WorldWideScience

Sample records for external merchandise trade

  1. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  2. Technological Intensity and Patterns in Slovenian Merchandise Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bojnec

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the technological intensity of industries classified by technology levels (low-technology, medium-low-technology, medium-high-technology and high-technology and patterns in Slovenian merchandise trade developments between and within industries in the post-independence years since 1992. Merchandise trade flows by industries are rather homogeneous in the extent of a decline in the external trade integration measured by intra-industry trade indices and in the presence of relative trade advantages. More considerable differences are found in trade structures and trade quality using the ratio of export to import unit values. In exports we confirm the climbing-up technological development approach, including the jump-up in the medium-high-technology industries in the non-EU-15 markets. Medium-low- and medium-high-technology industries experienced greater price competitiveness in trade with the EU-15 countries. High-technology industries and to a lesser extent low-technology industries experienced a greater competitiveness in the EU-15 internal and external trade. These similarities and differences imply implications for industries with different technological intensity, which are associated with trade and policy shifts before and after the accession of Slovenia to the EU.

  3. The structural characteristics of world trade and the merchandise exports of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Radovan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the world merchandise trade structure and the structure of Serbian merchandise exports. The analysis shows that the prominent characteristic of post-World War II world trade is more dynamic growth in the volume of manufactured goods as compared to agricultural goods. Due to the lessening share of agricultural products world merchandise trade has decreased and rapid industrialization has been fostered in developing countries. An increased share for developing countries followed the developed countries' decreasing share in world manufacturing trade. The developing countries' increased share was strongest in telecom and office equipment exports. These sectors are characterized by production fragmentation, which is being realized by transnational companies. Serbia, like the other South East European countries, has not yet managed to significantly integrate into international production networks. Serbia's most important exports are manufactured products with a low level of added value . In addition, Serbia still has a high share of primary products in its exports. A higher share of exports of goods and services in the gross domestic products (GDP cannot be achieved without increasing imports of new technologies and equipment, i.e. without a higher investment share of the GDP. The main conclusion of this article is that the creation of a favorable investment climate and an increase in Serbia's international credit rating are the preconditions for stronger foreign direct investment (FDI, which would be the main channel for restructuring in the real sector. Creation of new small and medium enterprises (SMEs through greenfield investment and their integration into the international production networks is the starting point for the restructuring of Serbian industrial production and merchandise export, i.e. the way of increasing the share of merchandise exports in the GDP.

  4. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  5. 中非贸易发展现状分析%Current Situation Analysis of Sino-Africa Merchandise Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱虎; 李燕

    2012-01-01

    Under half-a-century development,the Sino-Africa merchandise trade presents a rapid rising trend with growth rates of 40% or so in recent years.However,the low share of both sides' foreign trade,the disproportion of trade level with different African countries,the unitary import and export structure,these problems can not be neglected.With statistic data of recent years,we analyze the Sino-Africa merchandise trade from aspects of the general trade volume,the import and export structure,trade concentration,etc.On that base,we identify 20 countries as "most important African countries" to focused on in future study.%中非贸易经过半个世纪的发展,近年以40%左右的增速呈现快速上升的趋势。同时,中国与非洲的贸易占各自对外贸易总额低、中国与各个非洲国家和地区的贸易水平不均衡、进出口结构单一的等问题也不容忽视。通过从世界贸易组织发布的《国际贸易统计年鉴(2009)》和国家统计网得到的权威数据数据,从总体贸易水平、进出口结构、贸易集中度等方面对中非贸易进行分析,揭示了中非贸易的现状及发展趋势,并找出与中国贸易往来最密切的非洲国家,可作为后续研究的重点关注对象。

  6. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, we examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with non-members and external tariffs facing non-members. First, we examine the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. We find no evidence that preferential liberalization has led to lower import growth from non-members. Second, we examine the relationship between preferential ta...

  7. Trade Externalities of Agricultural Subsidies and World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya R. Swain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Almost every country is spending a large proportion of its income on agricultural subsidies; still the agricultural farmers of developing countries are unable to compete globally. There is increase in dependence on food imports, and a decline in food self-reliance. The aim and objectives of this study is to highlight the multiplex nature and enormity of the trade externalities of agricultural subsidies. Approach: To understand the issues and process clearly, reference has been made to GATT Agreements, WTO Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, policies of different countries in this regard, scholarly writings on the subject and the cases related to it. Doctrinaire methodology, which includes analytical, descriptive and comparative method, has been followed in this study. Results: Agricultural subsidies are cardinal facet of agriculture and have a major role to play in international trade. Even after separate Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, the World Trade Organization still failed in minimizing agricultural subsidies. Conclusion: The developing countries should unite and cooperate among themselves, which may help in advancing the cause of their own and scaling down agricultural subsidies, which has become a stumbling block to efforts to dismantle international trade barriers.

  8. Fashion Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum bulletin provides a curriculum for a one-year course in fashion merchandising, offered in the third year of the marketing education sequence. It is designed to give students majoring in marketing a survey of basic information about the field of fashion merchandising. Students are offered the opportunity to become familiar with a…

  9. Analysis and Discussion of Borong Merchandise Trade VI Design%博荣商贸VI设计分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代苏旭

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, mankind has already entered the era of merchandise trade frequently. Continues trades promote social development, and trade resources have become important means of communication. Merchandise trade is combining with traditional industry in its wide range of permeability, value and irreplaceable existence, has developed into an important means of communication in the world commodity and promote enterprise development.%如今,人类已经进入商品贸易频繁时代,不断的贸易来往促进社会发展,贸易资源已成为一种重要的交流手段;商品贸易正以其广泛渗透性、价值价和无法替代的存在性与传统产业结合;商品贸易已发展为世界范围内重要交流手段;商品贸易为推进企业发展好帮手。

  10. 中美商品贸易的碳排放转移研究%Research on the Carbon Emission Transfer by Sino-US Merchandise Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余慧超; 王礼茂

    2009-01-01

    China and the United States are both countries with huge carbon emission. At the same time, the amount of trade between them is large. But there is the carbon emission transfer by Sino-US merchandise trade due to the differences in the technology, infrastructure, energy efficiency and natural resources etc. The paper adopts the input-output approach, and combines the systems of economy, energy and trade to establish the carbon emission transfer model based on international merchandise trade. Then, it calculates the carbon emission transfer by Sino-US merchandise trade in 1997 and 2002. The conclusions are as follows: 1) In 1997 and 2002, the Chinese relative sectors' total carbon emission by Sino-US merchandise trade reached 40. 1013 million tons and 50. 5621 million tons, accounted for 6. 61% and 8. 33% of the Chinese relative sectors' total carbon emission. The United States relative sectors' total carbon emission by Sino-US merchandise trade reached 2. 9065 million tons and 3. 3561 million tons, only accounted for 0. 53% and 0. 66% of the United States relative sectors' total carbon emission. 2) In 1997 and 2002, the carbon emission transfer by Sino-US merchandise trade reached 37. 1975 million tons and 47. 1960 million tons. Specially, the contributions of chemical industry, metal smelling and pressing sector are prominent. 3) In 1997 and 2002, carbon emissions equivalent to 6. 77% and 9. 32% of the United States relative sectors' total carbon emission were transferred to China. China has made potential contribution to the carbon emission reduction of the United States. The developed countries like the United States should provide climate and environment friendly technology to developing countries like China.%中美两国均为温室气体排放大国,且双边贸易额巨大.由于两国在基础设施、技术、能源综合效率和资源禀赋上存在差异,使得中美商品贸易中存在碳排放转移.论文采用投入产出法的思想,结合经济

  11. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  12. 新常态下提高外贸跟单员素质的思考%Thoughts on Enhancing the Quality of Foreign Trade Merchandisers under the New Normal status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄肇丹

    2016-01-01

    At present,China's economy has entered the new normal state,China's foreign trade has also entered the new normal state which characterized by growing steadily,adjusting structure and improving quality.The new foreign trade situation has brought opportunities and challenges to foreign trade enterprises and has put forward higher requirements on the quality of for-eign trade merchandisers.This paper discusses the importance and the current situation of foreign trade merchandisers and puts forward the proposals for enhancing the quality of foreign trade merchandisers.%当前,我国经济已步入新常态,我国的对外贸易也随之进入稳增长、调结构、提质量为特征的新常态。新的外贸形势给外贸企业带来了机遇和挑战,对外贸企业的外贸跟单员素质提出了更高的要求。本文从外贸跟单员的重要性和现状出发,就如何提高外贸跟单员的素质提出了建议。

  13. The Strategic Intelligence Study on Global Merchandise Trade Network Based on Social Network Analysis(SNA)%基于社会网络分析的全球商品贸易网络战略情报研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾东蕾

    2015-01-01

    Object:To study the information of Madrid international trademark registration to provide the intelligence support for formulating the"going out"trademark strategy.Methods:Taking the data of the Madrid international trademark registration system as the samples,and carrying out the analysis on the social network modeling analysis on the information of the Madrid international trademark registration system by using Netminer 4.Results: The global merchandise trade network based on the the Madrid international trademark registration is set up.Conclusions:The density of the global merchandise trade network,the network control capacity of the core countries/regions and all countries/regions are obtained,and the macro strategic intelligence of the global merchandise trade network is provided.%目的:研究马德里国际商标注册信息,为中国企业"走出去"商标战略的制定提供情报支撑.方法:以马德里国际商标注册系统数据为样本,用Netminer4对马德里国际商标注册信息进行社会网络建模分析.结果:建立基于马德里国际商标注册的全球商品贸易网络.结论:获取全球商品贸易网络的网络密度,核心国家和地区以及各个国家和地区对网络的控制能力,提供全球商品贸易网络的宏观战略情报.

  14. Negotiating services liberalization within TTIP : The EU external trade policy at crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The conclusion of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) constitutes a priority and key component of the new external trade policy of the European Union (EU) and an immediate follow-up to several years of regulatory cooperation between the two global trade powers. In an era of

  15. Negotiating services liberalization within TTIP : The EU external trade policy at crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The conclusion of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) constitutes a priority and key component of the new external trade policy of the European Union (EU) and an immediate follow-up to several years of regulatory cooperation between the two global trade powers. In an era of meg

  16. 19 CFR 146.51 - Customs control of merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs control of merchandise. 146.51 Section 146.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Handling of Merchandise in a Zone § 146.51...

  17. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  18. The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Velluti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries, including unilateral trade instruments, contain with varying modalities and intensity a commitment to the respect for human rights. The paper discusses selected aspects of the EU’s promotion and integration of human rights in its external trade relations and assesses the impact of the changes introduced by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon (ToL on EU practice.

  19. INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS OF MERCHANDISING TO MANAGE THE CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paschuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The major problems and perspectives of international experience utilization as element of marketing mix to manage the customer behavior, major forms of trade were defined and approaches to merchandising tools application.

  20. Merchandising Your Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulich, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses library circulation figures as a reflection of the success of library services and describes merchandising techniques that have produced a 137 percent circulation increase at Queens Borough Public Library over the past seven years. Merchandising techniques such as minibranches, displays, signage, dumps, and modified shelving are…

  1. Merchandising Your Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulich, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses library circulation figures as a reflection of the success of library services and describes merchandising techniques that have produced a 137 percent circulation increase at Queens Borough Public Library over the past seven years. Merchandising techniques such as minibranches, displays, signage, dumps, and modified shelving are…

  2. Why a Trade-Off? The Relationship between the External and Internal Validity of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jimenez-Buedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of the methodological discussion around experiments in economics and other social sciences is framed in terms of the notions of internal and external validity. The standard view is that internal validity and external validity stand in a relationship best described as a trade-off. However, it is also commonly held that internal validity is a prerequisite to external validity. This article addresses the problem of the compatibility of these two ideas and analyzes critically the standard arguments about the conditions under which a trade-off between internal and external validity arises. Our argument stands against common associations of internal validity and external validity with the distinction between field and laboratory experiments and assesses critically the arguments that link the artificiality of experimental settings done in the laboratory with the purported trade-off between internal and external validity. We conclude that the idea of a trade-off or tension between internal and external validity seems, upon analysis, far less cogent than its intuitive attractiveness may lead us to think at first sight.

  3. Fashion Merchandising Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education Services.

    Developed to address the needs of the apparel industry, this fashion merchandising curriculum guide is designed to assist marketing educators in effective instructional delivery. Introductory materials include the following: a course blueprint that illustrates units of instruction, core competencies in each unit, and specific objectives for each…

  4. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  5. Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

  6. An Analysis on Strategies to Improve The Business Ability to Foreign Trade Merchandisers---Taking Ningbo Yumei Import and Export co., LTD., for Example%外贸跟单员业务能力提升的策略分析--以宁波雨美世纪进出口有限公司为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丹静; 曾虹

    2015-01-01

    外贸出口合同签订后,需要跟单员跟进整个贸易流程直至安全收汇。对产品不够熟悉,与其他部门沟通合作不畅,个人工作使命感不强等问题的存在阻碍了跟单员跟单业务的顺利开展。通过结合公司实际,针对这些问题提出了解决对策,以期给外贸跟单员一些启示和帮助。%After signing a foreign trade export contract,the merchandiser shall follow up the whole trade process until they exchange the product safely.Unfamiliarity with products,difficulties in communicating and cooperating with other departments,weak individual work responsibility and the existence of other problems hindered the merchandisers' documentary from going on smoothly.This paper combined the reality of the company,put forward the countermeasures to solve these problems,hoping to give some enlightenment and assistance to foreign trade merchandisers.

  7. EU emissions trading. The need for cap adjustment in response to external shocks and unexpected developments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper the advantages and disadvantages of the various adaptation options will be discussed from an economic perspective. Firstly, the criteria for identifying a need for potentially legitimate adaptation should be investigated. Furthermore, the issue of appropriate timely intervention points prior to or within the trading period will be discussed. In what periods and scenarios are adjustments to the cap worthwhile from an economic perspective? To what extent could minimum prices or price ranges make sense? What role could a strategic reserve play? By addressing these issues, it will be fundamentally discussed as to how the emissions trading scheme could be further developed and strengthened by greater flexibility. After a brief characterisation of emissions trading in theory and practice in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 will identify potential external shocks and unexpected developments which may impair the functioning of an emissions trading scheme. The current problems of cap setting for the third trading period of the EU ETS will be described in Chapter 4. Against this background, cap adjustments will be discussed in Chapter 5, minimum and maximum prices in Chapter 6 and strategic reserves in emissions trading in Chapter 7. The conclusions are summarised in Chapter 8.

  8. THE DANGER OF PUTING ALL THE EGGS IN ONE BASKET. SOME CONCERNS REGARDING ROMANIA'S EXTERNAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGREA Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trade patterns across the globe vary in certain ways. For the EU27, the analyzed data suggests that approximately 70% of all Romania's imports, and the same amount of its exports, are intra-community oriented. The question that arises is what will happen to te Romania's external trade, if a crisis hits Europe? If countries like Germany, France, Italy, and United Kingdom are hit the hardest in this hypothetical European crisis, Romania will soon follow them. In order to decrease the impact of such possibility, it is necessary to tap new trade opportunities. For this purpose, first we have to analyze the present situation. Based on Eurostat, World Trade Organization, and the Romanian Statistics Institute data from 1999 to 2009, and on the works about trade creation (Balassa 1965, Jovanovic 2005, Molle 2006, the paper wants to point out the aspects of trade concentration in certain regions after the establishment of free trade agreements, and the danger posed by financial crises. This paper analyzes first the situation in the EU27, scanning each member state in order to see the degree of trade relations intra / extra EU. The data will be than compared to another set of analyzes of other four important regions, the Andean Community, ASEAN, MERCOSUR, and NAFTA, whose free trade agreements could support such of comparison with the EU trade relations. The paper follows the assumption that EU27 has the most integrated trade relations among all the analyzed regions. Based on this assumption and on statistical data that points out the percentage change of total imports and exports in the Romanian GDP, some conclusions will be drown out in order to establish some necessary measures to prevent a future crisis, measures that involve the political class, taping new trade opportunities such as Latin American countries, Middle Eastern countries, and South-East Asia, but not forgetting Russia, Romania's former main export partner, establishing clear objectives

  9. 高职高专外贸跟单实务课程教学改革探析%Vocational College Foreign Trade Merchandising Practice Teaching Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冲

    2014-01-01

    外贸跟单课程是商务英语专业的一门核心课程,但目前存在教学内容陈旧、重理论轻实践的不足。湖南环境生物职业技术学院应用语言系从提高教师积极性,改进教学内容和方法等方面探讨了该课程的改革,取得了一些效果。%Foreign trade course is a core curriculum of business English professional, but teaching outdated content, theory and practice of light weight deficiencies exist. Hunan Vocational College of Environmental Biology from the Department of Applied Linguistics improve teacher motivation, improve teaching contents and methods and other aspects of the course dis-cusses the reforms, and achieved some results.

  10. 19 CFR 127.1 - Merchandise considered general order merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... estimated duties. (c) Whenever, in the opinion of the port director, entry cannot be made for want of proper... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise considered general order merchandise. 127.1 Section 127.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MERCHANDISING ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR (ON MATERIALS OF PHARMACY RETAIL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Aleksandrovna Medvedeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is told about the problem of effectiveness of the pharmacy merchandising in the drug store. Results of qualitative marketing research are showed. Investigation took place in the drug store with closed trade form. Customers of this drug store took part in the investigation. By results of this market research segmentation of consumers was carried out and the target audience is allocated. In the process of monitoring has been allocated percentage of customers who have made a purchase through the influence of merchandising facilities. The trade zone as object of a merchandising in a studied drugstore is in detail considered. In it the sectors attracting the greatest number of buyers were allocated. Also the most effective object of a merchandising in a drugstore was defined. According to the research it is made a conclusion about effectiveness of pharmacy merchandising  in this chemist’s shop.

  12. 基于商品贸易的中美间碳排放转移测算及启示%nlightenment and calculation of sino - US carbon emission transfer based on merchandise trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴先华; 郭际; 郭雯倩

    2011-01-01

    采用投入产出法的思想,通过构建数理模型,在中美两国2002年和2007年投入产出表的基础上测算了中美商品贸易的碳排放转移量。研究发现,由于中对美商品出口以劳动密集型与资源密集型部门为主、美对华商品出口以技术密集型与资本密集型部门为主。中国为美国的碳减排做出了很大贡献。认为应该从对商品和服务的消费角度来重新界定碳排放责任,为国际气候变化谈判提供更客观、可靠的数据;发达国家应向发展中国家提供技术和资金援助,发展中国家应进一步努力加强技术创新,共同减少碳排放。%The paper adopts the input - output approach, by constructing mathematical model, to calculate the carbon emission transfer by Sino - US merchandise trade on the basis of the two countries input - output tables in 2002 and 2007. Study finds that China has made potential contribution to the carbon emission reduction of the United States. We also got other enlightening conclusion. Through analyzing the reasons of large carbon transfer occurred in Sino - US trade, finally we point out that accounting for the national CO2 and other greenhouse gases emissions should not be confined within national boundaries. It should refining emission responsibility from the angle of consumption of goods and services, providing more objective and reliable data for the international climate change negotiations. Developed countries should transfer technologies and funds to developing countries, developing countries should promoting technology innovation, we should make joint efforts to decrease the carbon emission.

  13. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE AND THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS INFLOWS AFTER 2007. A CRITICAL SURVEY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Adriana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing more on the evolution of the Romanian external trade and FDI inflows after 2007 - the year of Romania's EU integration - the paper provides insights in the trade and FDI inflows determinants in the context of the convergence process and also in relation to the financial global crisis. As the statistic data envisage, Romanian exports and imports were high over the period 2000-2010, and there were also large FDI inflows in the economy, mostly until 2008. Although the data appear to be encouraging, it seems that Romania did not succeed to maximize the benefits which should result from such a situation. Moreover, the situation after 2008 shows that Romania is in a deep recession accelerated and maintained by uninspired government policy measures with a strong negative impact on the Romanian economy. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate Romanian export and import demand functions after the year 2007, and to compare them with those of the period 2000-2006, using quarterly data, in correlation with the FDI inflows. The main contribution of the paper is that it is an empirical analysis on Romania's FDI and external trade, providing the impact of the main determinants of export and import of Romania, by using the Engle-Granger two step method. Following Allard (2009 rather than just providing the elasticity, this method combines the elasticity with the evolution of the explanatory variables to quantify their impact during the analysed period. The analysis aim to cover all possible factors underlying the external sector performance of Romania and thus, they are complemented with country specific analysis. The empirical analysis will therefore provide some interesting insights not only in the context of the convergence process of the country with the Eurozone but also in relation to the exchange rate regime. The theoretical framework relies on the 'imperfect substitutes' model (Goldstein and Khan; 1985, and it is used in the paper

  14. Panama International Merchandise Mart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Interview With Reynald H.Katz PIMM is the product of one visionary mind, namely that of trade specialist and entrepreneur Reynald Henry Katz who started early as a self-made businessman trading handmade jewelry.Katz’s in- novative approach and talent for sales have served him well throughout his remarkable career,a career that has taken him to the United Kingdom,the United States,the Middle East and China,before eventu-

  15. Panama International Merchandise Mart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Interview With Reynald H.Katz PIMM is the product of one visionary’s mind, namely that of trade special- ist and entrepreneur Reynald Henry Katz who started early as a self-made businessman trading handmade jewelry. Katz’s innovative approach and talent for sales have served him well throughout his remarkable career,a ca- reer that has taken him to the United Kingdom,the United States,the Middle East and China,before eventuaUy set- tling down in Panama,In this interview,Katz speaks about how he came up with the idea for PIMM and shares with us some of his personal

  16. 19 CFR 152.104 - Transaction value of identical merchandise and similar merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...”. See § 152.102(d). (c) Similar merchandise. The quality of the merchandise, its reputation, and the... similar merchandise, are determined, the merchandise will be appraised on the basis of the lower or lowest... in the value, will be made only on the basis of sufficient information; e.g., valid price lists...

  17. Efficient Institutions and External Trade Policy Management Can Increase the Influence of a Small Country on the International Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Koleša

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a country’s external trade policy management in relation to the processes within its sub national entities. Its main goal is to identify an optimal approach to realizing the national interests of a small EU member state at the international/sub national level. We argue that influence on certain decisions does not necessarily solely depend on the power (i. e., size of a country, but also depends on other factors, such as the country’s goals and ability to form alliances. We confirm that institutions are of key importance for efficient external trade policy management – small countries in particular can increase their influence at the international level substantially if they are capable of efficient process management and forming alliances with sub national actors. After analysing the systems in selected eu member states, we make proposals for enhancing the trade policy management process in Slovenia.

  18. 19 CFR 127.29 - Unsold merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unsold merchandise. 127.29 Section 127.29 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. If the port director is satisfied that such merchandise...

  19. Metrics for Hard Goods Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in hard goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  20. Metrics for Soft Goods Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in soft goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  1. IS THERE ANY CORRELATION BETWEEN THE CHRONIC BALANCE OF TRADE DEFICIT AND THE ROMANIA'S INCREASING EXTERNAL DEBT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Adriana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the data provided by the Romanian National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat, the balance-of-payments current account registered a permanent and increasing deficit since 1990, while the domestic production was accelerated decreasing and the FDI inflows were far from being enough to cover the internal consumption needs. These being the facts, the present paper aims to underline the fact there is a direct correlation between the increasing external debt of Romania in the last years, and the balance of trade increasing deficit, which is due mainly to the lack of domestic capital, as well as to the decreasing productivity. The research methodology is based on a theoretical model of external debt sustainability, using time series data for Romania and using a multi-equation model. The results show that the relationship between external debt and the balance of trade deficit should be analysed with a simultaneous equation model, because there is a two-way relationship between debt service and deficit growth: the higher the imports, the higher the external debt, and as a consequence, the higher the balance of trade deficit, if the productivity is low. This result is consistent with the Romanian experience, and its implications are very large and will multiply over the years, if there will be no adequate policies meant to revival the private sector, mainly the SMEs. In this respect, the paper concludes that the Romanian government should immediately take the necessary measures to facilitate the easy access to capital for the private investors, which will further stimulate the internal production, with a direct impact onto the increase of exports, which will determine on the one hand, the reduction of the balance of trade deficit and simultaneous, the increasing of the necessary budgetary revenues to pay back the external debt. Otherwise, all costs will be supported by the next generations, with no return, if the probability for declaring

  2. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  3. Finding a pareto-optimal solution for multi-region models subject to capital trade and spillover externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics and Statistics

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we present an algorithm that deals with trade interactions within a multi-region model. In contrast to traditional approaches this algorithm is able to handle spillover externalities. Technological spillovers are expected to foster the diffusion of new technologies, which helps to lower the cost of climate change mitigation. We focus on technological spillovers which are due to capital trade. The algorithm of finding a pareto-optimal solution in an intertemporal framework is embedded in a decomposed optimization process. The paper analyzes convergence and equilibrium properties of this algorithm. In the final part of the paper, we apply the algorithm to investigate possible impacts of technological spillovers. While benefits of technological spillovers are significant for the capital-importing region, benefits for the capital-exporting region depend on the type of regional disparities and the resulting specialization and terms-of-trade effects. (orig.)

  4. Advancing Sustainable Development in Global Trade and Multilateral Negotiations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christophe Bellmann; Ahmed Abdel Latif; Jonathan Hepburn

    2011-01-01

    Published by Palgrave MacmillanWorld exports and imports are quickly recovering after the 2008-09 sharp decline in merchandise trade, as illustrated by global trade performances in the first and second quarters of 2010...

  5. Merchandising. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The Merchandising Food Service Training Manual contains 12 lessons and 2 appendixes. Class activities and handouts are interspersed among techniques for selling and merchandising meals, information about life value roles and how food participants may improve public images, material about customers' backgrounds and attitudes, methods of competitors…

  6. Fashion Merchandising. Marketing and Distributive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Horace C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was developed to be used as a resource guide to assist marketing and distributive education teachers in planning and teaching a course in fashion merchandising. First, an introductory section is devoted to the management of the fashion merchandising curriculum, including information on the guide's background, units of…

  7. Merchandising. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The Merchandising Food Service Training Manual contains 12 lessons and 2 appendixes. Class activities and handouts are interspersed among techniques for selling and merchandising meals, information about life value roles and how food participants may improve public images, material about customers' backgrounds and attitudes, methods of competitors…

  8. The role of external forcing and Pacific trade winds in recent changes of the global climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Andrew; Gastineau, Guillaume; Khodri, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    The Pacific trade winds experienced an unprecedented strengthening since the mid 1990s. Several studies have proposed that the increased Pacific trade winds were associated with the reduced rate of global mean surface temperature warming in the first decade of the 21st century, as well as far-reaching atmospheric teleconnections. We designed a set of ensemble partial coupling experiments using the IPSL-CM5A-LR coupled model that allow us to cleanly distinguish the influence of Pacific trade wind variability from that of external forcing over the past few decades. In this study, we quantify the respective impacts of these processes on surface temperature, ocean heat content, and atmospheric teleconnections. We designed two ensembles of coupled simulations using partial coupling with the IPSL-CM5A-LR model to separate the Pacific internal variability and that of external radiative forcing. We prescribe surface wind stress in the tropical Pacific (20°S to 20°N) from 1979-2014 in two ensembles of 30 members each: (1) Prescribed climatological model wind stress, which allows us to estimate the influence of external radiative forcing in the absence of variability within the Pacific Ocean. (2) Wind stress anomalies from ERA-Interim reanalysis added to the model wind stress climatology, which accounts for the effects of both external radiative forcing and the wind stress variability. We find that the observed wind stress anomalies account for the pattern of eastern tropical Pacific cooling when compared to the climatology experiment, so that it resembles the observed trends from 1992-2011. The tropical Pacific shows dominant heat uptake in the western Pacific above the 20°C isotherm, which contributed to slow the warming of tropical SST during the 2000s. The trade wind increase is associated with a strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation, and zonal shifts in tropical rainfall. Despite tropical SST biases which affect the response of tropical rainfall and the

  9. Financial frictions and substitution between internal and external funds in publicly traded Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Telles Portal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to document the effects of financial constraints on the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds, a phenomenon associated with the Pecking Order Theory. This theory suggests that companies subject to more expensive external funds (financially constrained firms should demonstrate a stronger negative relationship with cash flow than companies subject to minor financial frictions (financially unconstrained firms. The results indicate that the external funds of constrained firms consistently present less negative sensitivity to cash flow compared with those of unconstrained companies. Additionally, the internal funds of constrained companies demonstrate a positive sensitivity to cash flow, whereas those of unconstrained companies do not show any such significant behavior. These results are in accordance with the findings of Almeida and Campello (2010, who suggest the following: first, because of the endogenous nature of investment decisions in constrained companies, the complementary relationship between internal and external funds prevails over the substitutive effects suggested by the Pecking Order Theory; and second, the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds cannot be interpreted as evidence of costly external funds and therefore does not corroborate the Pecking Order Theory.

  10. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  11. The European Union’s external trade policy after the Treaty of Lisbon: a neo-gramscian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Ihor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies neo-Gramscian theory to analyze the European Union’s external trade policy after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. It argues that despite the claim that procedural and institutional changes which took place as a result of the ratification of the Treaty serve the general interest of the EU citizens, they were in fact orchestrated by the European transnational capitalist class and serve primarily interests of this group. Paper starts by outlining key institutional and procedural changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, briefly outlining their implications for the EU. Further on, rationale for these changes is explained by focusing on socio-economic developments that took place in the EU during the past couple of decades. After outlining how the current hegemonic bloc was established, paper proceeds with explaining why the implemented changes were so important for the dominant in the EU social forces.

  12. THE IMPACT OF EXCHANGE RATE, FISCAL DEFICIT AND TERMS OF TRADE ON EXTERNAL DEBT OF PAKISTAN A Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Awan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The massive debt burden of Pakistan calls for a detailed analysis of trends in the foreign debt levels, its causative factors and implications for economic growth. The present study is an attempt to analyze the relationship between external debt and exchange rate, fiscal deficit and deterioration of terms of trade for the period 1974-2008. Using Johansen approach, the study found significant long-run relationship between external debt and exchange rate and deterioration of terms of trade. The results of the study revealed that fiscal deficit had no significant impact on external debt. In the short-run all the variables failed to establish relationship with external debt. However, the existence of long-run causality was observed and three channels of uni-directional causalities were found actively running from (i fiscal deficit to external debt, (ii terms of trade to exchange rate, and (iii fiscal deficit to terms of trade. Diagnostic test confirmed the validity of the model and CUSUM and CUSUMSQ test revealed the stability of the model.

  13. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie Miles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs--such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control--to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  14. A Novel Approach to Clustering Merchandise Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao-Yuan Cheng; Shan Wang

    2007-01-01

    Object identification is one of the major challenges in integrating data from multiple information sources. Since being short of global identifiers, it is hard to find all records referring to the same object in an integrated database. Traditional object identification techniques tend to use character-based or vector space model-based similarity computing in judging, but they cannot work well in merchandise databases. This paper brings forward a new approach to object identification. First, we use merchandise images to judge whether two records belong to the same object; then, we use Na'ive Bayesian Model to judge whether two merchandise names have similar meaning. We do experiments on data downloaded from shopping websites, and the results show good performance.

  15. ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARKMAN, STANLEY

    THIS OUTLINE FOR A COURSE IN THE ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING IS DESIGNED FOR THE INEXPERIENCED RETAIL EMPLOYEE. THE COURSE IS PLANNED FOR SIX 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCHANDISING, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND MATHEMATICS OF MERCHANDISING, (3) BUYING POLICIES AND PRACTICES, (4) MARKET REPRESENTATIVES, (5) TERMS OF PURCHASE, INCLUDING…

  16. Airport Merchandising Using Micro Services Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Bhaskar Sankaranarayanan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Airport offers an ecosystem where passengers, airlines, airport, and merchants meet under one roof during travel. During the journey, there is a good amount of time spent by passengers on waiting or transit before boarding the flight. Passengers look for spending that time by shopping, dining, and entertainment. Airport merchants and airlines look for merchandising opportunities to acquire new customers, up-sell, and cross-sell their products and services. Highly personalized merchandising offers can be generated on the fly by combining contextual information from passenger profile, likes and interests, merchant offers, and location specific events, seasons, and festivals. To achieve this, a strong airport merchandising platform is needed. The goal of the airport merchandising platform is to exchange information in a seamless manner across travel systems. The platform is designed on microservices design principles that use information from airlines, airport, social media, and merchant systems. Microservices can promote quick development, deployment, and realization of services. Microservices also improve the time to market capabilities. Mobile and desktop applications consume them to offer a personalized shopping experience to the passengers.

  17. Metrics for Automotive Merchandising, Petroleum Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in automotive merchandising and petroleum marketing classes, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know…

  18. Curriculum Guide for Fashion Merchandising (Fashion Salesperson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Margaret R.

    This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers teach a course in fashion merchandising to high school students. The guide contains eight performance-based learning modules, each consisting of one to seven units. Each unit teaches a job-relevant task, and includes performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activities,…

  19. Curriculum Guide for Fashion Merchandising (Fashion Salesperson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Margaret R.

    This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers teach a course in fashion merchandising to high school students. The guide contains eight performance-based learning modules, each consisting of one to seven units. Each unit teaches a job-relevant task, and includes performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activities,…

  20. The Position of Suitcase Trading in Turkey’s Foreign Trade and Growth-Suitcase Trading Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem YAPAR SAÇIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Suitcase trading which is defined as a purchasing process of merchandises in a country that is implemented by travelers (nonresidents to sell those merchandises in their own country; it has started to take place in balance of payments of Turkey since 1996. After the collapse of USSR in 1991 Turkey became a net exporter in suitcase trading so the country reached significant figures occasionally. In this paper the position of suitcase trading in Turkey’s foreign trade is analyzed in consideration of statistical indicators. According to the findings acquired from the study, suitcase trading is a significant variable for Turkey to have currency and to close foreign deficits. Suitcase trading and growth connection is also analyzed by econometric method which is co-integration test and the result is affirmative. And also it is found that this connection is unilateral causation from growth towards suitcase trading according to the findings of Granger causality test

  1. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  2. 19 CFR 151.1 - Merchandise to be examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise to be examined. 151.1 Section 151.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... examined. The port director shall examine such packages or quantities of merchandise as he deems...

  3. 19 CFR 191.152 - Merchandise released from Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise released from Customs custody. 191.152 Section 191.152 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody §...

  4. 78 FR 41128 - Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... United States Postal Service of Market Test of Experimental Product--International Merchandise Return... returns as an important part of ] international shipping. Id. It concludes that the IMRS-NPR market test...

  5. Evaluation of Computer Simulations for Teaching Apparel Merchandising Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Laura D.; Sisler, Grovalynn

    1988-01-01

    The study developed and evaluated computer simulations for teaching apparel merchandising concepts. Evaluation results indicated that teaching method (computer simulation versus case study) does not significantly affect cognitive learning. Student attitudes varied, however, according to topic (profitable merchandising analysis versus retailing…

  6. Merchandising's Evolving Role in Family and Consumer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Pauline; Collier, Billie J.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth B.

    2011-01-01

    Merchandising and consumer economics traditionally have been part of family and consumer sciences (FCS) within the ecosystems framework. The purpose of this article is to examine progress of this sub-system within FCS. Specifically, the authors explore the relevance of the systems approach for merchandising programs and conclude that this model is…

  7. 7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 Section 800.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Recordkeeping and Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a...

  8. Encouraging Learning of Industry Technology: A Merchandising Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew; Huss, Megan; Stoel, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    The application of the technology acceptance model to a merchandising course teaching industry software was evaluated. Based on technology acceptance research, industry software was presented emphasizing ease-of-use and usefulness. The final course project gave students a quasi real-life experience of combining merchandising skills with the…

  9. Encouraging Learning of Industry Technology: A Merchandising Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew; Huss, Megan; Stoel, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    The application of the technology acceptance model to a merchandising course teaching industry software was evaluated. Based on technology acceptance research, industry software was presented emphasizing ease-of-use and usefulness. The final course project gave students a quasi real-life experience of combining merchandising skills with the…

  10. Merchandising's Evolving Role in Family and Consumer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Pauline; Collier, Billie J.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth B.

    2011-01-01

    Merchandising and consumer economics traditionally have been part of family and consumer sciences (FCS) within the ecosystems framework. The purpose of this article is to examine progress of this sub-system within FCS. Specifically, the authors explore the relevance of the systems approach for merchandising programs and conclude that this model is…

  11. Evaluation of Computer Simulations for Teaching Apparel Merchandising Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Laura D.; Sisler, Grovalynn

    1988-01-01

    The study developed and evaluated computer simulations for teaching apparel merchandising concepts. Evaluation results indicated that teaching method (computer simulation versus case study) does not significantly affect cognitive learning. Student attitudes varied, however, according to topic (profitable merchandising analysis versus retailing…

  12. EFEITO DOS FATORES DE MERCHANDISING NAS VENDAS DO VAREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Rodrigues Feijó

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Mehrabian and Russell (1974, (researchers in the field of environmental psychology, have been instrumental in spreading the idea that the environmental features at the point of sale cause emotional reactions that lead to behavior that is hard to explain from a cognitive standpoint. For this reason, merchandising implementation plays a key role, since its aim is to provide an appropriate store atmosphere and display products in a way that encourages buying activity. This paper investigates the effects of merchandising factors on retail sales.The study was carried out in two types of stores: experimental – where merchandising factors were employed, and control - where the design features of merchandising remained unchanged.The analysis of the results confirmed the income effect. . The increase in revenue can be an indicator that merchandising factors have an influence on the consumer´s store choice criteria and his/her behavior within a determined sales environment.

  13. 19 CFR 191.185 - Unused merchandise drawback and merchandise not conforming to sample or specification, shipped...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unused merchandise drawback and merchandise not conforming to sample or specification, shipped without consent of the consignee, or found to be defective as... conforming to sample or specification, shipped without consent of the consignee, or found to be defective...

  14. 19 CFR 127.42 - Disposition of merchandise owned by Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of merchandise owned by Government... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Title to Unclaimed and Abandoned Merchandise Vesting in Government § 127.42 Disposition of merchandise owned...

  15. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  16. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eule, B; Sullivan, M K; Schroeder, S A; Hudmon, K S

    2004-12-01

    To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. 100 randomly selected San Francisco pharmacies were visited in 2003. Pharmacies were characterised based on the sale of cigarettes, advertising for cigarettes, and the merchandising of non-prescription NRT products. In 2003, 61% of pharmacies sold cigarettes, a significant decrease compared to 89% of pharmacies selling cigarettes in 1976 (p merchandise the primary known risk factor for death in the USA.

  17. The electronic-commerce-oriented virtual merchandise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming

    2004-03-01

    Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.

  18. Apparel Merchandising Students Learn Customer Service Strategies while Conducting Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Apparel merchandising students participated in a cooperative research project in which they observed customer service techniques by posing as customers in retail stores. The project taught research processes, collaboration, and principles of customer service. (SK)

  19. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  20. Apparel Merchandising Students Learn Customer Service Strategies while Conducting Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Apparel merchandising students participated in a cooperative research project in which they observed customer service techniques by posing as customers in retail stores. The project taught research processes, collaboration, and principles of customer service. (SK)

  1. Student Work Experience: A Realistic Approach to Merchandising Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Patricia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relevant and realistic experiences are needed to prepare the student for a future career. Addresses the results of a survey of colleges and universities in the United States in regard to their student work experience (SWE) in fashion merchandising. (Author)

  2. Student Work Experience: A Realistic Approach to Merchandising Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Patricia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relevant and realistic experiences are needed to prepare the student for a future career. Addresses the results of a survey of colleges and universities in the United States in regard to their student work experience (SWE) in fashion merchandising. (Author)

  3. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  4. The Impact of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram L. Bhatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present Post-Modern Era, the competitive situation in the business is characterized by a cut throat competition, which subsequently results in companies and retailers to pay almost anything for undifferentiated merchandising. This merchandising tool is being used by today’s retailer to distinguish him from other competitors, to be prominent in the market and become a source of attraction for the customers. A few researchers contribute in this field by exploring the reasons which causes the customers impulsive buying, but still there is more to be determined. Purpose of this study is to identify the relation between the consumer impulsive buying and visual merchandising on buying behavior of customers. This study was based on primary data in the form of a questioner. A total of 350 questioners were floated in different consumer outlets (super marts and self-service stores of Rawalpindi, Pakistan out of which 344 questioners were completed and received. Defined four hypotheses were window display, forum display, floor merchandising and shop brand name. These hypotheses were tested for regression analysis by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS software. It was found that window display, forum display, floor merchandising and shop brand name (independent variables are significantly associated to consumer impulse buying behavior (dependent variable. Hence, forum display is negatively related to consumer impulse buying and window display; however, floor merchandising and shop brand name are positively related to consumer impulse buying behavior.

  5. 外部融资依赖、金融发展与出口贸易增长%External Financing Dependence, Financial Development and Export Trade Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾璐璐

    2015-01-01

    基于2001—2012年中国29个省区的面板数据,分析在不同的外部融资依赖度条件下两种主要的外源性资金(银行信贷和外商直接投资)对地区出口贸易产生的影响,研究结果显示:银行信贷和外商直接投资是影响地区出口贸易的显著因素,且外商直接投资对出口贸易的作用效果更强;外部融资依赖特征不同的地区,不同融资渠道对出口贸易产生的影响也不一样;在外资依赖度较高(大于0.07%)的地区较高的信贷密度(大于0.35%)更有利于出口增长,而在外资依赖度较低的地区需要寻找适宜的信贷密度与之相匹配;在外资密度较高(大于1.64%)的地区信贷依赖有利于出口增长,而在外资密度较低的地区信贷依赖会给出口带来不利影响。%Based on the panel data of 29 Chinese provinces and municipalities during 2001⁃2012, this paper analyzes the influence of two main external capitals (“bank credit” and “Foreign Direct Investment”) on regional export trade under the different external financing dependence conditions, and the research results show that the significant factor affecting regional export trade is bank credit and FDI, furthermore, the effect of FDI on export trade is stronger, that the impact of the different regions and the different channels with the different features of external financing dependence on export trade is different, that the high credit density ( more than 0.35%) in the regions with high foreign capital dependence ( more than 0.07%) is more helpful for the export growth, however, the suitable credit density should be sought to match the regions with low foreign capital dependence, that the credit dependence of the regions with high foreign capital density (1.64%) is conducive to the export growth, however, the credit dependence in the regions with low foreign capital density can bring the adverse impact on the export.

  6. The Poverty Impacts of Global Commodity Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Keeney, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the poverty impacts of global merchandise trade reform by looking at a wide range of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Overall, we find that trade reform tends to reduce poverty primarily through the inclusion of agricultural components. The majority of our developing country sample experiences small poverty increases from non-agricultural reforms. We explore the relative poverty-friendliness of agricultural trade reforms in detail, examining the diff...

  7. The Effect of International Trade on Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsok Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and importsIn this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and imports as percentage of GDP, international trade and basic human rights seem to have little relationship; but trade has a close positive relationship with strong order and security. Somewhat surprisingly, regulatory transparency and effective implementation seems to have little or no effect on international trade and vice versa. International trade shows a clear positive relationship with the country’s criminal justice system, but the relationship with the civil justice system is not as clear as such. For regulatory implementation and civil justice, services trade positively affect these institutions, but these institutions in turn affect exports more strongly than services trade. Finally, the effect of trade on rule of law is stronger on a medium to long term (10-20 year time horizon.

  8. Merchandising segmentu dekorativní kosmetiky u vybrané mezinárodní značky

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with merchandising. Merchandising is a new discipline achieveing a high development potential and being more and more important in the competitive business environment. The teorethical part describes the basic concepts of the merchandising, its definitions, types and possible merchandising strategies. The practical part explains and shows whole merchandising process of the make up merchandising on a real examples from the chosen international company.

  9. Trade Promotion from Neighborhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "If you are considering to trade with companies in Japan or expanding your business to Japan,we are ready to help from the very beginning."You will find this greeting at the first sight on the Chinese website of Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).JETRO has committed itself in delivering highly efficient and quality services to meet the demand of internal and external customs including Japanese companies,hence winning a good reputation in the international trade arena.

  10. 77 FR 71741 - Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... CFR Part 240 Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services AGENCY... Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services (``the Fred Meyer Guides... make advertising and promotional allowances or services available to all competing customers...

  11. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  12. Could Mean Trouble: When the Unexpected Pops Up in Your Merchandising Program, Here's What to Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenberger, Lynne M.

    1990-01-01

    Some suggestions for troubleshooting when problems develop with a college merchandising program cover topics such as delivery delays, product quality, promotional material, merchandise that outside manufacturers sell directly through ads in alumni magazines, and "lemons." (MLW)

  13. Could Mean Trouble: When the Unexpected Pops Up in Your Merchandising Program, Here's What to Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenberger, Lynne M.

    1990-01-01

    Some suggestions for troubleshooting when problems develop with a college merchandising program cover topics such as delivery delays, product quality, promotional material, merchandise that outside manufacturers sell directly through ads in alumni magazines, and "lemons." (MLW)

  14. Merchandising-computer trials 1995 - studies on six merchandising systems; Apteringsdatortest 1995 - studier av sex apteringssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondell, J.; Essen, I. von

    1996-11-01

    Skogforsk has conducted a series of studies on the second generation of merchandising computers (bucking-to-value computers) available on the Swedish market. The harvesters were moved to the same study site in southern Sweden. Each machine processed about 50 Norway spruce trees and the price lists and study conditions were kept the same for all six systems. The layout of the systems was described and the ergonomics briefly evaluated. The accuracy of the length and diameter measuring and how the systems exploited the value of the wood were studied. The results will be used both by the manufacturers for future development and by the forest companies as a basis for investment decisions. 11 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  15. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... of Experimental Product -- International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: U.S... International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates in accordance with statutory requirements. DATES... will begin a market test of its International Merchandise Return Service (IMRS) Non-published Rate...

  16. 31 CFR 515.803 - Customs procedures; merchandise specified in § 515.204.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customs procedures; merchandise... CONTROL REGULATIONS Procedures § 515.803 Customs procedures; merchandise specified in § 515.204. (a) With... thereto) whether or not such merchandise has been imported into the United States, collectors of...

  17. 18 CFR 367.4160 - Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work. 367.4160 Section 367.4160 Conservation of Power and... § 367.4160 Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work. (a) This account... sales rooms. (8) Maintaining display counters and other equipment used in merchandising. (9) Arranging...

  18. Fashion merchandising a jeho aplikace ve vybrané firmě

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is divided into two parts. The firts part deals with theoretical description of fashion merchandising, including specification of visual merchandising, sensoring merchandising and other aspects of shopping environment. The second part is dedicated to description of practical application of those principles in a selected shop of an international fashion retailer.

  19. Chemistry I and Clothing, Textiles and Fashion Merchandising Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Donald F.

    1980-01-01

    The application of principles learned in a first course in chemistry to chemical problems of interest to home economics majors specializing in clothing and textiles or fashion merchandising is described. Concept transfer--teaching difficult concepts in terms of an everyday analogue--is also explained and relevant laboratory experiments are…

  20. A Theoretical Model of Team-Licensed Merchandise Purchasing (TLMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen

    2011-01-01

    Although it is evident that sales of team licensed merchandise (TLM) contribute to the overall consumption of sport, research efforts that comprehensively describe what triggers the consumption of TLM is lacking (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Therefore, based on multiple theories (i.e., values theory, identity theory, attitude theory, and…

  1. Confirmatory Analysis of the Athletic Team Merchandise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.

    2012-01-01

    Although sales of athletic team merchandise (ATM) contribute to the overall consumption of sport, a research effort that comprehensively measures aspects that trigger the consumption of ATM is lacking. In light of the gap, utilizing multiple theories and other concepts that describe product consumption, the authors of this article empirically…

  2. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  3. Initiating Training Stations As Clusters of Learning in Fashion Merchandising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Jayne

    1974-01-01

    A Chicago business school offers fashion merchandising as one of several business curriculums that combines on-the-job training and classroom instruction. Instruction is organized around the occupational cluster concept which requires training stations that provide a wide variety of learning experiences. (EA)

  4. An Environmental Sustainability Course for Design and Merchandising Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huantian; Frey, Lisa Vogel; Farr, Cheryl A.; Gam, Haejin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a science-based course, "Environmental Sustainability Issues for Designers and Merchandisers". The course emphasis was on scientific concepts underlying textile-related environmental problems; the focus was on the "cradle to cradle" design model as an approach for eliminating environmental problems during…

  5. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  6. An Environmental Sustainability Course for Design and Merchandising Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huantian; Frey, Lisa Vogel; Farr, Cheryl A.; Gam, Haejin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a science-based course, "Environmental Sustainability Issues for Designers and Merchandisers". The course emphasis was on scientific concepts underlying textile-related environmental problems; the focus was on the "cradle to cradle" design model as an approach for eliminating environmental problems during…

  7. 19 CFR 123.10 - General order merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs of the unentered merchandise or baggage in the allotted time, he may be liable for the payment of... in-bond entry) is responsible for preparing a Customs Form (CF) 6043 (Delivery Ticket), or other... proprietor cannot accept the goods because they are required by law to be exported or destroyed (see § 127.28...

  8. 19 CFR 122.50 - General order merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise or baggage in the allotted time, he may be liable for the payment of liquidated damages under the... responsible for preparing a Customs Form (CF) 6043 (Delivery Ticket), or other similar Customs document as... proprietor cannot accept the goods because they are required by law to be exported or destroyed (see § 127.28...

  9. 19 CFR 125.33 - Procedure on receiving merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., lighterman or bonded carrier for all goods delivered to him from public store or bonded store. The receipt may be taken on Customs Form 6043, or on the appraising officer's release ticket at the time delivery... OF THE TREASURY CARTAGE AND LIGHTERAGE OF MERCHANDISE Delivery and Receipt § 125.33 Procedure on...

  10. PIMM—A New Gateway for Trade Between the Continents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Panama International Merchandise Mart (PIMM) is to become the first and largest tax-free wholesale center in Latin America.By providing a platform for overseas manufacturers and industrialists to showcase their products and interact directly with buyers in the Americas, the $1 billion PIMM project is based on a vision to revolutionize the way that goods are traded in the Western Hemisphere.

  11. 国际服务贸易统计体系的比较研究%The Comparative Research on the System of External Service Trade Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静萍

    2002-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two definitions of international services trade,and compares the BOPstatis-tical system and GATSstatistical system。Based on these ,it puts forward proplsal improving statistical system for international services trade in China。

  12. Methodology of Fashion Merchandising by Modularization Operation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    Based on the requirements of applying information technology to reform the traditional fashion industry,the method of fashion merchandising management in some medium-sized enterprises is discussed. By analyzing the actual domestic fashion industry environment, ideal model that could quickly respond to the market's changes is proposed which includes naming brand, target-market position, circumstances analysis and popularity anticipation, brand concept and style setting, fashion design, fashion category component, and sale strategy.

  13. 19 CFR 24.23 - Fees for processing merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery under 19 U.S.C. 1448(b); (ii) Entered or released from CBP custody under 19 U.S.C. 1484(a)(1)(A... record of the merchandise at the time of presentation of the entry summary and is based on the value of... specific fees provided for under paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section shall not apply to goods...

  14. Comércio exterior inter e intra-industrial: Brasil 2003-2005 Inter and intra industrial external trade: Brazil 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Troncoso Baltar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O período 2003-2005 foi marcado pelo intenso crescimento do comércio mundial. Neste contexto, o Brasil foi capaz de reverter seu déficit de comércio, usufruindo de expressivo superávit. Porém, este dinamismo comercial não foi acompanhado de crescimento da economia nacional. Este trabalho faz uma análise empírica do comércio brasileiro neste período recente de expansão do comércio mundial, com o objetivo de relacionar o tipo de comércio brasileiro com as características da estrutura industrial que existe no país. A metodologia adotada traz como novidade a possibilidade de se avaliar o comércio de uma perspectiva mais qualitativa, a partir do exame do tipo de produto e região de origem e destino dos fluxos.The period between 2003-2005 illustrated a high growth in world trade. In this context, Brazil was able to revert its trade deficit, taking advantage of a considerable surplus. Nevertheless, this trade dynamism did not go hand in hand with national economic growth. This article makes an empirical analysis of Brazilian trade in this recent period of world trade expansion, with a view to comparing the kinds of Brazilian trade with the industrial structure that exists in this country. The methodology adopted is innovative in that it allows the evaluation of trade from a qualitative perspective, by examining the kind of product and region of origin and destination of the flows.

  15. 76 FR 13354 - Foreign-Trade Zone 266-Dane County, WI; Application for Subzone, Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 266--Dane County, WI; Application for Subzone, Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing, Camping and Related Outdoor Merchandise), Prairie du Chien, WI An application has...

  16. Insider trading

    OpenAIRE

    Šatanová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is dealing with trading based on nonpublic information (insider trading). It contains development of insider trading regulation and describes specifics of american, czech, japanese and chinese market consodering insider trading. It is focused on regulation, investigation and evidence.

  17. 贸易条件影响中国进出口失衡问题的研究%Effects of Terms of Trade on China's External Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范爱军; 卞学字

    2012-01-01

    Certain trade theory hold that the improved terms of trade would increase net exports of a nation and benefits the current account. But in reality, many countries' data indicate that trade surplus increases with a trend of worsening terms of trade. There exist two different viewpoints on whether China belongs to the category of deteriorating terms of trade growth mode. This paper tries to discuss the main factors affecting current account by deriving an overlapping-generation model. Empirical analysis with annually and monthly macro eco- nomic data proves that deterioration of terms of trade indeed benefits the current account. Simultaneously, some other factors such as increasing output of tradable goods and bond yields also influence the current account to a large extent.%传统贸易理论认为贸易条件的改善会扩大净出口、使经常项目盈余增加;现实中很多国家的表现却是贸易条件不断恶化、而贸易盈余不断增加。对我国是否属于这种贸易条件恶化型的增长模式存在两种截然不同的观点。本文通过建立oGM模型分析经常项目的主要影响因素,分别利用我国年度与月度相关宏观数据的实证分析表明,中国确实呈现贸易条件恶化型的增长模式,同时贸易品产出的增加、债券收益率的提高、本币的贬值等也在很大程度上影响着经常项目盈余的变化。

  18. Merchandising visual, escaparatismo y vitrinismo del comisariato fae Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon Vargas, Matilde; Paredes, Xavier Antonio; Pastor Lopez, Bolivar

    2009-01-01

    El uso del merchandising visual es una de las técnicas del marketing que recientemente se esta implementando en el Ecuador y sus estudios demuestran que actúa como estrategia de atracción de los clientes al punto de venta, en cuanto a que contribuye a la creación de imagen de los establecimientos y su objetivo es favorecer la elección del mismo por parte de los consumidores, a su vez mejorar el diseño de la sala de ventas que capte el interés del consumidor apoyándose en varios elementos c...

  19. Airline Merchandising: Focus on leisure travel on the Finnish market

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one of current trends: merchandising. The purpose of this thesis is to find out the experiences and opinions of leisure travellers and leisure travel agents in terms of booking ancillaries for flights. Based on those findings, the aim is to find out alternative ways to boost the sales of ancillaries. The commis-sioner for this thesis is Amadeus Finland Oy and the target group is the Finnish leisure travel market. The research was conducted by creating two online su...

  20. The Relationship between Retail Merchandising in the Content Area and Its Effect on Comprehension and Reading Rate as Measured by Retail Merchandising Reading Tests Given to Selected Secondary School Students in Metropolitan Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jane

    A total of 99 students from a Toronto secondary vocational school participated in a study to determine whether students who studied retail merchandising differed significantly in comprehension and reading rate from students who did not study retail merchandising. An experimental group composed of 50 merchandising students and a control group of 49…

  1. 19 CFR 191.184 - Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody. 191.184 Section 191.184 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... From Customs Territory § 191.184 Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody. (a)...

  2. 31 CFR 500.803 - Customs procedures; merchandise specified in § 500.204.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customs procedures; merchandise... CONTROL REGULATIONS Procedures § 500.803 Customs procedures; merchandise specified in § 500.204. (a) With... United States, directors of customs shall not accept or allow any: (1) Entry for consumption...

  3. 19 CFR 142.21 - Merchandise eligible for special permit for immediate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... immediate delivery. 142.21 Section 142.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Special Permit for Immediate Delivery § 142.21 Merchandise eligible for special permit for immediate delivery. Merchandise may be...

  4. 19 CFR 146.70 - Transfer of zone-restricted merchandise into Customs territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs territory. 146.70 Section 146.70 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... a Zone § 146.70 Transfer of zone-restricted merchandise into Customs territory. (a) General. Zone-restricted merchandise may be transferred to Customs territory only for entry for exportation, for entry...

  5. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations, 15 CFR part 370. (b) In-transit merchandise exported to Canada or Mexico. Merchandise to be... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit...

  6. 19 CFR 125.32 - Merchandise delivered to a bonded store or bonded warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse. 125.32 Section 125.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Merchandise delivered to a bonded store or bonded warehouse. When merchandise is carried, carted or lightered to and received in a bonded store or bonded warehouse, the proprietor or his representative...

  7. 19 CFR 191.155 - Merchandise withdrawn from warehouse for exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise withdrawn from warehouse for... Custody § 191.155 Merchandise withdrawn from warehouse for exportation. The regulations in part 18 of this... from warehouse for exportation without payment of duty shall be followed to the extent applicable....

  8. Retail Merchandising Competencies: A Comparison of Perceptions among Entry-Level Managers, Educators, Recruiters, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Shauna; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 38 of 184 retailing graduates, 24 of 111 recruiters in the apparel field, 58 of 200 retail merchandising educators, and 45 of 47 current students found that differences in their ratings of the importance of 53 competencies for entry workers centered on three factors: merchandising, leadership, and monitoring. (SK)

  9. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  10. 19 CFR 146.23 - Accountability for merchandise in a zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability for merchandise in a zone. 146.23 Section 146.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....23 Accountability for merchandise in a zone. (a) Identification of merchandise—(1) General. A...

  11. Retail Merchandising Competencies: A Comparison of Perceptions among Entry-Level Managers, Educators, Recruiters, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Shauna; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 38 of 184 retailing graduates, 24 of 111 recruiters in the apparel field, 58 of 200 retail merchandising educators, and 45 of 47 current students found that differences in their ratings of the importance of 53 competencies for entry workers centered on three factors: merchandising, leadership, and monitoring. (SK)

  12. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  13. Effects of coal prices on merchandise prices in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhihua; Zhou Meihua; Liu Yan

    2011-01-01

    Coal is the principal form of energy used in China.Hence,coal price variations are expected to have some influence on merchandise prices.Monthly data from January,2002,to October,2010,were used to construct a varying-parameter state space model,and an error correction model,to estimate the influence of coal prices on Chinese merchandise prices.The time lag and the dynamic relationship were determined from the data.A long term equilibrium relationship between coal price and the PPI,and the CPI,can be observed.The long term influence of coal price fluctuations on the PPI is 0.263%.The corresponding value for the CPI is 0.157%.The PPI shows an influence from coal price change in the first period of observation:by eight periods the influence is obvious,after which it diminishes.The effect of coal price change on the CPI is rather weak and has no long term memory.Analysis of variance shows a similar situation.The elasticity coefficient of coal prices on the CPI,or the PPI,fluctuates over the 2002-2004 period.From 2002 to 2007 the influence elasticity on the CPI declined and subsequently levelled off after 2009.

  14. EU emission trading. Requirement of adaptation of the Cap as a consequence of external shocks and unexpected developments?; EU-Emissionshandel. Anpassungsbedarf des Caps als Reaktion auf externe Schocks und unerwartete Entwicklungen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The effectivity of the European emission trading system (EU-ETS) with respect to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions based essentially on the quantity of the emission caps. The regional, sectorial and temporal boundaries of this system as well as the regulations covering international flexible mechanisms and banking have to be considered in the evaluation of the effectivity of the EU-ETS. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different variants of adjustment. First of all, the criteria for an identification of a possible justified needs of adaptation are investigated. Furthermore, the authors discuss the question about suitable points in time for an intervention.

  15. PIMM-A New Gateway for Trade Between the Continents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Panama International Merchandise Mart(PIMM)is to become the first and largest tax-free wholesale center in Latin America.By providing a platform for overseas manufacturers and industrialists to showcase their products and interact directly with buyers in the Americas, the $1 billion PIMM project is based on a vision to revolutionize the way that goods are traded in the Western Hemisphere.

  16. Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The work concerns Emission Trading Scheme from perspektive of taxes and accounting. I should show problems with emission trading. The work concerns practical example of trading with emission allowance.

  17. 多重外部因素下珠三角外贸企业适应性成长机制%Adaptive Growth Mechanism of Foreign Trade Enterprises in the Pearl River Delta with Multiple External Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁裕辉

    2012-01-01

    Multiple factors such as global social responsibility campaign, financial crisis, digital manufacturing, and virtual communities will change the ecological environment of the foreign trade enterprises in the Pearl River Delta. Through the a-nalysis on growth factors of foreign trade enterprises in the Pearl River Delta, its adaptive growth mechanism model has been constructed from the perspective of complex adaptive theory. Studies show that adaptive growth enterprises must be able to respond quickly to external environment' s change and reconstruct "internal model". Finally, in view of the multiple external factor, the paper puts forward the corresponding rapid response mechanisms consisting of technology innovation, system innovation, marketing innovation, and consciousness innovation.%全球社会责任运动、金融危机、制造业数字化、虚拟社区等多重因素将改变珠三角外贸企业的生态环境.基于复杂自适应理论的视角分析了影响珠三角外贸企业成长的因素,并构建了其适应性成长机制模型.研究结果表明:企业只有快速响应外部生态环境变化而重构“内部模型”,才能适应性成长.最后,针对目前多重外部因素的影响,提出了由技术创新、制度创新、营销创新、意识创新等构建的快速响应机制.

  18. MERCHANDISING ANALYSIS OF THE RANGE OF HEPATOPROTECTORS IN PHARMACIES, LERMONTOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Kabanok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology of the liver occupies a leading place among the diseases of the digestive system. The situation requires more frequent assignment of hepatoprotectors. The aim of this work is the study of the classification, carrying out merchandising analysis of the assortment of hepatoprotectors ofplant origin. The researches revealed that assortment of hepatoprotectors is closely linked to objective factors: the location of pharmacies, the presence of large stores, by number, age, needs and purchasing power of the population. Also the range is influenced by subjective factors, for example, the activities of pharmacists engaged in replenishment assortment of drugs.

  19. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  20. 论分组分层教学法在高职院校《外贸跟单》课程教学实践中的应用%Application of Group Stratification Teaching Method in Teaching Practice of Merchandiser' Course in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗俊

    2016-01-01

    《外贸跟单》是高等职业教育国际贸易实务专业中一门专业技术课,是一门针对性很强的技能型课程。文章主要从分组分层实行的必要性、现阶段《外贸跟单》课程实行的困惑和分组分层实行的策略三部分进行分析和探讨。%The foreign trade merchandiser is a professional technology course of international trade practice in higher voca-tional education.It is a highly specific technical course.This article mainly discusses and analyzes three parts of necessity of grouping layered implement,the confusion of implementing foreign trade merchandiser course and the strategy of grouping strati-fication.

  1. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  2. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  3. 76 FR 60765 - Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ..., and the page of the comment. \\13\\ DMA is a global trade organization representing business and...'s largest retail trade association with membership from all retailing formats and distribution..., not telephone dial-up. \\19\\ U.S. Census Bureau, E-Stats, 2007 E-Commerce Multi-Sector Report, May 28...

  4. Research on External Trade Effect of Cross-border Transport Corridor Based on Gravity Model:Taking Kunming-Bangkok Expressway as an Example%基于引力模型的跨国运输走廊边疆外贸效应研究--以昆曼公路为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰梅; 杨扬; 戢晓峰

    2016-01-01

    跨国运输走廊的建设与开通为边疆经济发展注入了新的活力,是民族经济外向拓展的桥梁。研究构建了跨国运输走廊的边疆外贸效应引力模型,并以昆曼公路为例,利用2006-2014年云南省与主要贸易国的进出口贸易额面板数据对模型进行了实证分析。结果表明:昆曼公路的建设与开通,对云南省对外贸易的发展有积极的促进作用,且其贸易促进效应呈增长的趋势。在此基础上进行贸易潜力分析,得出云南省与缅甸的实际贸易水平明显高于预测值,双方贸易联系紧密,属于“贸易过度型”;云南与老挝和马来西亚间的贸易由“贸易不足”向“贸易合理”过渡;而云南与新加坡和泰国则属于“贸易不足型”,双边贸易增长空间巨大。因此,应进一步完善道路软、硬件设施和服务,以充分发挥跨国运输走廊对边疆地区外贸的带动效应。%The construction and opening up of the Cross-border transport corridor has injected fresh energy into the economic development of frontier areas,which is a outward expansion bridge of the national economic.This paper constructs the external trade gravity model of Cross-border transportation corridor.With the example of Kunming-Bangkok expressway,an empirical analysis of the model is carried out by using the panel data of the external trade of Yunnan province from 2006 to 2014.The findings show that the Kunming-Bangkok highway plays a positive role in the development of the external trade of Yunnan Province,and its trade promoting effect tends to increase.Based on these findings,the trade potential analysis is conducted.The results show that the actual trade level is significantly higher than the forecast value between Yunnan Province and Myanmar;that is to say the bilateral trade relations is close,and it belongs to “trade overage type.”The results also show that the external trade between Yunnan Province

  5. Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of fair trade organizations in an oligopolistic setting in which the vertically integrated fair trade firm produces a commodity which is a weak substitute for another commodity. Profit-maximizing oligopolists are vertically disintegrated and produce for both markets and the fair trade firm can charge a premium to consumers due to a "warm glow effect" that depends on the wage paid to fair trade producers. We show that trade integration will unambiguously incr...

  6. Slowdown Trade Surplus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to Ma Kai's economic planning report submitted to the NPC session on March 5th.(Ma Kai is the Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission),the government has listed the slowdown in trade surplus growth and the steady expansion of,external investment as major tasks for 2008.

  7. Merchandise and Replenishment Planning Optimisation for Fashion Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Iannone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration among different companies functions, collaborative planning and the elaboration of focused distribution plans are critical to the success of each kind of company working in the complex retail sector. In this contest, the present work proposes the description of a model able to support coordinated strategic choices continually made by Supply Chain (SC actors. The final objective is achievement of the full optimisation of Merchandise & Replenishment Planning phases, identifying the right replenishment quantities and periods. To test the proposed model’s effectiveness, it was applied to an important Italian fashion company in the complex field of fast-fashion, a sector in which promptness is a main competitive leverage and, therefore, the planning cannot exclude the time variable. The passage from a total push strategy, currently used by the company, to a push-pull one, suggested by the model, allowed us not only to estimate a reduction in goods quantities to purchase at the beginning of a sales period (with considerable economic savings, but also elaborate a focused replenishment plan that permits reduction and optimisation of departures from network warehouses to Points of Sale (POS.

  8. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check.

  9. Trade of permits for greenhouse gas emissions: Bilateral trade need not be the answer

    OpenAIRE

    Burguet, Roberto; Sempere, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets national quotas on GHG emissions and allows international trade of these quotas. Taking terms-of-trade effects into account, we argue that this trade is characterized by asymmetric, identity-dependent externalities, and show that bilateral trade of permits may not be sufficient for an efficient allocation of emissions. We derive conditions under which bilateral trade does improve the allocation of permits. The conditions are strong. In this sense, we argue that, for em...

  10. The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Impulsive Buying with Impulsive Buying Tendency As Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Novia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to classify the female consumer demographic segments linked by impulsive buying, to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying, and to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable on customers of Gaudi in Taman Anggrek Mall. This research is quantitative research with a total sample of 100 people. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to the respondents by cross sectional. Research used Cluster Analysis and Moderated Regression Analysis. Data processing was performed using SPSS software for Windows version 20. Research found that customers of Gaudi were divided into three groups: the way of the world, sufficient money, and promotions. Then, research found that visual merchandising affected impulsive buying. In addition, there visual merchandising had also an effect on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable. As a conclusion, moderating variable strengthens the effect of visual merchandising on impulse buying.

  11. Dialectical Thinking about on Hand Merchandise and forward Transaction of Chinese Industrial Salt%中国工业盐现货与中远期交易的辩证思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范奎林

    2012-01-01

    The dialectical relationships between on hand merchandise and forward transaction of Chinese industrial salt are discussed in the article. That how to prompt industrial salt trading market development faster and better is also described.%文章通过对工业盐市场中现货与当今中远期交易的辩证关系的论述,阐述怎样促进工业盐交易市场的又好又快发展.

  12. 76 FR 54691 - Rules of Origin for Imported Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... ``NAFTA Marking Rules'') are ``static'' as no changes may be made without obtaining agreement with Canada... origin of all goods imported from Canada and Mexico, as required by Annex 311 of the NAFTA, as well as... proposal. One of these commenters noted that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) country of...

  13. 19 CFR 19.8 - Examination of goods by importer; sampling; repacking; examination of merchandise by prospective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct of Customs business and no danger to the revenue prospective purchaser may be permitted to examine...; repacking; examination of merchandise by prospective purchasers. 19.8 Section 19.8 Customs Duties U.S... goods by importer; sampling; repacking; examination of merchandise by prospective purchasers. Importers...

  14. 9 CFR 203.14 - Statement with respect to advertising allowances and other merchandising payments and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement with respect to advertising allowances and other merchandising payments and services. 203.14 Section 203.14 Animals and Animal Products... to advertising allowances and other merchandising payments and services. The Guidelines 1. Who is a...

  15. Merchandising. Alternativa estratégica del marketing en el punto de venta

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Darwin

    2007-01-01

    Conociendo que entre las funciones de Merchandising, están las técnicas de colocación se productos, las mismas que han alcanzado madurez a partir del desarrollo de las ventas por el sistema auto-selección, donde las compras que realiza el cliente no necesitasen de la presencia del vendedor.Es necesario, hoy en día, que las empresas cubran de la mejor manera todas las necesidades o deseos latentes que puede tener el cliente. Por esta razón, todo lo que trata el Merchandising, tiene que esta...

  16. Merchandising: mejorar la presentación del producto en el lugar de venta.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordá Albiñana, María Begoña

    2009-01-01

    El diseño tiene un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de las técnicas de merchandising y, sobre todo, en la publicidad en el lugar de venta. Es a través del diseño como el producto puede destacar y conseguir que el comprador, cada vez más influido por lo que sucede en el punto de venta, lo prefiera frente a la competencia. Jordá Albiñana, MB. (2009). Merchandising: mejorar la presentación del producto en el lugar de venta. Boletín IMPIVA Disseny. (8):1-13. http://hdl.handle.net...

  17. Artificial intelligence applied to assigned merchandise location in retail sales systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Domínguez, O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an option for improving the process of assigning storage locations for merchandise in a warehouse. A disadvantage of policies in the literature is that the merchandise is assigned allocation only according to the volume of sales and the rotation it presents. However, in some cases it is necessary to deal with other aspects such as family group membership, the physical characteristics of the products, and their sales pattern to design an integral policy. This paper presents an alternative to the afore- mentioned process using Flexsim®, artificial neural networks, and genetic algorithms.

  18. Trade Tokens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the pursuit of balanced trade with the U.S., China pours it on where it counts A week ahead of Chinese President Hu Jintao's first state visit to the United States, Beijing and Washington reached a series of agreements intended to ease the bilateral trade imbalance, including resuming trade in U.S. beef, increasing Chinese market access to U.S. medical devices, telecom services and express delivery, and cracking down on intellectual property rights infringements.

  19. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  20. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  1. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fagiolo

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  2. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  3. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  4. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this instr

  5. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic equivalent as authorized by Customs, to cover the proprietor's receipt of the merchandise and its... designated by the port director or an electronic equivalent as authorized by Customs. (b) Recording and... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General order, abandoned, and seized...

  6. 19 CFR 127.14 - Disposition of merchandise in Customs custody beyond time fixed by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... an electronic equivalent as authorized by Customs. (ii) Notice of destruction. Before destroying the... as designated by the port director or an electronic equivalent as authorized by Customs, at least 30... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of merchandise in Customs...

  7. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... similar Customs document as designated by the port director or an electronic equivalent as authorized by... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. 127.41 Section 127.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 19 CFR 191.14 - Identification of merchandise or articles by accounting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... records (that is, inventory records prepared and used in the ordinary course of business) treat receipts... established that inventory records, prepared and used in the ordinary course of business, treat the... applies to identification of merchandise or articles in inventory or storage, as well as identification of...

  9. An Analysis of English in the Workplace: The Communication Needs of Textile and Clothing Merchandisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So-mui, Florence Li; Mead, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an investigation into the workplace English needs of textile and clothing merchandisers who communicate in the international marketplace. Through questionnaire surveys, telephone interviews, analysis of authentic correspondence, and visits to the workplace, a detailed understanding has been obtained of the communication demands placed…

  10. 19 CFR 142.28 - Withdrawal or entry summary not required for prohibited merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Special Permit for Immediate Delivery § 142.28 Withdrawal or entry summary not required for prohibited merchandise. (a... immediate delivery later is found to be prohibited, the port director shall demand its recall in accordance...

  11. D.E.--Fashion Merchandising. Kit No. 43. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Brenda B.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on fashion merchandising are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  12. 19 CFR 123.26 - Transshipment of merchandise moving through Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or Mexico. 123.26 Section 123.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.26 Transshipment of merchandise moving through Canada or Mexico....

  13. Time-bound product returns and optimal order quantities for mass merchandisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min-Chun; Goh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The return guidelines for a mass merchandiser usually entail a grace period, a markdown on the original price and the condition of the returned items. This research utilises eight scenarios formed from the variation of possible return guidelines to model the cost functions of single-product categories for a typical mass merchandiser. Models for the eight scenarios are developed and solved with the objective of maximising the expected profit so as to obtain closed form solutions for the associated optimal order quantity. An illustrative example and sensitivity analysis are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Our results show that merchandisers who allow for returns within a time window, albeit with a penalty cost imposed and the returned products being recoverable, should plan for larger order amounts as such products do not affect the business. Similarly, the merchandisers who allow for returns beyond a grace period and without any penalty charges, but where the returned products are irrecoverable, should manage their stocks in this category more judiciously by ordering as little as possible so as to limit the number of returns and carefully consider the effects of their customer satisfaction-guaranteed policies, if any.

  14. 31 CFR 500.204 - Importation of and dealings in certain merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of and dealings in certain merchandise. 500.204 Section 500.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and...; (ix) Washing; (x) Soaking; (xi) Drying; (xii) Cooling, chilling or refrigerating; (xiii) Roasting...

  15. Student and Supervisor Perceptions of the Ethical Environment of Retail Merchandising Internship Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann

    2001-01-01

    Senior retail merchandising students (n=37) and their internship supervisors (n=25) were surveyed about ethical practices. Perceptions of ethics did not vary by internship location. Supervisors perceived their organizations to be more ethical than students did on two of five questions. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  16. Basic Visual Merchandising. Second Edition. [Student's Manual and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luter, Robert R.

    This student's manual that features content needed to do tasks related to visual merchandising is intended for students in co-op training stations and entry-level, master employee, and supervisory-level employees. It contains 13 assignments. Each assignment has questions covering specific information and also features activities in which students…

  17. Student and Supervisor Perceptions of the Ethical Environment of Retail Merchandising Internship Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann

    2001-01-01

    Senior retail merchandising students (n=37) and their internship supervisors (n=25) were surveyed about ethical practices. Perceptions of ethics did not vary by internship location. Supervisors perceived their organizations to be more ethical than students did on two of five questions. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  18. Incorporating Active Learning and Student Inquiry into an Introductory Merchandising Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Hines, Jean D.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators believe that student learning is enhanced when they are actively involved in classroom activities that require student inquiry. The purpose of this paper is to report on three student inquiry projects that were incorporated into a merchandising class with the focus on making students responsible for their learning, rather than the…

  19. Fashion Merchandising: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    The fashion merchandising guide is the fourth of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. The job-preparatory guide is intended to provide youths and adults with intensive preparation for initial entry employment and also with career advancement opportunities within the…

  20. 77 FR 18791 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... ``LD Commodities Rice Merchandising LLC, Wilton, Connecticut, and LD Commodities Interior Rice Merchandising LLC, Kansas City, Missouri (subsidiaries of Louis Dreyfus Commodities LLC, Wilton, Connecticut...

  1. Cultural Effects of Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Suranovic; Robert Winthrop

    2005-01-01

    We incorporate culture into a standard trade model in two distinct ways. In the ¡°cultural affinity from work¡± model, workers receive a non- pecuniary cultural benefit from work in a particular industry. In the ¡°cultural externality¡± model, consumers of a product receive utility from other consumer¡¯s consumption of a domestic good. We show that resistance to change due to cultural concerns can reduce the national benefits from trade liberalization. Complete movements to free trade will ha...

  2. Extracting Geography from Trade Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity equation has been successful in establishing a connection between the amount of trade between two countries, their respective gross domestic products and "distance" (a complex notion including geographical, historical, linguistic and sociological components). We take the inverse route and show that it is possible to construct a meaningful 'distance' without any external information simply from knowing the bilateral trade volumes between countries. The main tool is a non-standard interpretation of trade flows data as a set of high-dimensional points and the use of mathematical tools to perform dimensionality reduction. This may have further applications for problems in long-term economic analysis, cartel detection and others.

  3. 中国大豆资源的虚拟土贸易及进口依存度分析%Virtual Land Trades and External Dependences of China' s Soybean Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维方; 刘爱民; 强文丽

    2011-01-01

    论文把大豆、豆粕和豆油及其它大豆加工制成品等统称为大豆资源,而豆粕和豆油是两大最主要的大豆加工制品。受中国耕地资源限制和国际大豆市场的影响,中国大豆产量徘徊不前;而随着饲料业、畜牧业的发展,以及人们对植物油需求的增加,国内对大豆资源的需求不断增加,大豆及其加工制品的进口量也逐年增加。包括大豆资源在内的农产品及其加工制品,均含有一定的虚拟土。根据生产地生产该产品实际所需要的土地资源数量计算,能反映一个国家(或地区)虚拟土贸易的实际状况;而根据需求地生产该产品所需要的土地资源数量计算,可以反映进口国家(或地区%Soybean,soybean meal,soybean oil and other soybean processed products can be collectively called soybean resources for they are all the products of resources,of which soybean meal and soybean oil are the two main soybean processed products.All agricultural products and their processed products,including soybean resources contain certain amount of virtual land.Due to the constraints of land resources and the impacts of international soybean market,China has limited soybean producing capacity.However,with the rapid development of feed industry and animal husbandry,and the increasing consumption of vegetable oil,China’s demand for soybean resources has increased rapidly in recent years,which caused that the imports of soybean and its processed products increased year by year.To assess the quantity of the virtual land hidden in the trade of the soybean resources and analyze the land resource savings and the external dependences of China’s soybean resources,we calculated the actual amount of land resources needed according to the yields of producers.Firstly we study the scientific methods of how to quantify the virtual land contents of soybean resources theoretically,and calculate the virtual land contents of soybean resources in

  4. Studi Pengaruh Visual Merchandise untuk Anak Terhadap Perilaku Pembelian Paket HappyMeal di Restoran McDonald’s Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In sales promotion context, premium offers such as toy merchandizes for kids are free incentives or discounted price to encourage sales. A common finding that toys on merchandize offered in Happy Meal packets influence their consumer behavior which are kids, besides kids are known as potential target market nowadays. This thesis is not only giving descriptive explanation about the visual influence on merchandise towards kid’s buying behavior on the purchase of Happy Meal packets, but also about correlation and simple linear regression analysis. The result indicates that visual elements on merchandises have strong and significant impact to kid’s buying behavior on Happy Meal packets. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Dalam konteks promosi penjualan, penawaran premi seperti merchandise mainan untuk anak, merupakan penawaran item gratis atau dalam harga yang lebih murah yang bertujuan menimbulkan suatu respons. Dalam kelanjutannya, diketahui bahwa visual merchandise mainan dalam paket HappyMeal mempengaruhi perilaku konsumen anak-anak. Disamping itu, anak-anak adalah pasar yang potensial dewasa ini. Skripsi ini tidak hanya memberikan pemaparan deskriptif mengenai pengaruh visual merchandise terhadap perilaku pembelian paket HappyMeal pada anak, tetapi juga mengenai analisis hubungan korelasi dan regresi linear sederhana. Hasil penelitian mengidikasikan adanya pengaruh yang kuat dan signifikan antara visual merchandise terhadap perilaku pembelian paket HappyMeal pada anak. Kata kunci: Pengaruh visual, Merchandise, Perilaku pembelian, McDonald’s.

  5. PIMM—A New Gateway for Trade Between the

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Panama International Merchandise Mart(PIMM)is to become the first and largest tax-free wholesale center in latin America.By providing a platform for overseas manufactur- ers and industrialists to showcase their products and interact directly with buyers in the Americas,the$1 billion PIMM project is based on a vision to revolutionize the way that goods are traded in the Western Hemisphere. The concept of PIMM is simple and appealing-to make offices and showrooms available to exporters from various parts of the world in a large wholesale center where they will

  6. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  7. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  8. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  9. India-U.K. Trade: A phenomenon of sliding scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S M Shafi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Until 1973 when U.K., was not the member of European Community (now European Union , India’s trade was not geographically as diversified. This was purely due to the reason that India’s Trade was almost exclusively with U.K. Indian merchandise would find other destinations in the European continent only as re-exports from Britishers. India’s trade relations with U.K., are based upon long nourished relationship fostered during British rule in India with British East India Company as its promotor plateform. Based upon mutual trust between the trading communities of the two countries and facilitated with market opportunities, the relationship got further stronger even after India’s independence from Britain. However, with U.K. joining European Union, India’s trade started getting diversified and trade volumes with U.K started showing falling trends. The present paper traces out the behaviour of falling trade scenario with U.K.

  10. Teaching through Trade Books: Teaming Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column includes activities inspired by children's literature. This month's trade books teach students about external and internal structures that allow animals and humans to survive. This months trade books are: (1) "Creature Features" (Steve Jenkins and Robin Page); and (2) "Body Actions" (Shelley Rotner and David A.…

  11. The determinants of trade credit use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Kihanga, Ernest; Lensink, Robert; Lutz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Most small businesses in the developing economies suffer from a lack of access to formal external finance. One important alternative source of finance for these entrepreneurs is trade credit. Applying a unique data-set containing data on specific trade relations between rice wholesalers and rice

  12. Teaching through Trade Books: Teaming Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column includes activities inspired by children's literature. This month's trade books teach students about external and internal structures that allow animals and humans to survive. This months trade books are: (1) "Creature Features" (Steve Jenkins and Robin Page); and (2) "Body Actions" (Shelley Rotner and David A.…

  13. Evaluation of trade influence on economic growth rate by computational intelligence approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov-Mladenović, Svetlana; Milovančević, Milos; Mladenović, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In this study was analyzed the influence of trade parameters on the economic growth forecasting accuracy. Computational intelligence method was used for the analyzing since the method can handle highly nonlinear data. It is known that the economic growth could be modeled based on the different trade parameters. In this study five input parameters were considered. These input parameters were: trade in services, exports of goods and services, imports of goods and services, trade and merchandise trade. All these parameters were calculated as added percentages in gross domestic product (GDP). The main goal was to select which parameters are the most impactful on the economic growth percentage. GDP was used as economic growth indicator. Results show that the imports of goods and services has the highest influence on the economic growth forecasting accuracy.

  14. The Practical Teaching Research about“International Buyer Training Program”in Fashion Merchandising Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Fashion Merchandising Course in domestic universities is rising up gradually in recent years. However, there are also some problems existing in either teaching or learning. For example, the lessons always focus on theories, some cases studies are not suitable and professional information lags. This paper compares the Chinese and British education ,especially the practical teaching methods of University of the Arts London. In the same time, this paper also combines with the practice and thinking about international buyer through the working experience in LVMH Group to give some key advices to the teaching reform of fashion merchandising course. This paper uses IBTP, in other words,“International Buyer Training Program”, in the workshop of fashion buying course to realize the course’s creative plan. By this creative program, more and more professional International fashion buyers will be trained in the universities.

  15. Importance of industrial classification of economic activities for teaching merchandising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Business subjects in any national economy perform activities results of which are products, services or goods directly distributed to the market network. Volume of products differs according to the level of operational facilities, number of producers and the level of their facilities. Based on the development of information technology, there arise new specialization fields and new ranges of goods. Classification criteria are developed to qualify level of production and for enlistment of a firm to a particular branch. Currently the criteria of production classification are being developed. The understanding of these principles is particularly important on the bachelor level of the specialization Trade Management, where students are getting acquainted with the characteristics of goods, creative and degradation influences on utility, etc. Students are encouraged to understand how the quality and criteria mentioned above influence market prices. Teaching emphasis is put on the complexity of food assortment and the knowledge of Czech and EU legalislation relating to hygienic aspects and health quality of production, processing, and selling of food products. This complex procedure enables to obtain an overall survey of the origin of particular products, their catering, and sales. This means that the students obtain an idea about the complexity of relations existing among the origin of products, their sales and their consumption.

  16. Epidemic Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerner, Lars; Severgnini, Battista

    This paper studies the spread of the Black Death as a proxy for the intensity of medieval trade flows between 1346 and 1351. The Black Death struck most areas of Europe and the wider Mediterranean. Based on a modied version of the gravity model, we estimate the speed (in kilometers per day...

  17. Problems of Ukraine trade potential development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydiaga, Bohdan Volodymyrovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of Ukraine economy development dictates new requirements and rules of the mechanisms of formation and functioning of trade relations. Under the conditions of uncertainty of the external state vector, market globalization, growing competition in most sectors and areas of activity, the source of the successful development of commercial potential is the use of modern technology with low power consumption equipment. It is clear that large investments are needed to solve this problem. Traditionally foreign trade is one of the main factors of Ukraine economic dynamics. The structure of foreign trade allows to have an idea of the country competitive position in the world markets, to identify economic "niche"and development of trade relations in which it is competitive. Thus, the state and development of trade relations with key external partners have critical importance for Ukraine economic development.

  18. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  19. Current merchandising practices and characteristics of beef wholesale rib usage in three U.S. cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D M; Romans, J R; Costello, W J

    1994-01-01

    Packers/processors, supermarket meat managers, and restaurant meat purchasers were surveyed to determine industry utilization of the beef wholesale rib. Nine packer/processors representing > 52% of the U.S. steer-heifer slaughter reported that more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the ribs were wholesaled as ribeye, lip-on (IMPS 112A) subprimals and that its predominance in the market makes it the standard for pricing. For merchandising variations of this cut (e.g., ribeye, lip-off), packer prices are adjusted to lip-on bases according to the relative yield. Excess fat was the most common complaint about ribeye steaks, reported by 78% of the packer/processors. In particular, 71% of them reported the "kernel" fat near the center of a ribeye steak between the longissimus and spinalis dorsi muscles is quite difficult to trim out and represents the greatest problem in merchandising. Forty-two percent of supermarket meat managers and 58% of restaurant meat purchasers thought the fat content of beef ribeyes discouraged consumers from purchasing all beef. Kernel fat was specifically cited by 36% of the restaurateurs. Alternative merchandising strategies should be employed to minimize the negative value effects of kernel fat. Even with excess fat being a concern to approximately half of the beef rib buyers, most still bought lip-on ribeyes and trimmed excess fat away. Apparently, they made this choice of lower price per weight, even though price per trimmed serving might be similar to lip-off ribeyes. Excess fat is being transported from packer/processor to buyers in the form of lip-on ribeyes because of the price relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  1. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  2. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  3. New Trends of E-commerce Development Brought by Chinese International Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xu

    2015-01-01

    e-commerce as a new trade, in the form of the current globalization of information and economic globalization, is with its strong competitive advantage and vitality, which can quickly spread to all areas of international business, and it changes in the international economic landscape had a profound impact. E-commerce is based on the rapid development of computer technology and the wide application is on the use of the Internet and advanced communications technology. It changes the the past, traditional physical trading and cash transactions, in a virtualization market, merchandise presentation via the web. With the online payment, the use of advanced materials and distribution logistics systems are for tangible and intangible commodities trading of a new trade. This new types of transactions overturn the traditional transaction methods, so that the whole business process, whether it is in the application of domestic and foreign trade, and has achieved the goal of online shopping and trading. E-commerce international trade transaction cost savings improve the efficiency of transactions; it changes in the foreign trade transaction process, the development of third-party trading platform is increasing the competitiveness of enterprises and the creation of employment opportunities in all aspects of a country' s foreign trade and the overall economy have had a significant impact. E-commerce is to establish a new economic and trade order, the already mature in the world trading system and the order is being re-shuffling of the emerging e-commerce trade. China is the world' s top-ranked in the world' s total import and export trade power, is under the wave of e-commerce, the difficulties, we should seize opportunities, and meet challenges.

  4. PROPUESTA DE UNA ESTRATEGIA DE VISUAL MERCHANDISING PARA INCREMENTAR LAS VENTAS EN EL NEGOCIO DE ACUARIOS EN CHICLAYO, 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo principal proponer estrategias de visual merchandising para incrementar las ventas en el negocio de acuarios Chiclayo, para lo cual se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo y propositivo con un diseño no experimental.  Esta investigación propone estrategias de merchandising visual en Chiclayo como herramienta estratégica del marketing, lo cual es necesaria para rentabilizar y gestionar al máximo el punto de venta de la empresa puesto que se trata de un element...

  5. Merchandising at the point of sale: differential effect of end of aisle and islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Garrido-Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Merchandising at point of sale comprises a set of techniques aimed at encouraging the purchase at the point of sale. This paper analyzes the impact on sales of two of these techniques, especially used in the context of non-specialized food stores and rarely distinguished in academic research: (1 the presentation of product in the ends of the aisles or main aisles, leading from the side aisle access and, (2 the presentation of the product in islands within the main aisles. This research combines cross-sectional and longitudinal data and analyzes specific information on sales and commercial stimulus for all references in two large categories of products from a hypermarket over ten weeks. Results show that both the ends of aisle and the islands have a positive effect on sales and their relative importance depends on the nature of the category analyzed. There are also greater synergies between ends of aisle and price promotions. Finally, the results provide some evidence into the impact of the extension or termination of these merchandising stimuli.

  6. Model of Complementary Product Coordination Based on Positive Network Externalities of the Virtual Trading Community%基于 VTC 正网络外部性的互补品协调模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买生; 匡海波; 马慧

    2013-01-01

    Multi-channel distribution is becoming increasingly wide in the internet age .And the studies about e-channel also become more and more popular .Virtual trading community ( VTC) as an important plat of e-chan-nel , its roll is gaining a lot of attention .The manufacturer opening the e-channel in the Virtual Trading Commu-nity(VTC) based on the traditional channel is investigated in this paper .However, the VTC e-channel forms competition to the traditional retail channel and the retailer .In order to alleviate the channel conflict between the manufacturer and the retailer , the complementary product strategy is introduced .That is the manufacturer sells the complementary product to the retailer as a cost price , the retailer can sell the complementary product in the traditional channel or the VTC channel .The equilibrium prices and profits are analyzed in the different sale channel based on the Bertrand and Stackelberg models .And the efficiency of the complementary product strategy is illustrated by a numerical example .It is showed up that the combining of the complementary product strategy and subsidy or revenue sharing can coordinate the supply chain , realize win-win situation .%制造商在将产品批发给零售商的同时,在虚拟交易社区( Virtual trading community ,简称“VTC”)开通电子渠道,与零售商形成渠道竞争,为了缓解零售渠道和电子渠道并存的渠道冲突,引入互补品协调策略,即制造商将互补品以成本价格批发给零售商,零售商可在传统零售渠道,或VTC渠道进行销售,分析了当零售商在不同的渠道销售互补品时的均衡定价与利润,分别给出了Bertrand与Stackelberg 两种情况下的均衡,并通过算例说明了互补品协调策略的有效性,得到在不同互补品情况下,互补品合作策略可以与合作补贴、收益共享等方式结合进行协调,以达到双赢的效果。

  7. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-30

    rods, and clothespins. Agricultural products are the second largest category, including asparagus , mushrooms, shrimp, honey, roses, and cut flowers...of a country or any public entity has provided a subsidy on the manufacture, production , or export of the merchandise, and the ITC determines injury...of AD, CVD, or safeguard measures. In addition, bills seeking to give consuming industries that use products subject to AD or CVD proceedings a

  8. The Ningxia Trade Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    High-level forum helps strengthen China-Arab trade and economic cooperation Trade deals were plentiful at the first China-Arab States Economic and Trade Forum last month, with over 190 deals on investment cooperation

  9. Virtual Trade Circle Growth Base on Network Externalities:Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Test%基于网络外部性的虚拟商圈成长:理论分析和实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐红涛

    2015-01-01

    虚拟商圈的不断扩大使之成为学者关注的焦点。本文在深入分析虚拟商圈成长机理的基础上,利用面板数据的变系数模型测算了虚拟商圈的网络外部性,结论显示不同虚拟商圈的网络外部性具有显著差异,并且这种差异主要是来自于虚拟商圈性质、品牌以及商品专业化程度。平台式虚拟商圈的网络外部性强于自营式虚拟商圈,知名度大的虚拟商圈网络外部性大,商业综合化程度高的虚拟商圈网络外部性大。%Virtual business circle expansion has increasingly become the focus of scholars .We use the variable coefficient panel data model to measure the network externality basing on the analysis of the growth mechanism of virtual business circle .Results show that network externalities of different virtual business circle has significant differences , and this difference is mainly from nature , brand and product specialization degree the of the virtual business circle .Network externality of platform virtual business cir-cle is stronger than the proprietary virtual business circle , and well-known virtual business circle and large integrated commercial .

  10. Advancing Sustainable Development in Global Trade and Multilateral Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanWorld exports and imports are quickly recovering after the 2008-09 sharp decline in merchandise trade, as illustrated by global trade performances in the first and second quarters of 2010. In spite of this impressive recovery, domestic concerns in OECD countries about employment, competitiveness and China’s exchange rate policy have created a difficult political environment for further liberalisation under the Doha Round. Interestingly, developing countries, which were reluctant to engage in a new round of trade negotiations back in 2001, are now in the vanguard of those that wish for a swift conclusion of the talks, even if consensus on the ambitious ‘development package’ envisaged in Doha remains elusive. At the same time trade has been the subject of unprecedented attention and scrutiny in the climate change talks. In a world where multilateral cooperation is in crisis there is a dire need for the international community to generate new types of arrangements and innovative responses to the imperatives of development and the global transition to a low-carbon economy.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Rules of Origin in Member Countries of Pacific Alliance and Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Concha V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to compare the rules of origin between the regionalintegration agreement Pacific Alliance and the Colombia free trade agreements withChile, CAN and G3, in order to determine if there are significant differences betweenthem. During this research, evidence shows that there are differences in the rules of originamong free trade agreements, this could generate incentives to the exporter in theposition of choosing a specific trade agreement. The main conclusion is that not always the best option to export to Chile, Mexico or Peruis through the Pacific Alliance, as would be expected to be the most recent agreement.The choice of agreement depends on the merchandise to be exported, so it isrecommended to look for the tariff subheading beforehand and to analyze which treatywould be most beneficial to export, according to its characteristics and composition. 

  12. Korea’s Growth, Trade and Energy Imports: New Evidence for Regional Comprehensive Partnership Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Hoa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses economic and energy data analysis and econometric modeling to study the prospects and challenges of Korea’s 2003 FTA Roadmap (MOFAT 2013 in the form of potential comprehensive partnerships with its major trade and energy partners. It first reviews Korea’s international economic and trade relations in recent years with a focus on its major merchandise export destinations and energy imports, and their association with the country’s economic performance. A causal model of endogenous growth, gravity trade and energy imports for Korea in an economic integration theory framework (Tran 2012; Tran and Limskul 2013 is then developed to investigate the structural effects between these sectors. Empirical findings by system estimation are finally used to provide predictive policy implications for comprehensive partnerships between Korea and major resources-rich countries in the Middle East and potentially Iran.

  13. D.E.--Fashion Merchandising. Fiber and Fabric Identification. Kit No. 46. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ellen C.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on fiber and fabric identification are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education (fashion merchandising). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven…

  14. Distributive Education--Fashion Merchandising Wardrobe Coordination. Kit No. 76. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Barbara

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on wardrobe coordination are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education (fashion merchandising). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational…

  15. Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Byon, Kevin K.; Schoenstedt, Linda; Johns, Gary; Bussell, Leigh Ann; Choi, Hwansuk

    2012-01-01

    Various consumer values and perceived product attributes trigger consumptive behaviors of athletic team merchandise (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Likewise, using a principal component analysis technique on a student sample, a measurement scale was proposed that consisted of nine factors affecting the purchase of athletic team…

  16. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Marketing and Fashion Merchandising (Program CIP: 08.0705--General Retailing Operations). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for marketing I-II and fashion merchandising. Presented first are a program…

  17. Export Trade Performance of Indian Economy during and Following the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sumanjeet Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of 2008 the effects of global recession started getting reflectedin international trade. The fall in global demand and the slowing-down ineconomic growth translated into a substantial reduction in internationaltrade. It affected the cross-border trade of virtually all countries and economicsectors. Indian exports trade could not remain unaffected in a situation whereexternal demand was dwindling globally. The present paper reviews India’sexport performance during and following the global financial crisis. Indianexports started to decline in July 2008. It declined from US$ 17,095 millionin July 2008 to US$ 11,516 million in March 2009, which accounts for almost33 per cent decline. This growth contraction has come after a robust 25 percent-plus average export growth since 2003. But, as a result of governmentpolicy measures and recovery in global economy, India’s exports growthturned positive and exports grew by a whopping 54.1 per cent in March 2010and recorded the highest growth rate among the world’s top 70 economiesin merchandise exports. India’s merchandise exports during April 2010 at US$16.9 billion recorded a growth of 36.3 per cent as compared with a declineof 32.8 per cent registered in April 2009. Exports witnessed huge annualizedgrowth of 56.9 per cent to $25.9 billion in May 2011 in a bright spot for theIndian economy, which is battling high inflation amid signs of a slowdown.

  18. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  19. Trade Finance and Trade Collapse during the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of trade finance in the trade collapse of 2008-09 from the perspective of the Korean economy. We use two approaches. Firstly, as background to a more formal analysis, we make a casual observation on the behavior of aggregate data on trade finance, on which Korea has relatively abundant data. Aggregate data do not convincingly support the view that trade finance played an active role in causing the trade collapse. The measures of trade finance and the value of trade both dropped sharply, but the ratio of trade finance over trade was stable and in some cases increased during the crisis period. Secondly, using quarterly data on listed firms in Korea, we conduct panel estimations to test whether firms that are more dependent on external finance experienced greater export contraction during the crisis. Our regression analysis suggests that the financial vulnerability of firms, measured by various financial ratios, did not contribute to export contraction during the financial crisis. This observation largely applies even to smaller firms, who are usually thought of as being more vulnerable financially. However, we find that small exporters that relied heavily on cross-border trade payables or receivables suffered larger drops in export growth during the crisis.

  20. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  1. The Evolution of the Romanian Trade Balance in the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzea Elena Ramona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyse the evolution of the trade balance of Romania with the European Union Member States during the 22 years of transition from a centralised system to a democratic economic and social system and an efficient market economy. Nearly 25 years after the events of 1989, Romania has made great steps in order to resettle the entire economic system and to transform it into a functional one. However, the path was filled with inconsistent decisions and with a repositioning of the trajectory dictated by internal or external pressures. The research focuses on a brief analysis of the evolution of the trade between Romania and the EU Member States to determine the effect the integration had on the structural discrepancies between exports and imports.

  2. MODIFICATION OF COMPONENT PROTECTIONIST TRADE POLICIES INTO GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sereda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of theory and practice of international trade protectionism in modern conditions is made in article. The main reasons, positive and negative results of protectionism policy according to SOT functioning are defined. It’s proved the necessity of using nontariff instruments during formation and realization of external trade state policy.

  3. Influence of External Factors on the Taiwan Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Wen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the small market size and the low trading volume, emerging markets are, in general, shallow and easily affected by external factors such as the capital flows from foreign portfolio investment and the stock market fluctuations of their major trading partners. This study attempts to investigate how foreign portfolio investment and the trading partner’s equity market affect the local stock market and whether such impacts are persistent through time. Adopting the GARCH-EVT-Copula approac...

  4. Time as a Barrier to International Trade and Economic Growth: The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Reducing Time Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa Mostafa Ali Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between reducing time and international trade. Primarily, through the role of information and communication technology, within the trade facilities, in reducing the time required for import and export, and discussing its impact on economic growth. The Two-Stages Least Squares method was used to estimate the econometric model for 16 Arab countries during the period (2005-2011. The study concluded that the information and communication technology leads to time and cost reduction, thereby increasing the value of merchandise exports and imports. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the decline in time and economic growth.

  5. Study on Hangzhou Style Women's Dress Enterprises Visual Merchandising Innovation Ability%杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉发

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis of Hangzhou style women's dress enterprise visual merchandising innovation ability, the paper proposed the solution of improving display management ability and data analysis ability, strengthening the innovation of visual merchandising technology and improving visual merchandising innovation environment to finally realize the improvement of Hangzhou style women's dress enterprise's visual merchandising innovation ability.%本文通过对杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力现状的分析,提出增强陈列管理能力、提高数据分析能力、加强视觉营销的陈列技术创新、完善视觉营销创新环境等对策,最终实现杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力的提高.

  6. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental...

  7. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  8. The Social Dimension of EU Trade Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This special issue on the social dimension of European Union (EU) external trade relations analyses the commitment, capacity, and consequences of the EU as a global social power. In other words, is the EU committed to social principles? Does it have the capacity to engage in persuasive actions......? And what are the consequences of its socialising impact in promoting the social dimension of globalisation through trade? These are all difficult questions to ask of any actor in global politics, let alone a hybrid polity such as the EU. The special issue also addressed two tensions at the heart of the EU......'s social dimension in trade relations - human rights versus welfare concerns and exclusive competence versus lack of competence. These questions and tensions are rendered more methodologically problematic by the existence and activities of other actors and trading powers, such as the International Labour...

  9. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  10. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  11. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  12. Antecedents of Taiwanese adolescents' purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity: the moderating effect of celebrity adoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jyh-Shen; Huang, Chien-Yi; Chuang, Min-Chieh

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of adolescents' attitude toward an act (the degree to which the person had a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the act's behavior in question), perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control in predicting Taiwanese adolescents' intention to purchase the merchandise of a celebrity when they had different levels of celebrity adoration. The present results showed that the relative strengths of attitude toward the act and the perception of behavioral control in predicting purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity were stronger for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group. On the other hand, the relative importance of the perceived norm in predicting the attitude toward the act and the purchase intention was stronger for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group.

  13. Foreign Trade of China:Pains join happiness in 2005,Hard to Go Ahead in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin; Tao

    2005-01-01

    Foreign trade has become the most im portant issue in the country's economic situation.Domestic experts take the point of view that in 2006, the external demand will be still in a period of expansion, the surplus of foreign trade and export will witness a great increase, meaning that China will be possible to encounter more trade disputes in 2006 than in 2005.

  14. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  15. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  16. The International Trade Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different ...

  17. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  18. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....

  19. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  20. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  1. Informal transborder trade between México and Guatemala from permissive border perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Ruiz Juárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes processes of interaction, tension, conflict and economic interests in one of the major border areas between Mexico and Guatemala. Informal transborder trade involves several actors who have been building these processes pursuant to agency initiatives. Among these actors, Guatemalan transborder traders who come to buy goods from their Mexican counterparts (retail and wholesale shop owners play a prominent role, as do the camareros who transport the traders and their merchandise across the Suchiate River on rafts and other actors such as moneychangers and rickshaw drivers who participate in economic and social interaction in the region. From a conceptual perspective, supported by the dialectical relationship between the notions of a border the behavior of transborder actors, it is concluded that in the study area, an informal border-trade integration process has developed and its actors transcend the border, rendering that border permissive.

  2. Strategies to Save 50% Site Energy in Grocery and General Merchandise Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Hale, E.; Leach, M.

    2011-03-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology and main results of two recently published Technical Support Documents. These reports explore the feasibility of designing general merchandise and grocery stores that use half the energy of a minimally code-compliant building, as measured on a whole-building basis. We used an optimization algorithm to trace out a minimum cost curve and identify designs that satisfy the 50% energy savings goal. We started from baseline building energy use and progressed to more energy-efficient designs by sequentially adding energy design measures (EDMs). Certain EDMs figured prominently in reaching the 50% energy savings goal for both building types: (1) reduced lighting power density; (2) optimized area fraction and construction of view glass or skylights, or both, as part of a daylighting system tuned to 46.5 fc (500 lux); (3) reduced infiltration with a main entrance vestibule or an envelope air barrier, or both; and (4) energy recovery ventilators, especially in humid and cold climates. In grocery stores, the most effective EDM, which was chosen for all climates, was replacing baseline medium-temperature refrigerated cases with high-efficiency models that have doors.

  3. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    inequalities that existed between the rich and the poor countries, which impacted ..... dealt with the issue of whether Europe violated the requirement of non ..... International Trade Regime (2005), 20 Berkeley J, Gender L & Just.75, p.126.

  4. Can bilateral trade agreements help induce free trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Riezman, Raymond Glenn

    1999-01-01

    There has been growing debate about whether bilateral trade agreements are damaging multilateral efforts to eliminate barriers to international trade. This paper develops a model in which trading blocks always charge optimal tariffs and make trade agreements based on strategic considerations. We ask a very simple question. Does the fact that trading blocks can form bilateral trade agreements make Free trade less likely to occur? The answer is that it depends on the size distribution of the tr...

  5. Thinking on Promoting International Trade Competitive Advantage of Agricultural Products in Guangxi Based on CAFTA Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the status quo and the existing problems of international trade development of agricultural products in Guangxi based on CAFTA framework as follows: the international trade of agricultural products in Guangxi shows a trend of rapid growth, but the structure of export products is simple; the distribution of export market is irrational; the export goods are mainly the resources-intensive goods and labor-intensive goods, with low added value of goods; the brand of agricultural products lacks strong overall international competitiveness. In the context of CAFTA framework, in order to foster the international trade competitive advantage of agricultural products in Guangxi, corresponding suggestions are put forward as follows: the structure of export market should change from the current simple status to diversified trend; the structure of export goods should gradually change from the current factor endowment to the orientation of international market demand; the agricultural production should change from the traditional agricultural products to advantageous complementary characteristic agricultural products; the trade structure should change from the land-intensive agricultural products to labor-intensive and technology-intensive agricultural products; the structure of merchandise trade should change from low-price vicious competition to high added-value competition; the governmental function should change from traditional one-way-direction-oriented function to modern integrated-service-and-supervision-oriented function that meets the requirements of export.

  6. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  7. Ten Years of China's Accession to the WTO and Changes of Global Multilateral Trading System%Ten Years of China's Accession to the WTO and Changes of Global Multilateral Trading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China's accession to the World Trade Organization has been for ten years. This paper reviews the reform and development after China's accession to the World Trade Organization. In the past ten years, China has contributed to global multilateral trade system in many ways, such as promoting the development of international trade, opposing trade protectionism, faithfully carrying out multilateral trade rules, coordinating multilateral trade negotiations, actively participating in multilateral trading system construction as well as effectively safeguarding the interests of developing countries. For ten years, multilateral trading system has changed mainly in force structure, topic structure and external transparency. Looking into the future, multilateral trade system reform should focus on system construction and opposition to trade protectionism. Finally, based on practice experience in WTO these years, this paper reaches several enlightenments of China's participating in global economic management.

  8. The Ningxia Trade Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YUZHU; LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Trade deals were plentiful at the first China-Arab States Economic and Trade Forum last month,with over190 deals on investment cooperation totaling 203.56 billion yuan($30.52 billion)signed between China and Arab states and Muslim regions.The forum,held from September 26 to 30 in Yinchuan,capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,aimed to enhance investment and trade ties between China and Arab states.

  9. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zuoyan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  10. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  11. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  12. Regional Absorption of Terms of Trade Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Eduardo; Perobelli, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    As the process of global integration evolves, developing economies become more and more dependent upon the swings of international markets. Changes in the external environment and economic policy have played a major role in determining the performance of these economies. Terms of trade shocks represent one of the most important issues related to recent developments in low and middle income countries, whose effects have been widely studied in the economic literature. However, attention has alw...

  13. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  14. A Social Business Model for Poverty Alleviation through Collecting & Merchandising of Dry Fish: A Case Study from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Nazim; Uddin, Md Akther

    2015-01-01

    Maheshkhali is an Upazila of Cox's Bazar District in the Division of Chittagong, Bangladesh and there are about 300,000 people in this island. About 21.2% of the populations of Maheshkhali are living below lower poverty line and most of them are directly or indirectly employed in collecting, merchandising and exporting of salt, shrimp, sea-fish and dry fish. In the recent past, various development programs have been undertaken to eradicate poverty in this island but failed to reach to the poo...

  15. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  16. Merchandising social e os códigos da imagem televisiva: a construção de significados na Telenovela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plábio Marcos Martins Desidério

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como a imagem televisiva desempenha um papel importante na construção do merchandising social nas telenovelas contemporâneas. Com isso, será utilizada a perspectiva de Martine Joly, fundamentada em Roland Barthes, as discussões proposta pro John Fisk, cujo estudioso ressalta a televisão como um discurso e a abordagem de Stuart Hall sobre codificação e decodificação. Perceber como o merchandising social está presente na imagem televisiva e essa constituída por códigos contribui para aproximar a prática do merchandising social e o público.

  17. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  18. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section 351.408 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... economy countries. (a) Introduction. In identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will calculate normal value by valuing the nonmarket economy producers' factors...

  19. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  20. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  1. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  2. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  3. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  4. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  5. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  6. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and developing countries. ... The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... countries like Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC nations) have emerged as trade .... International Trade and Trade Relations: The Unending Issues ..... that the present media campaign of Nigerians/Nigeria as good.

  8. Free Trade: A Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

  9. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  10. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  11. A Trade Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s growing trade surplus has become a major concern for some of its major trade partners, such as the United States and the European Union. As the latest statistics from China’s Customs Administration suggest, while the country’s export growth rate fell 1.2 percentage points and that of imports rose 2.4

  12. Bilateralism and free trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Goyal (Sanjeev); S. Joshi

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been a great deal of research on the relative merits of multilateralism and bilateralism and their implications for the nature of the trading regime between countries. In this paper we explore the scope of bilateral free-trade agreements as a foundation for

  13. Informed Option Trading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe use a sequential trade model to clarify two mechanisms following the introduction of an option that may lead to increased efficiency in the underlying. On the one hand, market makers learn from trades in the option market and set more accurate prices. On the other hand, the proportion

  14. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  15. A Trade Off?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s trade surplus amounted to $177.5 billion last year, an increase of $75.5 billion or a massive 74 percent over 2005. Trade officials said it is still within a normal range and its upward trend is due to the country’s industrial and macroeconomic s

  16. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital constrain

  17. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  18. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  19. Master of Many Trades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHUA

    2004-01-01

    "My major is business administration. I have also worked in finance andinternational trade and have had my own fashion boutique and restaurant. Iseem born toit from one industry to another," says Fan Jinghui, director of Sino-Canadian Council for the Promotion of International Trade.

  20. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s foreign trade gains momentum but still face suncertainties China is taking up a larger piece’of the global trade pie as its 2009 I exports accounted for almost one’10th of the world total that year. The Ministry of Commerce(MOFCOM)

  1. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals...

  2. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  3. Do Austerity Measures Harm International Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Iulian CHIRIŢOIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the trade relations between Romania and the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain in order to verify whether the exports of Romania have been positively or negatively affected by the austerity measures adopted by these Eurozone periphery countries, thus diminishing Romania’s export performance in such markets. Hence, our main research question is whether austerity measures harm or affect in any way the inflows and outflows of international trade in the studied countries. To assess this hypothesis, we focused on the external trade relations, and their linkages with the macroeconomic environment, rather than the competitiveness of a state explained by a detailed sectoral analysis. In this respect, we use comparative and descriptive statistics in order to observe the consequences of the internal devaluation, and implicitly austerity measures, on the PIIGS-Romanian trade relations. Our findings suggest that the effects of austerity measures are not homogenous because they depend on the scale of trade exchanges and on the way in which the austerity measures were applied.

  4. The trade effects of endogenous preferential trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Larch, Mario; Staub, Kevin E; Winkelmann, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Recent work by Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) establishes an empirical modelling strategy which takes full account of the structural, non-(log-)linear impact of trade barriers on trade in new trade theory models. Structural new trade theory models have never been used to evaluate and quantify the role of endogenous preferential trade agreement (PTA) membership for trade in a way which is consistent with general equilibrium. Apart from this gap, the present paper aims at delivering an empiric...

  5. Uranium and free trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This report was prepared by a working group of the Committee on International Trade in Uranium of the Uranium Institute. The report describes the general benefits of free trade and their relevance in the uranium market, and compares government restrictions on Western world uranium trade with those in other commodity markets. It is not directly concerned with restrictions designed to discourage nuclear weapons proliferation. The Uranium Institute and its members fully support the objective of nuclear non-proliferation. The report takes as given the current non-proliferation regime and focuses on economic and commercial restrictions imposed by governments on international trade in uranium, recognising that governments will always have a special interest in uranium trade owing to its potential weapons use. (author).

  6. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  7. Preferential trade agreements and their role in world trade

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Denis

    2006-01-01

    The author investigates the effects of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on bilateral trade flows using a comprehensive database of PTAs in force and a detailed matrix of world trade. He shows that total trade between PTA partners is a poor proxy for preferential trade (trade in tariff lines where preferences are likely to matter): while the former amounted to one-third of global trade in 2000-02, the latter was between one-sixth and one-tenth of world trade. His gravity model estimates in...

  8. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  9. From Idealism to Realism? EU Preferential Trade Agreement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garcia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the EU’s ‘conflicted power’ in trade has played out within its preferential trade agreement (PTA strategies with third parties. It does this by providing an overview of how approaches to the EU’s external trade policies have evolved over time, especially since the end of the Cold War. Tracing changes in discourse in the EU’s consolidated trade policy demonstrates how the policy objectives have evolved from what could be characterised as a soft and even normative power to a much more realist one, attempting to safeguard its position in the international economic order. Notwithstanding these changes, explained by a combination of international context and ideational preferences, an underlying overall continuity has remained in terms of the main economic interests to be realised through trade policy, which presents a portrait of the EU as a rational and realist (if sometimes conflicted actor in the global economy.

  10. FDI Inflows and Trade Imbalances: Evidence from Developing Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Anh-Dao Tran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the effects of FDI inflows on external imbalances in the developing and transition countries in Asia during the period 1991-2011. To this end, we extend the conventional trade balance model by reformulating the determinants of exports and imports. Our empirical findings suggest that current FDI inflows increase trade deficits, leading to negative consequences for the host country’s macroeconomic stability. However, the coefficient estimated becomes negative when we lag the FDI variable, implying that FDI inflows worsen the trade balance first and then improve it. We also find that a real depreciation tends to worsen trade balances because the usual Marshall-Lerner constraint is magnified by the import content of exports. Lastly, higher domestic absorption and larger productive capacity in the manufacturing sector improve the trade balance. Thelatter result supports the export-investment nexus, one of the most distinctive features of Asia.

  11. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  12. Globalization Crises, Trade,and Development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterizat......Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its...

  13. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  14. Trade and Portuguese Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNO CARLOS LEITÃO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the link between trade and migration flows using a gravity model for the period 1995-2007 between Portugal and European Union countries. We also include in our sample the Portuguese speaking countries (PALOPS, i.e., ex-colonies. Globalization drives people to migrate, in some countries, immigration being more pronounced las in Portugal, in last decade, this country receiving foreign residents. This is a new reality to Portuguese economy. For many years, the Portuguese have emigrated to European countries, the United States of America and other countries. Currently, Portugal is witnessing a reverse trend, Brazilian, Cape Verde, Ukrainian and Romanian communities choose Portugal as a destination country. We find evidence that immigration has a positive influence in bilateral trade. We also introduce economic size and regional trade agreements (RTA; these proxies confirming a positive impact of bilateral trade. These results show that the gravity model can explain the pattern of bloc’s trade. Our results also confirm the hypothesis that trade increases if the transport decreases. Classification-JEL:F14,F22Keywords:Trade, Immigration, Gravity model; PortugalJournal:Romanian Journal of EconomicsPages:38-48Volume:31Issue:2(40Year:2010(XXMonth: DecemberFile-URL: http://www.revecon.ro/articles/2010-2/2010-2-2.pdf

  15. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  16. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  17. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  18. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  19. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  20. Trading sulphur emissions in Europe: 'Guided Bilateral Trade'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, S.; Folmer, H.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Hordijk, L.; Ierland, van E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a system of `guided permit trading' is developed for SO2 emissions reduction which considers permit trading as a bilateral and sequential process. This implies that in order to meet the deposition targets at the end of the trading process, not every single trade transaction has to meet

  1. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths...

  2. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  3. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  4. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  5. Chilly Trade Winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Traders brave the ill effects of the global economic crisis in one of China’s largest export centers Hongye Cartons Packing Salesroom in Yiwu sells carton packages just across the street from Yiwu International Trade City,a mam-

  6. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  7. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  8. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  9. Insurance with frequent trading

    OpenAIRE

    José Penalva

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the dynamic management of risk in an economy with discrete time consumption and endowments and continuous trading. I study how agents in such an economy deal with all the risk in the economy and attain their Pareto optimal allocations by trading in a few natural securities: private insurance contracts and a common set of derivatives on the aggregate endowment. The parsimonious nature of the implied securities needed for Pareto optimality suggests that in such contexts comp...

  10. News and Trading Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    indexes or small groups of forex series. Although I use a shorter time period – five years for the work on technical analysis and machine learning, only...I start with practitioner-developed technical analysis constructs, sys- tematically examining their ability to generate trading rules profitable on...a large universe of stocks. Then, I use these technical analysis constructs as the underlying representation for a simple trading rule leaner, with

  11. Trade Back on Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is taking up a larger piece of the global trade pie as its 2009 exports accounted for almost one 10th of the world total that year.The Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)released a report on April 27 summarizing foreign trade in 2009 and the first quarter of 2010.MOFCOM also cautioned exporters of international market volatili ties in the next half of 2010.

  12. 角色商品化的法律保护研究%Research on Legal Protection of Character Merchandising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯淑英

    2015-01-01

    如何平衡动漫角色原著作者、名人和二次开发利用的商品开发商等利益,目前在法律保护的具体适用上仍存在一定空白,笔者从网络商品的形象广告、动漫角色商品化等实例出发,引出对我国人格特征商品化、角色商品化保护状态的探讨。并例举了美国、日本、德国和世界知识产权组织在这方面的法律规定和特点,以期提供思路。进而结合现有的市场经济需求,在分析借鉴传统法律的规定和不足的基础上,从不同侧面对我国商品化权保护提出可行性方案。%As to how to balance the original creators’interests of cartoon characters,celebrities and commodity development business of secondary development and utilization,there is no con-crete applied legal protection.Starting from such practical examples as network advertising,ani-mation characters'commercialization and so on,protection status of personality characteristics merchandising and character merchandising in our country is discussed.Legal regulations and fea-tures in this respect in America,Japan,Germany and the world intellectual property organization are illustrated in order to provide train of thought.And then combining with the current demand of the market economy,on the basis of traditional legal provisions and the insufficiency,feasible plan for protecting the rights of character merchandising in our country is put forward from dif-ferent aspects.

  13. Assessing tobacco marketing receptivity among youth: integrating point of sale marketing, cigarette package branding and branded merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sandra; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos, Inti; Mejía, Raúl; Morello, Paola; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    As countries prohibit tobacco marketing through traditional channels, marketing at point of sale (PoS) and through tobacco packaging is increasingly important for promoting tobacco consumption. Assess the validity of a novel marketing receptivity index that considers frequency of PoS exposures, tobacco brand recall and ownership of branded merchandise. Data come from a cross-sectional survey of 3172 secondary school students in Argentina. Questions assessed frequency of going to stores where tobacco is often sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages with brand name removed and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level marketing receptivity index was derived: low PoS exposure only; high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; recall of 2 or more brands; and ownership of branded merchandise. Indicators of marketing receptivity and smoking involvement were regressed on the index, including in adjusted models that controlled for sociodemographics, social influences and sensation seeking. Among never-smokers, the index had independent positive associations with smoking susceptibility (ie, adjusted OR (AOR)2v1=1.66; AOR3v1=1.64; AOR4v1=2.95), willingness to try a specific brand (ie, AOR2v1=1.45; AOR3v1=2.38; AOR4v1=2.20) and positive smoking expectancies (ie, Badj 2v1=0.09; Badj 3v1=0.18; Badj 4v1=0.34). A more marked dose-response independent association was found with current smoking behaviour (ie, AOR2v1=2.47; AOR3v1=3.16; AOR4v1=3.62). The marketing receptivity index was associated with important variation in smoking-related perceptions, intentions and behaviour among Argentine adolescents. Future research should determine the predictive validity and generalisability of this measure to other contexts, including the explanatory power gained by integrating cigarette package brand recognition tasks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  15. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  16. 12 consensuses gained in the Annual EU-China Trade Talks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Brussels, on June 12th, 2007, China's Minister of Commerce Bo Xilai, European Commissioner for External Relations and Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero Waldner, and European trade commissioner, Peter Mandelson, co-chaired the meeting.

  17. Trading water to improve environmental flow outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Franklin, Brad; Loch, Adam; Kirby, Mac; Wheeler, Sarah Ann

    2013-07-01

    As consumptive extractions and water scarcity pressures brought about by climate change increase in many world river basins, so do the risks to water-dependent ecological assets. In response, public or not for profit environmental water holders (EWHs) have been established in many areas and bestowed with endowments of water and mandates to manage water for ecological outcomes. Water scarcity has also increasingly spawned water trade arrangements in many river basins, and in many instances, EWHs are now operating in water markets. A number of EWHs, especially in Australia, begin with an endowment of permanent water entitlements purchased from irrigators. Such water entitlements typically have relatively constant interannual supply profiles that often do not match ecological water demand involving flood pulses and periods of drying. This article develops a hydrologic-economic simulation model of the Murrumbidgee catchment within the Murray-Darling Basin to assess the scope of possibilities to improve environmental outcomes through EWH trading on an annual water lease market. We find that there are some modest opportunities for EWHs to improve environmental outcomes through water trade. The best opportunities occur in periods of drought and for ecological outcomes that benefit from moderately large floods. We also assess the extent to which EWH trading in annual water leases may create pecuniary externalities via bidding up or down the water lease prices faced by irrigators. Environmental water trading is found to have relatively small impacts on water market price outcomes. Overall our results suggest that the benefits of developing EWH trading may well justify the costs.

  18. Legal protection of merchandising right of film and television characters%论影视角色商品化权的法律保护∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟萍; 薛行秀

    2015-01-01

    “刘老根”商标抢注现象引发了人们对影视角色商业性使用问题的关注。经深入探究发现,这里存在的权利并非传统意义上的知识产权,而是一种新型权利———影视角色商品化权。对影视角色商品化权的概念进行界定,指出其在商品化权中的位置,讨论现有影视角色商品化权保护模式存在的法律缺陷,并据此提出我国影视角色商品化权保护体系的构建设想。%The trademark registration phenomenon of "LIU Lao-gen" attracts the attention of commercial use of film and television characters. Through deep exploration and analysis, it is found that this right is not the traditional intellectual property right, but a new type of right:merchandising right of film and television characters. The concept of merchandising right of film and television characters is defined, the status of it in merchandising right is pointed out, the legal shortages of existing protection mode of merchandising right of film and television characters is discussed, and the constructing idea of protecting system is proposed to the merchandising right of film and television characters in China accordingly.

  19. Emissions trading: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietenberg, T.H

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Evolution of Emissions Trading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Evolution of Design Features...

  20. Trade Union Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T.

    1982-01-01

    The provision of trade union education is a function of the structure of trade unionism which, in turn, is a function of the structure of collective bargaining. Trade union structure is taken to include size distribution, distribution of power, and objectives of trade unions. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex BN8 5DL,…

  1. 何谓trade paperback?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练小川

    2010-01-01

    在英美出版业,有好几个与trade这个字有关的专业词汇,例如:tradebook,trade publishing,trade paperback。trade book译为“大众图书”,trade publishing自然就译成“大众出版”。

  2. The determinants of trade credit use : the case of the Tanzanian rice market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Kihanga, Ernest; Lensink, Robert; Lutz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Most small businesses in the developing economies suffer from a lack of access to formal external finance. One important alternative source of finance for these entrepreneurs is trade credit. Applying a unique data-set containing data on specific trade relations between rice wholesalers and rice ret

  3. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  4. Economic Culture and Trading Behaviors in Information Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhayyan, Khalid N.

    2012-01-01

    There are four main components for influencing traders' behaviors in an information market context: trader characteristics, organizational characteristics, market design, and external information. This dissertation focuses on investigating the impact of individual trader characteristics on trading behaviors. Two newly-developed constructs,…

  5. Economic Culture and Trading Behaviors in Information Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhayyan, Khalid N.

    2012-01-01

    There are four main components for influencing traders' behaviors in an information market context: trader characteristics, organizational characteristics, market design, and external information. This dissertation focuses on investigating the impact of individual trader characteristics on trading behaviors. Two newly-developed constructs,…

  6. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  7. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  8. THE PROBLEM OF EXTERNAL DEBT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    to be not very profitable, or even unprofitable at all, and in some cases, external ... of trade for debtor countries on the international commodity market did not evoke ... 2) Protectionist policy on the market of developed countries,. 3) Wavering ...

  9. New Curbs on Processing Trade for A New Trade Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China recently announced a new policy that seeks to rein in the development of processing trade in restricted commodities, in a bid to optimize the country's exporting structure, put strong curbs on the export of "high-energy-consuming, highpolluting and resource-dependent"products, and discourage the export of commodities with low added value and poor technology content, so as to gradually eliminate trade frictions,and promote trade balance to ease tension caused by the too wide trade surplus. The change is instrumental in upgrading the present processing trade system, transforming the pattern of foreign trade growth mode,and promoting the sustainable development of social economy.

  10. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths......, at the international level, industrial lobbyism was non-significant. Only the 'fossil fuel lobby' played a role. Third, at the national level, one could expect strong political opposition from industry lobbies in case quotas are actually to be distributed at firm level. But trade among countries may benefit industry......, the best 'second-best' solution is argued to be that of trade between governments....

  11. Does Trade Help to Explain Tourism Demand? The Case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry has expanded in recent years due to internal and external environmental forces. These forces, income, trade, consumer price, and geographical distance are interconnected. Accounting for imperfect competition and increasing returns to scale, the new trade theory offers the explanation of dynamic gains from international trade. A large number of studies attempt to test the hypothesis that there is a link between trade and tourism. Most of the studies show that trade and tourism are positively correlated. This paper specifies static and dynamic panel demand models for tourism in Portugal and estimates demand equations using tourist inflow data for the period 1995-2006. We find that bilateral trade, immigration, border, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of tourism to Portugal. The dynamic panel data approach indicates that trade, population, and income are more important determinants than relative price.

  12. Análise de estratégias de merchandising em telenovelas http://dx.doi.org/10.15601/1983-7631/rt.v7n13p157-167

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Oliveira Santos Garner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A televisão é um dos meios de comunicação e entretenimento mais utilizados pela sociedade. Dentre os programas de televisão mais assistidos no Brasil temos as telenovelas. Além de desenvolverem teledramaturgias de qualidade, também são utilizadas como o principal veículo de merchandising, no intuito de divulgar e estimular a compra de produtos e serviços. Este artigo faz uma análise do merchandising nas telenovelas da Rede Globo Sangue Bom e Amor à Vida. Seu objetivo foi identificar as principais ferramentas de merchandising usadas nas telenovelas, a fim de influenciar nos hábitos de consumo e comportamento dos telespectadores. A metodologia empregada foi a análise de conteúdo, por meio de categorias de análise.Palavras-chave: Telenovela; Rede Globo; Merchandising

  13. Regulation of health practitioners by trade practices and fair trading legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2009-02-01

    In a variety of situations, particularly those characterised by commerciality, corporate structures and unregistered practitioners, there are major limitations to traditional regulation by health boards and councils, as well as hearings by external tribunals. Part of the difficulty lies with the ability of external bodies to award compensation to complainants/notifiers proved to have suffered adverse consequences from proven unprofessional conduct. This column advances suggestions for reform of the powers of external tribunals to redress this deficit. It also reviews the benefits of an associated form of regulation by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and offices of fair trading to enable consumer protection. It reviews recent decisions in the Federal Court of Australia and the Supreme Court of Victoria in such matters as well as recommendations in 2008 by the Victorian Health Services Commissioner.

  14. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  15. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  16. Learning with Trade Unionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooton, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that the study of trade unions be included in the school curriculum. Argues that learning about relationships between unions and management through interviews, observations, and simulations can enhance the overall approach to teaching about controversial topics. Gives examples of some attempts to do this in schools. (TW)

  17. DISMAYED OVER TRADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen. That’s the number of China’s actual working days in February, largely due to the Spring Festival. Yet somehow, in such a short working month, exports soared to new highs, causing the trade surplus to boom once again. According to statistics fr

  18. Intra-industry trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”. Intra-indus

  19. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  20. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  1. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  2. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    Aryanization is associated with Nazi Germany's policies to exclude Jews in the Germany from the economy in the pre-war years, but I will show it was a global policy from 1937. The utopian goal of international Aryanization was the total removal of Jews who traded with Germany anywhere in the world...

  3. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  4. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  5. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  6. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness la

  7. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    The longer the time taken for import/export procedures or journey, the more expensive ... , p10 (Last accessed April 2014). 7 Jean-Paul .... environment, product standards, technical barriers to trade etc. in order to lower cost of moving ..... consumer electronics, and auto spare parts. For all other ...

  8. Energy trading; Trading de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glachant, J.M. [Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France); Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E. [and others

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  9. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    When building up competences, a subsidiary of a multinational corporation (MNC) may rely onexternal knowledge sources like customers, suppliers, competitors or local science centers. Internalsourcing is also available through knowledge offered by headquarters or other affiliates. Thequestion...... is whether the two kinds of sources are mutual exclusive. A dilemma or organizationaltrade-off is foreseeable, since the more the subsidiary adapts its knowledge creation processes tohost country institutions, the less it will be able to utilize internal knowledge sources due to theinstitutional distance...... between the external and internal networks. However, newer organizationalforms, like the concept of the `differentiated MNC', imply a relatively smooth flow of knowledgeinside the MNC, indicating that we should not expect an organizational trade-off between internaland external sources. The subsidiary...

  10. The Appeal for Trade Liberalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China takes advantage of APEC summit to encourage action against trade protectionism since the outbreak of the financial crisis last year, top Chinese leaders have been consistent in their appeals for trade and investment

  11. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  12. Cashing In On Free Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) is, of course, not a zero-sum game. Responding to concerns over escalating competition associated with free trade, ASEAN Secretary General Surin Pitsuwan said in a press release issued at

  13. Extracting geography from trade data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuke; Wu, Tianhao; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding international trade is a fundamental problem in economics-one standard approach is via what is commonly called the "gravity equation", which predicts the total amount of trade Fi j between two countries i and j as

  14. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  15. Changes in China's Trade Policy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xi; Zhang Yong

    2010-01-01

    @@ We will steadily develop foreign trade. The main issues are to exploit new markets, adjust the trade structure and promote trade balance", Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao delivered a government work report at the opening meeting of the annual full session of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, which started in Beijing on March 5, declaring a new development path of Chinese foreign trade in 2010.

  16. Do Insider Trading Laws Work?

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    By calculating an estimated measure of undetected insider trading, this paper shows that profits made by informed corporate insiders prior to tender offer announcements increase after the first enforcement of insider trading laws. I analyze the effects of Insider Trading regulation on a sample of 5,099 acquisitions in 56 different countries, and estimate the profits due to insider trading from the abnormal volume in the weeks prior to the announcement, under the assumption that insiders purch...

  17. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  18. How Insiders Traded before Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: U.K. company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. We investigate the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1893 to 1907 in the U.K. Although insider trading was profitable, we find relat

  19. A New Way To Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China expands yuan settlement in trade with Russia, while allowing the yuan to trade against the ruble Cross-border trade between China and Russia was bountiful throughout the 1990s as a group of Chinese and Russian dealers,nicknamed the daoye, or profiteers who buy low and sell high, shuttled consumer goods

  20. How Insiders Traded before Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: U.K. company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. We investigate the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1893 to 1907 in the U.K. Although insider trading was profitable, we find

  1. 76 FR 69239 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales to..., annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses, accounts receivables, and...

  2. 77 FR 64463 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ..., the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e- commerce sales, year-end..., accounts receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales..., annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total and detailed operating expenses,...

  3. Study of the Construction of Good Faith Culture in Merchandising Business%商业企业诚信文化建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱涛

    2013-01-01

      诚信是商业企业可持续发展的必备品质。本文列举了商业企业诚信缺失的主要现象和主要表现,分析了造成问题的主要原因,提出了加强商业企业诚信文化建设的对策措施。以某商场创建“三信三优”品牌为例,介绍了诚信文化建设的主要做法。%The good faith is the necessary quality for sustainable development of merchandising business. The paper lists the appearances of flaws of good faith culture in merchandising business, analyzes its forming reason, puts forward the corresponding countermeasure on the cultural construction of good faith in merchandising business. As an example, main methods of department store are introduced.

  4. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  5. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  6. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  7. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  8. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  9. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  10. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  11. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model......’ has spread far beyond the Anglo-Saxon countries and is now commonplace for unions as a way to reach new worker constituencies. Thus, even in ‘institutionally secure’ countries like Germany and the Nordic countries, unions are employing organising strategies while at the same time trying to defend...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...

  12. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  13. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  14. Does trade affect child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  15. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  16. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  17. Trading Out of Poverty: Some Major Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikić, Mia

    2000-01-01

    What are the ways in which trade (trade liberalisation) may have impact on poverty? This paper looks at some of the findings of the analytical literature on trade-poverty linkages that operate through the impact of trade on income distribution, and through the impact of trade on economic growth. This paper further asks the question whether trade effects on poverty depend on a particular type of trade liberalisation. In particular, it exposes the weaknesses of non-reciprocal trade liberalisati...

  18. Tapping Into Trading Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Ali

    2011-01-01

    China’s online trading entrepreneurs rush to meet growing demand of netizen shoppers AS the sun rises over the Beijing Zoo area, many would be mistaken in thinking that the animals will be the only ones reacting to the change of light.While most Beijing residents are still asleep,an entire workforce is already on the go,seven days a week.These

  19. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  20. Online Digital Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician Alecu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main options a digital content creator has in order to obtain money by online trading of digital works. There are multiple ways to get paid for the digital products, like licensing, for example, however this article tries to present the most successful business models targeting the online market. The exclusive rights stated by the copyright laws are helping the authors to maximize to potential advantages coming from their digital creations.

  1. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    historically established method for conducting maritime trade warfare is Maritime Interdiction Operations ( MIO ). In the context of this paper, the...operating far from friendly shores. Accordingly, this tool would be most useful against nations with less capable navies. An advantage of MIO in...or collateral damage. 6 Large-scale MIO can be resource intensive and time consuming, and the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard have limited ships and

  2. Economics of Personal Data Management: Fair Personal Information Trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasidou, A.; Efraimidis, P. S.; Katos, V.

    Individuals today have no control over the way their personal information is being used even though they are the ones to suffer the consequences of any unwanted uses of their information. We propose addressing this externality through the creation of a market for personal information, where licenses to access individuals' personal information will be voluntarily traded. Through this market, satisfactory compensation to the information owner is provided, whilst personal information remains under the owner's control. Using cryptographic tools and micropayments we propose and develop a prototype for personal information trades where the above principles are implemented and tested.

  3. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  4. Trade across frontiers: an overview of International trade before the advent of modern economic system in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboyade Sunday Ariyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El área ahora designadaNigeria tiene una larga historia de las comunidades de comercio a través de las fronteras con las tierras vecinas y distantes mucho antes de la llegada de los europeos y la introducción de los modernos sistema de comercio internacional. Las diversas organizaciones políticas que surgieron y que controlan diferentes partes de la zona participa-ron y se beneficiaron de manera efectiva del comercio de larga distancia, lo que les dio la oportunidad de intercambiar sus excedentes por lo que les faltaba, pero que estaba disponible en otros lugares, lejos o cerca. Con referencia a la naturaleza del medio ambiente de Nigeria, la especialización regional, las relaciones de comercio exterior y la capacidad de la economía tradicional, este trabajo examina el comercio internacional de la Nigeria precolonial y su im-pacto en la economía. Se concluye que la distorsión del comercio interregional y de la estructura de la economía nigeriana precolonial comenzó con la penetración gradual de los euro-peos en el interior del país para llevar a cabo la compra directa de palma a los productores después de la abolición del comercio de esclavos.     Palabras clave: Comercio, Comercio internacional, el comercio a larga distancia, el comercio exterior, la economía nigeriana.  _____________________ Abstract: The area now designated Nigeria has a long history of communities trading across frontiers with neighbours and distant lands long be-fore the arrival of the Europeans and the introduction of modern international trading system. The various polities that emerged and con-trolled different parts of the area participated effectively and benefited from long distance trade, which afforded them the opportunity to exchange their abundance for what they lacked but which was available elsewhere whether far or near. With reference to the nature of the Nigerian environment, regional specialisation, external trade relations and the capacity

  5. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    non-tariff barriers, and time in transit costs). Our simulations for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with a selected group of African countries show that this is very much a second-best option, and the inclusion of most of the significant economies in Africa generates the best results. Only in the event......The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...

  6. TERMS OF TRADE EVOLUTION, CAUSES AND EFFECTS: CASE STUDY ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrea Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms of trade are meant to show the ratio by which a country is different in the level and dynamics of revenues from the exchange made by different categories of products on the external markets. The level of recorded revenues from the commercialization of products and services varies from country to country, and there is rarely a mutually beneficial exchange situation from these operations. Trade efficiency analysis lies in the determination of the terms of trade. In the current paper, international developments are analyzed based on net terms of trade index used by UNCTAD. Statistical data are provided by the World Bank, where export and import price index and the volume of imports and exports by countries were considered. The classification of the countries has been done according to the geographical orientation and based on the purchasing power parity, thus creating two tables, the first table highlighting seven regions, and the second table with seven categories of states including OPEC and non-OPEC members. The terms of trade evolution are influenced by certain important factors in the production process of goods and services. Some of these factors are mentioned: labour productivity; changes in commodity prices; yet, only the last factor is examined in this paper. Based on World Bank commodity price data, the evolution of major energy inputs such as crude oil, gas, coal, and major industrial raw materials such as aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, zinc, silver, gold, platinum and iron was analysed and interpreted. For Romania, the data on terms of trade evolution shows a dramatic situation. If terms of trade development presented a cyclical evolution, the economy as a whole would send an optimistic message. In contrast, the data presented in the following paper will show that our country has registered continuous depreciation of the terms of trade ratio, with a direct impact on external trade balance deficits, a rising external debt

  7. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  8. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  9. Subprimal purchasing and merchandising decisions for pork: relationship to retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1996-01-01

    Boxed pork was obtained to represent four different purchase specifications (different anatomical separation locations and[or] external fat trim levels) common in the pork industry to conduct a study of retail yields and labor requirements. Bone-in loins (n = 180), boneless loins (n = 94), and Boston butts (n = 148) were assigned randomly to fabrication styles within subprimals. When comparing cutting styles within subprimals, it was evident that cutting style affected percentage of retail yield and cutting time. When more bone-in cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 92.80 +/- .61 to 95.28 +/- .45%, and processing times ranged from 222.57 +/- 10.13 to 318.99 +/- 7.85 s, from the four suppliers. When more boneless cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 71.12 +/- 1.10 to 77.92 +/- .77% and processing times ranged from 453.49 +/- 8.95 to 631.09 +/- 15.04 s from the different loins. Comparing boneless to bone-in cuts from bone-in loins resulted in lower yields and required greater processing times. Significant variations in yields and times were found within cutting styles. These differences seemed to have been the result of variation in supplier fat trim level and anatomical separation (primarily scribe length).

  10. Mechanizing the Merc: The Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Rise of High-Frequency Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Donald

    2015-07-01

    This article investigates one important strand in the evolution of today's high-frequency trading or HFT (the fast, automated trading of large numbers of financial securities). That strand is the history of the automation of trading on what has become the world's most prominent futures exchange, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange or Merc. The process of the automation of the Merc was episodic, often driven by responses to perceived external threats, and involved both "local" politics and transnational considerations. The article discusses the relationship between the Merc's automation and the embodied, deeply social trading practices of the Merc's open-outcry trading pits, and compares how the Merc was mechanized with the quite different-and in a sense more explicitly "social"-project of automation launched by the Merc's rival, the Chicago Board of Trade.

  11. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  12. ASEAN’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Leu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a diversification explanation in order understand the development of PTAs in Southeast Asia. I argue that an important reason why ASEAN states participate in PTAs has been to diversify existing trade ties and to reduce overdependence on a narrow range of export markets. Southeast Asian countries have formed PTAs with markets with which they had weak or unexplored economic relations, as demonstrated by three case analyses: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA, the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA and the ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP. To maximise the economic gains and the diversification effects of PTA participation, ASEAN countries have pursued a strategy of strengthening economic unity while keeping external economic linkages as diversified as possible. Although East Asia, and especially China, was an important alternative market to reduce ASEAN’s dependence on trade with America, ASEAN countries have also pursued PTAs with a number of other trading partners. This paper explains how PTAs have helped ASEAN states to develop more policy autonomy in their trading environment.

  13. The Free Trade Area of the Americas and MERCOSUR-European Union Free Trade Processes: Can They Learn Something from Each Other?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Devlin

    2000-01-01

    The FTAA process itself has already generated important positive externalities for the hemisphere and the multilateral system. It has provided a regular forum in which 34 countries'; trade delegations have gotten to personally know each other better on a first name basis. This increasing personal espirit des corps not only has enhanced the FTAA process, but has also provided a new stage for resolving bilateral trade issues and undertaking new initiatives. Since the baseline for the FTAA is th...

  14. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...... demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show...

  15. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  16. Four essays in international trade: Trade flows in food products

    OpenAIRE

    Straume, Hans-Martin

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays within the field of international trade economics, as well as an introduction chapter. All four papers are empirical studies of trade flows in food products using transaction data. The first chapter introduces the data used in the papers, and provides a brief review of the general literature. During the last decades, the focus in international economics has shifted from studies of trade flows using aggregated data to studies of firm behavior. Historic...

  17. Bilateral trade agreements and the feasibility of multilateral free trade

    OpenAIRE

    Saggi, Kamal; Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares stable Nash equilibria of two games of trade liberalization. In the FTA game, each country can form an FTA with either one of its trade partners, or both of them, or none of them. By contrast, in the No FTA game, each country must choose either no agreement or free trade. Under symmetry, free trade is uniquely stable under the No FTA game whereas the FTA game also admits a bilateral FTA as an equilibrium. However, there exist patterns of cost asymmetry for which the freedo...

  18. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths...... and weaknesses of the two schemes are compared in a public choice setting which focuses on group size, selective incentives, entrepreneurship and lobbyism from industry. The result is threefold. First, the big countries (due to small group advantages) dominated the Kyoto negotiations. Second...

  19. Bilateral trade agreements and the feasibility of multilateral free trade

    OpenAIRE

    SAGGI, Kamal; Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares stable Nash equilibria of two games of trade liberalization. In the FTA game, each country can form an FTA with either one of its trade partners, or both of them, or none of them. By contrast, in the No FTA game, each country must choose either no agreement or free trade. Under symmetry, free trade is uniquely stable under the No FTA game whereas the FTA game also admits a bilateral FTA as an equilibrium. However, there exist patterns of cost asymmetry for which the freedo...

  20. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  1. Evolution of Trading strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Javier

    2007-03-01

    We attempt to classify the trading strategies of agents in the London Stock Exchange into broad categories. Our study is based on that that identifies the member of the exchange associated with each transaction. Based on the evolution of the inventory (holdings of the stock) as a function of time, we use clustering methods to classify the strategies into several groups. We study how these groups evolve in time and attempt to correlate the membership of the groups with other market properties, such as price volatility.

  2. Pocket book of the metal trade. Vol. 1. Metals and trading conditions. 11. rev. ed.; Taschenbuch des Metallhandels. Bd. 1. Metalle und Handelsbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Ralf (ed.); Dietz, Ferdinand; Kammer, Catrin; Mohr, Heinz; Zocher, Nadine

    2008-07-01

    Vol. 1 of the pocket book on metals and trading conditions comprises the following chapters: 1. Metal, a raw material; 2. Metal stock exchanges; 3. Trading conditions and standards; 4. Addresses, organisations, associations; 5. Metals dictionary D-E-F; 6. List of commodities for external trading; 7. Statistics (prices, production, consumption). [German] Der erste Band ueber Metalle und Handelsbedingungen ist in folgende Kapitel unterteilt: 1. Der Rohstoff Metall; 2. Die Metallboersen; 3. Handelsbedingungen/Normen; 4. Anschriften, Organisationen, Verbaende; 5. Metall Woerterbuch: Deutsch-Englisch Franzoesisch; 6. Warenverzeichnis fuer den Aussenhandel und 7. Statistik (Preis-, Produktions- und Verbrauchsstatistik).

  3. Trading in Risk Dimensions (TRD)

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Previous work, mostly published, developed two-shell recursive trading systems. An inner-shell of Canonical Momenta Indicators (CMI) is adaptively fit to incoming market data. A parameterized trading-rule outer-shell uses the global optimization code Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) to fit the trading system to historical data. A simple fitting algorithm, usually not requiring ASA, is used for the inner-shell fit. An additional risk-management middle-shell has been added to create a three-shell recursive optimization/sampling/fitting algorithm. Portfolio-level distributions of copula-transformed multivariate distributions (with constituent markets possessing different marginal distributions in returns space) are generated by Monte Carlo samplings. ASA is used to importance-sample weightings of these markets. The core code, Trading in Risk Dimensions (TRD), processes Training and Testing trading systems on historical data, and consistently interacts with RealTime trading platforms at minute resolutions, but ...

  4. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  5. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  6. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  7. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  8. STRUCTURE AND SHARES IN THE ROMANIAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TOMA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of a wider range of external trade sector of Romania was carried out in this paper. Main purpose of the paper was identification of the products which have submitted during the period 2002-2011 a wide dynamic with regard to trade of Romania, the total and in particular with the EU countries. The methodology used in this respect was detailed analysis of the data, of the structure of imports and exports and the dynamics of these exchanges during the ten years. Thus, we have identified productions which have had a production upward or downward trend in the structure of total trade. It is a case of grain, milk and seeds and oleaginous fruits and tobacco, which has had a positive development in imports and exports. Tobacco and meat products for the imports and live livestock and vegetables for the exports have registered a decreased share.

  9. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  10. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  11. Fixed Exchange Rates and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Klein; Jay C. Shambaugh

    2004-01-01

    A classic argument for a fixed exchange rate is its promotion of trade. Empirical support for this, however, is mixed. While one branch of research consistently shows a small negative effect of exchange rate volatility on trade, another, more recent, branch presents evidence of a large positive impact of currency unions on trade. This paper helps resolve this disconnect. Our results, which use a new data-based classification of fixed exchange rate regimes, show a large, significant effect of ...

  12. The Decade of Trade Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Nan

    2011-01-01

    IT is a well-known saying that whenever the United States sneezes,the world is sure to catch a cold.However,this analogy now seems more appropriate for the economic might of China.This year marks the 10th anniversary of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO).The nation has gone from being relatively isolated from international trade standards and regulations,to meeting requirements for full participation in world trade.

  13. Trade Relationship between Oman and Its Major Trading Asian Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalam F. Yahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: No empirical research exists that examines the interdependence of trade between Oman and its five major trading Asian partners (Emirates, Japan, South-Korea, Thailand and Mainland China. This study attempted to fill this gap in the literature by examining the interaction of trade between Oman and its major trading Asian partner. Particularly, this study attempted to answer the very important question that is there any feedback effect of the trade relationship between Oman and its major trading Asian partners. Approach: A simultaneous-equations model with a double-log form was developed and tested in this study in order to achieve its objectives. Results: The model was estimated using the Two Stage Least Square (2SLS procedure of estimation and the main findings of the analysis revealed that the price of oil does not seem to be the major determinant of Omani exports to its major trading partners with exception of Japan. The short-term elasticity of Omani imports from its major trading partners with respect to its income seems to be higher (e.g., ranging from 0.55-2.0 in all cases. Conclusion: This study brought new empirical evidence on the trade interdependence and suggested that there is a significant impact (a feedback effect on the level of GDP of Omani's four major trading partners namely Emirates, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, policy maker in sultanate of Oman should be aware of such interdependence and consider the degree of feedback effect of trade in any economic programming that linked and related to these countries.

  14. Free trade in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outterson, M Kevin

    2004-09-06

    Provisions in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) may threaten the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), the "gold standard" of such programs worldwide. If Australia postpones passing of the US Free Trade Agreement Implementation Bill in the Senate, there will be opportunity for broader interests in both the United States and Australia to carefully study the agreement. The provisions of AUSFTA relating to the PBS are supposed to promote transparency, but the pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves (who are demanding transparency) do not reveal the content of their submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, or disclose all their financial relationships with researchers and policymakers. In AUSFTA, the "public health" language of affordable prescription drugs is missing and is replaced by language supporting "pharmaceutical innovation". Debate as to whether AUSFTA will force significant changes to the PBS, including higher drug prices, is currently under way in Australia. Perhaps the appropriate target of reforms should be the excessive US drug prices, and not the economically efficient Australian drug prices.

  15. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  16. Market Size, Trade, and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Gianmarco; Melitz, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We develop a monopolistically competitive model of trade with firm heterogeneity—in terms of productivity differences—and endogenous differences in the "toughness" of competition across markets—in terms of the number and average productivity of competing firms. We analyse how these features vary across markets of different size that are not perfectly integrated through trade; we then study the effects of different trade liberalization policies. In our model, market size and trade affect...

  17. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  18. Teaching Mode of Practical Medicine Merchandise%医药商品学实践教学模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晶; 肖晗; 姜庆丹

    2013-01-01

    课堂教学是实现教学目的主要渠道和形式.教学方法不仅是教与学的桥梁,也是贯穿教学过程完成教学任务的纽带.该文紧密围绕《医药商品学》教学大纲要求,从医药商品的基本环节入手,围绕规范、要求和程序,通过案例进行规范和基本技能的训练,力争达到专业理论、专业技能和专业技巧三个方面的结合与统一,以提高学生对医药商品的认知能力和创新精神.%Classroom teaching is the main channel and the form of teaching purpose.The teaching method is not only the teaching and learning bridge,but also is the link of the teaching process to complete the teaching task.This paper focused on the requirements medicine merchandise teaching syllabus,starting from the basic link of pharmaceutical products,the specifications,requirements and procedures,specification and basic skills through case training,to combine the three aspects to achieve professional theory,professional skills and professional skills and unity,in order to improve the students' cognitive ability of pharmaceutical products and the spirit of innovation.

  19. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  20. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Carro

    Full Text Available We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  1. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany’s leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  2. China's Foreign Trade to Grow 15% in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's foreign trade is projected to grow 15 percent next year,according to a report released by the China Institute for WTO Studies on Dec.21,2009.The report forecasts imports to increase by 15 percent and exports up 13 percent.With the external demand improving and the global economic recovery gaining momentum,"the declining trend of China's exports would come to an end next year," the report says.

  3. Risk-trading in flood management: An economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung Ting

    2017-09-15

    Although flood management is no longer exclusively a topic of engineering, flood mitigation continues to be associated with hard engineering options. Flood adaptation or the capacity to adapt to flood risk, as well as a demand for internalizing externalities caused by flood risk between regions, complicate flood management activities. Even though integrated river basin management has long been recommended to resolve the above issues, it has proven difficult to apply widely, and sometimes even to bring into existence. This article explores how internalization of externalities as well as the realization of integrated river basin management can be encouraged via the use of a market-based approach, namely a flood risk trading program. In addition to maintaining efficiency of optimal resource allocation, a flood risk trading program may also provide a more equitable distribution of benefits by facilitating decentralization. This article employs a graphical analysis to show how flood risk trading can be implemented to encourage mitigation measures that increase infiltration and storage capacity. A theoretical model is presented to demonstrate the economic conditions necessary for flood risk trading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Transatlantic Relations - Are Alliances a Function of an External Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    event an external threat does arise, like the attack on the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001, alliances are able to overcome self...Relations. (Washington D.C.: The Nixon Center , June 1999), 69. 16 Toynbee called: “Annihilation without...Under President Pompidou , French European policy gave priority to economic issues, with a reinforced attempt at engagement within Europe, for example

  6. Beyond trade: the expanding scope of the non-trade agenda in trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Milewicz, KM; Hollway, J; Peacock, C; Snidal, D

    2016-01-01

    Increased complexity and density of transnational problems creates unprecedented challenges and opportunities for contemporary international governance. ‘Issue linkage’ is one institutional arrangement through which states address these chang- ing circumstances. In this paper, we examine the widening scope of the non-trade agenda in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Non-trade issues (NTIs) such as human rights, democracy, environment, corruption and labor standards are increasingly l...

  7. Environmental Capital, Negative Externality and Carbon Finance Innovation%Environmental Capital, Negative Externality and Carbon Finance Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yuejun; Li Defu

    2011-01-01

    In the context of global climate change, the internalization of negative externality, which is brought about by the traditional mode of economic growth, has become an inevitable choice. In order to achieve the internalization, it is necessary to make innovations on the market mechanism and system, find the value of environmental capital, establish a new mode of economic growth based on environmental capital, and then transform the environ- mental capital, an exogenous factor of economic growth, into an endogenous factor. Of this, the key of market mechanism and sys- tem innovation is the financial innovation that is based on environmental capital and negative externality; the government defines the initial property right of environmental resources and establishes environment energy trading market, so as to guide enterprises to trade environmental resources (represented by carbon emission permit trading) based on the Clean Development Mechanism, and to vigorously develop environmental finance and carbon finance.

  8. A RELAÇÃO ENTRE O USO DO MERCHANDISING SOCIAL E A TEORIA DO AGENDA SETTING NAS TELENOVELAS “VALE TUDO” E “O CLONE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Lopes da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bem antes, ainda com as radionovelas, os brasileiros e, principalmente, as brasileiras, sempre se mostraram muito receptivos a este gênero dramatúrgico adaptado ao rádio e, tempos depois, à televisão. Por conseguinte, este artigo propõe-se a apresentar uma visão mais aprofundada acerca das telenovelas brasileiras produzidas pela Rede Globo, sob o ângulo do merchandising social usado nessas produções. Com uma visão explicitamente avalizadora da telenovela como produto de uma indústria cultural sistêmica e extremamente ativa, o artigo pretende discutir o quanto a utilização do merchandising social na ficção televisiva da Globo tem sido motivador de assuntos e debates cotidianos referentes aos temas trabalhados nas telenovelas. Em outras palavras, a relação entre a Teoria do Agenda Setting e o merchandising social merecerão destaque equivalente aos demais conceitos e ideias aqui dispostos. As telenovelas “Vale Tudo” (1989 e “O Clone” (2001, da emissora carioca já citada, serão objetos de análise, no que diz respeito ao uso desse mecanismo narrativo, ao longo de seu enredo. Elas servirão de modelo, também, para um estudo sobre as características intrínsecas a essa utilização que podem servir de critério para um determinado tema tornar-se polêmico e ativo em uma sociedade tão dependente desse veículo comunicacional e de seus produtos midiáticos.

  9. Modelling Trade and Trust Across Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Meijer, S.; Verwaart, D.

    2006-01-01

    Misunderstandings arise in international trade due to difference in cultural background of trade partners. Trust and the role it plays in trade are influenced by culture. Considering that trade always involves working on the relationship with the trade partner, understanding the behaviour of the oth

  10. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  11. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  12. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a...

  13. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2)....

  14. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  15. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  16. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  17. Trade Openness and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasfi Fkili Wahiba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to test the effect of trade openness on inequality of wage distribution in Tunisia. The study through econometric estimates showed that the impact of openness on inequality is remarkable in the period marked by an intensive integration into the global economy. However, investment in human capital can have a positive effect and leas to reduce wage disparities. Opening to the world economy is able to achieve positive economic performance, except that one of the challenges for Tunisia is to find the best equilibrium between the benefits and costs of this policy. Globalization can be beneficial for the economy, but the debate is open about its impact on the social level, many are those who accuse it of increasing disparities and inequalities between workers.

  18. 12 consensuses gained in the Annual EU-China Trade Talks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Brussels,on June 12th,2007,China’s Minister of Commerce Bo Xilai,European Commissioner for External Relations and Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero Waldner, and European trade commissioner,Peter Mandelson,co-chaired the meeting.The two parties exchanged views and negotiated honestly,broadly and deeply.12 consensuses were gained in the meeting on perfecting talks of Sino-EU trade and economic

  19. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  20. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  1. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses e

  2. Implementing an Agent Trade Server

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Sandin, Anna

    2003-01-01

    An experimental server for stock trading autonomous agents is presented and made available, together with an agent shell for swift development. The server, written in Java, was implemented as proof-of-concept for an agent trade server for a real financial exchange.

  3. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  4. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  5. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  6. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important. Corr

  7. Trading strategies of corporate insiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, O.; Maug, E.; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We test two complementary theories of optimal trading strategies by analyzing the transaction patterns of corporate insiders. According to information-based theories, investors trade faster if they compete with others for exploiting the same information, while liquidity-based theories predict the

  8. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...

  9. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  10. The Characteristics of Informed Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Hadiye; Easley, David; Hvidkjær, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the linkage of microstructure, accounting, and asset pricing. We determine the relationship between firm characteristics as captured by accounting and market data and a firm's probability of private information-based trade (PIN) as estimated from trade data. This allows us...

  11. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-go...

  12. Ownership Principle in the Foreign Trade Statistics: Czech Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rojíček

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic is a small open economy, which is vitally dependent on its export performance. In the period after EU accession the intensity of international cooperation grew rapidly in all the Central European countries, which is mostly the result of the huge FDI inflow at the beginning of the decade. In this context onesignificant problem for the Czech Republic and some other countries of the region appeared: the valuation of the trade flows based on the cross-border measuring overestimates the country’s trade balance in comparison with its value added created. This is the case of trade declared by non-resident units, which is more and more common within the European Union. This phenomenon is even enhanced by strategic geographical location of the Czech Republic, which is an important factor explaining why a lot of this “quasi-transit” trade is beingoperated. The revision of the foreign trade data, which aim is to follow more consistently the ownership approach, significantly changes the picture of the Czech economy, specifically the role of external demand to the economic growth.

  13. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  14. Managing Behaviour of Retail Trade Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Maryna M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of management of behaviour of retail trade consumers. It shows importance of this topic at the stage of market changes in economic and social spheres. Generalising theoretical provisions about models of consumer behaviour, the article marks out three main groups of factors that influence them: external, internal and situational. The authors offer to allocate sensor forms of communications into a separate group of factors due to a distinctive property of their impact – orientation at subconsciousness of consumers. The article analyses a psychological process of making a decision on purchase of a commodity and draws a conclusion about necessity of exerting subconsciousness influence upon consumer behaviour using the modern marketing instruments. It develops an improved model of consumer behaviour, which takes into account innovation means of impact on the buyer. The prospect of further development of this direction in science is creation of theoretical methods of managing consumer behaviour on the basis of co-operation of specialists in the field of economy, management, marketing, sociology and psychology, which would be applied in practice of management of trade enterprises.

  15. Trade and the governance of ecosystem services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)

  16. RMB:Depreciating Internationally while Appreciating Externally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝多广; 朱晓莉

    2008-01-01

    RMB has been depreciating internally while appreciating externally since 2002. This new monetary phenomenon, has been strengthened in the context that US dollar depreciates internationally and that domestic economy is overwhelmed with excessive liquidities. Certainly the monetary phenomenon is the reflection of the actual economy: continued trade surplus, triggered robustly by the export-driven economy, is bringing a huge amount of exchange reserve which accelerates sequentially the expansion of domestic money supply. Furthermore, a refrained appreciation of RMB tends to deteriorate the domestic inflation, which is not simply a traditional concept of CPI but a broad inflation parameter including a variety of asset prices. It’s sure that the new phenomenon is becoming a new challenge to the macroeconomic equilibrium as well as the decision maker of monetary policy.

  17. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  18. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  19. Selecting Trade Books for Elementary Science Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Charles J.; Rop, Sheri K.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the importance of using well-chosen trade books for stimulating student interest and motivation in the natural world. Discusses how to assess and select trade books. Lists selected trade books on the life cycles of plants. (YDS)

  20. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  1. 基于模糊聚类原ABC控制法的百货企业市场细分研究%Market Segmentation of General Merchandise Enterprise Based on Fuzzy Clustering-ABC Control Act

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孟磊

    2014-01-01

    文章采用模糊聚类算法,根据顾客的月消费水平隶属度进行百货企业的市场细分,提出基于ABC控制法的顾客目标市场定位,为百货企业提供决策依据。%This paper uses fuzzy clustering algorithm for market segmentation of general merchandise enterprise based on customer's monthly consumption level and proposes thecustomer target market location based on ABC Control Act to provide the basis for decision-making of general merchandise enterprise.

  2. Vpliv globalne krize na zunanjetrgovinske tokove = Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Koleša

    2010-01-01

    The world economy is facing a global crisis that spilled over from thefinancial sector to the real economy in the last quarter of 2008. Thecrisis led to falls in industrial production and foreign direct investmentsas well as to a sharp decrease in international trade volume.The article will focus on the reasons for the decrease of global trade,analyze the change of external trade policies (implementation of protectionistmeasures), also in comparison with the 1930s and 1970s crisis,and related...

  3. Bilateral trade, openness and asset holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between bilateral trade flows, trade openness, and asset holdings in a three-country stochastic general equilibrium model. The threecountry model set-up enables me to disentangle and separate the effects bilateral trade flows and trade openness have on bilateral portfolio patterns. I find that both factors independently influence bilateral asset holdings. Higher bilateral trade as well as higher trade openness lead to a higher bilateral foreign asset posit...

  4. Characteristics of Real Futures Trading Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Futures trading is the core of futures business, and it is considered as one of the typical complex systems. To investigate the complexity of futures trading, we employ the analytical method of complex networks. First, we use real trading records from the Shanghai Futures Exchange to construct futures trading networks, in which nodes are trading participants, and two nodes have a common edge if the two corresponding investors appear simultaneously in at least one trading record as a purchaser...

  5. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  6. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  7. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  8. Construct validity of the interview Time Trade-Off and computer Time Trade-Off in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional observational pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitinga, Laurien; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M.A.; Taal, Erik; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Time Trade-Off (TTO) is a widely used instrument for valuing preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The TTO reveals preferences for own current health (‘utilities’) on a scale anchored between death (0) and perfect health (1). Limited information on the external vali

  9. 何谓trade paperback?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练小川

    2010-01-01

    @@ 在英美出版业,有好几个与trade这个字有关的专业词汇,例如:trade book,trade publishing,trade paperback trade book译为"大众图书",trade publishing 自然就译成"大众出版",与另外两大出版领域professional publishing(专业出版)和education publishing教育出版)对应.以此类推,trade paperback也可以直译为"大众纸皮书"或"大众平装书".但是,美国图书市场上还有一个mass market paperback,直译就是"大众市场纸皮书".同是"大众","大众纸皮书"里对应的是trade,"大众市场纸皮书"里对应的是mass market,二者的区别何在?要理解这些词汇,先要弄清楚trade一词的意思.

  10. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  11. Retail yields and palatability evaluations of individual muscles from wet-aged and dry-aged beef ribeyes and top sirloin butts that were merchandised innovatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Miller, R K; Kerth, C R; Savell, J W

    2014-05-01

    Paired ribeyes (n=24) and top sirloin butts (n=24) were dry-aged or wet-aged for 35 days before being merchandised as individual muscles: M. spinalis thoracis, M. longissimus thoracis, M. gluteobiceps, and M. gluteus medius. Wet-aged subprimals had greater saleable yields than dry-aged. Dry-aged M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps received lower consumer overall like and flavor ratings than did wet-aged; interior muscles - M. longissimus thoracis and M. gluteus medius - did not differ. Trained panelists found higher musty and putrid flavors for dry-aged muscles closer to exterior surface. These flavors may have contributed to lower consumer overall like and flavor ratings for dry-aged M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps. Using innovative styles to cut beef allows for greater merchandising options. However, development of undesirable flavor characteristics may be more pronounced when exterior muscles - M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps - are exposed during dry-aging to extreme conditions and are consumed individually.

  12. 角色促销:商品化权的另一种诠释%Role Promotion: An Alternative Explanation of the Merchandising Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘银良

    2006-01-01

    我国知识产权法学界对"商品化"的概念界定是一种误译."角色商品化"和"商品化权"分别是对英文"character merchandising"和"merchandising right"的误译,它们的本意仅是"角色促销"和"利用角色进行促销的权利"."商品化权"的设置没有必要,也不需要专门立法;取而代之,我国只需适当地延伸我国现有知识产权法和人格权保护法即可.研究者应深入、正确理解世界范围内的相关立法和实践活动,避免夸大相关问题的严重性,从而避免我国立法实践中的弯路.

  13. INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNANCE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri L.F. de GROOT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ineffective institutions and bad governance increase transaction costs and reduce international transport flows. In this paper, we empirically investigate this basic notion, and we show that it can account for several, so far, somewhat puzzling results in the empirical literature estimating gravity equations of bilateral trade. More specifically, we show that differences in the quality and effectiveness of institutions offer an explanation for the tendency of OECD countries to trade disproportionately with each other, and with non-OECD countries, as well as for the positive effect of GDP per capita on bilateral trade.

  14. A New Way To Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cross-border trade between China and Russia was bountiful throughout the 1990s as a group of Chinese and Russian dealers,nicknamed the daoye, or profiteers who buy low and sell high, shuttled consumer goods from China to Russia. These dealers, still around but far fewer in number today, should be rejoicing after the announcement of the latest progress in cross-border trade between the two countries: China and Russia have decided to settle their bilateral trade deals using the Chinese yuan and Russian ruble, bypassing the need to use the U.S. dollar.

  15. AGRIBUSINESS TRADE CREDIT -- A PARADOX

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Cole R.

    2004-01-01

    This article utilizes the Survey of Small Business Finances to compare and contrast trade credit practices of rural small business firms. The results show that these firms borrow money and then re-lend it to others in the form of trade credit. There is a strong direct relationship between various forms of debt held by these firms and their level of accounts receivable (e.g., trade credit extended to customers). The actual level of re-lending varied among firms depending on their adoption leve...

  16. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction...

  17. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  18. Distributive trade\\'s significance in national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper analyzes a significance of distributive trade in contemporary national economies of select European countries (10 from the point of view of employment, gross value-added creation, supply chain establishment, and international expansion. A cause for the paper is a dissatisfactory level of economic development of certain transitional countries on one side and the high distributive trade shares (especially in the number of employees and in the GDP on the other side. Methods: Distributive trade's significance for a country is analyzed entirely and segmental. The data collected by Eurostat and Deloitte are analyzed and depicted graphically via usual statistical methods (relative numbers, indices and shares, tabulation and graphical depictions. Results: The results of the research conducted should confirm a thesis on distributive trade's significance based on its shares in the economic structure; however, as an integrator in the value-creating chains, distributive trade has different significance for certain national economies, for the large-sized companies and groups (especially the retailing ones are also expanded internationally, along with their supply chains. Conclusions: Distributive trade does not have an equal significance for the economic development in all countries. Equally, all the divisions within distributive trade do not have equal significance for the overall country's economy, as well as for a launch of its economic development. Nevertheless, it should be necessary to analyze concentration and internationalization in detail for the sake of an evaluation of distributive trade's significance as an integrator in value-creating chains. In that respect, some transitional countries observed do lag behind.

  19. Free Trade is Big Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Terry

    1974-01-01

    In an examination of the system of free trade between neighboring education authorities, it is suggested that a considerable amount of money paid out in recoupment fees in adult education could be saved. (AG)

  20. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND FAIR TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jelovac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present different theoretical views and positions on social entrepreneurship, fair trade, buying consumer behaviour and ethical consumerism. The Fair Trade, which is well recognized throughout the world, is an example of good practice of social entrepreneurship. Similarly, globalization processes, the pressure of large corporations, the rapid transmission of information, more and more developed ethical consumer behaviour is clearly contributed to both, the successful development of fair trade and social entrepreneurships. In the empirical part we reviewed and confirmed three of three sets of hypotheses through the quantitative research in Slovenia on sample of 253 respondents. Through the results of our study we also recognized the existence of opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurships in Slovenia. In the discussion and conclusion of the article listed are recommendations for further exploration of ethical consumerism, the development of social entrepreneurship and rising the profile of Fair Trade in Slovenia.

  1. Processing Trade Banned Commodities announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The new catalogue of processing trade-banned commodities was announced recently. The announcement was executed since November 22 of 2006. The Catalogue will be adjusted according to related policies of the state.

  2. SYMMETRY IN WORLD TRADE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Guangle YAN; Yanghua XIAO

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry of the world trade network provides a novel perspective to understand the world-wide trading system. However, symmetry in the world trade network (WTN) has been rarely studied so far. In this paper, the authors systematically explore the symmetry in WTN. The authors construct WTN in 2005 and explore the size and structure of its automorphism group, through which the authors find that WTN is symmetric, particularly, locally symmetric to a certain degree. Furthermore, the authors work out the symmetric motifs of WTN and investigate the structure and function of the symmetric motifs, coming to the conclusion that local symmetry will have great effect on the stability of the WTN and that continuous symmetry-breakings will generate complexity and diversity of the trade network. Finally, utilizing the local symmetry of the network, the authors work out the quotient of WTN, which is the structural skeleton dominating stability and evolution of WTN.

  3. Trade Supervision Adjustment in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China revised its supervision policies on import and export trades again, with 13 notices approved by related government ministries and administrations as well as 15 catalogues of import and export licenses being involved.

  4. New Future for Stock Trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Securities regulators formulated the risk-control mechanism prior to launch of stock index futures in China For three years Wang Liangguang, an experienced stock investor, waited patiently for the trading of stock index futures. And now, that day has

  5. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  6. Analýza konkurence společnosti CZ TOP TRADE s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrabovský, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Thesis on Analysis of Competitiveness of CZ TOP TRADE Ltd. mainly deals with the ability to compete with companies, who are on the Czech market in the engineering. To determine competitiveness and competitive advantage, I used both internal company environment and external. I have subsumed here Analysis of internal company environment and also analysis of external company environment like Porters model of five forces, PEST analysis and everything I summerized in the SWOT analysis. I applied m...

  7. To Trade or Not to Trade: Firm-Level Analysis of Emissions Trading in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coria, Jessica; Loefgren, Aasa; Sterner, Thomas, e-mail: Thomas.Sterner@economics.gu.se

    2009-10-15

    Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies - given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market-based policies - is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allow us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries

  8. Migrant Associations, Trade and FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, Leila; Cheptea, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature sets forth the positive role of migrants in international trade and foreign direct investment. We use a new database on French migrant associations together with data on the stocks of migrants to diffe-rentiate between organized and, respectively, non-organized migrant-based networks. We find that the creation of a new association of migrants is accompanied by important jumps in bilateral trade and investment between the host and origin countries. This effect adds on top of ...

  9. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Farber, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Cap and trade is controversial in part because of claims that it is unjust, an issue that was highlighted by recent litigation against California’s proposed carbon market. This essay considers an array of fairness issues relating to cap and trade. In terms of fairness to industry, the conclusion is that distributing free allowances overcompensates firms for the cost of compliance, assuming any compensation is warranted. Industry should not receive, in effect, ownership of the atmosphere at ...

  10. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  11. Vulnerability of countries to food-production crises propagating in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the international trade of food and agricultural commodities has undergone a marked increase of exchanged volumes and an expansion of the trade network. This globalization of trade has both positive and negative effects, but the interconnectedness and external dependency of countries generate complex dynamics which are often difficult to understand and model. In this study we consider the volume of water used for the production of agricultural commodities, virtually exchanged among countries through commodity trade, i.e. the virtual water trade. Then, we set up a parsimonious mechanistic model describing the propagation, into the global trade network, of food-production crises generated locally by a social, economic or environmental event (such as war, economic crisis, drought, pest). The model, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries, bases on rules derived from observed virtual water flows and on data-based and statistically verified assumption. It is also tested on real case studies that prove its capability to capture the main features of crises propagation. The model is then employed as the basis for the development of an index of country vulnerability, measuring the exposure of countries to crises propagating in the virtual water trade network. Results of the analysis are discussed within the context of socio-economic and environmental conditions of countries, showing that not only water-scarce, but also wealthy and globalized countries, are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis for the period 1986-2011 reveals that the global average vulnerability has strongly increased over time, confirming the increased exposure of countries to external crises which may occur in the virtual water trade network.

  12. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  13. Fashion Merchandising Module. An Advanced-Level Option for Distribution and Marketing. For the U.S.O.E. Occupational Cluster of 04.02 Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clis, Pat; And Others

    This instructional module on fashion merchandising is designed as a guide for secondary education teachers who are helping twelfth grade students develop occupational competency for entry-level positions in fashion-related jobs. An introductory section covers module goals, career opportunities and employment demands, administrative considerations,…

  14. Fashion Merchandising Module. An Advanced-Level Option for Distribution and Marketing. For the U.S.O.E. Occupational Cluster of 04.02 Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clis, Pat; And Others

    This instructional module on fashion merchandising is designed as a guide for secondary education teachers who are helping twelfth grade students develop occupational competency for entry-level positions in fashion-related jobs. An introductory section covers module goals, career opportunities and employment demands, administrative considerations,…

  15. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit en

  16. Competition between stock exchanges and optimal trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kervel, V.L.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis focuses on two topics on trading in financial markets: competition between stock exchanges and optimal trading strategies. Chapter one analyzes the effect on the liquidity of a stock when it is traded on multiple trading venues, and distinguishes between competition from transpa

  17. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit

  18. 75 FR 1029 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... releases to general and trade media; direct mail; notices by industry trade associations and other... Doc No: 2010-108] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Statement Medical Trade Mission to India: March 8-13, 2010. Mission...

  19. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit en

  20. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading... engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits...