis among stakeholders in terms of identifying key state variables that comprise an SES, evaluating alternative SES equilibrium states, and defining desirable or undesirable state outcomes through scenario analysis.

  5. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  6. Expressing Preferences using Preference Set Constraint Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Brik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an extension of Answer Set Programming called Preference Set Constraint Programming which is a convenient and general formalism to reason with preferences. PSC programming extends Set Constraint Programming introduced by Marek and Remmel (Marek and Remmel 2004) by introducing two types of preference set constraint atoms, measure preference set constraint atoms and pre-ordered preference set constraint atoms, which are extensions of set constraint atoms. We show that the question of whether a PSC program has a preferred stable model is CoNP-complete. We give examples of the uses of the preference set constraint atoms and show that Answer Set Optimization (Brewka, Niemel\\"a, and Truszczynski 2003) and General Preference (Son and Pontelli 2006) can be expressed using preference set constraint atoms.

  7. Mapping health-related quality of life scores from FACT-G, FAACT, and FACIT-F onto preference-based EQ-5D-5L utilities in non-small cell lung cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Michela; Borsoi, Ludovica; Cairns, John; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2017-09-25

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measurements from disease-specific tools cannot be directly used in economic evaluations. This study aimed to develop and validate mapping algorithms that predicted EuroQol 5-Dimensions 5-Levels (EQ-5D-5L) utilities from Functional Assessment of Anorexia-Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and their common component (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General-FACT-G) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer cachexia. Data were collected on five occasions over a 12-week period in two multicenter placebo-controlled trials. EQ-5D-5L utilities were calculated using both English and Dutch value sets. The study sample was divided into development and validation datasets according to patients' geographical residence. Generalized estimating equations were applied to five different sets of independent variables including overall, Trial Outcome Index (TOI), and individual subscales results. The best performing models were selected based on mean absolute error (MAE) and root-mean square error (RMSE). EQ-5D-5L and FAACT/FACIT-F results were available for 96 patients. The developed algorithms showed a good predictive performance, with acceptable MAE/RMSE and small differences between mean observed and predicted EQ-5D-5L utilities. In FACT-G models, Physical Well-Being had the highest explanatory value, while Emotional Well-Being did not significantly affect the EQ-5D-5L score; Anorexia-Cachexia and Fatigue subscales were highly statistically significant in FAACT and FACIT-F models, respectively, as well as the TOI scores. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status was included as covariate in all models. The developed algorithms enable the estimation of EQ-5D-5L utilities from three cancer-specific instruments when preference-based HRQoL data are missing.

  8. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  9. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  10. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  11. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  12. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  13. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  14. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  15. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet;

    2013-01-01

    the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...

  16. Stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musolino, Dario Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to study and analyse the stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy: that is, their mental maps, their characteristics (pattern, shape, etc.), and their explanatory factors. The research was undertaken following the conceptual, theoretical and methodologic

  17. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  18. The reliability and validity of the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Suzanne E.M.; Vries, de Yfke C.; Graaf, de Kees; Boesveldt, Sanne; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Food preferences are for a large part determined by the macronutrient content and taste of foods, but may change depending on internal and external factors. Here, we discuss a newly developed food preference task, the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT), in which participants

  19. Subject Characteristics and Preferences for Different Approaches to Psychotherapy: A Multivariate Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, Gregory C.; Gaines, Lawrence S.

    1977-01-01

    Selected personality variables, sex, age, interpersonal values, and educational level, were examined as antecedents to preferences for a nondirective (Carl Rogers) or directive (Albert Ellis) therapist. Individuals who preferred the Ellis presentation proved to more dogmatic and externalized than individuals preferring the Rogers presentation.…

  20. Mental Mapping: A Lesson that Creates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Mental image and place-preference maps of college students in Florida were created through a two-part lesson. The patterns revealed by these maps were linked to students' life experiences, census data on migration and income, and similar studies conducted in other states. Students prefer states with established migration links to Florida and…

  1. Preference, priorities and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, D.; Liu, F.; Grüne-Yanoff, T.; Hansson, S.O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider preference over objects. We show how this preference can be derived from priorities, properties of these objects, a concept which is initially from optimality theory. We do this both in the case when an agent has complete information and in the case when an agent only has b

  2. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  3. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  4. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  5. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...... pesticide-free production methods, and that while cisgenics is preferred over transgenics, the majority of respondents favour traditional breeding methods. The distribution in preferences suggests that some respondents prefer bread from cisgenic crops produced without pesticides over traditional crops...... produced using pesticides. Preferences for organic bread are stronger than for pesticide-free products. From a policy perspective results suggest that excluding cisgenics from mandatory labeling in the EU, or including it in the voluntary non-GM labelling in the US, would cause welfare losses for consumers....

  6. Customer Preference-Based Information Retrieval to Build Module Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxing Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference is viewed as an outer feeling of a product, also as a reflection of human's inner thought. It dominates the designers' decisions and affects our purchase intention. In the paper, a model of preference elicitation from customers is proposed to build module concepts. Firstly, the attributes of customer preference are classified in a hierarchy and make the surveys to build customer preference concepts. Secondly, the documents or catalogs of design requirements, perhaps containing some textual description and geometric data, are normalized by using semantic expressions. Some semantic rules are developed to describe low-level features of customer preference to construct a knowledge base of customer preference. Thirdly, designers' needs are used to map customer preference for generating module concepts. Finally, an empirical study of the stapler is surveyed to illustrate the validity of module concept generation.

  7. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, B. E-mail: bengt.hallberg@studsvik.se; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher.

  8. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    time by maximising expected total utility over the day, their departure times are conditional on rates of utility derived at these locations. For forecasting and economic evaluation of planning alternatives, it is desirable to have simple forms of utility rates with few parameters. Several forms...... the travel time is random, Noland and Small (1995) suggested using expected utility theory to derive the reduced form of expected travel time cost that includes the cost of TTV. For the α-β-γ formulation of scheduling preferences and exponential or uniform distribution of travel time, Noland and Small (1995....... The purpose of this paper is to explore how well these scheduling preferences explain behaviour, compared to other possible scheduling models, and whether empirical estimation of the more complex exponential scheduling preferences is feasible. We use data from a stated preference survey conducted among car...

  9. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    time by maximising expected total utility over the day, their departure times are conditional on rates of utility derived at these locations. For forecasting and economic evaluation of planning alternatives, it is desirable to have simple forms of utility rates with few parameters. Several forms...... the travel time is random, Noland and Small (1995) suggested using expected utility theory to derive the reduced form of expected travel time cost that includes the cost of TTV. For the α-β-γ formulation of scheduling preferences and exponential or uniform distribution of travel time, Noland and Small (1995....... The purpose of this paper is to explore how well these scheduling preferences explain behaviour, compared to other possible scheduling models, and whether empirical estimation of the more complex exponential scheduling preferences is feasible. We use data from a stated preference survey conducted among car...

  10. Preferred axis in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The foundation of modern cosmology relies on the so-called cosmological principle which states an homogeneous and isotropic distribution of matter in the universe on large scales. However, recent observations, such as the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the motion of galaxies in the universe, the polarization of quasars and the acceleration of the cosmic expansion, indicate preferred directions in the sky. If these directions have a cosmological origin, the cosmological principle would be violated, and modern cosmology should be reconsidered. In this paper, by considering the preferred axis in the CMB parity violation, we find that it coincides with the preferred axes in CMB quadrupole and CMB octopole, and they all align with the direction of the CMB kinematic dipole. In addition, the preferred directions in the velocity flows, quasar alignment, anisotropy of the cosmic acceleration, the handedness of spiral galaxies, and the angular distribution of the fine-structu...

  11. Student Preferences in Typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard C.; Sullivan, James L. F.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which 245 university students ranked their preferences among typographical variants of typeface, size, emphasis, and interline space in 16 paragraphs. Six references are listed. (CHC)

  12. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  13. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  14. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  15. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  16. Preference for newspaper size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Steve N H; Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2014-05-01

    The past few years has seen a change in the size of newspapers, with publishers moving to a smaller size format. Five 'standard' newspaper sizes are used in different countries: Broadsheet, Rhensch, Tabloid, Tall Tabloid and Berliner. These papers vary in both width and height of pages and hence there are implications for human reading comfort, which may be dependent on reading location such as on a lounge chair or on a train. Experiments were carried out to determine preferences for the different sizes and to relate these preferences to the geometric characteristics of the newspapers. For both comfortable and cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, the rank order of preference for paper types was, from least to most-preferred, Broadsheet, Rhensch, Berliner, Tall Tabloid and Tabloid. Preferences were much stronger when determined in cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, where most comparisons were significantly different. There was good correlation between participant ratings on several scales and preference, where most factors were related to comfort of holding and controlling the paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  18. External laundry service. A tool for fleet management and flexible decommissioning; Externer Waescheservice. Ein Werkzeug der zentralen Steuerung und der flexiblen Rueckbauplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, Guenter [Unitech, Hartford, CT (United States); Schmitt, Burkhard [Unitech, Coevorden (Netherlands); Micklinghoff, Michael

    2014-07-15

    While it is common in other countries such as the USA or Sweden to send out contaminated garments to an external laundering facility, this is not the case in Germany, where the preferred tendency in the nuclear industry is to remain independent from an external service provider. After the US based company 'UniTech' built a laundering facility for controlled area garment in Coevorden, Netherlands, in 1996, German operators began testing this service for decommissioning work. At the time, their justification for this choice was based on the following: - In case of a disrupted delivery the consequences would not be as severe for a nuclear power plant in the process of decommissioning. - Additional investments (evaporators) would have been necessary to install in the laundries of the individual nuclear power plants. - The existing on-site laundries and waste treatment equipment were often not suited to deal with nuclides, specific to decommissioning. It quickly became evident that a specialized service provider could conduct the necessary tasks more effectively, more flexibly, and with higher quality than an ancillary on-site facility. In addition, it became evident that central fleet management tasks are facilitated by contracting an external service provider. Business and technical processes, and requirements agreed upon in a framework agreement, supported the introduction of unified standards. The road map for future decommissioning projects in Germany is impacted by many uncertainties. Therefore, planning requires a great deal of flexibility. Here, as with other related operations, it is critical that enough protective garments are in the right place at the right time. If this does not happen, delays, additional costs and changes to process planning result. For these reasons, an external laundering and garment management service is the most reliable solution. Industry experience shows that even very short-term requests for large quantities of protective

  19. Teacher practices as predictors of children's classroom social preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Reuland, Meg M; Gregory, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Students who do not get along with their peers are at elevated risk for academic disengagement and school failure. Research has predominantly focused on factors within such children that contribute to their peer problems. This study considers whether teacher practices also predict social preference for children in that classroom. Participants were 26 elementary school teachers and 490 students in their classrooms followed for one school year. Results suggested that teachers who favored the most academically talented students in the fall had classrooms where children had lower average social preference in the spring after statistical control of children's fall social preference and externalizing behavior problems. Teachers who demonstrated emotionally supportive relationships with students in the fall had classrooms where children had greater possibility of changing their social preference from fall to spring. Although children with high externalizing behaviors tended to experience declining social preference over the course of the school year, teachers' learner-centered practices attenuated this progression. However, teachers' favoring of the most academically talented accentuated the negative relation between externalizing behaviors and social preference. Implications for school psychology practitioners are discussed.

  20. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function.Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available.Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt.Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically Autoclaved

  1. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  2. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  3. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  4. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal...

  5. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  6. Immorally obtained principal increases investors’ risk preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    Capital derived from immoral sources is increasingly circulated in today’s financial markets. The moral associations of capital are important, although their impact on investment remains unknown. This research aims to explore the influence of principal source morality on investors’ risk preferences. Three studies were conducted in this regard. Study 1 finds that investors are more risk-seeking when their principal is earned immorally (through lying), whereas their risk preferences do not change when they invest money earned from neutral sources after engaging in immoral behavior. Study 2 reveals that guilt fully mediates the relationship between principal source morality and investors’ risk preferences. Studies 3a and 3b introduce a new immoral principal source and a new manipulation method to improve external validity. Guilt is shown to the decrease the subjective value of morally flawed principal, leading to higher risk preference. The findings show the influence of morality-related features of principal on people’s investment behavior and further support mental account theory. The results also predict the potential threats of “grey principal” to market stability. PMID:28369117

  7. Collection Preferences of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Eighty nursery school and upper elementary school children selected picture cards from varying stimulus arrays in order to indicate their preference for unorganized mixed collections, groups of identical cards, or sets of different cards that together formed a whole figure. (CW)

  8. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  9. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the bes...

  10. Patterns of Environmental Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate components of the Environmental Preference Questionnaire (EPQ). The 267 teenagers who completed the EPQ in this study also responded to questions relating to facets of self esteem and the reasons for selecting their favorite activities. (BT)

  11. Arm chair perspective preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, A.J.; Pinna, Baingio; Pepperell, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Do generic observers in their free-style viewing of postcard-size pictures have a preference for specific modes of perspective rendering? This most likely depends upon the phrasing of the question. Here we consider the feeling of ‘presence’: does the observer experience a sense of being ‘immersed in

  12. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  13. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  14. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  15. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  16. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  17. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  18. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  19. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  20. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.

  1. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so?

  2. Classical Noncommutative Electrodynamics with External Source

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E; Vassilevich, D V

    2011-01-01

    In a $U(1)_{\\star}$-noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory we extend the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map to include the (gauge-invariance-violating) external current and formulate - to the first order in the NC parameter - gauge-covariant classical field equations. We find solutions to these equations in the vacuum and in an external magnetic field, when the 4-current is a static electric charge of a finite size $a$, restricted from below by the elementary length. We impose extra boundary conditions, which we use to rule out all singularities, $1/r$ included, from the solutions. The selected solutions neither should nor do withstand the limiting transition $a \\rightarrow 0$. The static charge proves to be a magnetic dipole, with the magnetic moment depending on its size $a$. The external magnetic field modifies the long-range Coulomb field and some electromagnetic form-factors. We also analyze the ambiguity in the SW map and show that at least to the order studied here it is equivalent to the ambiguity of adding a ho...

  3. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species' evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals ("MammalDIET"). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  4. 75 FR 80830 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Technology Transfer Center External Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Center External Customer Satisfaction Survey (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section... Customer Satisfaction Survey (NCI). Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of... satisfaction of TTC's external customers with TTC customer services; collect information of preferred...

  5. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  6. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  7. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Mónica [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Becerra, Virginia [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); Guedea, Ferran [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Suárez, José Francisco [Servicio de Urología, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Fernandez, Pablo [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Instituto Oncológico de Guipúzcoa, San Sebastián (Spain); Macías, Víctor [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Oncologic del Valles-Hospital General de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Mariño, Alfonso [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Centro Oncológico de Galicia, A Coruña (Spain); and others

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  8. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spacial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential $A_\\mu$ are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general $A_\\mu$, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of $A_\\mu$ w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  9. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...... and lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment...

  10. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  11. Why Languages Prefer Prohibitives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johan van der Auwera

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with prohibitive markers, i.e., negative markers that are more or less dedicated to the expression of a prohibition. It documents the variety in the formal make-up of these markers and it confims the earlier claims that they are frequent everywhere, with at least one exception, viz., Western Europe. Four origins are discussed:prohibitive markers may derive from predicative constructions, they may appear as a side product of Jespersen's cycle,they may derive from a univerbation of imperative and negative markers, and they may be borrowed. As explanation is offered as to why languages prefer to have prohibitive markers. It is argued that attempts to explain this preference in terms of morphosyntax are misguided. Instead a frequency-based semantic explanation is offered. The most frequent use of negatives are declarative, thereby inviting a static ‘it is not the case that' paraphrase. It is important, however, to mark clearly that prohibitives are instances of a dynamic ‘let it be the case that' appeal. The paper ends on a discussion of languages that do not employ prohibitive markers.

  12. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Fact Sheets En Español: Mapeo Genético Genetic Mapping What is genetic mapping? How do researchers create ... genetic map? What are genetic markers? What is genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome ...

  13. Collective preferences in strategic decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jo; Colman, Andrew M

    2007-12-01

    In the theories of team reasoning of Sugden and Bacharach, players are assumed to be motivated in some circumstances to maximize collective rather than individual utilities. An experiment was performed to assess whether preferences underlying such collective payoff maximization occur. An opportunistic sample of 50 undergraduate and graduate students, 7 men and 43 women ages 19 to 42 years (M= 23.0, SD=5.4), expressed preferences among the outcomes of strategic decisions presented in vignettes designed to engage social value orientations of individualism, altruism, competitiveness, equality seeking, or collective preferences. In the vignettes designed to engage collective preferences, and significantly less frequently in the other vignettes, preferences were biased toward outcomes maximizing collective payoffs, and respondents invariably gave team-reasoning explanations for their preferences. These results provide evidence for collective preferences according to theories of team reasoning and empirical support for one of the essential assumptions of these theories.

  14. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  15. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  16. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  17. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  18. Langevin equation for systems with a preferred spatial direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we generalize the theory of Brownian motion and the Onsager-Machlup theory of fluctuations for spatially symmetric systems to equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady-state systems with a preferred spatial direction, due to an external force. To do this, we extend the Langevin equation to include a bias, which is introduced by an external force and alters the Gaussian structure of the system's fluctuations. In addition, by solving this extended equation, we provide a physical interpretation for the statistical properties of the fluctuations in these systems. Connections of the extended Langevin equation with the theory of active Brownian motion are discussed as well.

  19. Paleogene evolution of the External Betic Zone and geodynamic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrera, F.; Mancheño, M. A.; Martín-Martín, M.; Raffaelli, G.; Rodríguez-Estrella, T.; Serrano, F.

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary studies combining field data (geological and tectonic mapping, lithostratigraphic reconstructions, lithofacies characterization, correlations and sampling) and laboratory analyses (biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, clay mineralogy and sandstone petrography) of eight Senonian-Paleogene successions from the Sierra de La Pila and Sierra de El Carche areas (Murcia province, SE Spain) belonging to the External Betic Zone are presented. Field evidence of tectonic activity (slum...

  20. Circadian preference in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Larriany Maria Falsin; Magalhães, Pedro V S; Andersen, Mônica Levy; Walz, Julio Cesar; Jakobson, Lourenço; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2010-06-01

    A role for circadian rhythm abnormalities in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been suggested. The present study assessed circadian preference, a subjective preference for activities in the morning or evening related to chronotype. The sample was comprised of 81 outpatients with BD in remission and 79 control subjects. Circadian preference was derived from an interview evaluating biological rhythms and sleep pattern from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients were significantly more likely to have an evening preference than control subjects. Circadian preference was also associated with sleep latency. The association of evening preference and longer sleep latency may be related to the frequent clinical observation of a sleep/wake cycle reversal in bipolar disorder.

  1. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David; Mueller, Sean

    2015-01-01

    , ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...... that cultural identities matter for explaining secessionism, but not because of primordial attachments. Rather, religious and linguistic groups matter because their members are imbued with cultural legacies that lead to distinct political preferences – in this case preferences over welfare statism. Further...

  2. The suitability of internal versus external successors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue...... that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance the long-term perspective for family businesses.......Understanding knowledge transfer in family firm succession is important for the survival of family firms. Previous research has begun to explore the suitability of internal versus external successor in family firms with regard to relevant knowledge types. This paper builds on the contingency model...

  3. Preference formation and institutional change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Praça

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay critically analyses how historical institutionalists and rational choice scholars study institutional stability and change. Special attention is paid to the thorny issued of how political actors’ preferences are formed, with historical institutionalists considering preferences as endogenously formed, and rational choice analysts postulating that preferences are fixed and exogenous. An argument is made in favour of the perspective that considers preferences as being formed within the functioning of the political system over time, endogenously. The essay also proposes the incorporation of ideas and non-decisions as tools to elucidate processes of change.

  4. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli th...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music.......The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...

  5. Mapping yeast transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Timothy R; de Boer, Carl G

    2013-09-01

    The term "transcriptional network" refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

  6. External fixators in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  7. Implementation of ionoluminescence in the AGLAE scanning external microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to present the implementation of an IBIL imaging system in the scanning external microprobe of the AGLAE facility so as to correlate luminescence and composition maps provided by PIXE, RBS and PIGE. The challenging integration of the optical spectrometer, due to incompatibility of acquisition timings and data formats with the other IBA channels has motivated the development of a specific acquisition system. This article details the IBIL setup and explains the technical solutions retained for the coupling of IBIL with IBA techniques in order to produce fast and large IBIL-IBA maps. The IBIL maps stored in the same format as the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ones can be visualised and compared using the dedicated AGLAEmap program or the PyMCA processing package. An example of such a coupled mapping on Mesoamerican jade is presented to emphasise the interest of performing simultaneously IBA and IBIL large mappings.

  8. The Revealed Preference Approach to Collective Consumption Behavior : Testing, Recovery, and Welfare Analysis (Replaced by DP 2009-68)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2007-01-01

    We extend the nonparametric 'revealed preference' methodology for analyzing collective consumption behavior (with consumption externalities and public consumption), to ren- der it useful for empirical applications that deal with welfare-related questions. First, we provide a nonparametric necessary

  9. Skepticism, contextualism, externalism and modality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-01-01

    .... However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated...

  10. Map Projection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for these projections. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  11. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  12. Voter-Weighted Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the political economy of preferences with respect to the environment using a new stated preference survey that presents the first benefit values for national water quality levels. The mean valuation greatly exceeds the median value, as the distribution of valuations is highly skewed. The study couples the survey valuations…

  13. Social preferences and portfolio choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedl, A.M.; Smeets, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether social preferences influence portfolio choices of retail investors. We use administrative investor trading records which we link to decisions of the same investors in experiments with real money at stake. We show that social preferences rather than return expectations or

  14. Do children prefer mentalistic descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rebecca A; Lillard, Angeline S

    2014-01-01

    Against a long tradition of childhood realism (Piaget, 1929), A. S. Lillard and J. H. Flavell (1990) found that 3-year-olds prefer to characterize people by their mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions) than by their visible behaviors. In this exploratory study, we extend this finding to a new cohort of 3-year-olds, examine how these preferences change from 3-4 years, and explore relationships with theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. The results showed a developmental change and a possible cohort difference: at 3 years, children in the sample preferred behavioral descriptions, although by 4 years of age, they preferred mentalistic ones. Interestingly, mentalistic preferences were unrelated to theory of mind or parental mind-mindedness, concurrently or over time. Perspective-taking skills at 3 years, however, predicted an increase in mentalistic responses from 3 years to 4 years. Possible explanations for each finding are discussed.

  15. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  16. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  17. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution (DK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark); Willumsen, E.; Kristensen, N.B. [COWI (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AiGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Inititally, a brief description of the ExternE Transport methodology is given and it is summarised how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area. (au)

  18. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  19. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  20. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  1. Mapping the Gendered City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig;

    2017-01-01

    Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab...... Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  2. Planning with Partial Preference Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Tuan; Gerevini, Alfonso; Serina, Ivan; Srivastava, Biplav; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Current work in planning with preferences assume that the user's preference models are completely specified and aim to search for a single solution plan. In many real-world planning scenarios, however, the user probably cannot provide any information about her desired plans, or in some cases can only express partial preferences. In such situations, the planner has to present not only one but a set of plans to the user, with the hope that some of them are similar to the plan she prefers. We first propose the usage of different measures to capture quality of plan sets that are suitable for such scenarios: domain-independent distance measures defined based on plan elements (actions, states, causal links) if no knowledge of the user's preferences is given, and the Integrated Convex Preference measure in case the user's partial preference is provided. We then investigate various heuristic approaches to find set of plans according to these measures, and present empirical results demonstrating the promise of our app...

  3. Negative social preference in relation to internalizing symptoms among children with ADHD predominantly inattentive type: girls fare worse than boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Despite distinct peer difficulties, less is known about the peer functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) in comparison to the peer functioning of children with ADHD combined type. Our purpose was to examine whether child sex moderated the relations between negative social preference and internalizing/externalizing problems in children with ADHD-I. Participants included 188 children diagnosed with ADHD-I (110 boys; ages 7-11; 54% Caucasian). Teacher ratings of the proportion of classmates who "like/accept" and "dislike/reject" the participating child were used to calculate negative social preference scores. Children, parents, and teachers provided ratings of anxious and depressive symptoms, and parents and teachers provided ratings of externalizing problems. Boys and girls did not differ on teachers' negative social preference scores. As hypothesized, however, the relation between negative social preference and internalizing symptoms was moderated by sex such that negative social preference was consistently and more strongly associated with internalizing symptoms among girls than in boys. In terms of externalizing problems, negative social preference was associated with teacher (but not parent) ratings, yet no moderation by child sex was found. Negative social preference is associated with teacher-report of externalizing problems for both boys and girls with ADHD-I, whereas negative social preference is consistently associated with girls' internalizing symptoms across child, parent, and teacher ratings. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  4. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...... pouches when cost is included as an attribute. A total of 254 patients responded to the survey and preferences were estimated using a random parameter logit econometric specification. Results: Respondents had significantly positive WTP for all potential attribute improvements presented in the survey...

  5. Preferences for Simultaneous Polydrug Use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jeanette; Østergaard, Stine Vernstrøm; Fletcher, Adam

    2016-01-01

    use (PSPU) vary among club/bar-goers in two European countries, Denmark and England, typically cited as exemplars of the normalization of illegal drug use. The study considers the utility of the normalization thesis for understanding preferences for polydrug use in the European nighttime economy....... Lifetime cocaine use was 38% in England and 17% in Denmark. In England, young adults with drug experience preferred to mix alcohol with cocaine (65%). In Denmark, young adults with drug experience preferred to mix alcohol with cannabis (78%). In multinominal regression, Danish young adults’ educational...

  6. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  7. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption...... and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different...

  8. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  9. Mapping Deeply

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Wood

    2015-01-01

    This is a description of an avant la lettre deep mapping project carried out by a geographer and a number of landscape architecture students in the early 1980s. Although humanists seem to take the “mapping” in deep mapping more metaphorically than cartographically, in this neighborhood mapping project, the mapmaking was taken literally, with the goal of producing an atlas of the neighborhood. In this, the neighborhood was construed as a transformer, turning the stuff of the world (gas, wate...

  10. Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Antonio A; Lohe, Max A; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.

  11. Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Lagana

    Full Text Available We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.

  12. Polynomial mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Narkiewicz, Wŀadysŀaw

    1995-01-01

    The book deals with certain algebraic and arithmetical questions concerning polynomial mappings in one or several variables. Algebraic properties of the ring Int(R) of polynomials mapping a given ring R into itself are presented in the first part, starting with classical results of Polya, Ostrowski and Skolem. The second part deals with fully invariant sets of polynomial mappings F in one or several variables, i.e. sets X satisfying F(X)=X . This includes in particular a study of cyclic points of such mappings in the case of rings of algebrai integers. The text contains several exercises and a list of open problems.

  13. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  14. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  15. Preferences With Grades of Indecisiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Minardi; Andrei Savochkin

    2013-01-01

    Departing from the traditional approach to modeling an agent who finds it difficult to make clear-cut comparisons between alternatives, we introduce the notion of graded preferences: Given two alternatives, the agent reports a number between 0 and 1, which reflects her inclination to prefer the first option over the second or, put differently, how confident she is about the superiority of the first one. In the classical framework of uncertainty, we derive a representation of a graded preferen...

  16. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamettin Bayyurt; Vildan Karisik; Ali Coskun

    2016-01-01

    The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards s...

  17. Relationship of External Influence to Parental Distress in Decision Making Regarding Children with a Life-Threatening Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Victoria A.; Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of external influence to parental distress when making a decision about research or treatment for a child with a life-threatening illness and to test potential moderators of this relationship. Methods Parents (n = 219) who made a decision about research or treatment for a child completed measures of external influence, distress, decision-making preference, and coping. Results More external influence was associated with more hostility, uncertainty, and con...

  18. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  19. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  20. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  1. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  2. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  3. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  4. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  5. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  6. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  7. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  8. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective of...

  9. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  10. Preliminary results of the PREFER FP7 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusilli, Lorenzo; Laneve, Giovanni; De Bonis, Roberto; Sebastian, Ana; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Oliveira, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The need to improve the information and intelligence support for forest fire prevention is widely recognized. Fire prevention is still the most cost-effective strategy when compared to firefighting and extinguishing that are costly, local, and triggered only in response to already ongoing crises. PREFER project, funded under the EU FP7 (G.A. 312931), intends to contribute at responding to such a pragmatic need of southern Europe's forests by: providing timely information products based on the exploitation of all available spacecraft sensors, offering a portfolio of products focused on pre- and post-crisis forest fire emergency, suitable for the users in the different countries of the European Mediterranean area. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main services: 1. Information Support to Fire Preparedness/Prevention Phase" (ISP) Service 2. Information Support to Fire Recovery/Reconstruction Phase" (ISR) Service This service is already at an advanced stage having completed the first year of activity. During this time several products have been consolidated: seasonal fuel maps; daily and seasonal fire hazard maps; seasonal risk maps; prescribed fire maps. This paper aims at presenting the preliminary results of the research activity carried out in the framework of the PREFER project, focusing, in particular, on these recalled above. As for Fire Risk and Hazard assessment, many indexes have been developed in the last years. Hardly any of them uses data derived from satellite images. The FPI index is an exception to this rule which, in addition, makes use of meteorological data. In spite of being a very complete index, the FPI still allows room for improvement which justify the interest of PREFER in it. PREFER's innovative approach to FPI will allow taking into account the effect of solar illumination conditions in determining the humidity present in the dead vegetation, and therefore its proneness to burn. PREFER innovation also focus in allowing the index to

  11. Dense Molecular Cores Being Externally Heated

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gwanjeong; Gopinathan, Maheswar; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kim, Mi-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our study on eight dense cores, previously classified as starless, using infrared (3-160 {\\micron}) imaging observations with \\textit{AKARI} telescope and molecular line (HCN and N$_2$H$^+$) mapping observations with \\textit{KVN} telescope. Combining our results with the archival IR to mm continuum data, we examined the starless nature of these eight cores. Two of the eight cores are found to harbor faint protostars having luminosity of $\\sim0.3-4.4$ L$_{\\odot}$. The other six cores are found to remain as starless and probably are in a dynamically transitional state. The temperature maps produced using multi-wavelength images show an enhancement of about 3-6 K towards the outer boundary of these cores, suggesting that they are most likely being heated externally by nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields. Large virial parameters and an over-dominance of red asymmetric line profiles over the cores may indicate that the cores are set into either an expansion or an oscillatory mot...

  12. Effects of mobile map orientation and tactile feedback on navigation speed and situation awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    doi:10.1145/1409240.1409249; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Brake, G.M. te; Lindenberg, J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile information systems aid first responders in their tasks. Support is often based on mobile maps. People have different preferences for map orientations (heading-up or north-up), but map orientations also have different advantages and disadvantages. In general north-up maps are good for buildin

  13. Preference pulses induced by reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Eight rats responded on concurrent Variable-Ratio 20 Extinction schedules for food reinforcement. The assignment of variable-ratio reinforcement to a left or right lever varied randomly following each reinforcer, and was cued by illumination of a stimulus light above that lever. Postreinforcement preference levels decreased substantially and reliably over time when the lever that just delivered reinforcement was now in extinction; however, if that lever was once again associated with variable ratio, this decrease in same-lever preference tended to be small, and for some subjects, not in evidence. The changes in preference level to the extinction lever were well described by a modified version of Killeen, Hanson, and Osborne's (1978) induction model. Consistent with this model's attribution of preference change to induction, we attribute preference change in this report to a brief period of reinforcer-induced arousal that energizes responding to the lever that delivered the last reinforcer. After a few seconds, this induced responding diminishes, and the operant responding that remains comes under the control of the stimulus light cuing the lever providing variable-ratio reinforcement.

  14. The allometry of prey preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kalinkat

    Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.

  15. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  16. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State...... enterprise is, when applied in a given organisation modified with respect to the industry regarded, hence irrelevant measure parameters are eliminated to avoid redundancy. This assessment of CALS Mapping, quantify the CALS potential of an organisation with the purpose of providing decision support to the top...

  17. Grouping by Closure Influences Subjective Regularity and Implicit Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Makin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A reflection between a pair of contours is more rapidly detected than a translation, but this effect is stronger when the contours are closed to form a single object compared to when they are closed to form 2 objects with a gap between them. That is, grouping changes the relative salience of different regularities. We tested whether this manipulation would also change preference for reflection or translation. We measured preference for these patterns using the Implicit Association Test (IAT. On some trials, participants saw words that were either positive or negative and had to classify them as quickly as possible. On interleaved trials, they saw reflection or translation patterns and again had to classify them. Participants were faster when 1 button was used for reflection and positive words and another button was used for translation and negative words, compared to when the reverse response mapping was used (translation and positive vs. reflection and negative. This reaction time difference indicates an implicit preference for reflection over translation. However, the size of the implicit preference was significantly reduced in the Two-objects condition. We concluded that factors that affect perceptual sensitivity also systematically affect implicit preference formation.

  18. Reader preference for report typefaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M B; Daglish, H N; Adams, J A

    1979-06-01

    A postal survey of typeface preference is described. The survey was designed to help in the choice of typeface to be used for the internal technical Reports produced by the Post Office Research Department. Type setting for these Reports is carried out using an IBM Selectric Composer for which seven typefaces suitable for reports are available. One hundred and twenty-five people who regularly receive copies of these Reports and 57 Trainee Technicians (Apprentices) were asked to arrange these seven typefaces in order of preference and record this ranking on a response sheet. About 85% of both groups returned response sheets for statistical analysis. The results showed a significant preference for three of the typefaces: Press Roman, Theme and Univers. Of these, Press Roman is used for the text of Research Department Reports and Univers is used on diagrams and tables.

  19. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  20. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  1. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...... alternative comprised a number of attributes relating to the adhesive, filter, and flexibility of ostomy pouches. The choices between alternatives made by the respondent imply a trade-off between the attributes and allow for the estimation of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy...... pouches when cost is included as an attribute. A total of 254 patients responded to the survey and preferences were estimated using a random parameter logit econometric specification. Results: Respondents had significantly positive WTP for all potential attribute improvements presented in the survey...

  2. Patient preferences versus physicians' judgement: does it make a difference in healthcare decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians and public health experts make evidence-based decisions for individual patients, patient groups and even whole populations. In addition to the principles of internal and external validity (evidence), patient preferences must also influence decision making. Great Britain, Australia and Germany are currently discussing methods and procedures for valuing patient preferences in regulatory (authorization and pricing) and in health policy decision making. However, many questions remain on how to best balance patient and public preferences with physicians' judgement in healthcare and health policy decision making. For example, how to define evaluation criteria regarding the perceived value from a patient's perspective? How do physicians' fact-based opinions also reflect patients' preferences based on personal values? Can empirically grounded theories explain differences between patients and experts-and, if so, how? This article aims to identify and compare studies that used different preference elicitation methods and to highlight differences between patient and physician preferences. Therefore, studies comparing patient preferences and physician judgements were analysed in a review. This review shows a limited amount of literature analysing and comparing patient and physician preferences for healthcare interventions and outcomes. Moreover, it shows that methodology used to compare preferences is diverse. A total of 46 studies used the following methods-discrete-choice experiments, conjoint analyses, standard gamble, time trade-offs and paired comparisons-to compare patient preferences with doctor judgements. All studies were published between 1985 and 2011. Most studies reveal a disparity between the preferences of actual patients and those of physicians. For most conditions, physicians underestimated the impact of intervention characteristics on patients' decision making. Differentiated perceptions may reflect ineffective communication between the provider

  3. Matching Learner Preference to Preferred Amounts of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others

    Some research indicates that individuals learn more when given control over their instruction, while other data suggests that individuals learn less effectively when given control over their instruction. This document describes a study which investigated the effects of matching university-level learners with the amount of instruction they prefer.…

  4. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  5. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  6. Longitudinal associations between clique membership status and internalizing and externalizing problems during late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans M; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal link between clique membership status and the development of psychopathology in 451 children followed annually from age 9 to 12 years. Classroom clique membership status was identified through social network analysis, and internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed using peer nominations. Controlling for concurrent experiences of social preference and dyadic friendships, a high clique membership probability was found to be related to low levels of internalizing problems and to an increase in externalizing problems across 4 years. This link between clique membership and an increase in externalizing problems was found for boys only.

  7. Mapping VADEMECUM

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The work plan for the implementation of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution under the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) includes the production of maps of critical loads, critical levels, and exceedances as a basis for developing potential abatement strategies for sulphur and nitrogen. This Vademecum is designed to provide guidance to those responsible for calculating and mapping critical loads, critical levels, and exceedances on a national or regional scale. Th...

  8. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  9. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  10. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...

  11. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  12. Value disciplines: measuring customer preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dannhauser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Competitiveness Report: 1999, South Africa ranks poorly in terms of delivering customer services (Garelli, 1999. In order to assist South African organisations to identify their customers' value preferences, three scales collectively called the Customer Preference Questionnaire (CPQ were developed. Opsomming Luidens die World Competitiveness Report: 1999 vaar Suid-Afrika swak ten opsigte van klientediens-lewering (Garelli, 1999. Om Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies te help met die identifisering van hulle kliente se waardevoorkeure, is drie skale wat gesamentlik die Klientevoorkeurvraelys (CPQ genoem word, ontwikkel.

  13. Nucleation of lysozyme crystals under external electric and ultrasonic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanev, Christo N.; Penkova, Anita

    2001-11-01

    Preferred orientation along c-axis of hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals has been observed in an external electric field. Besides, the HEWL crystals grew predominantly on the cathode side of the glass cell. These facts were explained on the basis of a concept for specific spatial distribution of the positive electric charges on the individual HEWL molecules, and thus attributed to the (preferred) orientation of individual HEWL molecules in the solution, under these conditions. Ultrasonic field redoubles the nucleation rate of HEWL crystals, but does not change the number of building units in the critical nucleus. Taking into account the intermolecular binding energy, we conclude that ultrasonic field accelerates nucleation due to breaking of the protein crystals.

  14. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function......, or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...... to that in any other voxel. Under these circumstances, strictly speaking, the presence of significant activation serves as a legitimate basis only for inferences about the brain as a unit. In their discussion of results, investigators rarely are content to confirm the brain's role, and instead generally prefer...

  15. Drug Preferences of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined drug preferences of a group of active multiple drug abusers referred for treatment. Nearly half the respondents preferred drugs other than type they most frequently used. Preferences were related to method of administration. Results suggest preference is one among several determinants of drug use. (Author/BEF)

  16. Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Suzanne H; Stiver, Kelly A; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E

    2016-08-16

    In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female's reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby increasing the relative importance of sperm velocity. We further show that ovarian fluid does not differentially affect sperm from alternative male phenotypes, but generally enhances sperm velocity, motility, straightness and chemoattraction. Under natural conditions, female ovarian fluid likely increases the paternity of the preferred parental male phenotype, as these males release fewer but faster sperm. These results imply females have greater control over fertilization and potential to exert selection on males in species with external fertilization than previously thought possible.

  17. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  18. Social preferences in private decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, J.; Sonnemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Social preference models were originally constructed to explain two things: why people spend money to affect the earnings of others and why the income of others influences reported happiness. We test these models in a novel experimental situation where participants face a risky decision that affects

  19. Training Implications of Work Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, C. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An important factor in job choice, both at the start of and during one's career, is one's psychological makeup, which must be taken into account in training and development programs. The authors relate the Jungian introvert-extrovert, judgment-perception theories to work and management, presenting data from a management work preferences sampling.…

  20. Wanting, liking, and preference construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianchi; Brendl, C Miguel; Ariely, Dan

    2010-06-01

    According to theories on preference construction, multiple preferences result from multiple contexts (e.g., loss vs. gain frames). This implies that people can have different representations of a preference in different contexts. Drawing on Berridge's (1999) distinction between unconscious liking and wanting, we hypothesize that people may have multiple representations of a preference toward an object even within a single context. Specifically, we propose that people can have different representations of an object's motivational value, or incentive value, versus its emotional value, or likability, even when the object is placed in the same context. Study 1 establishes a divergence between incentive value and likability of faces using behavioral measures. Studies 2A and 2B, using self-report measures, provide support for our main hypothesis that people are perfectly aware of these distinct representations and are able to access them concurrently at will. We also discuss implications of our findings for the truism that people seek pleasure and for expectancy-value theories.

  1. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which is ...

  2. Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments. (Contains 8 footnotes.)

  3. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applied...

  4. Social preferences and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adda, D' Giovanna; Levely, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exogenous health shocks in utero and in infancy on the development of social preferences later in childhood. We use data from binarychoice dictator games run with school children in rural Sierra Leone to measure aversion to inequality, altruism and spite toward

  5. ENDOGENOUS SCHEDULING PREFERENCES AND CONGESTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i...

  6. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  7. A Theory of Preference Reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    been found in the behavioral literature, violations of dominance have rarely been noted. Hovever, Slovic . (personal communication ) has reported the...journal of ! xperimental Psychology, 101, 16-20. Lindman, H. R. (1971). Inconsistent preferences among gambles. Journal of Experiental Psycholoqy, 89

  8. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  9. Social preferences in private decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, J.; Sonnemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Social preference models were originally constructed to explain two things: why people spend money to affect the earnings of others and why the income of others influences reported happiness. We test these models in a novel experimental situation where participants face a risky decision that affects

  10. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  11. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  12. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  13. Prospective Teachers' Value Orientations as Determinants of Preference for External and Anonymous Whistleblowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    Whistle-blowing indicates disclosing organizational wrongdoings resulting in harm to third parties. An individual's decision to blow the whistle might be based upon organizational, situational or personal factors. This study inquires the relationship between value orientations of prospective teachers and choices for whistle-blowing with particular…

  14. Topographica: building and analyzing map-level simulations from Python, C/C++, MATLAB, NEST, or NEURON components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Bednar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neural regions are arranged into two-dimensional topographic maps, such as the retinotopic maps in mammalian visual cortex. Computational simulations have led to valuable insights about how cortical topography develops and functions, but further progress has been hindered by the lack of appropriate tools. It has been particularly difficult to bridge across levels of detail, because simulators are typically geared to a specific level, while interfacing between simulators has been a major technical challenge. In this paper, we show that the Python-based Topographica simulator makes it straightforward to build systems that cross levels of analysis, as well as providing a common framework for evaluating and comparing models implemented in other simulators. These results rely on the general-purpose abstractions around which Topographica is designed, along with the Python interfaces becoming available for many simulators. In particular, we present a detailed, general-purpose example of how to wrap an external spiking PyNN/NEST simulation as a Topographica component using only a dozen lines of Python code, making it possible to use any of the extensive input presentation, analysis, and plotting tools of Topographica. Additional examples show how to interface easily with models in other types of simulators. Researchers simulating topographic maps externally should consider using Topographica's analysis tools (such as preference map, receptive field, or tuning curve measurement to compare results consistently, and for connecting models at different levels. This seamless interoperability will help neuroscientists and computational scientists to work together to understand how neurons in topographic maps organize and operate.

  15. Product Category Familiarity and Preference Construction.

    OpenAIRE

    Coupey, Eloise; Irwin, Julie R; Payne, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Marketers often base decisions about marketing strategies on the results of research designed to elicit information about consumers' preferences. A large body of research indicates, however, that preferences often are labile. That is, preferences can be reversed depending on factors such as how the preference is elicited. In three studies, we examine the effect of familiarity in two preference elicitation tasks, choice and matching judgments. We provide evidence of an interaction between fami...

  16. Optimal Auctions with Financial Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We construct optimal auctions when bidders face financial externalities.In a Coasean World, in which the seller cannot prevent a perfect resale market, nor withhold the object, the lowest-price all-pay auction is optimal.In a Myersonean World, in which the seller can both prevent resale after the au

  17. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  18. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  19. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  20. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  1. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  2. Post-external dacryocystorhinostomy lagophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Thabit A; Odat, Haitham A; Khraisat, Heba; Odat, Mohannad A; Alzoubi, Firas Q

    2015-06-01

    To describe lagophthalmos and eyelid closure abnormality after external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). A retrospective review of medical records and postoperative photographs of 79 patients who underwent external DCR for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and developed eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos with or without exposure keratopathy was conducted. Collected data included age, sex, indication for surgery, laterality, length and type of incision, length of follow-up duration, presence of punctate epithelial keratopathy, and time for resolution of eyelid closure abnormalities. Twenty-seven patients with 28 external dacryocystorhinostomy had postoperative eyelid closure abnormalities. Male to female ratio was 1:6. The mean age was 40.1 years (range 9-80 years). All surgeries were performed through diagonal skin incision. Lagophthalmos involving the medial third of the palpebral fissure was noticed in 28.6 % of cases. All patients had hypometric blink mainly of the upper eyelid. One patient had punctate epithelial keratopathy. Resolution of lagophthalmos was noticed over a period of 1-5 weeks with an average of 3 weeks. None of the patients continued to have residual hypometric blink or punctate keratopathy at the last follow-up time. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 months (range 3-6 months). Eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos after external DCR are underestimated problems. Spontaneous resolution is seen in all cases weeks to months after surgery.

  3. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  4. Mapping Deeply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Wood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a description of an avant la lettre deep mapping project carried out by a geographer and a number of landscape architecture students in the early 1980s. Although humanists seem to take the “mapping” in deep mapping more metaphorically than cartographically, in this neighborhood mapping project, the mapmaking was taken literally, with the goal of producing an atlas of the neighborhood. In this, the neighborhood was construed as a transformer, turning the stuff of the world (gas, water, electricity into the stuff of individual lives (sidewalk graffiti, wind chimes, barking dogs, and vice versa. Maps in the central transformer section of the atlas were to have charted this process in action, as in one showing the route of an individual newspaper into the neighborhood, then through the neighborhood to a home, and finally, as trash, out of the neighborhood in a garbage truck; though few of these had been completed when the project concluded in 1986. Resurrected in 1998 in an episode on Ira Glass’ This American Life, the atlas was finally published, as Everything Sings: Maps for a Narrative Atlas, in 2010 (and an expanded edition in 2013.

  5. Zigzag turning preference of freely crawling cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Park, Jin-Sung; Choi, Youngwoon; Choi, Wonshik; Ko, Tae-Wook; Lee, Kyoung J

    2011-01-01

    The coordinated motion of a cell is fundamental to many important biological processes such as development, wound healing, and phagocytosis. For eukaryotic cells, such as amoebae or animal cells, the cell motility is based on crawling and involves a complex set of internal biochemical events. A recent study reported very interesting crawling behavior of single cell amoeba: in the absence of an external cue, free amoebae move randomly with a noisy, yet, discernible sequence of 'run-and-turns' analogous to the 'run-and-tumbles' of swimming bacteria. Interestingly, amoeboid trajectories favor zigzag turns. In other words, the cells bias their crawling by making a turn in the opposite direction to a previous turn. This property enhances the long range directional persistence of the moving trajectories. This study proposes that such a zigzag crawling behavior can be a general property of any crawling cells by demonstrating that 1) microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain, and 2) a simple rule-based model cell, which incorporates the actual biochemistry and mechanics behind cell crawling, both exhibit similar type of crawling behavior. Almost all legged animals walk by alternating their feet. Similarly, all crawling cells appear to move forward by alternating the direction of their movement, even though the regularity and degree of zigzag preference vary from one type to the other.

  6. Zigzag turning preference of freely crawling cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseok Daniel Yang

    Full Text Available The coordinated motion of a cell is fundamental to many important biological processes such as development, wound healing, and phagocytosis. For eukaryotic cells, such as amoebae or animal cells, the cell motility is based on crawling and involves a complex set of internal biochemical events. A recent study reported very interesting crawling behavior of single cell amoeba: in the absence of an external cue, free amoebae move randomly with a noisy, yet, discernible sequence of 'run-and-turns' analogous to the 'run-and-tumbles' of swimming bacteria. Interestingly, amoeboid trajectories favor zigzag turns. In other words, the cells bias their crawling by making a turn in the opposite direction to a previous turn. This property enhances the long range directional persistence of the moving trajectories. This study proposes that such a zigzag crawling behavior can be a general property of any crawling cells by demonstrating that 1 microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain, and 2 a simple rule-based model cell, which incorporates the actual biochemistry and mechanics behind cell crawling, both exhibit similar type of crawling behavior. Almost all legged animals walk by alternating their feet. Similarly, all crawling cells appear to move forward by alternating the direction of their movement, even though the regularity and degree of zigzag preference vary from one type to the other.

  7. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  8. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  9. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  10. Preference Elicitation in Prioritized Skyline Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Mindolin, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Preference queries incorporate the notion of binary preference relation into relational database querying. Instead of returning all the answers, such queries return only the best answers, according to a given preference relation. Preference queries are a fast growing area of database research. Skyline queries constitute one of the most thoroughly studied classes of preference queries. A well known limitation of skyline queries is that skyline preference relations assign the same importance to all attributes. In this work, we study p-skyline queries that generalize skyline queries by allowing varying attribute importance in preference relations. We perform an in-depth study of the properties of p-skyline preference relations. In particular,we study the problems of containment and minimal extension. We apply the obtained results to the central problem of the paper: eliciting relative importance of attributes. Relative importance is implicit in the constructed p-skyline preference relation. The elicitation is ba...

  11. Consumer preferences for fresh tomato at the European scale: a common segmentation on taste and firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mathilde; Friguet, Chloé; Coiret, Clément; Lépicier, Mélanie; Navez, Brigitte; Lee, Monica; Holthuysen, Nancy; Sinesio, Fiorella; Moneta, Elisabetta; Grandillo, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In the framework of a large European project, 806 consumers from 3 countries, The Netherlands, France, and Italy, were presented with a set of 16 varieties representing the diversity of fresh tomato offer in order to evaluate their preferences. In parallel, sensory profiles were constructed by expert panels in each country. Preference maps were then constructed in each country revealing the structure of consumer preferences and allowing identification of the most important characteristics. Then a global analysis revealed that preferences were quite homogeneous across countries. This study identified the overall flavor and firmness as the most important traits for improving tomato fruit quality. It showed that consumer preferences from different European countries, with different cultures and food practices, are segmented following similar patterns when projected onto a common referential plan. Moreover, the results clearly showed that diversification of taste and texture is required to satisfy all consumers' expectations as some consumers preferred firm tomatoes, while others preferred melting ones and were more or less demanding in terms of sweetness and flavor intensity. Detailed comparisons also showed the importance of the fruit appearance in consumer preference.

  12. Visual aesthetics and human preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B; Sammartino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Human aesthetic preference in the visual domain is reviewed from definitional, methodological, empirical, and theoretical perspectives. Aesthetic science is distinguished from the perception of art and from philosophical treatments of aesthetics. The strengths and weaknesses of important behavioral techniques are presented and discussed, including two-alternative forced-choice, rank order, subjective rating, production/adjustment, indirect, and other tasks. Major findings are reviewed about preferences for colors (single colors, color combinations, and color harmony), spatial structure (low-level spatial properties, shape properties, and spatial composition within a frame), and individual differences in both color and spatial structure. Major theoretical accounts of aesthetic response are outlined and evaluated, including explanations in terms of mere exposure effects, arousal dynamics, categorical prototypes, ecological factors, perceptual and conceptual fluency, and the interaction of multiple components. The results of the review support the conclusion that aesthetic response can be studied rigorously and meaningfully within the framework of scientific psychology.

  13. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  14. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  15. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  16. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  17. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  18. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  19. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  20. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometime...

  1. Mole Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  2. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia...

  3. Analysis of beer consumption preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Horňák, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the preferences of beer consumption. The thesis focuses on finding and subsequent evaluation of the factors that can significantly influence consumer behavior in the field of beer consumption and it is based on marketing research conducted on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Theoretical part of the thesis, composed on basis of academic literature describes the history of beer, its brewing procedures and a description of various types of beer. This part is followed ...

  4. Dental Continuing Education Preference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    the 63A9Ds and 34.9% for the 63A00s, selected Comprehensive Dentistry as their specialty preference. For the 63A9Ds, orthodontics , periodontics, and...prosthodontics were the next most frequently selected specialties. For the 63A00s, it was orthodontics , prosthodontics, and endodontics. Nearly 10% of...education. International Dental Journal , 28(2): 149-153, 1978. 7. Haroth, R.W. & Halpern, D.F. Maryland Continuing Dental Education Survey: "Your

  5. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Velandia Morales; Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón

    2011-01-01

    According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...

  6. Where Would Refinancing Preferences Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yajun; Liu, Bo

    We study the relation between the non-tradable shares reform and the refinancing preferences. From the viewpoints of change in market and policy environments led by the reform, we find that right issues dominate before the reform, however, public offerings (including private placement) dominate after reform, which could be attributed to more money encirclement induced by the shift of the public offering mechanism from in discount to in premium after reform and no requirements for large shareholders' participation commitments in public offerings.

  7. Network externalities across financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Iragorri, Carlos Alberto; Preciado Pua, Sergio Andrés; Ordóñez Herrera, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We propose and estimate a financial distress model that explicitly accounts for the interactions or spill-over effects between financial institutions, through the use of a spatial continuity matrix that is build from financial network data of inter bank transactions. Such setup of the financial distress model allows for the empirical validation of the importance of network externalities in determining financial distress, in addition to institution specific and macroeconomic covariates. The re...

  8. Externe Kosten in der Energiewirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Alfred; Friedrich, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    Als externe Effekte werden unbeteiligte Dritte betreffende Zusatzkosten oder Zusatznutzen verstanden, die sich in den jeweiligen Güterpreisen nicht wiederfinden und denen die Betroffenen nicht indifferent gegenüberstehen. Die gegenwärtige Energiebereitstellung und -nutzung ist in vielen Bereichen eine wesentliche Quelle der Belastung von Umwelt und Natur. Begriffe und Schlagworte wie Waldsterben, Tankerunglücke, Tschernobyl und Treibhauseffekt seien in diesem Zusammenhang erwähnt.

  9. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas......, optimistic, and pessimistic behaviour, and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  10. Spatial preference heterogeneity in forest recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Garcia, Serge; Olsen, Søren Bøye;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the preferences for recreational use of forests in Lorraine (Northeastern France), applying stated preference data. Our approach allows us to estimate individual-specific preferences for recreational use of different forest types. These estimates are used in a second stage...... of the analysis where we test whether preferences depend on access to recreation sites. We find that there is significant preference heterogeneity with respect to most forest attributes. The spatial analysis shows that preferences for forests with parking and picnic facilities are correlated with having access...

  11. Preference for hope over knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Hedžet Tóth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled Preference of Hope over Knowledge provides an analysis of the views of the American philosopher Richard Rorty, with special reference to concepts such as hope, utopia and the potential of ethics in the most recent times which, after the year of 1989, have been marked by the collapse of socialism of bolshevik origin. Thus knowledge is now preferred to hope, yet Rorty firmly insists that knowledge must keep its potential for hope, because it is the only way that humanism can maintain its existence. Even though we are faced with the end of the metaphysics of final certainty and its absolute principles, it is still possible to consider ethics and how it can be substantiated. Moral progress is possible, but not on the basis of something from the beyond, but rather as a matter of increasing sensitivity, increasing responsiveness to the needs of a larger and larger variety of people and things. It was with these views that Rorty established his ethics without principles, but in a very principled way as the anthropology of ethics that emphatically refuses to continue being the concealed voice of theos. The articles also highlights Rorty's comprehension of pragmatism conceived of as the philosophy of solidarity, since it expressly prefers solidarity to objectivity, solidarity being that other side of justice which remains one of the most basic concepts of every ethics.

  12. Analysis of feeding preference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C H; Renaud, P E

    1989-03-01

    Published studies of consumer feeding preferences using foods that experience autogenic change in mass, numbers, area, etc., on the time scale of a feeding trial fail to employ appropriate statistical analyses to incorporate controls for those food changes occurring in the absence of the consumer. The studies that run controls typically use them to calculate a constant "correction factor", which is subtracted prior to formal data analysis. This procedure constitutes a non-rigorous suppression of variance that overstates the statistical significance of observed differences. The appropriate statistical analysis for preference tests with two foods is usually a simple t-test performed on the between-food differences in loss of mass (or numbers, area, etc.) comparing the results of experimentals with consumers to controls without consumers. Application of this recommended test procedure to an actual data set illustrates how low replication in controls, which is typical of most studies of feeding preference, inhibits detection of an apparently large influence of previous mechanical damage (simulated grazing) in reducing the attractiveness of a brown alga to a sea urchin.

  13. ENDOSCOPIC DCR VERSUS EXTERNAL DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare success rates of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR and external DCR for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative non randomized study of 64 patients who presented with acquired NLD obstruction to a tertiary hospital. They were fully evaluated to ascertain the site of obstruction and patients with distal obstruction were included in the study. 34 patients underwent endoscopic DCR and 30 patients underwent external DCR RESULTS: 64 patients were included in the study and 72 procedures carried out. Success was achieved in 65 cases and failure in 7. Of the 7 failed cases, anatomical obstruction at the fistula site was found in 3, whereas functional failure was found in 4. In our patients, endoscopic DCR had a significantly higher success rate than external DCR, 95.23% versus 83.33% (P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of Endoscopic DCR for acquired NLDO in our group of patients was 95.23%, with endoscopic surgery showing better results.

  14. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii......) The relevance and efficiency of different instruments for internalisation and compensation; and iii) Implementing internalisation over large geographical and temporal distances. We find taxation to be a more relevant and efficient tool for internalisation than insurance and litigation. With increasing...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  15. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  16. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...

  17. Cultural distance, political risk, or governance quality? Towards a more accurate conceptualization and measurement of external uncertainty in foreign entry mode research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.L. Slangen; R.J.M. van Tulder

    2009-01-01

    It is well accepted that multinational enterprises (MNEs) prefer equity joint ventures (JVs) over wholly owned subsidiaries (WOSs) in foreign countries where the formal and informal external environment is highly uncertain. Many entry mode studies have modeled the external uncertainty faced by MNEs

  18. External Cavity Coherent Transmitter Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    6-15) PSK Homodyne 282 kHz FP + FDG 40 (+) (25-37) to 565 kHz FP + BDd 40 (+) (15-25) *preferred structure (+) -Minimum Practical Design ** - Figure... polarization occurs, which contains combination frequencies wi± n(wO - wi), where n=1,2,3,... The different polarizations at these beat frequencies...reflectivity, we ignore tlie polarization of lasing field. 182 ttowever, the reflectivity depends strongly on the polarization of the field. I, 1:as beer

  19. Quantifying the synchronizability of externally driven oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefański, Andrzej

    2008-03-01

    This paper is focused on the problem of complete synchronization in arrays of externally driven identical or slightly different oscillators. These oscillators are coupled by common driving which makes an occurrence of generalized synchronization between a driving signal and response oscillators possible. Therefore, the phenomenon of generalized synchronization is also analyzed here. The research is concentrated on the cases of an irregular (chaotic or stochastic) driving signal acting on continuous-time (Duffing systems) and discrete-time (Henon maps) response oscillators. As a tool for quantifying the robustness of the synchronized state, response (conditional) Lyapunov exponents are applied. The most significant result presented in this paper is a novel method of estimation of the largest response Lyapunov exponent. This approach is based on the complete synchronization of two twin response subsystems via additional master-slave coupling between them. Examples of the method application and its comparison with the classical algorithm for calculation of Lyapunov exponents are widely demonstrated. Finally, the idea of effective response Lyapunov exponents, which allows us to quantify the synchronizability in case of slightly different response oscillators, is introduced.

  20. The External Calibrator for Hydrogen Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Daniel C; Bowman, Judd; Neben, Abraham R; Stinnett, Benjamin; Turner, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Multiple instruments are pursuing constraints on dark energy, observing reionization and opening a window on the dark ages through the detection and characterization of the 21cm hydrogen line across the redshift spectrum, from nearby to z=25. These instruments, including CHIME in the sub-meter and HERA in the meter bands, are wide-field arrays with multiple-degree beams, typically operating in transit mode. Accurate knowledge of their primary beams is critical for separation of bright foregrounds from the desired cosmological signals, but difficult to achieve through astronomical observations alone. Previous beam calibration work has focused on model verification and does not address the need of 21cm experiments for routine beam mapping, to the horizon, of the as-built array. We describe the design and methodology of a drone-mounted calibrator, the External Calibrator for Hydrogen Observatories (ECHO), that aims to address this need. We report on a first set of trials to calibrate low-frequency dipoles and co...

  1. Hare's preference utilitarianism: an overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to summarize some aspects of utilitarianism and to provide a general overview of Hare's preference utilitarianism, followed by a critique of Hare's preference theory.

  2. An Empirical Investigation of Flowchart Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, David; Clark, Leisa

    1989-01-01

    Studies whether students' stated preferences for flowcharts or pseudocodes match their actual behaviors. Provides a review of the literature on flowchart utility. Reports that students preferred flowcharts to pseudocodes. Lists an example of both a flowchart and pseudocode. (MVL)

  3. ACUMEN 2012: Atlantic Canyons Undersea Mapping Expeditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between February and August 2012, a team of NOAA and external partners will conduct a mapping ‘blitz’ focused on deepwater canyons off the northeastern...

  4. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  5. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  6. Evolution of non-expected utility preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Widekind, Sven von; Fandel, G

    2008-01-01

    The theory on the evolution of preferences deals with the endogenous formation of preference relations in strategic situations. It is related to the field of evolutionary game theory. In this book we analyze the role and the influence of general, possibly non-expected utility preferences in such an evolutionary setup. In particular, we demonstrate that preferences which diverge from von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility may potentially prove to be successful under evolutionary pressures.

  7. Structural Changes in Chinese Food Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    The article tests for structural food preference change in urban China using province-level panel data from 2002 to 2010. We employ the Generalized Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System to represent consumer preferences and estimate demand for seven food groups in a dynamic setting. This relaxes many of the restrictions on the demand models used in the literature on structural preference change. Our findings suggest that Chinese food preferences are continuing to evolve.

  8. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Shaw

    Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  9. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

  10. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic l

  11. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  12. Intergenerational transfer of time and risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather; van der Pol, Marjon

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing interest in individual time and risk preferences. Little is known about how these preferences are formed. It is hypothesised that parents may transmit their preferences to their offspring. This paper examines the correlation in offspring and parental time and risk preferences using data from an annual household survey in Australia (the HILDA survey). Both time and risk preferences are examined and we explored whether the correlation in time and risk preferences varies across the distribution of preferences and across the across the four parent-child dyads (mother/daughter, mother/son, father/daughter, father/son). The results show that there is a significant relationship between parents and their young adult offspring risk and time preference measures. The correlation varies across the distribution of time preferences. The correlation was largest for longer planning horizons. Risk averse parents are more likely to have risk averse children. Except for the father/daughter dyad risk seeking parents are more likely to have risk seeking offspring. Some gender differences were found. The association in parental and offspring time preference was larger for mothers than fathers. Daughters are more likely to be influenced by their mother's risk preferences, however, sons are equally influenced by both parents. The results of this study suggest that the transmission in preferences is more nuanced than previously thought and parental gender may be important.

  13. Student Preferences for Adaptations in Classroom Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janet S.; Jayanthi, Madhavi; Epstein, Michael H.; Bursuck, William D.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the preferences of 158 middle school students with and without disabilities for specific adaptations in general education classroom testing. Open-notes and open-book tests were among the adaptations most preferred. Students with disabilities and/or students with low achievement indicated significantly higher preference than…

  14. 76 FR 53631 - BioPreferred Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... biobased preferred procurement program (one part of the BioPreferred Program) is available on the Internet... reference Amend: to: And adding in its place: Sec. 2904.2, definition of ``Biobased part 2902 part 3201. content''. Sec. 2904.2, definition of part 2902 part 3201. ``BioPreferred Product''. Sec....

  15. Description and Comparison of Group Behavior Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    they prefer to behave. The claisification theory started with the work of Carl Gustav Jung (7:18). Jung believed an individual’s behavior was...preference for introversion . These preferences are displayed in the scale percentages and in the group mean scores (see Appendix C). The Navy shows

  16. Intuitionistic preference modeling and interactive decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the priority methods of intuitionistic preference relations, the consistency and consensus improving procedures for intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches to group decision making based on intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches and models for interactive decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy information, and the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments.

  17. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  18. The posterior parietal cortex remaps touch into external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azañón, Elena; Longo, Matthew R; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-07-27

    Localizing tactile events in external space is required for essential functions such as orienting, haptic exploration, and goal-directed action in peripersonal space. In order to map somatosensory input into a spatiotopic representation, information about skin location must be integrated with proprioceptive information about body posture. We investigated the neural bases of this tactile remapping mechanism in humans by disrupting neural activity in the putative human homolog of the monkey ventral intraparietal area (hVIP), within the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC), which is thought to house external spatial representations. Participants judged the elevation of touches on their (unseen) forearm relative to touches on their face. Arm posture was passively changed along the vertical axis, so that elevation judgments required the use of an external reference frame. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the rPPC significantly impaired performance compared to a control site (vertex). Crucially, proprioceptive judgments of arm elevation or tactile localization on the skin remained unaffected by rPPC TMS. This selective disruption of tactile remapping suggests a distinct computational process dissociable from pure proprioceptive and somatosensory localization. Furthermore, this finding highlights the causal role of human PPC, putatively VIP, in remapping touch into external space.

  19. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  20. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    own specific set of mechanisms and conditions. Integrating innovations has been mostly studied from an absorptive capacity perspective, with less attention given to the impact of competencies and culture (including “not invented here”). Commercializing innovations puts the most emphasis on how......” in a way inconsistent with earlier definitions in innovation management. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research that include examining the end-to-end innovation commercialization process, and studying the moderators and limits of leveraging external sources of innovation....

  1. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  2. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...... of the systematic sortingon education is due to low search frictions in marriage markets of the educationalinstitutions. The other half is attributed to complementarities in household pro-duction, since income properties of the joint income process show no influence on partner selection....

  3. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...... of the systematic sortingon education is due to low search frictions in marriage markets of the educationalinstitutions. The other half is attributed to complementarities in household pro-duction, since income properties of the joint income process show no influence on partner selection....

  4. Mapping chronic liver disease questionnaire scores onto SF-6D utility values in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Benito de Valle, Maria; Rahman, Monira

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) is a frequently used liver-specific quality of life instrument, but it does not provide information on preference-adjusted health status, which is essential for cost-utility analysis. We aimed to develop a mapping function deriving utilities...... absolute errors between predicted and observed values were used to determine model performance. Results: Decompensated liver disease and fatigue, systemic symptoms, and emotional distress, assessed with the CLDQ, were related to worse SF-6D utilities. The final OLS prediction model explained 66...... regression models and at validation. Conclusions: A model has been constructed, showing good validity predicting SF-6D utilities from CLDQ scores at the group level in PSC. Further testing is required to externally validate the model....

  5. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  6. The use of external electronic tags on fish: an evaluation of tag retention and tagging effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Thorstad, Eva B.; Havn, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    External tagging of fish with electronic tags has been used for decades for a wide range of marine and freshwater species. In the early years of fish telemetry research, it was the most commonly used attachment method, but later internal implants became preferred. Recently, the number of telemetry...... studies using external tagging has increased, especially with the development of archival tags (data storage tags, DSTs), pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and other environment-sensing tags. Scientific evaluations of the tagging method are rather scarce for most species. We identified 89...... growth and survival have also been recorded, but direct mortality caused by external tagging seems rare. Most of the studies reviewed evaluate tag retention, survival, and tissue reactions. There is a general need for more research on the effects of external tagging of fish with electronic tags...

  7. Empirical Evaluation On External Debt Of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nor’Aznin Abu Bakar; Sallahuddin Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of external debts on economic growth in Malaysia. The analysis is conducted both at aggregate and disaggregate levels. The empirical results are based on VAR estimates using GDP, external debts, capital accumulation, labor force and human capital. Estimation results at the aggregate level indicate that total external debts affect economic growth positively. In particular, one percentage point increase in total external debts generates 1.29 percentage point of e...

  8. Reflective visualization and verbalization of unconscious preference

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious preference is the preference which can be observed as an action resulted from one's decision making, but whose origin and background one can not describe with verbal explanation. It is an important problem to develop a method to help one become conscious of the one's unconscious preference, and convey it to the others in the form of verbal explanation. This paper develops a method which combines the concepts of reflection, visualization, and verbalization, applied to group discussion, with a tool which implements an algorithm to process information on the subjects' stated preference. The method is applied to the experiments where the unconscious preference on the art works is investigated.

  9. Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, P

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  10. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an enclosed...

  11. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum breaker...

  12. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on the...

  13. Quantum electrodynamics on background external fields

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  14. Tobacco brand preference among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.

  15. Bilingual children's social preferences hinge on accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2017-12-01

    Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... addressed in these studies which preference models are actually being tested, and the connection between the statistical tests performed and the relevant underlying models of respondent behavior has not been explored further. This paper tries to fill that gap. We specifically analyze the meaning and role...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  17. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  18. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  19. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  20. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  1. External Memory Graph Algorithms and Range Searching Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walderveen, Freek van

    Every day larger amounts of data are generated that describe our world in terms of networks or graphs. Think for example about maps of roads or rivers, social networks, or the internet (either as a network of computers or as a network of hyperlinks). Besides this, also surface models, such as hei......Every day larger amounts of data are generated that describe our world in terms of networks or graphs. Think for example about maps of roads or rivers, social networks, or the internet (either as a network of computers or as a network of hyperlinks). Besides this, also surface models...... numerical criteria. The second part of this dissertation contains contributions relating to these so-called range searching problems, both in the external-memory setting and in the traditional internal-memory setting. We obtain results relating to the example above (nding furthest points in a region...

  2. Assessment of Agri-Environmental Externalities at Regional Levels in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhen Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used a synthetic evaluation method to assess agri-environmental externalities at the regional level in Finland. The article developed a relative measure that made it possible to rank the 15 regions studied for seven agri-environmental indicators, which were based on the preferences of the evaluators. The results indicated significant differences in the provision of public goods between the regions. The provision of public goods tended to increase over the 10-year study period. The results were robust with respect to changes in preferences.

  3. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  4. An Integrated Map of Soybean Physical Map and Genetic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhaoming; LI Hui; WU Qiong; SUN Yanan; LIU Chunyan; HU Guohua; CHEN Qingshan

    2009-01-01

    Soybean is a major crop in the world, and it is a main source of plant proteins and oil. A lot of soybean genetic maps and physical maps have been constructed, but there are no integrated map between soybean physical map and genetic map. In this study, soybean genome sequence data, released by JGI (US Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute), had been downloaded. With the software Blast 2.2.16, a total of 161 super sequences were mapped on the soybean public genetic map to construct an integrated map. The length of these super sequences accounted for 73.08% of all the genome sequence. This integrated map could be used for gene cloning, gene mining, and comparative genome of legume.

  5. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  6. External symmetry in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cotaescu, I I

    2000-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the isometry transformations to the geometric context of the field theories with spin where the local frames are explicitly involved. We define the external symmetry transformations as isometries combined with suitable tetrad gauge transformations and we show that these form a group which is locally isomorphic with the isometry one. We point out that the symmetry transformations that leave invariant the equations of the fields with spin have generators with specific spin terms which represent new physical observables. The examples we present are the generators of the central symmetry and those of the maximal symmetries of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes derived in different tetrad gauge fixings. Pacs: 04.20.Cv, 04.62.+v, 11.30.-j

  7. Unit 02 - Maps and Map Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 55, CC in GIS; Rhind, David

    1990-01-01

    This unit explores the map analysis roots of GIS. It discusses cartography and its relationship to GIS, including topics such as map types and characteristics, the concept of scale, map projections, applications of maps, computer-assisted cartography and geographic data display and analysis.

  8. Heterogeneity in Preferences and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette

    versus housework, 2) preferences for leisure compared to consumption, and 3) marginal utility of wealth, is correlated with the retirement decision. Based on US consumption and time use data for 2001 and 2003 from the Consumptions and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS), we study the patterns of individual...... choices of expenditure, household production and leisure for people in and around retirement. The unobserved individual heterogeneity factor is isolated by comparing cross-sectional evidence and panel data estimates of the effects of retirement on consumption and time allocation. Based on cross......-section data, we can identify a difference in consumption due to retirement status, but when the panel nature of the data is exploited, the effect of retirement on consumption is small and insignificant. Moreover, the analyses point at a large positive effect of retirement on household production. Our results...

  9. Social Preferences and Strategic Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco;

    This paper reports experimental evidence on a stylized labor market. The experiment is designed as a sequence of three phases. In the first two phases, P1 and P2; agents face simple games, which we use to estimate subjects' social and reciprocity concerns, together with their beliefs. In the last...... phase, P3; four principals, who face four teams of two agents, compete by offering agents a contract from a fixed menu. Then, each agent selects one of the available contracts (i.e. he "chooses to work" for a principal). Production is determined by the outcome of a simple effort game induced...... by the chosen contract. We find that (heterogeneous) social preferences are significant determinants of choices in all phases of the experiment. Since the available contracts display a trade-off between fairness and strategic uncertainty, we observe that the latter is a much stronger determinant of choices...

  10. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  11. Information-Constrained Optima with Retrading: An Externality and Its Market-Based Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilenthong, Weerachart T; Townsend, Robert M

    2011-05-01

    This paper studies the efficiency of competitive equilibria in environments with a moral hazard problem and unobserved states, both with retrading in ex post spot markets. The interaction between private information problems and the possibility of retrade creates an externality, unless preferences have special, restrictive properties. The externality is internalized by allowing agents to contract ex ante on market fundamentals determining the spot price or interest rate, over and above contracting on actions and outputs. Then competitive equilibria are equivalent with the appropriate notion of constrained Pareto optimality. Examples show that it is possible to have multiple market fundamentals or price-islands, created endogenously in equilibrium.

  12. [Development of patient education materials for the "German Prostate Cancer Trial PREFERE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sänger, Sylvia; Wiegel, Thomas; Stöckle, Michael; Härter, Martin; Bergelt, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    The German prostate cancer study PREFERE (www.prefere.de) started in January 2014. It is the first randomised controlled and preference-based trial to investigate all four options available for the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer. According to the "Interdisciplinary evidence-based S3 guideline for the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of the different stages of prostate cancer" [1], these options include: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy, brachytherapy and active surveillance. In the context of PREFERE preference-based means that potential study participants who do not agree to being randomised into all four treatment arms can maximally refuse two treatment arms. This poses a big challenge to the patient education strategy employed and the information material it requires. In order to inform patients in the context of the PREFERE trial patient education materials (patient leaflet and video) had to be designed that provide patients with balanced and guideline-based information about the disease and the treatment options available, about the need for randomisation and, in particular, about the PREFERE trial and support their individual preference finding and shared decision making for participating in the trial. An iterative structured approach was used to develop the information materials on the basis of a previous literature search. Six focus groups with a total of 40 participants from three different self-help groups, affected men that do not belong to a self-help group, healthy men as well as experts, the members of the steering committee of the PREFERE trial and a focus group consisting of 18 male and female urologists were involved in the development and testing of both the patient information leaflet and the patient video. Both the patient information leaflet and the video supporting preference finding and decision making for participating in the PREFERE trial were tested for understandability and suitability by using a

  13. Focus+context metro maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chi, Ming-Te

    2011-12-01

    We introduce a focus+context method to visualize a complicated metro map of a modern city on a small displaying area. The context of our work is with regard the popularity of mobile devices. The best route to the destination, which can be obtained from the arrival time of trains, is highlighted. The stations on the route enjoy larger spaces, whereas the other stations are rendered smaller and closer to fit the whole map into a screen. To simplify the navigation and route planning for visitors, we formulate various map characteristics such as octilinear transportation lines and regular station distances into energy terms. We then solve for the optimal layout in a least squares sense. In addition, we label the names of stations that are on the route of a passenger according to human preferences, occlusions, and consistencies of label positions using the graph cuts method. Our system achieves real-time performance by being able to report instant information because of the carefully designed energy terms. We apply our method to layout a number of metro maps and show the results and timing statistics to demonstrate the feasibility of our technique. © 2011 IEEE

  14. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  15. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  16. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  17. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2014-03-01

    endoscopic DCR is time saving, avoids a facial scar and injury to the neighboring structures like the medial palpebral ligament and the angular facial vessels. In our study, the success rate of Endonasal DCR and External DCR are almost equal and comparable. This indicates that these two different DCR techniques are acceptable alternatives. However it’s the preference of the patient, resource available and the surgeon himself to decide the right surgical option to axe the disease.

  18. Strategies for Global Optimization of Temporal Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Khatib, Lina; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh

    2004-01-01

    A temporal reasoning problem can often be naturally characterized as a collection of constraints with associated local preferences for times that make up the admissible values for those constraints. Globally preferred solutions to such problems emerge as a result of well-defined operations that compose and order temporal assignments. The overall objective of this work is a characterization of different notions of global preference, and to identify tractable sub-classes of temporal reasoning problems incorporating these notions. This paper extends previous results by refining the class of useful notions of global temporal preference that are associated with problems that admit of tractable solution techniques. This paper also answers the hitherto open question of whether problems that seek solutions that are globally preferred from a Utilitarian criterion for global preference can be found tractably.

  19. The orientational preferences of backbones of proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; WANG Jun; XUE Bin; WANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    The orientation between the backboneresidues of proteins is defined based on the local configurations and the corresponding preferences are analyzed by statistics. It is found that all the residue pairs have some specific preferences of orientations. The statistical analysis is mainly concentrated in the orientational distributions for two kinds of groupings of residues based on the hydrophobicity and secondary structural features. The statistics for such two types of groupings shows different orientational preferences. It is found that for the former grouping the orientational preference is rather weak,while for the later a kind of strong orientational preferences. This suggests that the formation of local structures and of secondary structures are highly related to the orientational preferences.

  20. Students' preferences in undergraduate mathematics assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Existing research into students' preferences for assessment methods has been developed from a restricted sample: in particular, the voice of students in the ‘hard-pure sciences’ has rarely been heard. We conducted a mixed method study to explore mathematics students' preferences of assessment methods. In contrast to the message from the general assessment literature, we found that mathematics students differentially prefer traditional assessment methods such as closed book examination; they p...

  1. Extraversion and risk preference in portfolio theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestewig, R E

    1977-11-01

    One hundred seventy-eight male and female undergraduates completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory and indicated their risk preference assessed under the assumptions of Coombs' portfolio theory. Extraverts preferred higher risk significantly more than did introverts, and also showed significantly greater risk preference change as expected value increased. It was suggested that a theoretically defensible selection of both personality variables and a risk assessment model may lead to greater personality-risk predictability.

  2. A preference for progressivity in interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates two types of preference organization in interaction: in response to a question that selects a next speaker in multi-party interaction, the preference for answers over non-answer responses as a category of a response; and the preference for selected next speakers to respond. It is asserted that the turn allocation rule specified by Sacks, Schegloff & Jefferson (1974) which states that a response is relevant by the selected next speaker at the transition relevance plac...

  3. Modeling Preference Change through Brand Satiation

    OpenAIRE

    Terui, Nobuhiko; HASEGAWA, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we develop structural models of preference change due to consumer state dependence through satiation by purchase experience. A dynamic factor model with switching structure is proposed to explain consumer preference changes. Two types of dynamic factor models are separately applied to baseline and satiation parameters in a direct utility model that accommodates multiple discreteness data. The first dynamic factor model has a switching structure for consumer preference, and deco...

  4. Components of dynamic digital maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Christopher D.

    1999-05-01

    The core of a dynamic digital map (DDM) is a program created to display a digital geologic map and its associated data set as a single integrated package. This DDM program core is authored using a high-level object oriented graphical programming environment, SuperCard, a Macintosh `xTalk' language. Some of the major philosophical underpinnings relevant to the job of creating DDMs in this programming environment include taking advantage of specific object's attributes, how to organize data structure effectively for this job and keeping applicable code as transportable (generalized) as possible between objects. The core components of DDMs are parts of a SuperCard `template' or map display `container' into which the various externally created digital pieces (e.g. CAD produced geologic maps, spread sheet data, digital images, text files, movies) can be inserted for integrated display and digital publication. Components of DDMs consist of windows, cards within these windows, card fields (text and data containers) and a menu structure. The paper discusses each of these major components and how they fit into a DDM and gives examples of each topic in programs whose components demonstrate the concept. These programs are available from Web (see Appendix A); readers can refer to them as they examine these examples.

  5. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of locating a single facility on a real line based on the reports of self-interested agents, when agents have double-peaked preferences, with the peaks being on opposite sides of their locations. We observe that double-peaked preferences capture real-life scenarios and thus...... complement the well-studied notion of single-peaked preferences. We mainly focus on the case where peaks are equidistant from the agents’ locations and discuss how our results extend to more general settings. We show that most of the results for single-peaked preferences do not directly apply to this setting...

  6. Temporal context, preference, and resistance to change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent-chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli...

  7. Influência do gênero em mapas cognitivos do mundo de universitários brasileiros Gender influence on cognitive maps of the world of Brazilian University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munich V. S. Gomes

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos mapas cognitivos do mundo de 82 estudantes de três cursos universitários, com o objetivo de verificar possíveis diferenças entre homens e mulheres quanto ao conhecimento dos países e preferência por eles. As representações mentais de mundo foram exteriorizadas através de mapas esquemáticos desenhados pelos próprios estudantes, ou mapas impressos com o contorno dos continentes preenchidos pelos estudantes com nomes e localização dos países. Poucos países foram bem conhecidos pelos estudantes, notadamente os das Américas do Norte e do Sul (número médio de 28,8 países, de um total possível de 192. Entre os 25 países com maiores médias, 24 tiveram médias mais elevadas para os homens, em alguns casos com diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Quanto à localização espacial dos países no mapa, dos 92 países conhecidos em comum, 76 (83% foram mais bem posicionados pelos homens. Dos 40 países mais citados quanto à preferência, 22 tiveram basicamente o mesmo grau de preferência para os dois grupos, 14 foram vistos mais positivamente pelos homens e apenas 4 pelas mulheres, embora nenhuma dessas diferenças tenha atingido significância estatística.We analyzed cognitive maps of the world of 82 students of three university courses, to verify possible differences between men and women in regard to knowledge of countries and preference. The mental representations of the world were externalized by means of sketch maps drawn by the students or printed maps with the contour of continents filled by the students with names and location of the countries. Just a few countries were well known by the students, particularly in North and South America (average of 28.8 countries, out of a possible total of 192. Among the 25 countries with the highest means, 24 had higher means for the men, in some cases with statistically significant differences. In relation to the spatial location of the countries on the map, out of the

  8. Currency Allocation of Public External Debt and Synchronization Indicators of Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Melecky

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses synchronization indicators of domestic and foreign fundamentals to choose suitable currency allocation of public external debt. The selection of explanatory variables for exchange rate volatility is motivated using a New Keynesian Policy model that predicts that not only traditional optimum currency area (OCA) variables, but also variables considered by the literature on currency preferences, such as money velocity, should be relevant for explaining exchange rate volatility. I...

  9. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  10. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  11. Neonatal handling induces deficits in infant mother preference and adult partner preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Lutz, Maiara Lenise; Sebben, Vanise; Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Lucion, Aldo Bolten

    2013-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to understand how early-life adversity can negatively affect neurobehavioral development and place animals on a pathway to pathology. Decreased preference for the maternal odor during infancy is one of many behavioral deficits induced by neonatal handling. Here, we hypothesize that deficits in maternal odor preference may interfere with partner preference in the adult. To test this hypothesis, we assessed infant maternal odor preference and adult partner preference in different reproductive stages in both male and female rats that received neonatal handling. Our results indicate that only neonatally handled females present deficits in maternal odor preference during infancy, but both male and females present deficits in adult partner preference. However, sexual experience was effective in rescuing partner preference deficits in males. These results indicate that, considering infant and adult social interactions, females are more susceptible to the effects of neonatal handling than males. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Control of External Kink Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Gerald

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.

  13. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  14. Stimulus collative properties and consumers’ flavor preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Duerlund, Mette; Bøegh-Petersen, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne’s (1967) collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative...

  15. Values and marginal preferences in international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; van Hoorn, Andre

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Maseland and van Hoorn argued that values surveys tend to conflate values and marginal preferences. This assertion has been challenged by Brewer and Venaik, who claim that the wording of most survey items does not suggest that these elicit marginal preferences. Thi

  16. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  17. Preference Erosion and Multilateral Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); B. Hoekman; M. Manchin

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBecause of concern that OECD tariff reductions will translate into worsening export performance for the least developed countries, trade preferences have proven a stumbling block to developing country support for multilateral liberalization. We examine the actual scope for preference ero

  18. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  19. Experiential Determinants of Children's Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    This discussion focuses on elements of children's immediate experience that influence their food preferences. Some evidence suggests that there may be sensitive periods early in life that are critical for the formation of food preferences and aversions. Additionally, the familiarity and the sweetness of foods appear to be important determinants of…

  20. Patient preference for genders of health professionals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Andela, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons,

  1. Patient preference for genders of health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Bensing, J.; Andela, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons,

  2. Personal Epistemology and Preference for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Used a 3 x 3 mixed factorial design to study relation between a person's dominant way of knowing (rationalism, metaphorism, empiricism) and the preference for three counseling approaches (rationalist, constructivist, behavioral) with college students (N=92). Found participants significantly preferred counseling approach hypothesized to represent…

  3. Students' Preferences in Undergraduate Mathematics Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Existing research into students' preferences for assessment methods has been developed from a restricted sample: in particular, the voice of students in the 'hard-pure sciences' has rarely been heard. We conducted a mixed method study to explore mathematics students' preferences of assessment methods. In contrast to the message from the general…

  4. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  5. Preferences, Paths, Power, Goals and Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oren, N.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.; Vasconcelos, W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the question of preference alignment in normative systems. We represent detached obligations and goals as preferences over outcomes, and describe when deterministic behaviour will occur within a MAS under specific system instantiations. We then investigate what obligation

  6. Preference clustering in customer satisfaction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze whether or not segments with different customer preferences and customer satisfaction can be identified. This analysis is based on customer satisfaction data from the Danish banking industry from the years 2004 and 2005. The analysis showed that the preference...

  7. Learning space preferences of higher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald; Voordt, van der Theo; Dewulf, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to address higher education students’ learning space preferences. The study is based on a survey that involved 697 business management students of a Dutch University of Applied Sciences. The research focuses on preferred learning spaces for individual study activities, which require

  8. Counseling Style Preference of Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Herbert A.; Lau, Ester Ying-wah

    1988-01-01

    Conducted study to determine preferences of Cantonese-speaking Chinese college students (N=50) from Hong Kong attending a large midwestern university for either a directive or nondirective counseling approach to emotional adjustment problems. Results showed that subjects strongly preferred a directive counseling approach and attributed low…

  9. Patients' preferences for patient-centered communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Christensen, Søren Troels; Andreasen T., Jesper

    2013-01-01

    To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone.......To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone....

  10. Teachers' Preferences to Teach Underserved Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Kwok, Andrew; Reininger, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    To increase the supply of teachers into underserved schools, teacher educators and policymakers commonly use two approaches: (a) recruit individuals who already report strong preferences to work in underserved schools or (b) design pre-service preparation to increase preferences. Using survey and administrative data on more than 1,000 teachers in…

  11. A Method to Assess Work Task Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Morin, Diane; Lachapelle, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Persons with intellectual disability may encounter difficulties in making choices and expressing preferences because of restricted communication skills or a tendency to acquiesce. In addition, many studies provide evidence that these persons have less opportunity to make choices and express their preferences. The aim of this study was to conduct a…

  12. Undergraduate Psychology Courses Preferred by Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Reisinger, Debra L.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Information about the undergraduate psychology courses preferred by graduate programs is useful for a number of purposes, including (a) advising psychology majors who are interested in graduate school, (b) undergraduate curriculum planning, and (c) examining whether graduate programs' preferences reflect national guidelines for the undergraduate…

  13. Detecting novel metaphor using selectional preference information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Hessel; Bjerva, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Recent work on metaphor processing often employs selectional preference information. We present a comparison of different approaches to the modelling of selectional preferences, based on various ways of generalizing over corpus frequencies. We evaluate on the VU Amsterdam Metaphor corpus, a broad co

  14. Dating Preferences in Sex Stereotypic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine A.

    Although research suggest a general preference by men for attractive partners, attractiveness may be more important for some men than for others. This study was conducted to investigate the role of men's sex stereotypic attitudes on their dating preferences. It was hypothesized that the level of sex stereotyping would correlate with the level…

  15. Learning the Personalized Intransitive Preferences of Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Chaokun; Wang, Jianmin; Ying, Xiang; Wang, Xuecheng

    2017-09-01

    Most of the previous studies on the user preferences assume that there is a personal transitive preference ranking of the consumable media like images. For example, the transitivity of preferences is one of the most important assumptions in the recommender system research. However, the intransitive relations have also been widely observed, such as the win/loss relations in online video games, in sport matches, and even in rock-paper-scissors games. It is also found that different subjects demonstrate the personalized intransitive preferences in the pairwise comparisons between the applicants for college admission. Since the intransitivity of preferences on images has barely been studied before and has a large impact on the research of personalized image search and recommendation, it is necessary to propose a novel method to predict the personalized intransitive preferences of images. In this paper, we propose the novel Multi-Criterion preference (MuCri) models to predict the intransitive relations in the image preferences. The MuCri models utilize different kinds of image content features as well as the latent features of users and images. Meanwhile, a new data set is constructed in this paper, in order to evaluate the performance of the MuCri models. The experimental evaluation shows that the MuCri models outperform all the baselines. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this topic, we believe it would widely attract the attention of researchers in the image processing community as well as in other communities, such as machine learning, multimedia, and recommender system.

  16. Advocacy and political convergence under preference uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Reuben; C. Traxler; F. van Winden

    2015-01-01

    We study the formation of advocacy groups and how they can impact policy outcomes by revealing information about voters׳ preferences to uninformed political candidates. We conduct a laboratory experiment based on a two-candidate spatial electoral competition setting where the policy preferences of v

  17. Preferences, Consumption Smoothing and Risk Premia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettau, M.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Risk premia in the consumption capital asset pricing model depend on preferences and dividend. We develop a decomposition which allows a separate treatment of both components. We show that preferences alone determine the risk-return tradeoff measured by the Sharpe-ratio. In general, the risk-return

  18. Preferred communication methods of abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Heidi; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    To determine preferred communication methods of abused women. A naturalistic study utilizing principles of Community Based Participatory Research. A total of 300 first time users of criminal justice or safe shelter for abused women were interviewed in person. The Preferred Communication Questionnaire was used to determine preference. Given the choice of phone voice, face to face, phone text, e-mail, or Facebook, traditional methods of communication (face-to-face communication and phone voice) were the primary (80% combined) and secondary (58.6% combined) preferred sources among abused women. A total of 292 women (97.3%) gave at least two preferred methods of communication, 255 (85%) gave three preferred methods, 190 (63%) gave four, and 132 (44%) used all five methods. Public health nurses and other professionals who serve abused women should be aware of their preferred method of communication for contact. The women in the sample preferred face-to-face and phone-voice communication; however, many were open to newer forms of communication such as texting and Facebook. Caution should be used to protect the safety of abused women when using any kind of communication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Limit of Public Policy : Endogenous Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-Gill, O.; Fershtman, C.

    2000-01-01

    In designing public policy it is not enough to consider the possible reaction of individuals to the chosen policy.Public policy may also affect the formation of preferences and norms in a society.The endogenous evolution of preferences, in addition to introducing a conceptual difficulty in

  20. Women's Comedy Preferences during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Jeanne M.; Zillman, Dolf

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that premenstrual and menstrual women preferred comedy over alternative choices more strongly than did women midway through the cycle. Suggests that this preference reflects a desire to overcome the hormonally mediated noxious mood states that are characteristically associated with the premenstrual and menstrual phases of the cycle. (JD)

  1. Preferences, Consumption Smoothing and Risk Premia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettau, M.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Risk premia in the consumption capital asset pricing model depend on preferences and dividend. We develop a decomposition which allows a separate treatment of both components. We show that preferences alone determine the risk-return tradeoff measured by the Sharpe-ratio. In general, the risk-return

  2. Learning Style Preferences of Gifted Minority Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Norma J.; Yong, Fung Lan

    1993-01-01

    This study compared learning style preferences among gifted African-American (n=54), Mexican-American (n=61), and American-born Chinese (n=40) middle grade students attending Chicago, Illinois, public schools. Significant ethnic, gender, and grade differences were found. All three groups preferred studying in the afternoon and bright light and did…

  3. Preference clustering in customer satisfaction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze whether or not segments with different customer preferences and customer satisfaction can be identified. This analysis is based on customer satisfaction data from the Danish banking industry from the years 2004 and 2005. The analysis showed that the preference...

  4. HEMISPHERE PREFERENCE, ANXIETY, AND COVARIATION BIAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter; MERCKELBACH, H; NIJMAN, H

    1995-01-01

    In Study I, normal subjects (N = 70) completed the Preference Test (PT), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Subjects with a preference for a right hemisphere thinking style (as indexed by PT) were found to have higher state anxiety and anxiety sensitivi

  5. Do Reading Habits Influence Aesthetic Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Allaith, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    We tested the idea that the directionality of a person's primary writing system has influences outside the domain of reading and writing, specifically influences on aesthetic preferences. The results of several previous studies suggest that people whose primary writing system goes from left to right prefer pictures of moving and static objects…

  6. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  7. 36 CFR 17.7 - Preference rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference rights. 17.7... CONVEYANCE OF FREEHOLD AND LEASEHOLD INTERESTS ON LANDS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 17.7 Preference rights... right to acquire the interest for an amount equal to the highest bid if within 30 days they notify...

  8. 20 CFR 617.24 - Preferred training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred training. 617.24 Section 617.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Reemployment Services § 617.24 Preferred training....

  9. Comparing Preference Assessments: Selection- versus Duration-Based Preference Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E.; Kisamore, April

    2009-01-01

    In the current investigation, the results of a selection- and a duration-based preference assessment procedure were compared. A Multiple Stimulus With Replacement (MSW) preference assessment [Windsor, J., Piche, L. M., & Locke, P. A. (1994). "Preference testing: A comparison of two presentation methods." "Research in Developmental Disabilities,…

  10. On the meaningfulness of testing preference axioms in stated preference discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tjur, Carl Tue; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2012-01-01

    A stream of studies on evaluation of health care services and public goods have developed tests of the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity and methods for detecting other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, and random error, in stated preference...

  11. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  12. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...... an nterpretation and explanation of biases which entails that the stated preference methods need not to be completely written off. In this paper we conduct a test for the validity and relevance of the DPH interpretation of biases. In a choice experiment concerning preferences for protection of Danish nature areas...... from new motorway development, we find that respondent preferences are susceptible to starting point bias. In particular, our results show that the bias is gender-specific as only female respondents are significantly biased. Importantly, we find that the impact of the starting point bias decays...

  13. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  14. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    an nterpretation and explanation of biases which entails that the stated preference methods need not to be completely written off. In this paper we conduct a test for the validity and relevance of the DPH interpretation of biases. In a choice experiment concerning preferences for protection of Danish nature areas...... from new motorway development, we find that respondent preferences are susceptible to starting point bias. In particular, our results show that the bias is gender-specific as only female respondents are significantly biased. Importantly, we find that the impact of the starting point bias decays......Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...

  15. Characteristics of the consumer preferences research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela-Cristina Voicu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  16. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. A Music Preference Test System for Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Peng Zhang; Guang-Zhan Fang; Yang Xia; Tie-Jun Liu; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    In music preference experiments,housing conditions and the control of parameters for animals can affect experimental results.However,the needs of animals are indeed insufficiently considered in many reports of animal experiments.In order to evaluate which music rats prefer,we developed a new music preference test system.Dwelling time and visiting frequency can be recorded automatically when rats moving among different compartments of the system.We can also observe the behaviors of rats captured by a video camera.By this system,the music preference can be found,and then the related music can be used in following various studies.In this paper,we described the design of this music preference test system of rat,and some primary results were reported.

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONSUMER PREFERENCES RESEARCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  19. HOST PLANT PREFERENCES OF BEMISIA TABACI GENNADIUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYing; HUANGJian; MARui-yan; HANJu-cai

    2003-01-01

    The preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius for five host plants:poinsettia, tomato, cabbage,sweet potato and flowering Chinese cabbage, was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer and a desiccator in the labo-ratory. The results show that B. tabaci adults were attracted by the odors of the five plants. The order of prefer-ence was poinsettia > flowering Chinese cabbage > sweet potato > cabbage > tomato. Preference was extremely sig-nificant between poinsettia and the other four plants, and between flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and toma-to. There was no significant difference in preference for flowering Chinese cabbage and sweet potato, sweet pota-to, cabbage and tomato or between cabbage and tomato.

  20. Preference elicitation and inverse reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Rothkopf, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    We state the problem of inverse reinforcement learning in terms of preference elicitation, resulting in a principled (Bayesian) statistical formulation. This generalises previous work on Bayesian inverse reinforcement learning and allows us to obtain a posterior distribution on the agent's preferences, policy and optionally, the obtained reward sequence, from observations. We examine the relation of the resulting approach to other statistical methods for inverse reinforcement learning via analysis and experimental results. We show that preferences can be determined accurately, even if the observed agent's policy is sub-optimal with respect to its own preferences. In that case, significantly improved policies with respect to the agent's preferences are obtained, compared to both other methods and to the performance of the demonstrated policy.

  1. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  2. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.

  3. Critical Behavior of Spatial Evolutionary Game with Altruistic to Spiteful Preferences on Two-Dimensional Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Teng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2016-10-01

    Self-questioning mechanism which is similar to single spin-flip of Ising model in statistical physics is introduced into spatial evolutionary game model. We propose a game model with altruistic to spiteful preferences via weighted sums of own and opponent's payoffs. This game model can be transformed into Ising model with an external field. Both interaction between spins and the external field are determined by the elements of payoff matrix and the preference parameter. In the case of perfect rationality at zero social temperature, this game model has three different phases which are entirely cooperative phase, entirely non-cooperative phase and mixed phase. In the investigations of the game model with Monte Carlo simulation, two paths of payoff and preference parameters are taken. In one path, the system undergoes a discontinuous transition from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the change of preference parameter. In another path, two continuous transitions appear one after another when system changes from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the prefenrence parameter. The critical exponents v, β, and γ of two continuous phase transitions are estimated by the finite-size scaling analysis. Both continuous phase transitions have the same critical exponents and they belong to the same universality class as the two-dimensional Ising model. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11121403 and 11504384

  4. ShakeMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ShakeMap is a product of the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program in conjunction with the regional seismic networks. ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground...

  5. Mapping: A Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Paul M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of cartography. Describes the contributions of Strabo and Ptolemy in early maps. Identifies the work of Gerhard Mercator as the most important advancement in mapping. Discusses present mapping standards from history. (CW)

  6. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  7. Stated preference in the valuation of interurban road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Luis I; Ortúzar, Juan de Dios

    2003-01-01

    In Chile, as in most less-developed nations, if life savings are valued at all the human capital approach is used in a rather non-consistent fashion. As part of a 5-year research project on the value of transport externalities, a stated preference (SP) experiment was carried out in order to assess the value of a statistical life for Chilean interurban motorways. Interviewees had to choose among different routes for a hypothetical trip, based on the following attributes: travel time, toll charge and level of risk. The results of our experiment show that people were sensitive to the risk variable, thus "stating" a preference for safer routes. Several models were estimated with linear and non-linear utility specifications, and also incorporating the effects of socio-economic variables in a novel and interesting fashion. We were able to estimate subjective values of time consistent with previous values obtained in the country and reasonably looking values (in comparison to Chilean prices and foreign experience) of a statistical life. The paper discusses the experimental design, data collection and analysis, with emphasis on the role of lexicographic individuals that are a feature of SP studies that has not been carefully explored in the literature. We also present our modelling results and compare our derived values (of time and of a statistical life) with values found previously and/or elsewhere.

  8. Mapping with the Masses: Google Map Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, J.

    2008-12-01

    After some 15,000 years of map making, which saw the innovations of cardinal directions, map projections for a spherical earth, and GIS analysis, many parts of the world still appear as the "Dark Continent" on modern maps. Google Map Maker intends to shine a light on these areas by tapping into the power of the GeoWeb. Google Map Maker is a website which allows you to collaborate with others on one unified map to add, edit, locate, describe, and moderate map features, such as roads, cities, businesses, parks, schools and more, for certain regions of the world using Google Maps imagery. In this session, we will show some examples of how people are mapping with this powerful tool as well as what they are doing with the data. With Google Map Maker, you can become a citizen cartographer and join the global network of users helping to improve the quality of maps and local information in your region of interest. You are invited to map the world with us!

  9. Externalities and Compensation : Primeval Games and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.; Borm, P.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The classical literature (Pigou (1920), Coase (1960), Arrow (1970)) and the relatively recent studies (cf.Varian (1994)) associate the externality problem with efficiency.This paper focuses explicitly on the compensation problem in the context of externalities.To capture the features of inter-indivi

  10. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...

  11. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers, customers

  12. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...

  13. Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  14. Internal and External Forces in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles D.

    2000-01-01

    Develops a model of language change characterizing the dynamic interaction between internal universal grammar and external linguistic evidence, as mediated by language acquisition. Borrows insights from the study of biological evolution, where internal and external forces interact in similar fashion. Applies the model to explore the loss of the…

  15. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  16. Consumers' preferences for fresh yam: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2017-01-01

    In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.

  17. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Endoscopic vs external dacryocystorhinostomycomparison from the patients’ aspect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serdar; Ozer; Pinar; A.; Ozer

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To compare the success and complication rates,duration of surgeries and clinical comfort after endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy(END-DCR) or external dacryocysto-rhinostomy(EXT-DCR).·METHODS: Fifty patients who underwent EXT- or END-DCR between January 2010-2012 were involved in the study. A questionnaire was applied to patients preoperatively, and postoperatively. Subjective success was defined by absence of epiphora, objective success by a normal nasolacrimal lavage and a positive functional endoscopic dye test(FEDT). Postoperative pain and cosmetic result of surgery were interpreted by the patients, who were also asked whether they would offer this surgery to a friend or would prefer this surgery once more if necessary.·RESULTS: Twenty-five patients underwent END-DCR and 25 underwent EXT-DCR. Mean duration of surgeries were 35 min both for EXT-DCR(30-50) and END-DCR(35-50)(P =0.778). Intraoperative bleeding were documented in 48% of EXT-DCR and 4% of END-DCR cases(P <0.001). In total 96% of EXT-DCR and 100% of END-DCR patients had subjective success. Objective success was 100% in each group. There was no significant difference between the epiphora scorings and FDDT results in postoperative visits among the groups.END-DCR group reported less pain in first week and month(P <0.05, P <0.05). More patients in END-DCR group were happy with the cosmetic result in first week and month(P <0.001, P <0.001). More patients in END-DCR group offered this surgery to a friend(P <0.001). All patients in END-DCR group preferred this surgery once more if necessary, only 48% in EXT-DCR preferred the same method(P <0.001).·CONCLUSION: Although both END- and EXT-DCRs provide satisfactory outcomes with similar objective andsubjective success rates, we demonstrated that the endonasal approach caused significantly less pain in early postoperative period than the external approach.Clinical comfort defined by the patients was quite higher in END-DCR group, in which patients

  19. Optimization approaches for planning external beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozbasi, Halil Ozan

    Cancer begins when cells grow out of control as a result of damage to their DNA. These abnormal cells can invade healthy tissue and form tumors in various parts of the body. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy are the most common treatment methods for cancer. According to American Cancer Society about half of the cancer patients receive a form of radiation therapy at some stage. External beam radiotherapy is delivered from outside the body and aimed at cancer cells to damage their DNA making them unable to divide and reproduce. The beams travel through the body and may damage nearby healthy tissue unless carefully planned. Therefore, the goal of treatment plan optimization is to find the best system parameters to deliver sufficient dose to target structures while avoiding damage to healthy tissue. This thesis investigates optimization approaches for two external beam radiation therapy techniques: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). We develop automated treatment planning technology for IMRT that produces several high-quality treatment plans satisfying provided clinical requirements in a single invocation and without human guidance. A novel bi-criteria scoring based beam selection algorithm is part of the planning system and produces better plans compared to those produced using a well-known scoring-based algorithm. Our algorithm is very efficient and finds the beam configuration at least ten times faster than an exact integer programming approach. Solution times range from 2 minutes to 15 minutes which is clinically acceptable. With certain cancers, especially lung cancer, a patient's anatomy changes during treatment. These anatomical changes need to be considered in treatment planning. Fortunately, recent advances in imaging technology can provide multiple images of the treatment region taken at different points of the breathing cycle, and deformable image registration algorithms can

  20. Natural-color maps via coloring of bivariate grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Jane E.; Jenny, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    Natural ground color is useful for maps where a representation of the Earth's surface matters. Natural color schemes are less likely to be misinterpreted, as opposed to hypsometric color schemes, and are generally preferred by map readers. The creation of natural-color maps was once limited to manual cartographic techniques, but they can now be created digitally with the aid of raster graphics editing software. However, the creation of natural-color maps still requires many steps, a significant time investment, and fairly detailed digital land cover information, which makes this technique impossible to apply to global web maps at medium and large scales. A particular challenge for natural-color map creation is adjusting colors with location to create smoothly blending transitions. Adjustments with location are required to show land cover transitions between climate zones with a natural appearance. This study takes the first step in automating the process in order to facilitate the creation of medium- and large-scale natural-color maps covering large areas. A coloring method based on two grid inputs is presented. Here, we introduce an algorithmic method and prototype software for creating maps with this technique. The prototype software allows the map author to interactively assign colors to design the appearance of the map. This software can generate web map tiles at a global level for medium and large scales. Example natural-color web maps created with this coloring technique are provided.

  1. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western Europ...... show that estimated damages due to the greenhouse effect are predominant, however, the uncertainty is high. The predominant damage at the local and regional level is related to emission of NOx, which results in effects on public health....... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...... the use of a software package, EcoSence, having an environmental database at both a local and regional level including population, crops, building materials and forest. The system also incorporates two air transport models, allowing local and regional scale modelling. The results of the Danish case study...

  2. Evidence based decontamination protocols for the removal of external Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from contaminated hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Wilco F; Peeters, Ruth J P; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-02-01

    External contamination can cause false positive results in forensic hair testing for drugs of abuse and is therefore a major concern when hair evidence is used in court. Current literature about decontamination strategies is mainly focused on external cocaine contamination and no consensus on the best decontamination procedure for hair samples containing cannabinoids has been reached so far. In this study, different protocols with solvents, both organic as well as aqueous, were tested on blank and drug user hair for their performance on removing external cannabis contamination originating from either smoke or indirect contact with cannabis plant material. Smoke contamination was mimicked by exposing hair samples to smoke from a cannabis cigarette and indirect contact contamination by handling hair with cannabis contaminated gloves or hands. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels in the hair samples and wash solvents were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Aqueous surfactant solutions removed more THC contamination compared to water, but much less than organic solvents. Methanol, dichloromethane and chloroform were most efficient in removing THC contamination. Due to its lower environmental impact, methanol was chosen as the preferred decontamination solvent. After testing of different sequential wash steps on externally contaminated blank hair, three protocols performed equally well, removing all normal level and more than 99% of unrealistically high levels of external cannabis contamination. Thorough testing on cannabis users' hair, both as such and after deliberate contamination, showed that using these protocols all contamination could be washed from the hair while no incorporated THC was removed from truly positive samples. The present study provides detailed scientific evidence in support of the recommendations of the Society of Hair Testing: a protocol using a single methanol wash followed by a single aqueous

  3. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  4. Investors’ Risk Preference Characteristics and Conditional Skewness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perspective on behavioral finance, we take a new look at the characteristics of investors’ risk preference, building the D-GARCH-M model, DR-GARCH-M model, and GARCHC-M model to investigate their changes with states of gain and loss and values of return together with other time-varying characteristics of investors’ risk preference. Based on a full description of risk preference characteristic, we develop a GARCHCS-M model to study its effect on the return skewness. The top ten market value stock composite indexes from Global Stock Exchange in 2012 are adopted to make the empirical analysis. The results show that investors are risk aversion when they gain and risk seeking when they lose, which effectively explains the inconsistent risk-return relationship. Moreover, the degree of risk aversion rises with the increasing gain and that of risk seeking improves with the increasing losses. Meanwhile, we find that investors’ inherent risk preference in most countries displays risk seeking, and their current risk preference is influenced by last period’s risk preference and disturbances. At last, investors’ risk preferences affect the conditional skewness; specifically, their risk aversion makes return skewness reduce, while risk seeking makes the skewness increase.

  5. Internet design preferences of patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernecky, Cynthia; Macklin, Denise; Walter, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    To describe computer experience and preferences for multimedia design. Prospective, descriptive. Physician office and outpatient cancer centers in an urban area in the southeastern United States. Convenience sample of 22 volunteer patients with cancer from four racial groups. A questionnaire on computer experiences was followed by a hands-on computer session with questions regarding preferences for seven interface items. Data termination occurred when sample size was obtained. Design of Internet education site for patients. Variables include preferences, computer, cancer, multimedia, and education. Eighty-two percent had personal computers, 41% used a computer daily, and 95% believed that computers would be a good avenue for learning about cancer care. Preferences included display colors in blue and green hues; colored buttons; easy-to-read text; graphics with a simple design and large, clear pictures; serif font in dark type; light-colored background; and larger photo size in a rectangle shape. Most popular graphic icons as metaphors were 911 for emergency, picture of skull and crossbones for danger, and a picture of a string on an index finger representing reminder. The simple layout most preferred for appearances was one that included text and pictures, read from left to right, and was symmetrical in its placement of pictures and text on the page. Preferences are necessary to maintain interest and support navigation through computer designs to enhance the translation of knowledge to patients. Development of multimedia based on patient preferences will enhance education, learning, and, ultimately, quality patient care.

  6. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  7. U-processes and preference learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Ren, Chuanbao; Li, Luoqing

    2014-12-01

    Preference learning has caused great attention in machining learning. In this letter we propose a learning framework for pairwise loss based on empirical risk minimization of U-processes via Rademacher complexity. We first establish a uniform version of Bernstein inequality of U-processes of degree 2 via the entropy methods. Then we estimate the bound of the excess risk by using the Bernstein inequality and peeling skills. Finally, we apply the excess risk bound to the pairwise preference and derive the convergence rates of pairwise preference learning algorithms with squared loss and indicator loss by using the empirical risk minimization with respect to U-processes.

  8. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  9. Second-generation speed limit map updating applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Adaptation is an Intelligent Transport System developed to significantly improve road safety in helping car drivers maintain appropriate driving behaviour. The system works in connection with the speed limits on the road network. It is thus essential to keep the speed limit map...... developed to give road authorities the opportunity to keep the speed limit map updated. However, the feedback from road authorities was insufficient. Hence a new web application based on Google Maps was made to provide easier speed limit updates for road authorities. The lessons learnt were that tools...... for map updating should preferably be made on the basis of a commercial map provider, 2 such as Google Maps and that the real challenge is to oblige road authorities to carry out updates....

  10. Global-scale external magnetic fields at Mars from Mars Global Surveyor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among those of the terrestrial planets. It is the net result of the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere. Internal fields of crustal origin have been the subject of extensive studies; the focus of our work is identification and characterization of contributions from external magnetic fields using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data. We investigate the magnitude, average spatial structure and temporal variability of the external magnetic field at the MGS mapping altitude of 400 km by first subtracting expected contributions from crustal fields using existing global crustal field models. We identify contributions to the residual dayside fields from two sources: the draped IMF and a source that we interpret to be of ionospheric origin. As observed in previous work, nightside external fields are minimal at mapping orbit altitudes. The IMF contribution changes polarity every 13 days due to the geometry of the heliospheric magnetic field and Mars' orbit. This allows us to calculate the amplitude of the IMF at mapping orbit altitudes. The ionospheric contribution results in a quasi-steady dayside signal in the MGS observations because of the limited local time sampling of the MGS mapping orbit. The ionospheric contribution can be isolated by averaging the external fields over timescales longer than several Carrington rotations, to average out the IMF contribution. We present a global average of the ionopsheric field for the duration of the mapping orbit (2000-2006) and analyze daytime and nightime fields separately. We show that some structure in the time-averaged ionospheric field is organized in the Mars body-fixed frame, due for example, to the influence of crustal fields. We also show that the ionospheric fields vary in amplitude and geometry with martian season. Broader local time coverage over a restricted latitude

  11. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027 (Japan); Kojima, K. [Department of Education, Yokohama Soei University, 1 Miho-tyou, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-0015 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  12. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  13. Environment and externalization; Environnement et externalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremlis, G.; Renaud, R. [Association francaise des ingenieurs et techniciens de l' environnement, AFITE, 75 - Paris (France); Touron, M. [Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the discussions of the 16 may 2000, concerning the externalization and the environment and proposes to answer the following questions: is the externalization a new strategy to better perceive, hopeful engineering department, the technological risks problems, the environment or the land pollution? Does the externalization allow a better organization of the enterprise? To analyse the situation, the document presents the white book of the environmental liability, the administration point of view, some enterprises examples and the importance of the environmental management. (A.L.B.)

  14. Leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Wakako; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the iliac vein is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 63-year-old Japanese woman with leiomyosarcoma of the right external iliac vein. The patient complained of right inguinal pain and swelling. Computed tomography demonstrated a mass surrounding the right external iliac artery and vein. Metastases in the lungs and liver were found. Complete resection of the tumor along with the involved vessels was performed. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts were used to reconstruct the vessels. Pathological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein. Although the prognosis of leiomyosarcoma is poor, en bloc tumor resection is the treatment of choice.

  15. The sustainability of Serbia's external position: The impact of fiscal adjustment and external shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zildžović Emir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of fiscal policy and external shocks on the sustainability of Serbia’s external position. The key determinants of Serbia's current account balance are identified using model averaging techniques and are compared with estimates obtained for other small open economies (Poland, Georgia, Morocco, Ukraine, and Estonia. The paper uses estimated influences of macrovariables on the current account balance to generate a rich set of possible outcomes for the external position of the country. The results suggest the importance of fiscal policy for the reduction of external imbalances in all countries in our sample. In particular, credible and sustained fiscal adjustment can reduce current account deficit and stabilize Serbia’s external position close to its current level over the medium term. The analysis also warns that lack of success in fiscal consolidation coupled with external shocks may easily push the external position onto an unsustainable path.

  16. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  17. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  18. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  19. Evolution properties of online user preference diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Han, Jingti

    2017-02-01

    Detecting the evolution properties of online user preference diversity is of significance for deeply understanding online collective behaviors. In this paper, we empirically explore the evolution patterns of online user rating preference, where the preference diversity is measured by the variation coefficient of the user rating sequence. The statistical results for four real systems show that, for movies and reviews, the user rating preference would become diverse and then get centralized finally. By introducing the empirical variation coefficient, we present a Markov model, which could regenerate the evolution properties of two online systems regarding to the stable variation coefficients. In addition, we investigate the evolution of the correlation between the user ratings and the object qualities, and find that the correlation would keep increasing as the user degree increases. This work could be helpful for understanding the anchoring bias and memory effects of the online user collective behaviors.

  20. Ratee Preferences Concerning Performance Management and Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Alain; Werner, Jon M.; Halle, Nicole

    1997-01-01

    Employees surveyed (265 responses from 344) expressed the following performance appraisal preferences: appraisal by immediate supervisors; prior knowledge of expectations; ongoing informal feedback; semiannual formal appraisals; and developmental evaluation focused on the results of work. (SK)

  1. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  2. Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    This review covers universal patterns in facial preferences. Facial attractiveness has fascinated thinkers since antiquity, but has been the subject of intense scientific study for only the last quarter of a century...

  3. Ethnic group preferences for multicultural counseling competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Elizabeth D; Atkinson, Donald R; Wampold, Bruce E

    2004-02-01

    Asian American (n = 155), European American (n = 200), and Hispanic (n = 152) undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. The Bradley-Terry-Luce model, which uses a weighted least square regression to place the competencies on a continuum from least preferred to most preferred and to test for significant intergroup differences, was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.

  4. Superluminal Phenomena and the Quantum Preferred Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Rembielinski, J

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by a number of recent experiments, we discuss in this paper a speculative but physically admissible form and solutions of effective Maxwell-like equations describing propagation of electromagnetic field in a medium which ``feels'' a quantum preferred frame.

  5. Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ComPETe): A Pilot Survey in a Malaysia City ... Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe). ... analysis. Results: A total of 198 respondents returned the questionnaire but only 120 respondents .... Study design and data collection.

  6. Food preferences during complementary feeding period among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food preferences during complementary feeding period among nursing mothers ... transition between breastfeeding and family diets being mostly implicated. ... of nursing mothers attending the immunization clinic at a secondary health care ...

  7. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2015-01-01

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g. for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the attraction factors entering the expression of quantum probabilities. Only the existence of attraction factors can explain why, considering two lotteries with close utility factors, a decision maker prefers one of them when choosing, but evaluates higher the other one when pricing. We derive a general quantitative criterion for the preference reversal to occur that relates the utilities of the two lotteries to the attraction factors under choosing versus pricing and test successfully its application on experiments by Tvers...

  8. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  9. Personality, media preferences, and cultural participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Eijck, Koen van

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, friendliness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness) on media preferences (TV programs) and cultural participation (book reading and attending museums and concerts) was examined. The analyses were carried out

  10. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  11. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  12. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  13. Personality, media preferences, and cultural participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Eijck, Koen van

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, friendliness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness) on media preferences (TV programs) and cultural participation (book reading and attending museums and concerts) was examined. The analyses were carried out

  14. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR TABLE OLIVES IN TIRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Merkaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Table olive production sector is undergoing rapid changes, as the government is undertaking an ambitious program supporting the expansion of olive grove plantations. Despite the increase in domestic production, import of table olive is still high, due to constraints in quantity and quality of domestically supplied olives. In the context of import substitution strategy, embraced by producers and policy-makers, it is important to analyze the consumer preferences for table olives. The objective of this paper is to segment the table olive market according to preferences for table olives attributes applying Conjoint Choice Experiment (CCE and Latent Class Analysis to collect and analyze the data. The research results show a strong consumer preference for domestic table olives whereas preferences for other attributes vary between consumer groups.

  15. PREFERRED ARGUMENT STRUCTURE IN MANDARIN CHILD LANGUAGE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiung-chih Huang

    2012-01-01

    ...). The results showed that Mandarin child language conforms to the constraints of Preferred Argument Structure, but that it does not support the related hypothesis of an ergative structuring of discourse...

  16. Mice and voles prefer spruce seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschel G. Abbott; Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    When spruce-fir stands in the Northeast are cut, balsam fir seedlings often predominate in the regeneration that follows. Most landowners would prefer to have the spruce; but they do not get it, and they wonder why.

  17. Specialty Preferences of Physicians and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Harrison G.

    1975-01-01

    Family and internal medicine were rated high by the groups studied. Neurological and colon-rectal surgery were rated low. Males gave higher ratings to surgical specialities, whereas females express stronger preferences for obstetrics and gynecology. (Author/KE)

  18. Gender Preference in Primary School Enrolment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Male children are also found to be the most preferred gender for primary ...... Gender differences in time use among children in rural Bangladesh (online). Working Paper No. 17. .... Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

  19. DEVELOPING A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE PURCHASING

    Science.gov (United States)

    LCA-based guidance was developed by EPA under the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision Making (FRED) effort to demonstrate how to conduct a relative comparison between product types to determine environmental preferability. It identifies data collection needs and iss...

  20. Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. E-teaching and learning preferences of dental and dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; Hinton, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    This project was conducted to identify student preferences for e-teaching and learning. An online Student Preferences for Learning with E-Technology Survey was developed to assess computer experiences, the use and effectiveness of e-resources, preferences for various environments, need for standardization, and preferred modes of communication. The survey was administered in May 2008 to all dental and dental hygiene students at Baylor College of Dentistry. There was an 85 percent response rate (n=366/432). About two-thirds of the students found college e-resources effective for learning. They preferred printed text over digital (64 percent) and wanted e-materials to supplement but not replace lectures (74 percent). They reported e-materials would "extensively" enhance learning, such as e-lectures (59 percent), clinical videos (54 percent), and podcasts (45 percent). They reported the need for a central location for e-resources (98 percent) and an e-syllabus for every course (86 percent) in a standard format (77 percent). One difficulty reported was accessing e-materials from external locations (33 percent). Students commented on the need for faculty training and standardization of grade posting. A qualitative theme was that e-resources should not replace interactions with faculty. Some infrastructure problems have been corrected. Planning has begun for standardization and expansion of e-resources. These improvements should enhance learning and increase the options for individualizing instruction, study strategies, and course remediation.

  2. Informing Healthcare Waiting Area Design Using Transparency Attributes: A Comparative Preference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Powers, Matthew; Allison, David; Vincent, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore people's visual preference for waiting areas in general hospital environments designed with transparency attributes that fully integrate nature. Waiting can be a tedious and frustrating experience among people seeking healthcare treatments and negatively affect their perception of the quality of care. Positive distractions and supportive designs have gained increasing attraction to improve people's waiting experience. Nature, which has shown therapeutic effects according to a growing amount of evidence, could be a distinguished positive distraction in waiting areas. Additionally, the theory of transparency was operationalized to indicate a spatial continuity between the external nature and the built interiors in general healthcare waiting area design. A survey method was adopted in the study. Twenty-one images of general healthcare waiting areas depicting three design typologies were preselected following a strict procedure, including designs with (a) no window views, (b) limited window views to nature, and (c) transparent spaces with maximum natural views. Ninety-five student participants rated the images based on their visual preference using a Likert-type scale. The results showed that transparent waiting areas were significantly preferred. A significant positive relationship existed between the level of transparency and people's preference scores. The factor analysis indicated additional supportive features that may affect people's preferences, including daylight, perceived warmth, noninstitutional furniture arrangement, visual orientation, and the use of natural materials for interior design. However, these tentative results need to be furthered tested with the real patient population as the next step of this study.

  3. Children's food preferences: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jean D; Carruth, Betty Ruth; Wendy, Bounds; Ziegler, Paula J

    2002-11-01

    To compare children's food preferences longitudinally and identify factors related to food preferences. Mothers completed the Food Preference Questionnaire for children at 2 to 3 years of age (T1), 4 years (T2), and 8 years (T3) and for themselves at T1 and T3. Both groups completed a Food Neophobia Scale at T3. 70 child/mother pairs who had participated continuously in the longitudinal study. Changes in food preferences over time were tested with paired t tests and correlations. Consistency percentages were calculated by summing the consistent matches (like/like) for each food between two time periods. Similarly, concordance percentages were calculated for child/mother pairs by summing the concordant matches for each food. General linear models were developed to identify influences on children's food preferences. Although children liked most foods, the number of liked foods did not change significantly during the 5 to 5.7 years of the study. The strongest predictors of the number of foods liked at age 8 years (R2=0.74) were the number liked at 4 years (Pfood neophobia score (P=.0003). Newly tasted foods were more likely to be accepted between T1 and T2 than T2 and T3. Mothers' and children's food preferences were significantly but moderately related. Foods disliked by mothers tended not to be offered to children. The important role of children's early food preferences is confirmed by this study. Mothers influence children via their own preferences, which may limit foods offered to children.

  4. Ageing and gender preferences in rural Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    KREAGER, PHILIP; Schröder-Butterfill, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The Asian literature on gender is well known for the strong preference for sons characteristic of patrilineal family systems in major mainland cultures. Elsewhere, however, the situation can be very different, of which the most striking is the powerful preference for daughters, and the eminent role that women play in family economy and society, in Southeast Asia’s largest matrilineal population, the Minangkabau of Sumatra. Javanese and Sundanese family systems are also often remarked for wome...

  5. Problem and Preferred Management Practices Identification Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, Douglas G.

    2003-03-10

    The goals for this workshop were: to introduce key players in the Appalachian basin oil industry to DOE's new Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) program; to explain the various elements of our two-year project in detail; to transfer technology through a series of short, invited talks; to identify technical problems and best management practices; and to recruit members for our Preferred Management Practices (PMP) Council.

  6. Osteoporosis Screening Preferences of Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Greenspan, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine older adults' osteoporosis screening test preferences, willingness to travel for screening, and willingness to pay for screening. A survey was mailed to 1830 women and men ≥ 60 years old in Pennsylvania, assessing screening test preference (among dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and risk assessment tools), willingness to travel 20 miles for a better screening test, and willingness to pay $100 for a better screening test, as well a...

  7. Colonoscopy Screening Information Preferences Among Urban Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Jennie; Jandorf, Lina; DuHamel, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Existing disparities are evident in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We sought to assess preferred sources of colonoscopy screening information among Hispanics in East Harlem, NY. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among average-risk for CRC, non-symptomatic Hispanics in community-based sites and health clinics. SPSS 16 analysis explored the relationships between sociodemographic and health care variables and preferred sources of colonoscopy information for 395 participants. The top fou...

  8. What Determines Individual Trade Policy Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth F. Scheve; Matthew J. Slaughter

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the determinants of individual trade policy preferences using an individual-level data set identifying both stated trade policy preferences and potential trade exposure through several channels for the United States in 1992. There are two main empirical results. First, we find that factor type dominates industry of employment in explaining support for trade barriers. This result is consistent with a Heckscher-Ohlin model of the United States in which the co...

  9. Personnel preferences in personnel planning and scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, van der, M.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The personnel of an organization often has seemingly conflicting goals. On the one hand, the common goal is to achieve operational efficiency and to be available for work when needed in the organization. On the other hand, individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal working hour preferences taken into account. We develop and apply Operations Research methods and tools and show that operational efficiency can be achieved while taking personnel preferences int...

  10. Farmer preference for CAPS: Workshop and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, B.F.

    2012-01-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a a multi-criteria, multi-level decision-making method which breaks down complex decisions into a series of simple questions reflecting an optimal goal, objectives, and various options. This provides a structured technique for organizing and analyzing differing preferences for Conservation Agriculture Production Systems (CAPS). This presentation explains AHP and conducts a survey to collect gender-specific preference data for selected conservation agricultu...

  11. Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Henry WW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in an external representation affects reasoning and decision making. This exploratory study examined whether the type of process map - sequential or hierarchical - affects healthcare practitioners' judgments. Methods A sequential and a hierarchical process map of a community-based anti coagulation clinic were produced based on data obtained from interviews, talk-throughs, attendance at a training session and examination of protocols and policies. Clinic practitioners were asked to specify the parts of the process that they judged to contain quality and safety concerns. The process maps were then shown to them in counter-balanced order and they were asked to circle on the diagrams the parts of the process where they had the greatest quality and safety concerns. A structured interview was then conducted, in which they were asked about various aspects of the diagrams. Results Quality and safety concerns cited by practitioners differed depending on whether they were or were not looking at a process map, and whether they were looking at a sequential diagram or a hierarchical diagram. More concerns were identified using the hierarchical diagram compared with the sequential diagram and more concerns were identified in relation to clinical work than administrative work. Participants' preference for the sequential or hierarchical diagram depended on the context in which they would be using it. The difficulties of determining the boundaries for the analysis and the granularity required were highlighted. Conclusions The results indicated that the layout of a process map does

  12. Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colligan, Lacey; Anderson, Janet E; Potts, Henry W W; Berman, Jonathan

    2010-01-07

    Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in an external representation affects reasoning and decision making. This exploratory study examined whether the type of process map - sequential or hierarchical - affects healthcare practitioners' judgments. A sequential and a hierarchical process map of a community-based anti coagulation clinic were produced based on data obtained from interviews, talk-throughs, attendance at a training session and examination of protocols and policies. Clinic practitioners were asked to specify the parts of the process that they judged to contain quality and safety concerns. The process maps were then shown to them in counter-balanced order and they were asked to circle on the diagrams the parts of the process where they had the greatest quality and safety concerns. A structured interview was then conducted, in which they were asked about various aspects of the diagrams. Quality and safety concerns cited by practitioners differed depending on whether they were or were not looking at a process map, and whether they were looking at a sequential diagram or a hierarchical diagram. More concerns were identified using the hierarchical diagram compared with the sequential diagram and more concerns were identified in relation to clinical work than administrative work. Participants' preference for the sequential or hierarchical diagram depended on the context in which they would be using it. The difficulties of determining the boundaries for the analysis and the granularity required were highlighted. The results indicated that the layout of a process map does influence perceptions of quality and safety problems in a process. In

  13. Monkeys choose as if maximizing utility compatible with basic principles of revealed preference theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Bernier, Alexandre; Plott, Charles R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2017-03-07

    Revealed preference theory provides axiomatic tools for assessing whether individuals make observable choices "as if" they are maximizing an underlying utility function. The theory evokes a tradeoff between goods whereby individuals improve themselves by trading one good for another good to obtain the best combination. Preferences revealed in these choices are modeled as curves of equal choice (indifference curves) and reflect an underlying process of optimization. These notions have far-reaching applications in consumer choice theory and impact the welfare of human and animal populations. However, they lack the empirical implementation in animals that would be required to establish a common biological basis. In a design using basic features of revealed preference theory, we measured in rhesus monkeys the frequency of repeated choices between bundles of two liquids. For various liquids, the animals' choices were compatible with the notion of giving up a quantity of one good to gain one unit of another good while maintaining choice indifference, thereby implementing the concept of marginal rate of substitution. The indifference maps consisted of nonoverlapping, linear, convex, and occasionally concave curves with typically negative, but also sometimes positive, slopes depending on bundle composition. Out-of-sample predictions using homothetic polynomials validated the indifference curves. The animals' preferences were internally consistent in satisfying transitivity. Change of option set size demonstrated choice optimality and satisfied the Weak Axiom of Revealed Preference (WARP). These data are consistent with a version of revealed preference theory in which preferences are stochastic; the monkeys behaved "as if" they had well-structured preferences and maximized utility.

  14. Effects of dopamine antagonists on methamphetamine-induced dopamine release in high and low alcohol preference rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Minori; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kasuda, Shogo; Takahashi, Montonori; Yamamura, Takehiko; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Ouchi, Harumi; Minami, Takako; Hishida, Shigeru; Nishio, Hajime

    2010-03-01

    The authors have previously shown that high alcohol preference rats (HAP) have a significantly higher sensitivity than low alcohol preference rats (LAP) for methamphetamine (MAP). In this study, changes in dopamine and serotonin release induced by MAP (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) after pre-treatment with D1 and D2 receptor antagonists were examined in the striatum of rats with different alcohol preferences to elucidate differences in receptor levels between the two rat strains. D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 or D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol were administrated intracerebroventricularly 10 min before MAP stimulation. This study investigated the effect of methamphetamine-induced dopamine and serotonin release in striatum using microdialysis of freely moving rats coupled to ECD-HPLC. With haloperidol treatment both strains of rats showed a significantly greater maximum increase on MAP-induced dopamine release compared with respective control rats. However, after SCH23390 treatment only HAP rats showed a significantly greater increase in dopamine release compared with controls. SCH23390 blocks mainly D1 receptors only in the post-synaptic membrane, whereas haloperidol blocks D2 receptors in both the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic membranes. The MAP-induced increase in dopamine release following haloperidol pre-treatment was greater than SCH23390 pre-treatment in both strains. This result indicates that D2 receptors (autoreceptors) in the pre-synaptic membrane were blocked, leading to the elimination of the feedback function that regulates dopamine release. These data suggested that alcohol preference is associated with the action of MAP, and the dopaminergic mechanism, specifically the D1 system in the striatum, might have a different pathway dependent on alcohol preference.

  15. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  16. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  17. Nutritional state influences shoaling preference for familiars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommen, Joachim G; Luz, Corinna; Bakker, Theo C M

    2007-01-01

    Preferences for grouping with familiar individuals are shown in many animal species, including the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Shoaling with familiars is advantageous because of more precise anti-predator behaviours or more stable dominance hierarchies. Additionally, associations with familiar individuals facilitate the evolution of altruistic behaviour. Thus, in situations of increased competition one might expect an increased preference for familiar fish. We gave single juvenile sticklebacks of different nutritional state the choice between shoals composed either of familiar or unfamiliar individuals. Satiated fish preferred to shoal with familiar individuals. A comparative analysis of 8 stickleback studies with 15 different tests using familiars showed that all tests gave similar results, i.e. sticklebacks of all age classes preferred to shoal with familiars in a non-sexual context. In contrast, hungry test fish did not prefer to shoal with familiar fish, but even showed a preference for the unfamiliar group. Because sticklebacks use early-life familiarity to recognize kin, the results suggest the avoidance of competition with relatives. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing an impact of nutritional state on social interactions with familiar individuals.

  18. Google Maps: You Are Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Librarians use online mapping services such as Google Maps, MapQuest, Yahoo Maps, and others to check traffic conditions, find local businesses, and provide directions. However, few libraries are using one of Google Maps most outstanding applications, My Maps, for the creation of enhanced and interactive multimedia maps. My Maps is a simple and…

  19. Externality, environment, and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, S F

    1981-07-01

    On the assumption that external responsiveness and environmental characteristics jointly determine whether a child will achieve an excessive weight gain, perpetuating and maintaining obesity, probability hierarchy was hypothesized and tested. Ss of the study were 24 obese and 24 average-weight, white boys, mean age 9 years, 5 months. An auditory distraction task and Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures Test were used to measure auditory and visual responsivity to external cues, respectively. Socioeconomic status was used as an indicator of the childhood environment. As predicted, the greatest percentages of obese children were observed in the lower-socioeconomic, external group, followed by the lower-socioeconomic, internal group and middle-socioeconomic, external group. The smallest percentage of obese children was observed in the middle-socioeconomic, internal group.

  20. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul