WorldWideScience

Sample records for external merchandise trade

  1. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Calvo-Pardo; Caroline Freund; Emanuel Ornelas

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  2. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH EXTERNAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vasile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A country’s economic growth is directly influenced by the external trade activity, which is considered by the majority of economists as one of the main engines of a country. How international trade can contributes to a sustainable development of a country depends broadly on the economic policies as well as on global and regional strategies to support the actions for this objective. The high level political meeting of United Nations Organization’s Member States in September 2015 has as aim the adoption of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes global economic, social and environmental goals. Any strategy or global policy influences, of course, in a direct way the international trade activities, by how these measures affect or determine relations between states to achieve the sustainable development objectives. Being involved in all sectors of economic and social life to achieve these noble goals, foreign trade is of course on the list of key areas as well as on the list of the domains being influenced by the global strategy adopted in the framework of the largest summit of its kind in the history of the United Nations. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of external trade activity of Romania, taking into account the characteristics of companies involved in exports and imports of goods in Romania as well as to identify the key areas to be further developed for a sustainable development of national economy based on export activity. Romania's sustainable development can be achieved in the medium and long term by complementary and converging actions such as increased expenditure on research and development field, attracting as a priority the Greenfield investments, increasing productivity of national capital (human, natural, technological or ensure the efficiency at microeconomic and macroeconomic level. Increasing the share of products and activities using a small amount of energy and material resources but which

  3. Change of quality characteristics of onion during merchandising in retail trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Andreev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When selling fruits and vegetables in retail stores, the question arises of the preservation of their consumer properties. Therefore, the task was set to follow the changes in the quality of onions in a trading hall for seven days, which corresponds to the time of sale of the goods. Onions, unlike other vegetables, less interact with the air. Therefore, the loss of moisture and organic substances is insignificant. The paper presents data on the change in the qualitative characteristics of onions in the conditions of a trading hall and refrigerated storages for 7 days. Obtaining and processing of experimental data on the changes in sugar onion, ascorbic acid and moisture content was carried out in the laboratories of commodity science and food products expertise of the Department of Trade and Goods Science of the St. Petersburg State University of Economics. The partial increase in acidity during prolonged storage could be a consequence of the breakdown of sugars during fermentation. As a result of the conducted researches it is established that the biochemical processes taking place in onions practically do not depend on the temperature decrease in the room. It is recommended to pre-dry the onions for better preservation. It is necessary to carry out quality control of the product by organoleptic and physicochemical parameters during refrigerated storage and storage in the trading floor. It is established that the content of vitamin C does not decrease in the process of realization of onion if the humidity of air does not exceed 65%. The experiments showed that the loss of sugars during storage does not occur. Essential loss of moisture, and consequently, a decrease in the mass of the product, was not observed.

  4. Fashion Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum bulletin provides a curriculum for a one-year course in fashion merchandising, offered in the third year of the marketing education sequence. It is designed to give students majoring in marketing a survey of basic information about the field of fashion merchandising. Students are offered the opportunity to become familiar with a…

  5. The External Trade of Romania: Evolution Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    On top of these, a series of negative impact events such as wars or crises have overlapped. Despite all the investment efforts made, the impact of Romania’s economic development on foreign trade was limited during the socialist era. As regards the volume of foreign trade, the trade balance, the structure of exports and imports, the value of exports per capita, Romania’s evolution was generally modest. Practically, with some exceptions, Romania’s involvement in international trade was below the economic potential of our country throughout the analyzed period.

  6. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN GRAIN

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    Georgiana Armeniţa ARGHIROIU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania is situated as agricultural potential among the first countries in Europe. But over the time it has been observed that our agriculture has failed to capitalize this potential and in consequence cannot provide the necessities of food for the population of the country. The trade balance is deeply inclined towards imports and even if the situation has improved in recent years, the trade balance in agricultural products remains negative, falling to about $ 600 million in 2011. This paper analyzes the evolution of trade flows with the grain both in terms of quantity and value.

  7. 19 CFR 143.11 - Merchandise eligible for appraisement entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for any of the following merchandise: (1) Merchandise damaged on the voyage of importation, by fire or... by persons in foreign countries as gifts to persons in the United States; (5) Tools of trade of a...

  8. Trade misinvoicing, external debt and sustainable development: A Nigerian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated how trade misinvoicing orchestrates external debt in Nigeria and its obstructive tendencies on Nigeria’s sustainable economic development. The paper is pertinent, given that Nigeria is among the top ten developing countries in the world who are victims of substantial illicit trade misinvoicing outflows. The methodological approach is a mix of descriptive analysis (using tables and graphs and a t-test of difference in means between trade misinvoicing outflow from Nigeria, external debt and official development assistance (OD in Nigeria for the period 2003 – 2012. Findings indicate that as trade misinvoicing outflow increased during the period 2003 -2012, Nigeria’s external debt increased yearly. Results from the statistical t-test showed that the mean difference in trade misinvoicing outflow is significantly greater than the mean differences in external debt and official development assistance received into Nigeria. This finding attests to the huge internal financial resources that Nigeria lost during the period 2003 - 2012 through illicit trade misinvoicing outflow. The analysis further disclosed that trade misinvoicing outflow has hampered Nigeria’s stride to sustainable economic development given the record increases in unemployment, poverty, lack of access to sanitation facilities, low percentage of qualified health staff to child birth and a widening income inequality as measured by GINI index. The paper concludes that the drainage of Nigeria’s internal financial resources through illicit trade misinvoicing has denied Nigeria the needed finance to enhance the actualisation of sustainable economic development. Recommendations are proffered to assist in halting trade misinvoicing outflow from Nigeria.

  9. External Sector Rebalancing and Endogenous Trade Imbalance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Whalley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the need for trade models to incorporate endogenous trade imbalances both to more adequately capture the reality of a global economy with large imbalances and pressures from the financial crisis for countries to reduce imbalances. Conventional general equilibrium trade models implicitly incorporate monetary neutrality and either have zero trade balance as a property of equilibrium, or have a fixed and exogenous trade imbalance. Models which are discussed here have a variety of forms. In one, central banks fix exchange rates and operate a non accommodative monetary policy and accumulate reserves. Changes in both trade and monetary policies change reserve accumulative and with the external sector imbalances. This is a reflection of China’s current policy regime. In another intertemporal preferences allow for simultaneous inter commodity and intertemporal trade across countries, and with changed intertemporal trade changed external sector imbalances within the period. These formulations are each applied to potential tax initiatives to aid in rebalancing.

  10. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  11. 19 CFR 146.51 - Customs control of merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs control of merchandise. 146.51 Section 146.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Handling of Merchandise in a Zone § 146.51 Customs...

  12. Merchandising Your Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulich, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses library circulation figures as a reflection of the success of library services and describes merchandising techniques that have produced a 137 percent circulation increase at Queens Borough Public Library over the past seven years. Merchandising techniques such as minibranches, displays, signage, dumps, and modified shelving are…

  13. Negotiating services liberalization within TTIP : The EU external trade policy at crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The conclusion of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) constitutes a priority and key component of the new external trade policy of the European Union (EU) and an immediate follow-up to several years of regulatory cooperation between the two global trade powers. In an era of

  14. 19 CFR 147.24 - Merchandise subject to licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the U.S. Government, may be entered for a fair only upon the presentation of the required license, or... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Requirements of Other Laws § 147.24 Merchandise subject to...

  15. INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS OF MERCHANDISING TO MANAGE THE CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paschuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The major problems and perspectives of international experience utilization as element of marketing mix to manage the customer behavior, major forms of trade were defined and approaches to merchandising tools application.

  16. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  17. The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Velluti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries, including unilateral trade instruments, contain with varying modalities and intensity a commitment to the respect for human rights. The paper discusses selected aspects of the EU’s promotion and integration of human rights in its external trade relations and assesses the impact of the changes introduced by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon (ToL on EU practice.

  18. Spatial Welfare Economics versus Ecological Footprint: Modeling Agglomeration, Externalities and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grazi, F.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Rietveld, P.

    2007-01-01

    A welfare framework for the analysis of the spatial dimensions of sustainability is developed. It covers agglomeration effects, interregional trade, negative environmental externalities, and various land use categories. The model is used to compare rankings of spatial configurations according to

  19. 77 FR 71741 - Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 240 Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: The... and the continuing need for its Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and...

  20. 19 CFR 143.21 - Merchandise eligible for informal entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 94 and Chapter 99, Subchapters III and IV, HTSUS; (d) Household or personal effects or tools of trade... exceeding $2,000 in value of citizens of the United States who have died abroad; (h) Books and other... tools of trade, occupation, or employment, as set forth in § 10.68 of this chapter; (j) Merchandise...

  1. Fashion Merchandising Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthrop Coll., Rock Hill, SC. School of Home Economics.

    The curriculum guide (developed by the South Carolina Office of Vocational Education, the School of Home Economics of Winthrop College, business leaders, and distributive educators) is designed for the teaching of a one-year distributive education specialty program for 12th grade students interested in pursuing a career in fashion merchandising.…

  2. Fashion Merchandising Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education Services.

    Developed to address the needs of the apparel industry, this fashion merchandising curriculum guide is designed to assist marketing educators in effective instructional delivery. Introductory materials include the following: a course blueprint that illustrates units of instruction, core competencies in each unit, and specific objectives for each…

  3. Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

  4. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  5. Externalities, Border Trade and Illegal Production: An Optimal Tax Approach to Alcohol Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Sjögren, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal income and commodity taxation in an economy, where alcohol is an externality-generating consumption good. In our model, alcohol can be bought domestically, imported (via border trade) or produced illegally. Border trade implies an incentive to set the domestic alcohol tax below the marginal social damage of alcohol, and to tax (subsidize) commodities which are complementary with (substitutable for) alcohol. In addition, since leisure and alcohol consumption are g...

  6. European External Trade Policy: The Role of Ideas in German Preference Formation - www-publication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the literature examining European Union external trade policy, the relative influence of the Commission, the member states and interest groups are an issue of ongoing debate. This article will argue that member states can still play an important role and that a focus on member state preferences

  7. 19 CFR 133.26 - Demand for redelivery of released merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Demand for redelivery of released merchandise. 133... Recorded Trademarks or Recorded Trade Names § 133.26 Demand for redelivery of released merchandise. If it... restrictions of § 133.22 or § 133.23 of this subpart, the port director shall promptly make demand for the...

  8. The evolution of the EU external trade policy in services - CETA, TTIP, and TiSA after Brexit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    The conclusion of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) constitutes a priority and key component of the external trade policy of the European Union (EU). It is also an immediate follow-up to several years of regulatory cooperation between the two global trade powers. In an era of

  9. EU emissions trading. The need for cap adjustment in response to external shocks and unexpected developments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper the advantages and disadvantages of the various adaptation options will be discussed from an economic perspective. Firstly, the criteria for identifying a need for potentially legitimate adaptation should be investigated. Furthermore, the issue of appropriate timely intervention points prior to or within the trading period will be discussed. In what periods and scenarios are adjustments to the cap worthwhile from an economic perspective? To what extent could minimum prices or price ranges make sense? What role could a strategic reserve play? By addressing these issues, it will be fundamentally discussed as to how the emissions trading scheme could be further developed and strengthened by greater flexibility. After a brief characterisation of emissions trading in theory and practice in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 will identify potential external shocks and unexpected developments which may impair the functioning of an emissions trading scheme. The current problems of cap setting for the third trading period of the EU ETS will be described in Chapter 4. Against this background, cap adjustments will be discussed in Chapter 5, minimum and maximum prices in Chapter 6 and strategic reserves in emissions trading in Chapter 7. The conclusions are summarised in Chapter 8.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MERCHANDISING ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR (ON MATERIALS OF PHARMACY RETAIL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Aleksandrovna Medvedeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is told about the problem of effectiveness of the pharmacy merchandising in the drug store. Results of qualitative marketing research are showed. Investigation took place in the drug store with closed trade form. Customers of this drug store took part in the investigation. By results of this market research segmentation of consumers was carried out and the target audience is allocated. In the process of monitoring has been allocated percentage of customers who have made a purchase through the influence of merchandising facilities. The trade zone as object of a merchandising in a studied drugstore is in detail considered. In it the sectors attracting the greatest number of buyers were allocated. Also the most effective object of a merchandising in a drugstore was defined. According to the research it is made a conclusion about effectiveness of pharmacy merchandising  in this chemist’s shop.

  11. THE DANGER OF PUTING ALL THE EGGS IN ONE BASKET. SOME CONCERNS REGARDING ROMANIA'S EXTERNAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGREA Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trade patterns across the globe vary in certain ways. For the EU27, the analyzed data suggests that approximately 70% of all Romania's imports, and the same amount of its exports, are intra-community oriented. The question that arises is what will happen to te Romania's external trade, if a crisis hits Europe? If countries like Germany, France, Italy, and United Kingdom are hit the hardest in this hypothetical European crisis, Romania will soon follow them. In order to decrease the impact of such possibility, it is necessary to tap new trade opportunities. For this purpose, first we have to analyze the present situation. Based on Eurostat, World Trade Organization, and the Romanian Statistics Institute data from 1999 to 2009, and on the works about trade creation (Balassa 1965, Jovanovic 2005, Molle 2006, the paper wants to point out the aspects of trade concentration in certain regions after the establishment of free trade agreements, and the danger posed by financial crises. This paper analyzes first the situation in the EU27, scanning each member state in order to see the degree of trade relations intra / extra EU. The data will be than compared to another set of analyzes of other four important regions, the Andean Community, ASEAN, MERCOSUR, and NAFTA, whose free trade agreements could support such of comparison with the EU trade relations. The paper follows the assumption that EU27 has the most integrated trade relations among all the analyzed regions. Based on this assumption and on statistical data that points out the percentage change of total imports and exports in the Romanian GDP, some conclusions will be drown out in order to establish some necessary measures to prevent a future crisis, measures that involve the political class, taping new trade opportunities such as Latin American countries, Middle Eastern countries, and South-East Asia, but not forgetting Russia, Romania's former main export partner, establishing clear objectives

  12. 19 CFR 146.10 - Authority to examine merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to examine merchandise. 146.10 Section 146.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.10 Authority to examine...

  13. An Experimental Study on Internal and External Negotiation for Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankyoung Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally studies the performance of negotiation considering individual and party, like a country, share of benefit over the best ones. It experiments two-stage bargaining games, internal and external negotiations. From the experimental results, this paper shows strong tendency to select fair allocation in the internal negotiations, but the tendency would be weaker with attractive outside option. In addition, the outside option may claim difference in individual benefit. From the regressions on individual performance in the negotiations, being a proposing party would matter to enhance the performance. However, relative individual performance within party fairness matters. Still attractive no-agreement options happen to break the tendency. As policy implication for trade negotiation, this paper warns that possible loss in individual benefit from not active participation to the external negotiations, no active role of proposer in case that players stick to internal allocations, and deviation of advantageous sector due to attractive outside options.

  14. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE AND THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS INFLOWS AFTER 2007. A CRITICAL SURVEY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Adriana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing more on the evolution of the Romanian external trade and FDI inflows after 2007 - the year of Romania's EU integration - the paper provides insights in the trade and FDI inflows determinants in the context of the convergence process and also in relation to the financial global crisis. As the statistic data envisage, Romanian exports and imports were high over the period 2000-2010, and there were also large FDI inflows in the economy, mostly until 2008. Although the data appear to be encouraging, it seems that Romania did not succeed to maximize the benefits which should result from such a situation. Moreover, the situation after 2008 shows that Romania is in a deep recession accelerated and maintained by uninspired government policy measures with a strong negative impact on the Romanian economy. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate Romanian export and import demand functions after the year 2007, and to compare them with those of the period 2000-2006, using quarterly data, in correlation with the FDI inflows. The main contribution of the paper is that it is an empirical analysis on Romania's FDI and external trade, providing the impact of the main determinants of export and import of Romania, by using the Engle-Granger two step method. Following Allard (2009 rather than just providing the elasticity, this method combines the elasticity with the evolution of the explanatory variables to quantify their impact during the analysed period. The analysis aim to cover all possible factors underlying the external sector performance of Romania and thus, they are complemented with country specific analysis. The empirical analysis will therefore provide some interesting insights not only in the context of the convergence process of the country with the Eurozone but also in relation to the exchange rate regime. The theoretical framework relies on the 'imperfect substitutes' model (Goldstein and Khan; 1985, and it is used in the paper

  15. Quantifying Third-Party Impacts and Environmental Externalities from a Cap-And-Trade System for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    Economic decision models, such as the cap-and-trade system, have been shown to be useful in the context of groundwater management. A uniformly applied cap-and-trade system can however result in significant spatially and temporally varying hydrogeologic impacts that reduce public welfare. Hydrological challenges associated with the cap-and-trade system for groundwater management include establishing appropriate system boundaries, setting system-wide sustainable yield and limiting third party impacts from extractions. Given these challenges, these economic models need to be supplemented with physically based hydrogeologic models that are able to represent the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in conditions across a region. This investigation assesses third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from a cap-and-trade system in a sub-basin of the Republican River Basin, overlying the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States. The economic model is coupled with a calibrated physically based groundwater model. The cap-and-trade system is developed using a multi-agent system model where individual benefits of each self-interested agent are maximized subject to bounds on irrigation requirements and water use permits. We then compare the performance of the cap-and-trade system with a smart groundwater market which, in addition to a cap on total groundwater extraction, also incorporates streamflow constraints. The results quantify third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from uncontrolled trading. This analysis demonstrates the value added by a well-designed cap-and-trade system able to account for basin-wide heterogeneity in hydrogeologic and ecological conditions by establishing trading limits, managing inter-area transfers and setting exchange rates for permit trading.

  16. IS THERE ANY CORRELATION BETWEEN THE CHRONIC BALANCE OF TRADE DEFICIT AND THE ROMANIA'S INCREASING EXTERNAL DEBT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Adriana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the data provided by the Romanian National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat, the balance-of-payments current account registered a permanent and increasing deficit since 1990, while the domestic production was accelerated decreasing and the FDI inflows were far from being enough to cover the internal consumption needs. These being the facts, the present paper aims to underline the fact there is a direct correlation between the increasing external debt of Romania in the last years, and the balance of trade increasing deficit, which is due mainly to the lack of domestic capital, as well as to the decreasing productivity. The research methodology is based on a theoretical model of external debt sustainability, using time series data for Romania and using a multi-equation model. The results show that the relationship between external debt and the balance of trade deficit should be analysed with a simultaneous equation model, because there is a two-way relationship between debt service and deficit growth: the higher the imports, the higher the external debt, and as a consequence, the higher the balance of trade deficit, if the productivity is low. This result is consistent with the Romanian experience, and its implications are very large and will multiply over the years, if there will be no adequate policies meant to revival the private sector, mainly the SMEs. In this respect, the paper concludes that the Romanian government should immediately take the necessary measures to facilitate the easy access to capital for the private investors, which will further stimulate the internal production, with a direct impact onto the increase of exports, which will determine on the one hand, the reduction of the balance of trade deficit and simultaneous, the increasing of the necessary budgetary revenues to pay back the external debt. Otherwise, all costs will be supported by the next generations, with no return, if the probability for declaring

  17. Finding a pareto-optimal solution for multi-region models subject to capital trade and spillover externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics and Statistics

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we present an algorithm that deals with trade interactions within a multi-region model. In contrast to traditional approaches this algorithm is able to handle spillover externalities. Technological spillovers are expected to foster the diffusion of new technologies, which helps to lower the cost of climate change mitigation. We focus on technological spillovers which are due to capital trade. The algorithm of finding a pareto-optimal solution in an intertemporal framework is embedded in a decomposed optimization process. The paper analyzes convergence and equilibrium properties of this algorithm. In the final part of the paper, we apply the algorithm to investigate possible impacts of technological spillovers. While benefits of technological spillovers are significant for the capital-importing region, benefits for the capital-exporting region depend on the type of regional disparities and the resulting specialization and terms-of-trade effects. (orig.)

  18. 19 CFR 144.1 - Merchandise eligible for warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may be entered for warehousing except for perishable merchandise and explosive substances (other than firecrackers). Dangerous and highly flammable merchandise, though not classified as explosive, shall not be...

  19. Fashion Merchandising. Marketing and Distributive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Horace C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was developed to be used as a resource guide to assist marketing and distributive education teachers in planning and teaching a course in fashion merchandising. First, an introductory section is devoted to the management of the fashion merchandising curriculum, including information on the guide's background, units of…

  20. Merchandising. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The Merchandising Food Service Training Manual contains 12 lessons and 2 appendixes. Class activities and handouts are interspersed among techniques for selling and merchandising meals, information about life value roles and how food participants may improve public images, material about customers' backgrounds and attitudes, methods of competitors…

  1. Reconciling regulatory space with external accountability through WTO adjudication : trade, environment and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2017-01-01

    This article argues in favour of broadening the trade and environment debate in the World Trade Organization (WTO) to include a developmental perspective. WTO litigation involving environmental regulation touches upon the issue of global justice and the power asymmetries structurally embedded in the

  2. Do FDI Inflows influence Merchandise Exports? Causality Analysis on India over 1991-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Mukherjee, Jaydeep; Lee, Jaewook

    2016-01-01

    The deepening waves of globalization since late eighties and the growth in the international integrated production networks (IPN) over the past decade have significantly increased both Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and merchandise trade flows. India is no exception to this trend, whose share in global FDI inward stock and global merchandise exports have increased from 0.08 percent to 1.13 percent and 0.51 percent to 1.60 percent over 1989-2015 respectively. The current paper attempts to exp...

  3. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  4. 27 CFR 6.101 - Merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... member, who is also in business as a bona fide producer or vendor of other merchandise (for example..., fixtures, signs, glassware, supplies, services, and advertising specialties to retailers does not...

  5. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-17

    U.S.-South Korea Merchandise Trade, Selected Years ......................................7 The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS...Research Service 7 Table 1. Annual U.S.-South Korea Merchandise Trade, Selected Years (Billions of U.S. Dollars) Year U.S. Exports U.S. Imports...household meat purchases, particularly on reducing beef consumption in restaurants . 157

  6. Financial frictions and substitution between internal and external funds in publicly traded Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Telles Portal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to document the effects of financial constraints on the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds, a phenomenon associated with the Pecking Order Theory. This theory suggests that companies subject to more expensive external funds (financially constrained firms should demonstrate a stronger negative relationship with cash flow than companies subject to minor financial frictions (financially unconstrained firms. The results indicate that the external funds of constrained firms consistently present less negative sensitivity to cash flow compared with those of unconstrained companies. Additionally, the internal funds of constrained companies demonstrate a positive sensitivity to cash flow, whereas those of unconstrained companies do not show any such significant behavior. These results are in accordance with the findings of Almeida and Campello (2010, who suggest the following: first, because of the endogenous nature of investment decisions in constrained companies, the complementary relationship between internal and external funds prevails over the substitutive effects suggested by the Pecking Order Theory; and second, the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds cannot be interpreted as evidence of costly external funds and therefore does not corroborate the Pecking Order Theory.

  7. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  8. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  9. TOURISM, TRADE, EXTERNALITIES, AND PUBLIC GOODS IN A THREE-SECTOR GROWTH MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce tourism, externalities, and public goods to a small-open growth with endogenous wealth and public goods supply. We develop the model on the basis of the Solow-Uzawa growth model, the neoclassical neoclassical growth theory with externalities, and ideas from tourism economics. The economy consists of three – service, industrial, and public - sectors. The production side is based on the traditional growth theories, while the household behavior is described by an alternative utility function proposed by Zhang. We introduce endogenous land distribution between housing and supply of services. The industrial and service sectors are perfectly competitive subject to the government’s taxation. The public sector is financially supported by the government. We introduce taxes not only on producers, but also on consumers’ incomes from wage, land, and interest of wealth, consumption of goods and services, and housing. We simulate the motion of the national economy and show the existence of a unique stable equilibrium. We carry out comparative dynamic analysis with regard to the rate of interest in the global market, the total productivity of the service sector, tax rate on the service sector, tax rate on consumption of services, human capital, the propensity to consume services, and the impact of public services on the productivity of the industrial sector. The comparative dynamic analysis provides some important insights into the complexity of open economies with endogenous wealth, public goods, and externalities.

  10. The European Union’s external trade policy after the Treaty of Lisbon: a neo-gramscian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Ihor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies neo-Gramscian theory to analyze the European Union’s external trade policy after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. It argues that despite the claim that procedural and institutional changes which took place as a result of the ratification of the Treaty serve the general interest of the EU citizens, they were in fact orchestrated by the European transnational capitalist class and serve primarily interests of this group. Paper starts by outlining key institutional and procedural changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, briefly outlining their implications for the EU. Further on, rationale for these changes is explained by focusing on socio-economic developments that took place in the EU during the past couple of decades. After outlining how the current hegemonic bloc was established, paper proceeds with explaining why the implemented changes were so important for the dominant in the EU social forces.

  11. 19 CFR 123.31 - Merchandise in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise in transit. 123.31 Section 123.31... TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through the United States § 123.31 Merchandise in transit. (a) From one contiguous country to another. Merchandise may be transported in transit...

  12. 19 CFR 123.21 - Merchandise in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise in transit. 123.21 Section 123.21... TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.21 Merchandise in transit. (a) Status. Merchandise may be transported from one port to another in the United...

  13. ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARKMAN, STANLEY

    THIS OUTLINE FOR A COURSE IN THE ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING IS DESIGNED FOR THE INEXPERIENCED RETAIL EMPLOYEE. THE COURSE IS PLANNED FOR SIX 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCHANDISING, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND MATHEMATICS OF MERCHANDISING, (3) BUYING POLICIES AND PRACTICES, (4) MARKET REPRESENTATIVES, (5) TERMS OF PURCHASE, INCLUDING…

  14. Curriculum Guide for Fashion Merchandising (Fashion Salesperson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Margaret R.

    This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers teach a course in fashion merchandising to high school students. The guide contains eight performance-based learning modules, each consisting of one to seven units. Each unit teaches a job-relevant task, and includes performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activities,…

  15. 76 FR 15841 - Entry of Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 141 Entry of Merchandise CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 141 to 199, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 6, the second general authority citation for part...

  16. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  17. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 2: Results for future energy market scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Johanna; Svensson, Inger-Lise; Berntsson, Thore; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat from a kraft pulp mill is investigated for four different future energy market scenarios. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [2008. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: methodology. Energy Policy, submitted for publication], where a systematic approach is proposed for investigating the potential for profitable excess heat cooperation. The trade-off is analyzed by economic optimization of an energy system model consisting of a pulp mill and an energy company (ECO). In the model, investments can be made, which increase the system's energy efficiency by utilization of the mill's excess heat, as well as investments that increase the electricity production. The results show that the trade-off depends on energy market prices, the district heating demand and the type of existing heat production. From an economic point of view, external use of the excess heat is preferred for all investigated energy market scenarios if the mill is studied together with an ECO with a small heat load. For the cases with medium or large district heating loads, the optimal use of excess heat varies with the energy market price scenarios. However, from a CO 2 emissions perspective, external use is preferred, giving the largest reduction of global emissions in most cases

  18. Airport Merchandising Using Micro Services Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Bhaskar Sankaranarayanan; Viral Rathod

    2016-01-01

    Airport offers an ecosystem where passengers, airlines, airport, and merchants meet under one roof during travel. During the journey, there is a good amount of time spent by passengers on waiting or transit before boarding the flight. Passengers look for spending that time by shopping, dining, and entertainment. Airport merchants and airlines look for merchandising opportunities to acquire new customers, up-sell, and cross-sell their products and services. Highly pe...

  19. A proposal to correct external effects in the coffee market: a tax on regular coffee and tea to subsidise the fair trade coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Galarraga, Ibon; Markandya, Anil

    2006-01-01

    This paper justifies the need to introduce a tax on regular coffee drinkers in the UK to subsidise the fair trade/organic coffee production. This policy will allow to take full account of the negative external effect of regular coffee production while internalising the positive effect of fair trade initiatives. Designing such a policy is possible and the benefits of it can be calculated. This paper shows how. Propuesta para corregir las externalidades en el mercado de café: un impuesto sobre ...

  20. Implementation of International Standards in Russia's Foreign Trade Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E. Grigoruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic documents of international organizations in recent years, which have become the global standard for the development and improvement of statistics of foreign economic relations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. The article describes the key features of the theory and practice of modern foreign trade statistics in Russia and abroad, with an emphasis on the methodological problems of its main parts - the external trade statistics. It shows their interpretation in the most recent recommendations by UN statistical apparatus and other international organizations; considers a range of problems associated with the implementation of the national statistical practices of countries, including Russia and the countries of the Customs Union, the main international standard of foreign trade statistics - UN document "International Merchandise Trade Statistics". The main attention is paid to methodological issues such as: the criteria for selecting the objects of statistical accounting in accordance with international standards, quantitative and cost parameters of foreign trade statistics, statistical methods and estimates of commodity exports and imports, the problems of comparability of data; to a comparison of international standards in 2010 with documents on key precursor methodology of foreign trade statistics, characterized by the practice of introducing these standards in the foreign trade statistics of Russia and the countries of the Customs Union. The article analyzes the content given in the official statistical manuals of Russia foreign trade and foreign countries, covers the main methodological problems of World Trade in conjunction with the major current international statistical standards - System of National Accounts, Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services and other documents; provides specific data describing the current structure of Russian foreign trade and especially its

  1. U.S. international trade and freight transportation trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation, the United States imports and exports more merchandise than any other country. The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks exacerbated an economic slowdown already in progress, resulting in a marked decline in U.S...

  2. Cotton : Market setting, trade policies, and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2004-01-01

    The value of world cotton production in 2000-01 has been estimated at about $20 billion, down from $35 billion in 1996-97 when cotton prices were 50 percent higher. Although cotton's share in world merchandise trade is insignificant (about 0.12 percent), it is very important to a number of developing countries. Cotton accounts for approximately 40 percent of total merchandise export earnin...

  3. International Trade: Rules of Origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C; Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    ...), used to determine the country of origin of merchandise entering the U.S. market, can be very simple, noncontroversial tools of international trade as long as all of the parts of a product are manufactured and assembled primarily in one country...

  4. The Position of Suitcase Trading in Turkey’s Foreign Trade and Growth-Suitcase Trading Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem YAPAR SAÇIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Suitcase trading which is defined as a purchasing process of merchandises in a country that is implemented by travelers (nonresidents to sell those merchandises in their own country; it has started to take place in balance of payments of Turkey since 1996. After the collapse of USSR in 1991 Turkey became a net exporter in suitcase trading so the country reached significant figures occasionally. In this paper the position of suitcase trading in Turkey’s foreign trade is analyzed in consideration of statistical indicators. According to the findings acquired from the study, suitcase trading is a significant variable for Turkey to have currency and to close foreign deficits. Suitcase trading and growth connection is also analyzed by econometric method which is co-integration test and the result is affirmative. And also it is found that this connection is unilateral causation from growth towards suitcase trading according to the findings of Granger causality test

  5. An application of seasonal ARIMA models on group commodities to forecast Philippine merchandise exports performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, Gina May R.; Cawiding, Olive R.; Addawe, Rizavel C.

    2017-11-01

    The increase in the merchandise exports of the country offers information about the Philippines' trading role within the global economy. Merchandise exports statistics are used to monitor the country's overall production that is consumed overseas. This paper investigates the comparison between two models obtained by a) clustering the commodity groups into two based on its proportional contribution to the total exports, and b) treating only the total exports. Different seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were then developed for the clustered commodities and for the total exports based on the monthly merchandise exports of the Philippines from 2011 to 2016. The data set used in this study was retrieved from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) which is the central statistical authority in the country responsible for primary data collection. A test for significance of the difference between means at 0.05 level of significance was then performed on the forecasts produced. The result indicates that there is a significant difference between the mean of the forecasts of the two models. Moreover, upon a comparison of the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of the models, it was found that the models used for the clustered groups outperform the model for the total exports.

  6. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Visual Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the steps to be followed in planning, constructing, and evaluating the effectiveness of merchandise displays. The course is comprised of one unit, General Merchandise Displays. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions…

  7. Encouraging Learning of Industry Technology: A Merchandising Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew; Huss, Megan; Stoel, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    The application of the technology acceptance model to a merchandising course teaching industry software was evaluated. Based on technology acceptance research, industry software was presented emphasizing ease-of-use and usefulness. The final course project gave students a quasi real-life experience of combining merchandising skills with the…

  8. Merchandising's Evolving Role in Family and Consumer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Pauline; Collier, Billie J.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth B.

    2011-01-01

    Merchandising and consumer economics traditionally have been part of family and consumer sciences (FCS) within the ecosystems framework. The purpose of this article is to examine progress of this sub-system within FCS. Specifically, the authors explore the relevance of the systems approach for merchandising programs and conclude that this model is…

  9. 7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 Section 800.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Recordkeeping and Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a...

  10. Evaluation of Computer Simulations for Teaching Apparel Merchandising Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Laura D.; Sisler, Grovalynn

    1988-01-01

    The study developed and evaluated computer simulations for teaching apparel merchandising concepts. Evaluation results indicated that teaching method (computer simulation versus case study) does not significantly affect cognitive learning. Student attitudes varied, however, according to topic (profitable merchandising analysis versus retailing…

  11. 19 CFR 191.152 - Merchandise released from Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise released from Customs custody. 191.152 Section 191.152 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody § 191...

  12. EFEITO DOS FATORES DE MERCHANDISING NAS VENDAS DO VAREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Rodrigues Feijó

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Mehrabian and Russell (1974, (researchers in the field of environmental psychology, have been instrumental in spreading the idea that the environmental features at the point of sale cause emotional reactions that lead to behavior that is hard to explain from a cognitive standpoint. For this reason, merchandising implementation plays a key role, since its aim is to provide an appropriate store atmosphere and display products in a way that encourages buying activity. This paper investigates the effects of merchandising factors on retail sales.The study was carried out in two types of stores: experimental – where merchandising factors were employed, and control - where the design features of merchandising remained unchanged.The analysis of the results confirmed the income effect. . The increase in revenue can be an indicator that merchandising factors have an influence on the consumer´s store choice criteria and his/her behavior within a determined sales environment.

  13. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  14. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eule, B; Sullivan, M K; Schroeder, S A; Hudmon, K S

    2004-12-01

    To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. 100 randomly selected San Francisco pharmacies were visited in 2003. Pharmacies were characterised based on the sale of cigarettes, advertising for cigarettes, and the merchandising of non-prescription NRT products. In 2003, 61% of pharmacies sold cigarettes, a significant decrease compared to 89% of pharmacies selling cigarettes in 1976 (p merchandise the primary known risk factor for death in the USA.

  15. The electronic-commerce-oriented virtual merchandise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming

    2004-03-01

    Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.

  16. Report on the proposal for a Council directive (EURATOM) on the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste - Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    By letter of 13 May 2003 the Council consulted Parliament, pursuant to Articles 31 and 32 of the EURATOM Treaty, on the proposal for a Council directive (EURATOM) on the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste (COM(2003) 32 - 2003/0022(CNS)). At the sitting of 15 May 2003 the President of Parliament announced that he had referred the proposal to the Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy as the committee responsible and the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Policy for its opinion (C5-0229/2003). The Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy appointed Alejo Vidal-Quadras Roca Rapporteur at its meeting of 22 May 2003. The committee considered the Commission proposal and draft report at its meetings of 9 July, 9 September, 6 October, 3 November and 27 November 2003. At the last meeting it adopted the draft legislative resolution by 36 votes to 7, with 2 abstentions. The opinion of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Policy is attached. The report was tabled on 1 December 2003

  17. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  18. Student Work Experience: A Realistic Approach to Merchandising Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Patricia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relevant and realistic experiences are needed to prepare the student for a future career. Addresses the results of a survey of colleges and universities in the United States in regard to their student work experience (SWE) in fashion merchandising. (Author)

  19. Visual merchandising displays: the fashion retailer’s competitive edge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa C. Nell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual merchandising has been called the silent salesman and retailers will be wise to use this silent salesman to enhance their total offering. This makes the in-store environment the perfect tool for fashion retailers to create a competitive advantage that other retailers might not have. The main research objective of this study was to explore if visual merchandising displays can be utilised to create a competitive advantage in fashion retail stores. A secondary objective was to explore the effect that visual merchandising displays have on a fashion retailer’s retail image. Qualitative research was performed by means of focus groups and the respondents were selected by means of purposive sampling. Thereafter, the data was analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicated that visual merchandising displays not only influence store image by communicating product quality and store character, but that they also create a purchasing environment that encourages impulse buying.

  20. Apparel Merchandising Students Learn Customer Service Strategies while Conducting Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Apparel merchandising students participated in a cooperative research project in which they observed customer service techniques by posing as customers in retail stores. The project taught research processes, collaboration, and principles of customer service. (SK)

  1. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  2. The Impact of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram L. Bhatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present Post-Modern Era, the competitive situation in the business is characterized by a cut throat competition, which subsequently results in companies and retailers to pay almost anything for undifferentiated merchandising. This merchandising tool is being used by today’s retailer to distinguish him from other competitors, to be prominent in the market and become a source of attraction for the customers. A few researchers contribute in this field by exploring the reasons which causes the customers impulsive buying, but still there is more to be determined. Purpose of this study is to identify the relation between the consumer impulsive buying and visual merchandising on buying behavior of customers. This study was based on primary data in the form of a questioner. A total of 350 questioners were floated in different consumer outlets (super marts and self-service stores of Rawalpindi, Pakistan out of which 344 questioners were completed and received. Defined four hypotheses were window display, forum display, floor merchandising and shop brand name. These hypotheses were tested for regression analysis by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS software. It was found that window display, forum display, floor merchandising and shop brand name (independent variables are significantly associated to consumer impulse buying behavior (dependent variable. Hence, forum display is negatively related to consumer impulse buying and window display; however, floor merchandising and shop brand name are positively related to consumer impulse buying behavior.

  3. Trade Performance and Potential of the Philippines: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Gravity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Deluna, Roperto Jr

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the issue of what Philippine merchandise trade flows would be if countries operated at the frontier of the gravity model. The study sought to estimate the coefficients of the gravity model. The estimated coefficients were used to estimate merchandise export potentials and technical efficiency of each country in the sample and these were also aggregated to measure impact of country groups, RTAs and inter-regional trading agreements. Result of the ...

  4. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Inger-Lise; Joensson, Johanna; Berntsson, Thore; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    Excess heat from a kraft pulp mill can be used either internally to increase the level of efficiency in the mill, or externally for example as district heating. This paper presents an approach to investigate the competition between external and internal use through modelling the pulp mill and an energy company (ECO) within the same system boundary. Three different sizes of ECOs with different district heating demands are studied. To investigate the competitiveness of using industrial excess heat as district heating compared with other heat production techniques, the option of investing in excess heat use is introduced, along with the possibility for the ECO to invest in biomass combined heat and power (CHP), waste CHP and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC). To evaluate the robustness of the model, alternative solutions are identified and will be used as a comparison to the optimal solutions. The model has been verified by comparing the results with previous studies concerning kraft pulp mills and with related studies regarding district heating and real ECOs. Finally, the approach presented in this part of the study will be used in the second part in order to investigate the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat under different future energy market scenarios

  5. Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. merchandise trade deficit is a part of the overall U.S. balance of payments, a summary statement of all economic transactions between the residents of the United States and the rest of the world, during a given period of time...

  6. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  7. Alcohol-Branded Merchandise Ownership and Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM) has a longer shelf-life than other forms of alcohol marketing and the potential to become integrated into children's self-identities. This review sought to explore the current literature on children's exposure to, and the impact of, ABM. PsycInfo, Proquest, Science Direct, and ABI-Inform databases were searched from the earliest available date to May 2015. Additional studies were identified by a manual review of the reference lists of retrieved articles and contacting the corresponding author of each included study. Articles that reported on child or adolescent ownership of ABM and/or the relationship between ABM ownership and drinking were included. Data on key measures were tabulated; where data of interest were not reported, requests for further information were sent to the articles' authors. Nine cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies were identified. ABM ownership ranged from 11% to 59% and was higher among older children and males. Seven cross-sectional studies reported associations between ABM ownership and drinking-related behaviors. All 4 longitudinal studies reported a significant relationship between ownership at baseline and drinking initiation at follow-up. The small number of available studies, with different measures of ABM ownership and of associations/effects. The few studies exploring ABM ownership are consistent in showing high rates of ownership and associations between ownership and current and future drinking. There is a need for further research into specific aspects of ABM ownership. However, there is also a need for policy interventions to reduce children's access to and ownership of ABM. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Merchandising segmentu dekorativní kosmetiky u vybrané mezinárodní značky

    OpenAIRE

    Vyskočilová, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with merchandising. Merchandising is a new discipline achieveing a high development potential and being more and more important in the competitive business environment. The teorethical part describes the basic concepts of the merchandising, its definitions, types and possible merchandising strategies. The practical part explains and shows whole merchandising process of the make up merchandising on a real examples from the chosen international company.

  9. Merchandising-computer trials 1995 - studies on six merchandising systems; Apteringsdatortest 1995 - studier av sex apteringssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondell, J.; Essen, I. von

    1996-11-01

    Skogforsk has conducted a series of studies on the second generation of merchandising computers (bucking-to-value computers) available on the Swedish market. The harvesters were moved to the same study site in southern Sweden. Each machine processed about 50 Norway spruce trees and the price lists and study conditions were kept the same for all six systems. The layout of the systems was described and the ergonomics briefly evaluated. The accuracy of the length and diameter measuring and how the systems exploited the value of the wood were studied. The results will be used both by the manufacturers for future development and by the forest companies as a basis for investment decisions. 11 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  10. 19 CFR 191.35 - Notice of intent to export; examination of merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., if available, fax number and e-mail address of a contact person, and the location of the merchandise... merchandise shall be transported in-bond to the port of exportation. (e) Extent of examination. The...

  11. Could Mean Trouble: When the Unexpected Pops Up in Your Merchandising Program, Here's What to Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenberger, Lynne M.

    1990-01-01

    Some suggestions for troubleshooting when problems develop with a college merchandising program cover topics such as delivery delays, product quality, promotional material, merchandise that outside manufacturers sell directly through ads in alumni magazines, and "lemons." (MLW)

  12. A study on Store Layout and its impact on Visual Merchandising in Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. R. Mahalaxmi; R. Keerthika

    2018-01-01

    Visual merchandising is the marketing promotion strategy that are implemented in the retail industry by emerging innovative floor plans and three dimensional display using store layout techniques in order to increase the sale. This study examine the store layout strategy in relation to visual merchandising and assist the managers in developing better merchandising techniques for retail stores. This study also helps to find out the analysis the impact of various visual merchandising variables ...

  13. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade Respecting: Pursuant to Standing Order 108(2), consideration of nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade met to consider the nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic. Canada is concerned about the environmental effects of the radioactive waste to the marine environment. The safe dismantlement of nuclear weapons or reactors is of major concern.

  14. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade Respecting: Pursuant to Standing Order 108(2), consideration of nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade met to consider the nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic. Canada is concerned about the environmental effects of the radioactive waste to the marine environment. The safe dismantlement of nuclear weapons or reactors is of major concern

  15. 18 CFR 367.4160 - Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work. 367.4160 Section 367.4160 Conservation of Power and... § 367.4160 Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work. (a) This account... sales rooms. (8) Maintaining display counters and other equipment used in merchandising. (9) Arranging...

  16. Fashion merchandising a jeho aplikace ve vybrané firmě

    OpenAIRE

    Bechiňová, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is divided into two parts. The firts part deals with theoretical description of fashion merchandising, including specification of visual merchandising, sensoring merchandising and other aspects of shopping environment. The second part is dedicated to description of practical application of those principles in a selected shop of an international fashion retailer.

  17. 31 CFR 515.803 - Customs procedures; merchandise specified in § 515.204.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customs procedures; merchandise... CONTROL REGULATIONS Procedures § 515.803 Customs procedures; merchandise specified in § 515.204. (a) With... thereto) whether or not such merchandise has been imported into the United States, collectors of customs...

  18. The Effect of International Trade on Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsok Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and importsIn this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and imports as percentage of GDP, international trade and basic human rights seem to have little relationship; but trade has a close positive relationship with strong order and security. Somewhat surprisingly, regulatory transparency and effective implementation seems to have little or no effect on international trade and vice versa. International trade shows a clear positive relationship with the country’s criminal justice system, but the relationship with the civil justice system is not as clear as such. For regulatory implementation and civil justice, services trade positively affect these institutions, but these institutions in turn affect exports more strongly than services trade. Finally, the effect of trade on rule of law is stronger on a medium to long term (10-20 year time horizon.

  19. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  20. An Environmental Sustainability Course for Design and Merchandising Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huantian; Frey, Lisa Vogel; Farr, Cheryl A.; Gam, Haejin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a science-based course, "Environmental Sustainability Issues for Designers and Merchandisers". The course emphasis was on scientific concepts underlying textile-related environmental problems; the focus was on the "cradle to cradle" design model as an approach for eliminating environmental problems during…

  1. Initiating Training Stations As Clusters of Learning in Fashion Merchandising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Jayne

    1974-01-01

    A Chicago business school offers fashion merchandising as one of several business curriculums that combines on-the-job training and classroom instruction. Instruction is organized around the occupational cluster concept which requires training stations that provide a wide variety of learning experiences. (EA)

  2. Chemistry I and Clothing, Textiles and Fashion Merchandising Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Donald F.

    1980-01-01

    The application of principles learned in a first course in chemistry to chemical problems of interest to home economics majors specializing in clothing and textiles or fashion merchandising is described. Concept transfer--teaching difficult concepts in terms of an everyday analogue--is also explained and relevant laboratory experiments are…

  3. Winners & Sinners: What's Hot and What's Not in Alumni Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Wendy Ann

    1990-01-01

    A large part of any merchandising program is picking products that will sell. Sixty alumni professionals were asked about their ideas. Some of the winners included a watch with the institution's seal, a windsock, and athletic shoes. Some of the losers included a sweater and a commemorative plate. (MLW)

  4. Methodology of Fashion Merchandising by Modularization Operation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    Based on the requirements of applying information technology to reform the traditional fashion industry,the method of fashion merchandising management in some medium-sized enterprises is discussed. By analyzing the actual domestic fashion industry environment, ideal model that could quickly respond to the market's changes is proposed which includes naming brand, target-market position, circumstances analysis and popularity anticipation, brand concept and style setting, fashion design, fashion category component, and sale strategy.

  5. Airline Merchandising: Focus on leisure travel on the Finnish market

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one of current trends: merchandising. The purpose of this thesis is to find out the experiences and opinions of leisure travellers and leisure travel agents in terms of booking ancillaries for flights. Based on those findings, the aim is to find out alternative ways to boost the sales of ancillaries. The commis-sioner for this thesis is Amadeus Finland Oy and the target group is the Finnish leisure travel market. The research was conducted by creating two online su...

  6. 19 CFR 191.14 - Identification of merchandise or articles by accounting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applies to identification of merchandise or articles in inventory or storage, as well as identification of... identified as being received into and withdrawn from the same inventory. Even if merchandise or articles are... or articles under this section, subject to the conditions of this section. If any such inventory...

  7. 19 CFR 151.15 - Movement of merchandise to a centralized examination station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of merchandise to a centralized... General § 151.15 Movement of merchandise to a centralized examination station. (a) Permission to transfer... following bonded movements for the transfer to the CES unless the type of bonded movement to be used is...

  8. 19 CFR 146.23 - Accountability for merchandise in a zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability for merchandise in a zone. 146.23 Section 146.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....23 Accountability for merchandise in a zone. (a) Identification of merchandise—(1) General. A zone...

  9. 19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Title to Unclaimed... part, at which time merchandise having thus remained in Customs custody is considered as unclaimed and abandoned, the port director, with the concurrence of the Assistant Commissioner, Office of Field Operations...

  10. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  11. Retail Merchandising Competencies: A Comparison of Perceptions among Entry-Level Managers, Educators, Recruiters, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Shauna; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 38 of 184 retailing graduates, 24 of 111 recruiters in the apparel field, 58 of 200 retail merchandising educators, and 45 of 47 current students found that differences in their ratings of the importance of 53 competencies for entry workers centered on three factors: merchandising, leadership, and monitoring. (SK)

  12. 19 CFR 191.184 - Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody. 191.184 Section 191.184 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... From Customs Territory § 191.184 Merchandise transferred from continuous Customs custody. (a) Procedure...

  13. The Relationship between Retail Merchandising in the Content Area and Its Effect on Comprehension and Reading Rate as Measured by Retail Merchandising Reading Tests Given to Selected Secondary School Students in Metropolitan Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jane

    A total of 99 students from a Toronto secondary vocational school participated in a study to determine whether students who studied retail merchandising differed significantly in comprehension and reading rate from students who did not study retail merchandising. An experimental group composed of 50 merchandising students and a control group of 49…

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR TASKS PERFORMED BY MERCHANDISING EMPLOYEES WORKING IN THREE STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF RETAIL ESTABLISHMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERTEL, KENNETH A.

    BY QUESTIONNAIRE, FACTS WERE OBTAINED REGARDING 12 CATEGORIES OF MERCHANDISING PERFORMED BY 609 SUPERVISORY AND NONSUPERVISORY PERSONNEL OF 33 DEPARTMENT, LIMITED-PRICE VARIETY, AND GENERAL MERCHANDISING STORES. THIS SAMPLE WAS SELECTED FROM A POPULATION OF 13,643 MERCHANDISING EMPLOYEES, WORKING IN A TOTAL OF 234 FIRMS, IN KING AND PIERCE…

  15. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its 'thermal' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York.

  16. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne [Toulouse School of Economics (IDEI and GREMAQ) (France); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [HEC Montreal (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its ''thermal'' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York. (author)

  17. The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior at the Executive Store Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeisey, Gisela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The marketplace nowadays is having tight competition between stores or companies which is a new comer or the long-time one. Stores or companies have to utilize strategies especially merchandising tools in order to attract consumer€™s attention to survive in the competition. The strategy of visual merchandising is often used by stores or companies to stimulate consumer€™s want towards their product. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of visual merchandising on consumer impulse buy...

  18. Counterfeiting as corporate externality: intellectual property crime and global insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Corporate negative externalities occur when corporations place some of the costs of their profit-seeking activity onto society. This paper suggests that the current global problem of intellectual property crime is such an externality, and that it has not been recognised as such because corporations present product counterfeiting and piracy as crimes which reduce their revenue, rather than as predictable side effects of corporate production and merchandising, including bran...

  19. 75 FR 64742 - Shifts in U.S. Merchandise Trade 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... including data, as well as links to other organizations with related information. User feedback on the... report may also provide comments by downloading the survey form and business reply mailer for this...

  20. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  1. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  2. Administration of Resale Stock Merchandise Contracts at the Defense Commissary Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1995-01-01

    ... and complied with, and to evaluate the effectiveness of related internal controls. Contract administration functions for the resale stock merchandise contracts were segregated among the service centers, regions, and commissary stores...

  3. EU emission trading. Requirement of adaptation of the Cap as a consequence of external shocks and unexpected developments?; EU-Emissionshandel. Anpassungsbedarf des Caps als Reaktion auf externe Schocks und unerwartete Entwicklungen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The effectivity of the European emission trading system (EU-ETS) with respect to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions based essentially on the quantity of the emission caps. The regional, sectorial and temporal boundaries of this system as well as the regulations covering international flexible mechanisms and banking have to be considered in the evaluation of the effectivity of the EU-ETS. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different variants of adjustment. First of all, the criteria for an identification of a possible justified needs of adaptation are investigated. Furthermore, the authors discuss the question about suitable points in time for an intervention.

  4. The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Impulsive Buying with Impulsive Buying Tendency As Moderating Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Novia

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to classify the female consumer demographic segments linked by impulsive buying, to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying, and to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable on customers of Gaudi in Taman Anggrek Mall. This research is quantitative research with a total sample of 100 people. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to the respondents by cross secti...

  5. Merchandise and Replenishment Planning Optimisation for Fashion Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Iannone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration among different companies functions, collaborative planning and the elaboration of focused distribution plans are critical to the success of each kind of company working in the complex retail sector. In this contest, the present work proposes the description of a model able to support coordinated strategic choices continually made by Supply Chain (SC actors. The final objective is achievement of the full optimisation of Merchandise & Replenishment Planning phases, identifying the right replenishment quantities and periods. To test the proposed model’s effectiveness, it was applied to an important Italian fashion company in the complex field of fast-fashion, a sector in which promptness is a main competitive leverage and, therefore, the planning cannot exclude the time variable. The passage from a total push strategy, currently used by the company, to a push-pull one, suggested by the model, allowed us not only to estimate a reduction in goods quantities to purchase at the beginning of a sales period (with considerable economic savings, but also elaborate a focused replenishment plan that permits reduction and optimisation of departures from network warehouses to Points of Sale (POS.

  6. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  8. Russian – Chinese Trade and Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The author assesses the impact of the Yuan exchange rate volatility on the indicators of the Russian-Chinese trade (the analysis is made on the ground of the statistical database CEIC. Quantitative estimates of changes in Russian-Chinese merchandise trade by commodity groups (in the HS classification due to the revaluation of the CNY against the USD were obtained via the regression analysis. In the case of the revaluation of the Yuan to the US dollar the value of Russian exports may increase for such commodity groups as mineral products, chemical industry products, base metals, precious stones and metals, and vehicles. This article shows that the value of Chinese imports will decrease for such merchandise groups as transport vehicles, machinery and equipment, leather industry products, non-precious metals and products from them; in this case, the import of the food industry products, mineral products and optical instruments will decrease insignificantly. The author concludes that the revaluation of the Yuan, contributing to the growth of Russian exports and the reduction in Chinese imports, will not cause a radical change in structure of the Russian-Chinese trade

  9. 25 CFR 141.50 - Penalty and forfeiture of merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... resides as a reservation business owner within the exterior boundaries of the Navajo, Hopi, or Zuni Reservations or introduces or attempts to introduce goods or to trade therein without a license shall forfeit...

  10. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  11. The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Impulsive Buying with Impulsive Buying Tendency As Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Novia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to classify the female consumer demographic segments linked by impulsive buying, to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying, and to determine the effect of visual merchandising on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable on customers of Gaudi in Taman Anggrek Mall. This research is quantitative research with a total sample of 100 people. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to the respondents by cross sectional. Research used Cluster Analysis and Moderated Regression Analysis. Data processing was performed using SPSS software for Windows version 20. Research found that customers of Gaudi were divided into three groups: the way of the world, sufficient money, and promotions. Then, research found that visual merchandising affected impulsive buying. In addition, there visual merchandising had also an effect on impulsive buying with impulsive buying tendency as moderating variable. As a conclusion, moderating variable strengthens the effect of visual merchandising on impulse buying.

  12. Evaluating of foreign trade security

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyliev Andriy

    2015-01-01

    A method of evaluating foreign trade security is considered based on horizontally integrated approach to research security issues, taking into account the conditions of management, factors, components and levels of external security. The work was based theories of security, economics, management theory, practice of state regulation of foreign trade.

  13. Carbon trading: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. At the request of Duisenberg school of finance, this report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on ‘carbon trading’, amongst others addressing

  14. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  15. 19 CFR 24.23 - Fees for processing merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CBP; and (B) In the case of an underpayment, interest will accrue on the amount not paid from the date... the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (see also General Note 26, HTSUS) that... rate under paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A) of this section to the total value of such daily importations. (2...

  16. 9 CFR 203.14 - Statement with respect to advertising allowances and other merchandising payments and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement with respect to advertising allowances and other merchandising payments and services. 203.14 Section 203.14 Animals and Animal Products... to advertising allowances and other merchandising payments and services. The Guidelines 1. Who is a...

  17. Clusters of Tasks Performed by Merchandising Employees Working in Three Standard Industrial Classifications of Retail Establishments. Final Report, No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Kenneth Arthur

    The study assembled up-to-date facts by questionnaire about major types of tasks actually performed by merchandising employees working in department, variety, and general merchandise stores in King and Pierce Counties, Washington. This population closely matched the national percentages, and responses of 609 employees provided data for the study.…

  18. Artificial intelligence applied to assigned merchandise location in retail sales systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Domínguez, O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an option for improving the process of assigning storage locations for merchandise in a warehouse. A disadvantage of policies in the literature is that the merchandise is assigned allocation only according to the volume of sales and the rotation it presents. However, in some cases it is necessary to deal with other aspects such as family group membership, the physical characteristics of the products, and their sales pattern to design an integral policy. This paper presents an alternative to the afore- mentioned process using Flexsim®, artificial neural networks, and genetic algorithms.

  19. Merchandising. Alternativa estratégica del marketing en el punto de venta

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Darwin

    2007-01-01

    Conociendo que entre las funciones de Merchandising, están las técnicas de colocación se productos, las mismas que han alcanzado madurez a partir del desarrollo de las ventas por el sistema auto-selección, donde las compras que realiza el cliente no necesitasen de la presencia del vendedor.Es necesario, hoy en día, que las empresas cubran de la mejor manera todas las necesidades o deseos latentes que puede tener el cliente. Por esta razón, todo lo que trata el Merchandising, tiene que esta...

  20. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  1. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  2. Occupational Home Economics Education Series. Fabrics and Textiles Merchandising. Competency Based Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth

    This module, one of ten competency based modules developed for vocational home economics teachers, is based on a job cluster in fabric and textiles merchandising. It is designed for use with a variety of groups including grades 9-14 and adults. Focusing on the specific job title fabric and textiles salesperson, ten competencies and the student…

  3. Drugstore Selling and Merchandising, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. David

    This manual on drugstore selling and merchandising, together with a separate answer key, is intended for trainees in distributive education. The 18 self-study assignments, developed by an instructional coordinator with the aid of college professors and leaders in business, cover a wide range of topics, from effective sales techniques to specific…

  4. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: U.S. Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby gives notice of a market test for International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates in... Return Service (IMRS) Non-published Rate (NPR) experimental product on August 15, 2013. The Postal...

  5. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Merchandise for Public Auction (Sale)), and an approved copy of Customs Form 6043 (Delivery Ticket). The...) 6043 (Delivery Ticket), or other similar Customs document as designated by the port director or an..., voluntarily abandoned, or seized and forfeited may be released for transfer to the place of sale upon...

  6. Time-bound product returns and optimal order quantities for mass merchandisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min-Chun; Goh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The return guidelines for a mass merchandiser usually entail a grace period, a markdown on the original price and the condition of the returned items. This research utilises eight scenarios formed from the variation of possible return guidelines to model the cost functions of single-product categories for a typical mass merchandiser. Models for the eight scenarios are developed and solved with the objective of maximising the expected profit so as to obtain closed form solutions for the associated optimal order quantity. An illustrative example and sensitivity analysis are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Our results show that merchandisers who allow for returns within a time window, albeit with a penalty cost imposed and the returned products being recoverable, should plan for larger order amounts as such products do not affect the business. Similarly, the merchandisers who allow for returns beyond a grace period and without any penalty charges, but where the returned products are irrecoverable, should manage their stocks in this category more judiciously by ordering as little as possible so as to limit the number of returns and carefully consider the effects of their customer satisfaction-guaranteed policies, if any.

  7. Female Intense Curricula: Fashion Merchandising in Home Economics and Associated Programs in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikitka, Kathleen Faith; Van Camp, Mary Lou

    A study was done of higher education curricula with substantial enrollment by women (such as fashion merchandising and home economics) to examine the context and substance of the curricula, to identify infrastructures that have supported these programs, and to probe issues that face administrators, faculty and students engaged in such programs.…

  8. Student and Supervisor Perceptions of the Ethical Environment of Retail Merchandising Internship Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann

    2001-01-01

    Senior retail merchandising students (n=37) and their internship supervisors (n=25) were surveyed about ethical practices. Perceptions of ethics did not vary by internship location. Supervisors perceived their organizations to be more ethical than students did on two of five questions. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  9. Basic Visual Merchandising. Second Edition. [Student's Manual and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luter, Robert R.

    This student's manual that features content needed to do tasks related to visual merchandising is intended for students in co-op training stations and entry-level, master employee, and supervisory-level employees. It contains 13 assignments. Each assignment has questions covering specific information and also features activities in which students…

  10. Incorporating Active Learning and Student Inquiry into an Introductory Merchandising Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Hines, Jean D.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators believe that student learning is enhanced when they are actively involved in classroom activities that require student inquiry. The purpose of this paper is to report on three student inquiry projects that were incorporated into a merchandising class with the focus on making students responsible for their learning, rather than the…

  11. Fashion Merchandising: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    The fashion merchandising guide is the fourth of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. The job-preparatory guide is intended to provide youths and adults with intensive preparation for initial entry employment and also with career advancement opportunities within the…

  12. Factors affecting the merchandising of hardwood logs in the southern tier of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Wagner; Bryan Smalley; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of the eastern United States, hardwood boles are sawn into logs and then separated by product before proceeding to future processing. This type of product merchandising is facilitated by large differences in the relative value of hardwood logs of different species and grades. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing the...

  13. 19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. 12.150 Section 12.150 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. (a) Generally. Merchandise from certain countries... the United States shall be detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition...

  14. Studi Pengaruh Visual Merchandise untuk Anak Terhadap Perilaku Pembelian Paket HappyMeal di Restoran McDonald’s Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In sales promotion context, premium offers such as toy merchandizes for kids are free incentives or discounted price to encourage sales. A common finding that toys on merchandize offered in Happy Meal packets influence their consumer behavior which are kids, besides kids are known as potential target market nowadays. This thesis is not only giving descriptive explanation about the visual influence on merchandise towards kid’s buying behavior on the purchase of Happy Meal packets, but also about correlation and simple linear regression analysis. The result indicates that visual elements on merchandises have strong and significant impact to kid’s buying behavior on Happy Meal packets. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Dalam konteks promosi penjualan, penawaran premi seperti merchandise mainan untuk anak, merupakan penawaran item gratis atau dalam harga yang lebih murah yang bertujuan menimbulkan suatu respons. Dalam kelanjutannya, diketahui bahwa visual merchandise mainan dalam paket HappyMeal mempengaruhi perilaku konsumen anak-anak. Disamping itu, anak-anak adalah pasar yang potensial dewasa ini. Skripsi ini tidak hanya memberikan pemaparan deskriptif mengenai pengaruh visual merchandise terhadap perilaku pembelian paket HappyMeal pada anak, tetapi juga mengenai analisis hubungan korelasi dan regresi linear sederhana. Hasil penelitian mengidikasikan adanya pengaruh yang kuat dan signifikan antara visual merchandise terhadap perilaku pembelian paket HappyMeal pada anak. Kata kunci: Pengaruh visual, Merchandise, Perilaku pembelian, McDonald’s.

  15. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  16. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  17. Integral management of the hazardous merchandise logistics process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the out sourcing of transportation operations and complementary services by producers and carriers, there has been a growing demand for global services that integrate the entire value chain of external logistics, which is understood to be the process including storage, transportation (modal or bi-multimodal) and end delivery. This circumstance has force transportation companies to undertake a process of internal transformation: from providing mere transportation services to becoming logistic operators. Express Truck, S. A. (hereinafter ETSA) could not overlook this market need. Following is a description of ETSA's process of evolution in this line of business. (Author)

  18. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  19. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  20. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fagiolo

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  1. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  2. 76 FR 81914 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... read ``LD Commodities Rice Merchandising LLC, Wilton, Connecticut, and LD Commodities Interior Rice Merchandising LLC, Kansas City, Missouri (subsidiaries of Louis Dreyfus Commodities LLC, Wilton, Connecticut...

  3. 77 FR 18791 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Corporation, Wilton, Connecticut'' was amended to read ``LD Commodities Rice Merchandising LLC, Wilton, Connecticut, and LD Commodities Interior Rice Merchandising LLC, Kansas City, Missouri (subsidiaries of Louis...

  4. Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N < M insertions perform at most δ · N/B I/Os, then......We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N

  5. Importance of industrial classification of economic activities for teaching merchandising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Business subjects in any national economy perform activities results of which are products, services or goods directly distributed to the market network. Volume of products differs according to the level of operational facilities, number of producers and the level of their facilities. Based on the development of information technology, there arise new specialization fields and new ranges of goods. Classification criteria are developed to qualify level of production and for enlistment of a firm to a particular branch. Currently the criteria of production classification are being developed. The understanding of these principles is particularly important on the bachelor level of the specialization Trade Management, where students are getting acquainted with the characteristics of goods, creative and degradation influences on utility, etc. Students are encouraged to understand how the quality and criteria mentioned above influence market prices. Teaching emphasis is put on the complexity of food assortment and the knowledge of Czech and EU legalislation relating to hygienic aspects and health quality of production, processing, and selling of food products. This complex procedure enables to obtain an overall survey of the origin of particular products, their catering, and sales. This means that the students obtain an idea about the complexity of relations existing among the origin of products, their sales and their consumption.

  6. Strategi Coverage, Distribution, Merchandising, Promotion Sebagai Upaya Peningkatan Sales Force Dan Revenue (Studi Kasus Pada PT. Telekomunikasi Seluler Cabang Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Raka, Dyasc Achmad Hardha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application of the marketing strategies used by management to implement Coverage, Distribution, Merchandising and Promotion (CDMP) strategies as the basis for management decision in an effort to increase sales force performance and revenue. The influence of Coverage, Distribution, Merchandising and Promotion (CDMP) strategies on increasing sales force performance and revenue could look at a very significant sales sector. The locus of this resear...

  7. A comunicação de merchandising no mercado de petshop.

    OpenAIRE

    TRAVAGIN, Ricardo Brandão; GIACOMINI FILHO, Gino

    2011-01-01

    Os animais domésticos alcançaram grande relevância no cenário mundial, tendo os negócios nesse setor obtido incremento considerável nas últimas décadas. A comunicação de merchandising é o estímulo e impulso final da compra por meio de ações realizadas no ponto de venda, levando e induzindo o consumidor a preferir as marcas que estão expostas e ao seu alcance. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar a comunicação de merchandising direcionada ao mercado de pet shop. Trata-se de uma pesqu...

  8. Cultural Effects of Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Suranovic; Robert Winthrop

    2005-01-01

    We incorporate culture into a standard trade model in two distinct ways. In the ¡°cultural affinity from work¡± model, workers receive a non- pecuniary cultural benefit from work in a particular industry. In the ¡°cultural externality¡± model, consumers of a product receive utility from other consumer¡¯s consumption of a domestic good. We show that resistance to change due to cultural concerns can reduce the national benefits from trade liberalization. Complete movements to free trade will ha...

  9. THE ESSENCE OF THE EFFECTIVE MERCHANDISING WHEN PROMOTING A PRIVATE LABEL PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Майковська, Вікторія Ігорівна; Солониченко, Тетяна Сергіївна

    2014-01-01

    The need for own goods mark is disclosed in the article in conditions of competitive retail market. The competitive benefits are grounded which the own brand affords. Characteristic features and peculiarities of the own goods mark are defined. The experience of Private Label applying in the world, Europe and Ukraine is analyzed. The lack of problem development of merchandising effectiveness study in the promoting process of Private Label products is specified. The tasks to make the analysis o...

  10. An empirical study, role and importance of visual merchandising in retail branding- A practitioners’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeiro, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze the role and importance of Visual merchandising and below the line advertising on retail branding. An initial investigation on “visual merchandising” is undertaken along with its effects on consumer’s purchase behavior and brand identity. The research is based on the companies in Dubai, which represents the Middle East and African market. Semi - Structured Interviews of various practitioner based in Dubai were undertaken in order to understand the topic ...

  11. Design, effectiveness and role of visual merchandising in creating customer appeal

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan; Iqbal, Azmiya; Umer, Habiba; Maqbool, Aisha; Sunil, Namrata

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to find out how and to what extent outlets incorporate visual merchandising, that appeals to the customers and lead to a potential purchase. The survey method was followed to conduct the study and data were collected through sampling techniques from identified respondents, who were selected through convenient and judgment methods. The major findings in the light of the objectives of this project were that most of the stores need to have attractive window displays, proper store...

  12. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  13. Trade Integration Effects in ASEAN Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines evolution of trade integration process in ASEAN. The author employs three methods in order to evaluate the degree of ASEAN‘s trade integration that has been achieved over two decades since the signing of the Association of South-East Asian Nations Free Trade Area Agreement (AFTA in 1992. The high degree of trade integration among member states allows moving to the next stage of international economic integration (ASEAN countries are going to form ASEAN Community (the Common Market by the 1st of January 2016. So the study assesses the ASEAN’s preparedness to the Common Market by determining the share of mutual (intraregional trade, regional trade intensity index (RTII and trade integration effects (trade creation and trade diversion effects for each member state, 2 groups of ASEAN countries (ASEAN-6 and ASEAN-4 and the Association as a whole. The paper shows that despite the increase in the share of intraregional trade during the years of the AFTA functioning, the member states of ASEAN still demonstrate low levels of trade integration: a 75% of the Association’s external trade focuses on extra regional partners; b ASEAN as a whole has the low volume of RTII and among its member states only Singapore has the high one; c trade diversion effect prevails over trade creation one

  14. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  15. Opportunities and Prospects of Trade Development between Romania and the Russian Federation in the European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as main objective the analysis of the opportunities and development perspectives of the trade relationship between Romania and the Russian Federation, linked to the latest evolutions of the European and global economic context. Keeping in mind this objective, our paper is structured around three main sections, as follows. The first part, “Economic Context of Romania-Russian Federation Trade Development” is centered upon the global crisis and its effects on the EU, Romania and Russia as well as the EU-Russia increasing bilateral merchandise trade flows. We examine how the global economic crisis interrupted increasing merchandise trade between EU-27 and the Russian Federation and present the main exporter countries from the EU-27 to Russia and the major EU importers from Russia and analyze in a comparative manner the very concentrated trade pattern between EU-27 and Russia. In the next section, “Romania-Russia Trade Development”, we underline that the Russian Federation is the second extra-EU trading partner of our country. We explore Romania’s trade relationship with Russia during pre and post accession to the European Union and also the actual trends of the bilateral trade, which pattern is extremely concentrated. In the last section, “Opportunities and Prospects for the Trade Development between Romania and Russian Federation”, we conclude, on the basis of the comparative and prospective analysis, that: Romania could be well positioned on Russian markets; there are many similarities in competitiveness characteristics of our countries; Romania and Russia have some problematic factors in doing business; strong points of the Romanian manufacturing industry could lead to the diversification of trade pattern and, finally, Romania has the possibility to develop a strong economic partnership with the Russian Federation under the framework of the EU-Russia relationship.

  16. The determinants of trade credit use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Kihanga, Ernest; Lensink, Robert; Lutz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Most small businesses in the developing economies suffer from a lack of access to formal external finance. One important alternative source of finance for these entrepreneurs is trade credit. Applying a unique data-set containing data on specific trade relations between rice wholesalers and rice

  17. Evaluation of trade influence on economic growth rate by computational intelligence approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov-Mladenović, Svetlana; Milovančević, Milos; Mladenović, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In this study was analyzed the influence of trade parameters on the economic growth forecasting accuracy. Computational intelligence method was used for the analyzing since the method can handle highly nonlinear data. It is known that the economic growth could be modeled based on the different trade parameters. In this study five input parameters were considered. These input parameters were: trade in services, exports of goods and services, imports of goods and services, trade and merchandise trade. All these parameters were calculated as added percentages in gross domestic product (GDP). The main goal was to select which parameters are the most impactful on the economic growth percentage. GDP was used as economic growth indicator. Results show that the imports of goods and services has the highest influence on the economic growth forecasting accuracy.

  18. CHINA’S ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN AFRICA: TRADE, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND AID

    OpenAIRE

    Michałowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the nature of China’s economic activities in Africa in three dimensions: merchandise trade, foreign direct investment, and aid. These are three main channels through which China’s presence on the continent affects Africa’s economic growth and development. China’s economic relations with Africa are, to a large extent, driven by Chinese demand for natural resources, especially oil and minerals. It is the most visible in Sino-African trade, where fuels alone account for about ...

  19. A mass merchandiser's role in enhancing pharmacy students' business plan development skills for medication therapy management services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moultry, Aisha Morris

    2011-09-10

    To develop a relationship between a pharmacy management course and a mass merchandiser and to determine whether involving pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser in the course would enhance student skills in developing a business plan for medication therapy management services. The pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser participated in lectures, provided panel discussions, and conducted a business plan competition. Learning was assessed by means of 4 examinations and 1 project (ie, the business plan). At the conclusion of the semester, surveys were administered to solicit student input and gain insight from pharmacy managers on the perceived value of this portion of the course. Students' average grade on the business plan assignment, which included the oral presentation, the peer assessment, and the written proposal, was 92.2%. Approximately 60% (n=53) of surveyed students agreed or strongly agreed that their management skills had improved because of the participation of pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser. All of the managers enjoyed participating in the experience. The involvement of pharmacy managers from a mass merchandiser enhanced student learning in the classroom, and managers felt that their participation was an important contribution to the development of future pharmacists.

  20. A Mass Merchandiser's Role in Enhancing Pharmacy Students’ Business Plan Development Skills for Medication Therapy Management Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a relationship between a pharmacy management course and a mass merchandiser and to determine whether involving pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser in the course would enhance student skills in developing a business plan for medication therapy management services. Design. The pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser participated in lectures, provided panel discussions, and conducted a business plan competition. Learning was assessed by means of 4 examinations and 1 project (ie, the business plan). At the conclusion of the semester, surveys were administered to solicit student input and gain insight from pharmacy managers on the perceived value of this portion of the course. Assessment. Students’ average grade on the business plan assignment, which included the oral presentation, the peer assessment, and the written proposal, was 92.2%. Approximately 60% (n = 53) of surveyed students agreed or strongly agreed that their management skills had improved because of the participation of pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser. All of the managers enjoyed participating in the experience. Conclusions. The involvement of pharmacy managers from a mass merchandiser enhanced student learning in the classroom, and managers felt that their participation was an important contribution to the development of future pharmacists. PMID:21969719

  1. Current merchandising practices and characteristics of beef wholesale rib usage in three U.S. cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D M; Romans, J R; Costello, W J

    1994-01-01

    Packers/processors, supermarket meat managers, and restaurant meat purchasers were surveyed to determine industry utilization of the beef wholesale rib. Nine packer/processors representing > 52% of the U.S. steer-heifer slaughter reported that more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the ribs were wholesaled as ribeye, lip-on (IMPS 112A) subprimals and that its predominance in the market makes it the standard for pricing. For merchandising variations of this cut (e.g., ribeye, lip-off), packer prices are adjusted to lip-on bases according to the relative yield. Excess fat was the most common complaint about ribeye steaks, reported by 78% of the packer/processors. In particular, 71% of them reported the "kernel" fat near the center of a ribeye steak between the longissimus and spinalis dorsi muscles is quite difficult to trim out and represents the greatest problem in merchandising. Forty-two percent of supermarket meat managers and 58% of restaurant meat purchasers thought the fat content of beef ribeyes discouraged consumers from purchasing all beef. Kernel fat was specifically cited by 36% of the restaurateurs. Alternative merchandising strategies should be employed to minimize the negative value effects of kernel fat. Even with excess fat being a concern to approximately half of the beef rib buyers, most still bought lip-on ribeyes and trimmed excess fat away. Apparently, they made this choice of lower price per weight, even though price per trimmed serving might be similar to lip-off ribeyes. Excess fat is being transported from packer/processor to buyers in the form of lip-on ribeyes because of the price relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Alcohol-branded merchandise and its association with drinking attitudes and outcomes in US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Worth, Keilah A; Sargent, James D

    2009-03-01

    To describe ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM) and its association with attitudinal susceptibility, initiation of alcohol use, and binge drinking. Three-wave longitudinal study. Confidential telephone survey. Representative US sample of 6522 adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline survey (4309 of whom were never-drinkers at 8 months); subjects were resurveyed at 16 and/or 24 months. Main Exposures Ownership of ABM (first assessed at the 8-month survey) and attitudinal susceptibility to alcohol use. Initiation of alcohol use that parents did not know about and binge drinking (> or =5 drinks in a row). Prevalence of ABM ownership ranged from 11% of adolescents (at 8 months) to 20% (at 24 months), which extrapolates to 2.1 to 3.1 million US adolescents, respectively. Clothing and headwear comprised 88% of ABM. Beer brands accounted for 75% of items; 45% of items bore the Budweiser label. Merchandise was obtained primarily from friends and/or family (71%) but was also purchased by the adolescents themselves (24%) at stores. Among never-drinkers, ABM ownership and susceptibility were reciprocally related, each significantly predicting the other during an 8-month period. In turn, we found that ABM ownership and susceptibility predicted both initiation of alcohol use and binge drinking, while controlling for a broad range of covariates. Alcohol-branded merchandise is widely distributed among US adolescents, who obtain the items one-quarter of the time through direct purchase at retail outlets. Among never-drinkers, ABM ownership is independently associated with susceptibility to as well as with initiation of drinking and binge drinking.

  3. Reliability assessment of a multistate freight network for perishable merchandise with multiple suppliers and buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Cheng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a multistate freight network for single and perishable merchandise to assess the freight performance, where a node denotes a supplier, a distribution centre, or a buyer, while a logistics company providing a freight traffic service is denoted by an edge. For each logistics company, carrying capacity should be multistate since partial capacity may be reserved by some customers. The merchandise may perish or be perished during conveyance because of disadvantageous weather or collision in carrying such that the number of intact cargoes may be insufficient for the buyers. Hence, according to the perspective of supply chain management, the reliability, a probability of the network to successfully deliver the cargoes from the suppliers to the buyers subject to a budget, is proposed to be a performance index, where the suppliers and buyers are not the previous customers. An algorithm in terms of minimal paths to assess the reliability is developed. A fruit logistics case is adopted to explore the managerial implications of the reliability using sensitivity analysis.

  4. Merchandising at the point of sale: differential effect of end of aisle and islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Garrido-Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Merchandising at point of sale comprises a set of techniques aimed at encouraging the purchase at the point of sale. This paper analyzes the impact on sales of two of these techniques, especially used in the context of non-specialized food stores and rarely distinguished in academic research: (1 the presentation of product in the ends of the aisles or main aisles, leading from the side aisle access and, (2 the presentation of the product in islands within the main aisles. This research combines cross-sectional and longitudinal data and analyzes specific information on sales and commercial stimulus for all references in two large categories of products from a hypermarket over ten weeks. Results show that both the ends of aisle and the islands have a positive effect on sales and their relative importance depends on the nature of the category analyzed. There are also greater synergies between ends of aisle and price promotions. Finally, the results provide some evidence into the impact of the extension or termination of these merchandising stimuli.

  5. The impact of Romanian adhesion to European Union on exterior trade

    OpenAIRE

    Craciunas, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the Romanian external trade policies in European integration context underlining the external trade policy of Romania which according with European Union policies after the joining to the European Union, the improvement and adaptation of external trade policy to the European standards through internal and external measures and the commercial effect of the extensions of the European Union over non member countries of Europe and on the European Union position in the international co...

  6. Estimating Trade Effects of the Competitive Devaluation Policy in East Asia’s Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the competitive devaluation policy effects on the East Asia’s trade for the period of 2000–2011. The author obtained quantitative estimation of the currency policy trade effects with the help of panel data regression analysis (using export and import data of the following countries: China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines and the Republic of Korea. The article includes investigation of the following foreign trade flows: total, intra-regional and out- of-regional exports and imports of merchandise. The study reflects the fact that the competitive devaluation policy of ASEAN+3 countries negatively affects the out-of-regional exports and imports, as well as the total imports. Simultaneously such exchange rate policy measures have no effect on intra-regional trade

  7. 19 CFR 142.21 - Merchandise eligible for special permit for immediate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a trade fair. Articles for a trade fair may be released under the immediate delivery procedure, as... period, whichever expires first. If proper presentation is not made until after the tariff-rate quota is...

  8. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  9. Validated Competency Task Lists for General Merchandise Retailing, Food Service Management, and Business and Personal Services Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Suzanne G.

    This publication contains competency task lists that address principal entry-level and career-sustaining jobs in the occupational categories of general merchandise retailing, food service management, and business and personal services marketing. Section I, Development of the Competency Task Lists, provides details on how the competencies were…

  10. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Marketing and Fashion Merchandising (Program CIP: 08.0705--General Retailing Operations). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for marketing I-II and fashion merchandising. Presented first are a program…

  11. Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Byon, Kevin K.; Schoenstedt, Linda; Johns, Gary; Bussell, Leigh Ann; Choi, Hwansuk

    2012-01-01

    Various consumer values and perceived product attributes trigger consumptive behaviors of athletic team merchandise (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Likewise, using a principal component analysis technique on a student sample, a measurement scale was proposed that consisted of nine factors affecting the purchase of athletic team…

  12. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  13. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  14. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  15. International nuclear trade and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this book, the culmination of one phase of an ongoing international research project on nuclear suppliers and nonproliferation, is to explore the international political and economic dimensions of nuclear trade, especially as they pertain to the behavior of eleven emerging nuclear-supplier states. More specifically, the book sets forth a conceptual framework for analyzing international nuclear trade; details the domestic and external factors that shape the nuclear export policies of Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, the People's Republic of China, South Korea, South Africa, Spain and Taiwan; and identifies and assesses alternative strategies for containing the new proliferation risks posed by these emerging suppliers. The book also describes an innovative effort to utilize a computer-based system for tracking international nuclear trade

  16. New Trends of E-commerce Development Brought by Chinese International Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xu

    2015-01-01

    e-commerce as a new trade, in the form of the current globalization of information and economic globalization, is with its strong competitive advantage and vitality, which can quickly spread to all areas of international business, and it changes in the international economic landscape had a profound impact. E-commerce is based on the rapid development of computer technology and the wide application is on the use of the Internet and advanced communications technology. It changes the the past, traditional physical trading and cash transactions, in a virtualization market, merchandise presentation via the web. With the online payment, the use of advanced materials and distribution logistics systems are for tangible and intangible commodities trading of a new trade. This new types of transactions overturn the traditional transaction methods, so that the whole business process, whether it is in the application of domestic and foreign trade, and has achieved the goal of online shopping and trading. E-commerce international trade transaction cost savings improve the efficiency of transactions; it changes in the foreign trade transaction process, the development of third-party trading platform is increasing the competitiveness of enterprises and the creation of employment opportunities in all aspects of a country' s foreign trade and the overall economy have had a significant impact. E-commerce is to establish a new economic and trade order, the already mature in the world trading system and the order is being re-shuffling of the emerging e-commerce trade. China is the world' s top-ranked in the world' s total import and export trade power, is under the wave of e-commerce, the difficulties, we should seize opportunities, and meet challenges.

  17. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  18. Advancing Sustainable Development in Global Trade and Multilateral Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanWorld exports and imports are quickly recovering after the 2008-09 sharp decline in merchandise trade, as illustrated by global trade performances in the first and second quarters of 2010. In spite of this impressive recovery, domestic concerns in OECD countries about employment, competitiveness and China’s exchange rate policy have created a difficult political environment for further liberalisation under the Doha Round. Interestingly, developing countries, which were reluctant to engage in a new round of trade negotiations back in 2001, are now in the vanguard of those that wish for a swift conclusion of the talks, even if consensus on the ambitious ‘development package’ envisaged in Doha remains elusive. At the same time trade has been the subject of unprecedented attention and scrutiny in the climate change talks. In a world where multilateral cooperation is in crisis there is a dire need for the international community to generate new types of arrangements and innovative responses to the imperatives of development and the global transition to a low-carbon economy.

  19. Export Trade Performance of Indian Economy during and Following the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sumanjeet Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of 2008 the effects of global recession started getting reflectedin international trade. The fall in global demand and the slowing-down ineconomic growth translated into a substantial reduction in internationaltrade. It affected the cross-border trade of virtually all countries and economicsectors. Indian exports trade could not remain unaffected in a situation whereexternal demand was dwindling globally. The present paper reviews India’sexport performance during and following the global financial crisis. Indianexports started to decline in July 2008. It declined from US$ 17,095 millionin July 2008 to US$ 11,516 million in March 2009, which accounts for almost33 per cent decline. This growth contraction has come after a robust 25 percent-plus average export growth since 2003. But, as a result of governmentpolicy measures and recovery in global economy, India’s exports growthturned positive and exports grew by a whopping 54.1 per cent in March 2010and recorded the highest growth rate among the world’s top 70 economiesin merchandise exports. India’s merchandise exports during April 2010 at US$16.9 billion recorded a growth of 36.3 per cent as compared with a declineof 32.8 per cent registered in April 2009. Exports witnessed huge annualizedgrowth of 56.9 per cent to $25.9 billion in May 2011 in a bright spot for theIndian economy, which is battling high inflation amid signs of a slowdown.

  20. 77 FR 37871 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Crosby Road, Marigold, MS 38759; Missouri Rice Research and Merchandising Council, P.O. Box 77, Malden... Merchandising Council; Texas Rice Producers' Board; USA Rice Merchants' Association; and USA Rice Millers...

  1. Antecedents of Taiwanese adolescents' purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity: the moderating effect of celebrity adoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jyh-Shen; Huang, Chien-Yi; Chuang, Min-Chieh

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of adolescents' attitude toward an act (the degree to which the person had a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the act's behavior in question), perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control in predicting Taiwanese adolescents' intention to purchase the merchandise of a celebrity when they had different levels of celebrity adoration. The present results showed that the relative strengths of attitude toward the act and the perception of behavioral control in predicting purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity were stronger for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group. On the other hand, the relative importance of the perceived norm in predicting the attitude toward the act and the purchase intention was stronger for adolescents in the celebrity nonadoration group than for adolescents in the celebrity adoration group.

  2. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  3. Ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise and initiation of teen drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gibson, Jennifer; Sargent, James D

    2006-04-01

    The alcohol industry spends over $5 billion a year on marketing, much of which is accessible to children. The distribution of branded articles of clothing and other personal items is one aspect of alcohol marketing that has not been adequately studied. In this study, the prevalence of ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM) was determined in a sample of rural northern New England adolescents, and the relationship between ownership of such items and initiation of alcohol use was examined. Northern New England middle school students who had not yet initiated alcohol use were captured at baseline in a 1999 school-based survey, and ownership of an ABM item and initiation of alcohol use were determined 1 to 2 years later by telephone. The analysis controlled for demographics (gender, grade in school); characteristics of the child (school performance, sensation seeking, rebelliousness); parenting style; and peer alcohol use. Of 2406 baseline never-drinkers, 15% had initiated alcohol use and 14% owned an ABM item by follow-up. ABM items consisted primarily of articles of clothing such as t-shirts and hats. ABM ownership was associated with higher grade in school, male gender, exposure to peer drinking, having tried smoking, poorer academic performance, higher levels of sensation seeking and rebelliousness, and less-responsive and restrictive parenting styles. Owners of ABM items at follow-up had higher rates of alcohol initiation compared with non-owners (25.5% vs 13.1%, respectively, p<0.001). After adjusting for the above confounders, students who owned an ABM item were significantly more likely to have initiated alcohol use compared with students who did not own one (adjusted odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.0). In this northern New England adolescent sample, ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise was prevalent and exhibited an independent cross-sectional association with onset of adolescent drinking. Further studies are necessary to determine

  4. Agglomeration Premium and Trading Activity of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor Bekes; Peter Harasztosi

    2010-01-01

    Firms may benefit from proximity to each other due to the existence of several externalities. The productivity premia of firms located in agglomerated regions an be attributed to savings and gains from external economies. However, the capacity to absorb information may depend on activities of the firm, such as involvement in international trade. Importers, exporters and two-way traders are likely to employ a different bundle of resources and be organised differently so that they would appreci...

  5. Studi Pengaruh Visual Merchandise untuk Anak Terhadap Perilaku Pembelian Paket HappyMeal di Restoran McDonald’s Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Listia Natadjaja; Rosaline Dewi F.; Deddy Setyawan

    2009-01-01

    In sales promotion context, premium offers such as toy merchandizes for kids are free incentives or discounted price to encourage sales. A common finding that toys on merchandize offered in Happy Meal packets influence their consumer behavior which are kids, besides kids are known as potential target market nowadays. This thesis is not only giving descriptive explanation about the visual influence on merchandise towards kid’s buying behavior on the purchase of Happy Meal packets, but also abo...

  6. The Evaluation of Internal Control Implementation Over Merchandise Inventory at PT. Suramando (Pharmaceutical Distributors and General Suppliers) in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Runtu, Treesje; Seredei, Srijantri

    2015-01-01

    Inventory is a firms current assets, that its amount is material and constituting one of essential factor in the corporate operational activity. That is why a good internal controls to must be done secure supplies from the acts of fraud, deviation and damage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the internal control over merchandise inventory at PT. Suramando it is running well. The method used is qualitative method through descriptive analysis. The final conclusion is that based on the e...

  7. The impact of the visual merchandise display on consumer purchases of luxury brands: the moderating role of cultural capital

    OpenAIRE

    Logkizidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis argues that Visual Merchandise Display (VMD) can enhance consumers intentions to buy luxury brands and this influence is stronger for the consumers with higher cultural capital (CC) than those with lower CC. Prior research in store atmospherics has suggested that consumers make inferences about a product, a store or a seller based on high-image or low-image store environment cues. Contemporary research in the luxury retailing literature explores qualitatively, the role of of museo...

  8. Trade Finance and Trade Collapse during the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of trade finance in the trade collapse of 2008-09 from the perspective of the Korean economy. We use two approaches. Firstly, as background to a more formal analysis, we make a casual observation on the behavior of aggregate data on trade finance, on which Korea has relatively abundant data. Aggregate data do not convincingly support the view that trade finance played an active role in causing the trade collapse. The measures of trade finance and the value of trade both dropped sharply, but the ratio of trade finance over trade was stable and in some cases increased during the crisis period. Secondly, using quarterly data on listed firms in Korea, we conduct panel estimations to test whether firms that are more dependent on external finance experienced greater export contraction during the crisis. Our regression analysis suggests that the financial vulnerability of firms, measured by various financial ratios, did not contribute to export contraction during the financial crisis. This observation largely applies even to smaller firms, who are usually thought of as being more vulnerable financially. However, we find that small exporters that relied heavily on cross-border trade payables or receivables suffered larger drops in export growth during the crisis.

  9. Does Trade Help to Explain Tourism Demand? The Case of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-01-01

    The tourism industry has expanded in recent years due to internal and external environmental forces. These forces, income, trade, consumer price, and geographical distance are interconnected. Accounting for imperfect competition and increasing returns to scale, the new trade theory offers the explanation of dynamic gains from international trade. A large number of studies attempt to test the hypothesis that there is a link between trade and tourism. Most of the studies show that trade and tou...

  10. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce; Martin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This report discusses key aspects of the U.S.-Malaysia relationship, including economics and trade, counterterrorism cooperation, defense ties, and Malaysia's external posture as it affects Amen can interests...

  11. International Trade as an Engine of Growth in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... international trade on economic development in Nigeria. In the .... devaluation of currency in order to make the exports of the devaluation country's ..... External Shocks and Inconsistent Domestic Policies, IMF Staff. Papers, Vol.

  12. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  13. The Evolution of the Romanian Trade Balance in the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzea Elena Ramona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyse the evolution of the trade balance of Romania with the European Union Member States during the 22 years of transition from a centralised system to a democratic economic and social system and an efficient market economy. Nearly 25 years after the events of 1989, Romania has made great steps in order to resettle the entire economic system and to transform it into a functional one. However, the path was filled with inconsistent decisions and with a repositioning of the trajectory dictated by internal or external pressures. The research focuses on a brief analysis of the evolution of the trade between Romania and the EU Member States to determine the effect the integration had on the structural discrepancies between exports and imports.

  14. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Megan; Caylor, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit `infrastructure sharing' across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tends to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  15. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  16. Influence of External Factors on the Taiwan Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Wen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the small market size and the low trading volume, emerging markets are, in general, shallow and easily affected by external factors such as the capital flows from foreign portfolio investment and the stock market fluctuations of their major trading partners. This study attempts to investigate how foreign portfolio investment and the trading partner’s equity market affect the local stock market and whether such impacts are persistent through time. Adopting the GARCH-EVT-Copula approac...

  17. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  18. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...

  19. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  20. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  1. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  2. Systems for carbon trading. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselknippe, Henrik

    2003-12-01

    This paper focuses on the increasing number of regional, national and international systems for trading and transfer of greenhouse gas emission allowances and emission reduction credits. The paper will serve as a platform for further discussions on the development of the international carbon trading market. The analysis builds on the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) Trading Schemes Database, which has been developed by Point Carbon, covering all known trading schemes and programs. A full overview of all existing trading schemes and proposals is presented, showing inter alia the outreach and judicial nature of the systems, the range and nature of emission reduction or credit purchase targets, allocation methods used, links to external systems, and possibilities for the use of project-based credits. A comparative assessment is performed on a number of design criteria, allowing for conclusions to be drawn on the level of harmonisation of these systems, and the identification of convergence or divergence of important operational features. The systems covered in the analysis display considerable variation when it comes to key design criteria and functionality. A rapid integration of many of the planned and active systems seems likely following the agreement on the EU emissions trading scheme, and will be further accelerated if the Kyoto Protocol is ratified

  3. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  4. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  5. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  6. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  7. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  8. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  9. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  10. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  11. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  12. Diseño de un sistema de procedimientos administrativos, financieros y contables, para el cumplimiento de las obligaciones tributarias en las actividades de importación y exportación de mercaderías en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Llumipanta Castro, Claudia Gabriela; Ortega López, Viviana Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This degree work presents an administrative, financial and accounting analysis for the tax obligations compliance on import and export of merchandise in Ecuador. Exports are defined as merchandise outlet from Ecuador to foreign countries, they are the main item that cause income dollars from foreign. Imports are explained as merchandise entrance from foreign to Ecuador, they are means foreign exchange outlet. For a company or individual can execute external trade, they have to acquainte...

  13. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section 351.408 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... economy countries. (a) Introduction. In identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will calculate normal value by valuing the nonmarket economy producers' factors of...

  14. Merchandising social e os códigos da imagem televisiva: a construção de significados na Telenovela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plábio Marcos Martins Desidério

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como a imagem televisiva desempenha um papel importante na construção do merchandising social nas telenovelas contemporâneas. Com isso, será utilizada a perspectiva de Martine Joly, fundamentada em Roland Barthes, as discussões proposta pro John Fisk, cujo estudioso ressalta a televisão como um discurso e a abordagem de Stuart Hall sobre codificação e decodificação. Perceber como o merchandising social está presente na imagem televisiva e essa constituída por códigos contribui para aproximar a prática do merchandising social e o público.

  15. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  16. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  17. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  18. Time-Space Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Jakob Illeborg

    . The area of time-space trade-offs deals with both upper and lower bounds and both are interesting, theoretically as well as practically. The viewpoint of this dissertation is theoretical, but we believe that some of our results can find applications in practice as well. The last four years has witnessed...... perspective hierarchical memory layout models are the most interesting. Such models are called external memory models, in contrast to the internal memory models discussed above. Despite the fact that space might be of great relevance when solving practical problems on real computers, no theoretical model...... capturing space (and time simultaneously) has been defined. We introduce such a model and use it to prove so-called IOspace trade-offs for Sorting. Building on the abovementioned techniques for time-space efficient internal memory Sorting, we develop the first IO-space efficient external memory Sorting...

  19. Externalities of the energy. The nuclear case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, Carla; Perl, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    When referring to private energy cost, which reflects the market value of energy, important elements are left aside in the evaluation process. These elements or externalities have an impact on third parties. The impact can be positive or negative and nowadays it is increasingly relevant to take them into account and include them in the project evaluation, specially when we are looking for sustainable development. The environmental impact and health effects are the most visible items but not the unique which generate externalities. The supply security, prices stability, employment impact and trade balance, are also important factors, although not much improvement has been achieved in their quantitative evaluation. (author) [es

  20. IMPACT OF EXTERNAL REIMBURSABLE FINANING ON VAT RECEIPTS IN THE STATE BUDGET OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel OLARI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the current conditions, where rapid economic growth is an important prerequisite for improving the well-being of the population and reducing poverty, the state, being an important player on the economic arena of the Republic of Moldova, attracts external sources of reimbursable financing to support the budget and to carry out investment projects. Taking into account that these external sources increase the Central Government debt, generate the payment of certain interest, commissions, directly affect the expenditures of the state budget, I intended to investigate the impact of these reimbursable external sources on the one category of revenues of the state budget of the Republic of Moldova, (Value Added Tax receipts, in the light of the service and merchandise deliveries according to the transactions emerged from the contracted external reimbursable financing sources.

  1. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  2. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  3. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  4. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  5. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  6. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  7. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  8. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  9. International provision of trade services, trade, and fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Alan V.

    2001-01-01

    The author examines the special role that trade liberalization in services industries can play in stimulating trade in both services, and goods. International trade in goods requires inputs from such trade services as transportation, insurance, and finance, for example. Restrictions on services across borders, and within foreign countries add costs, and barriers to international trade. Lib...

  10. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module II-D-3: Merchandising Textiles and Ready-to-Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Margaret

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on merchandising textiles and ready-to-wear is the third in a set of three modules on occupational aspects of textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  11. Assessing tobacco marketing receptivity among youth: integrating point of sale marketing, cigarette package branding and branded merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sandra; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos, Inti; Mejía, Raúl; Morello, Paola; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    As countries prohibit tobacco marketing through traditional channels, marketing at point of sale (PoS) and through tobacco packaging is increasingly important for promoting tobacco consumption. Assess the validity of a novel marketing receptivity index that considers frequency of PoS exposures, tobacco brand recall and ownership of branded merchandise. Data come from a cross-sectional survey of 3172 secondary school students in Argentina. Questions assessed frequency of going to stores where tobacco is often sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages with brand name removed and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level marketing receptivity index was derived: low PoS exposure only; high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; recall of 2 or more brands; and ownership of branded merchandise. Indicators of marketing receptivity and smoking involvement were regressed on the index, including in adjusted models that controlled for sociodemographics, social influences and sensation seeking. Among never-smokers, the index had independent positive associations with smoking susceptibility (ie, adjusted OR (AOR) 2v1 =1.66; AOR 3v1 =1.64; AOR 4v1 =2.95), willingness to try a specific brand (ie, AOR 2v1 =1.45; AOR 3v1 =2.38; AOR 4v1 =2.20) and positive smoking expectancies (ie, B adj 2v1 =0.09; B adj 3v1 =0.18; B adj 4v1 =0.34). A more marked dose-response independent association was found with current smoking behaviour (ie, AOR 2v1 =2.47; AOR 3v1 =3.16; AOR 4v1 =3.62). The marketing receptivity index was associated with important variation in smoking-related perceptions, intentions and behaviour among Argentine adolescents. Future research should determine the predictive validity and generalisability of this measure to other contexts, including the explanatory power gained by integrating cigarette package brand recognition tasks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  13. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  14. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  15. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  16. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  17. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  18. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2012), s. 83-98 ISSN 1488-3473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : migration * trade * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  19. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    -, č. 387 (2009), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : international trade * migration * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp387.pdf

  20. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  1. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes. By...

  2. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  3. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  4. The Asian economy: trade structure interpreted by feedback loop analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sonis, Michael; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The recent discussions that focused on the problems of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] together with the emergence of strengthened and expanded free trade areas [such as NAFTA, European Union and MERCOSUL/MERCOSUR] have created the need for careful analysis of the nature of internal and external dependence among nations and, within any nation, among the constituent regions. The picture that is obtained from inspection of import and export flows is only ...

  5. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  6. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  7. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  8. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  9. MERCHANDISING – ESTUDO DE CASO SOBRE UM NOVO CONCEITO DE EXPOSIÇÃO DOS PRODUTOS ADAMS NO VAREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Klein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da necessidade de se explorar melhor os espaços para exibição de confeitos em lojas do pequeno varejo, detectou-se a oportunidade de serem desenvolvidas peças expositoras que além de destacarem os produtos Adams, ainda dispusessem de um espaço extra para os varejistas exibirem outros produtos. Este estudo procurou avaliar a percepção dos resultados da mudança na forma de expor os confeitos. Buscou entender como era a situação da exposição anterior e como se deu o processo de mudança. Também teve como objetivo demonstrar a forma atual de exibição dos produtos, bem como averiguar a percepção do novo conceito de exposição por parte dos varejistas e lideranças da empresa. Realizou-se um estudo de caso exploratório, em três etapas: (1ª pesquisa bibliográfica; (2ª pesquisa de observação direta e (3ª entrevistas em profundidade, realizadas com varejistas e lideranças da Adams. Os entrevistados apontaram aspectos positivos em relação aos materiais e ao novo conceito de exposição, enfatizando a importância do merchandising no auto-serviço e sua influência nas vendas de produtos que são comprados por impulso. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Varejo. Marketing. Merchandising. Exposição. Auto-serviço. Compra por impulso.

  10. Do Austerity Measures Harm International Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Iulian CHIRIŢOIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the trade relations between Romania and the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain in order to verify whether the exports of Romania have been positively or negatively affected by the austerity measures adopted by these Eurozone periphery countries, thus diminishing Romania’s export performance in such markets. Hence, our main research question is whether austerity measures harm or affect in any way the inflows and outflows of international trade in the studied countries. To assess this hypothesis, we focused on the external trade relations, and their linkages with the macroeconomic environment, rather than the competitiveness of a state explained by a detailed sectoral analysis. In this respect, we use comparative and descriptive statistics in order to observe the consequences of the internal devaluation, and implicitly austerity measures, on the PIIGS-Romanian trade relations. Our findings suggest that the effects of austerity measures are not homogenous because they depend on the scale of trade exchanges and on the way in which the austerity measures were applied.

  11. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  12. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  13. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  14. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  15. Factors Shaping Agri-food Product Trade in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to recognize the role of internal and external factors in the trade balance. The analysis of the trade balance is useful to help formulate goals and premises of economy policy to properly allocate production means to eliminate the negative effects of trade liberalization. The authors have studied data about trade of agricultural commodities in the years 2000–2010. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables used a regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (inflation, X2 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X3 (GDP and X4 (exchange rate and X5 (FAO food price index. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (total export, Y2 (total import, Y3 (trade balance.

  16. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  17. The state of external equilibrium in Croatia and its long term stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Derado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From the outset of transition Croatia faces a serious problem of external imbalance as a consequence of unfinished structural and institutional reforms. The external balance crisis can be seen through raising international trade deficit and structural characteristics of trade flows. To these unfavorable characteristics belong export reorientation from developed to less developed countries, increasing number of industries in which Croatia has position of net-importer and export structure in which dominate low-value-added products. Increasing trade deficit in 2001 and 2002 followed by further growth in external indebtedness cause increasing burden of debt service and limit the possibilities for economic growth. Taking all this as well as real limits in further external imbalance growth into consideration it can be said that Croatia realizes high level of external disequilibrium. In contrast, advanced transition countries achieve fairly good and stabile external positions thanks to successful economic restructuring and strong export growth.

  18. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  19. Integration, Trade Policy and European Footwear Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, L. Alan

    1992-01-01

    This paper constructs a simulation model of the EC footwear market with which to consider the effects of EC trade policies. It examines the Southern enlargement of the EC, the quotas imposed on Korean and Taiwanese sales - initially in France and Italy and subsequently, in line with the `1992' programme, EC-wide - and the liberalization of imports from Eastern Europe. Import restrictions are shown to be costly - especially those against Eastern Europe.

  20. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  1. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  2. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  3. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  4. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  5. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  6. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  7. International Trade Students’ Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Matysová

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to detect stereotypes of students studying International Trade at the University of Economics Prague and, if need be, propose didactic measures for intercultural education at the university. In our study, 293 International Trade students described six ethnic and national groups (Roma, Ukrainians, Vietnamese, Russians, Germans and Czechs) in terms of explicit stereotypes. The following hypothesis was formulated in the study: On the one hand, stereotypes of the ...

  8. Trade and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamiotti, L.; Teh, R.; Kulacoglu, V. (World Trade Organization (WTO), Geneva (Switzerland)); Olhoff, A.; Simmons, B.; Abaza, H. (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The Report aims to improve understanding about the linkages between trade and climate change. It shows that trade intersects with climate change in a multitude of ways. For example, governments may introduce a variety of policies, such as regulatory measures and economic incentives, to address climate change. This complex web of measures may have an impact on international trade and the multilateral trading system. The Report begins with a summary of the current state of scientific knowledge on climate change and on the options available for responding to the challenge of climate change. The scientific review is followed by a part on the economic aspects of the link between trade and climate change, and these two parts set the context for the subsequent parts of the Report, which looks at the policies introduced at both the international and national level to address climate change. The part on international policy responses to climate change describes multilateral efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the effects of climate change, and also discusses the role of the current trade and environment negotiations in promoting trade in technologies that aim to mitigate climate change. The final part of the Report gives an overview of a range of national policies and measures that have been used in a number of countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency. It presents key features in the design and implementation of these policies, in order to draw a clearer picture of their overall effect and potential impact on environmental protection, sustainable development and trade. It also gives, where appropriate, an overview of the WTO rules that may be relevant to such measures. (author)

  9. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  10. Análise de estratégias de merchandising em telenovelas http://dx.doi.org/10.15601/1983-7631/rt.v7n13p157-167

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Oliveira Santos Garner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A televisão é um dos meios de comunicação e entretenimento mais utilizados pela sociedade. Dentre os programas de televisão mais assistidos no Brasil temos as telenovelas. Além de desenvolverem teledramaturgias de qualidade, também são utilizadas como o principal veículo de merchandising, no intuito de divulgar e estimular a compra de produtos e serviços. Este artigo faz uma análise do merchandising nas telenovelas da Rede Globo Sangue Bom e Amor à Vida. Seu objetivo foi identificar as principais ferramentas de merchandising usadas nas telenovelas, a fim de influenciar nos hábitos de consumo e comportamento dos telespectadores. A metodologia empregada foi a análise de conteúdo, por meio de categorias de análise.Palavras-chave: Telenovela; Rede Globo; Merchandising

  11. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  12. Estimating the elasticity of trade: the trade share approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Lanati

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on international trade emphasizes the importance of trade elasticity as the fundamental statistic needed to conduct welfare analysis. Eaton and Kortum (2002) proposed a two-step method to estimate this parameter, where exporter fixed effects are regressed on proxies for technology and wages. Within the same Ricardian model of trade, the trade share provides an alternative source of identication for the elasticity of trade. Following Santos Silva and Tenreyro (2006) bot...

  13. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  14. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  15. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  16. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  17. Analisis Pengaruh Hedonic Shopping Tendency Dan Visual Merchandising Terhadap Impulse Buying Dengan Positive Emotion Sebagai Variabel Intervaning Pada Area Ladies Matahari Department Store Tunjungan Plaza Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yanthi, Devi

    2014-01-01

    This research tried to determine what factors are causing consumers to do impulse buying in the area of ladies at Matahari Department Store. Variables examined in this research include hedonic shopping tendency and visual merchandising as the independent variable, positive emotion as the intervening variable, and impulse buying as the dependent variable. The sample used amounted 100 rerspondents. By using PLS-SEM analysis technique, demonstrated that through positive emotion variables, hedoni...

  18. The trend toward free trade areas: economic consequences and policy implications for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    All, William H., IV

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Because America's economy relies to a significant degree on export markets and external sources of raw materials, the health of the international trading system is critical to the national security of the United States. This thesis demonstrates that the organization on which America has relied for the management of the international trading system since the 1950s, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), is failing to effect...

  19. The determinants of trade credit use : the case of the Tanzanian rice market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Kihanga, Ernest; Lensink, Robert; Lutz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Most small businesses in the developing economies suffer from a lack of access to formal external finance. One important alternative source of finance for these entrepreneurs is trade credit. Applying a unique data-set containing data on specific trade relations between rice wholesalers and rice

  20. Why are Trade Agreements Regional?

    OpenAIRE

    Zissimos, Ben

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how distance may be used to coordinate on a unique equilibrium in which trade agreements are regional. Trade agreement formation is modeled as coalition formation. In a standard trade model with no distance between countries, a familiar problem of coordination failure arises giving rise to multiple equilibria; any one of many possible trade agreements can form. With distance between countries, and through strategic interaction in tariff setting, regional trade agreements gene...

  1. Obolo (Andoni) Women in Overseas Trade and Traditional Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This write-up focuses on the activities of Obolo (Andoni) women that contributed to the political and economic growth of Nigeria in the precolonial times. They were found in the traditional politics and external economy of slave and palm oil trades with the Portuguese, the Dutch and the. English. They were also the bulwark of ...

  2. Economic Culture and Trading Behaviors in Information Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhayyan, Khalid N.

    2012-01-01

    There are four main components for influencing traders' behaviors in an information market context: trader characteristics, organizational characteristics, market design, and external information. This dissertation focuses on investigating the impact of individual trader characteristics on trading behaviors. Two newly-developed constructs,…

  3. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  4. Subprimal purchasing and merchandising decisions for pork: relationship to retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1996-01-01

    Boxed pork was obtained to represent four different purchase specifications (different anatomical separation locations and[or] external fat trim levels) common in the pork industry to conduct a study of retail yields and labor requirements. Bone-in loins (n = 180), boneless loins (n = 94), and Boston butts (n = 148) were assigned randomly to fabrication styles within subprimals. When comparing cutting styles within subprimals, it was evident that cutting style affected percentage of retail yield and cutting time. When more bone-in cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 92.80 +/- .61 to 95.28 +/- .45%, and processing times ranged from 222.57 +/- 10.13 to 318.99 +/- 7.85 s, from the four suppliers. When more boneless cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 71.12 +/- 1.10 to 77.92 +/- .77% and processing times ranged from 453.49 +/- 8.95 to 631.09 +/- 15.04 s from the different loins. Comparing boneless to bone-in cuts from bone-in loins resulted in lower yields and required greater processing times. Significant variations in yields and times were found within cutting styles. These differences seemed to have been the result of variation in supplier fat trim level and anatomical separation (primarily scribe length).

  5. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly A. Clausing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  6. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  7. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  8. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed [nl

  9. Regulation of health practitioners by trade practices and fair trading legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2009-02-01

    In a variety of situations, particularly those characterised by commerciality, corporate structures and unregistered practitioners, there are major limitations to traditional regulation by health boards and councils, as well as hearings by external tribunals. Part of the difficulty lies with the ability of external bodies to award compensation to complainants/notifiers proved to have suffered adverse consequences from proven unprofessional conduct. This column advances suggestions for reform of the powers of external tribunals to redress this deficit. It also reviews the benefits of an associated form of regulation by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and offices of fair trading to enable consumer protection. It reviews recent decisions in the Federal Court of Australia and the Supreme Court of Victoria in such matters as well as recommendations in 2008 by the Victorian Health Services Commissioner.

  10. Does Trade Help to Explain Tourism Demand? The Case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry has expanded in recent years due to internal and external environmental forces. These forces, income, trade, consumer price, and geographical distance are interconnected. Accounting for imperfect competition and increasing returns to scale, the new trade theory offers the explanation of dynamic gains from international trade. A large number of studies attempt to test the hypothesis that there is a link between trade and tourism. Most of the studies show that trade and tourism are positively correlated. This paper specifies static and dynamic panel demand models for tourism in Portugal and estimates demand equations using tourist inflow data for the period 1995-2006. We find that bilateral trade, immigration, border, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of tourism to Portugal. The dynamic panel data approach indicates that trade, population, and income are more important determinants than relative price.

  11. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  12. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  13. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  14. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  15. Scoin Trading (Pty)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2 Scoin Trading (Pty) Ltd v Bernstein 2011 2 SA 118 (SCA). ... Literature on the law of contract in South Africa have over the years tended to hold that fault ..... who was suddenly compelled to be absent on public business was not held to be in.

  16. Trading fund opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the operation of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) as a trading fund. The changes and anticipated effects of this role are discussed, including the financial arrangements, UKAEA skills, customers, Department of Energy sponsorship and new business opportunities. (U.K.)

  17. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  18. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  19. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  20. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  1. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...

  2. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  3. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  4. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    When building up competences, a subsidiary of a multinational corporation (MNC) may rely onexternal knowledge sources like customers, suppliers, competitors or local science centers. Internalsourcing is also available through knowledge offered by headquarters or other affiliates. Thequestion...... is whether the two kinds of sources are mutual exclusive. A dilemma or organizationaltrade-off is foreseeable, since the more the subsidiary adapts its knowledge creation processes tohost country institutions, the less it will be able to utilize internal knowledge sources due to theinstitutional distance...... between the external and internal networks. However, newer organizationalforms, like the concept of the `differentiated MNC', imply a relatively smooth flow of knowledgeinside the MNC, indicating that we should not expect an organizational trade-off between internaland external sources. The subsidiary...

  5. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  6. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  7. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  8. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  9. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  10. 76 FR 69239 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside... industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales to customers located outside the United... (NAICS). ARTS provides, on a comparable classification basis, annual sales, annual e-commerce sales...

  11. 75 FR 63804 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside... industries, merchandise line sales, percent of sales by class of customer, and percent of e-commerce sales to..., annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses, accounts receivables, and year-end...

  12. 77 FR 64463 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... covering annual sales, annual e- commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the United... industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales to customers located outside the United... comparable classification basis, annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total and detailed...

  13. Financial Development and the Sensitivity of Stock Markets to External Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Dellas, Harris; Hess, Martin K.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate how the relative contribution of external factors to stock price movements varies with the degree of financial development. We find that financial development makes stock markets more susceptible to external influences (both financial and macroeconomic). Interestingly, this effect is present even after having accounted for capital controls and international trade effects.

  14. The external dimensions of the EU area of freedom, security and justice : a constitutional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade in particular the external relations of the EU have not just concerned the classic areas of international cooperation (‘external action’) of the EU such as trade (Article 205 TFEU), development cooperation (Article 208 TFEU) and foreign security and defence policy (Title V

  15. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  16. Neoliberalism and global capital mobility: a necessary reconsideration of textbook trade theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUNIBERT RAFFER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Textbook theory ignores capital flows: trade determines exchange rates and specialisation. Approaches taking the effects of capital movements adequately into account are needed, and a new theory of economic policy including measures to protect the real economy from external volatility. Equilibrating textbook mechanisms cannot work unless trade-caused surpluses and deficits set exchange rates. To allow orthodox trade theory to work one must hinder capital flows from destroying its very basis, which the IMF and wrong regulatory decisions have done, penalising production and trade. A new, real economy based theory is proposed, a Neoclassical agenda of controlling capital flows and speculation.

  17. International Trade In Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiomo; David N. Wear; Jacek P. Siry

    2003-01-01

    The 21st century continues a trend of rapid growth in both international trade of forest products and a concern for forests. These two trends are connected. Forces causing trade growth are linked to the loss of native forest resources in some countries and the accumulation of nonnative forest resources in other countries. Factors increasing trade...

  18. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  19. Plurilateral Trade Deals: An Alternative for Multilateral Trade Agreements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization (WTO continue to be in impasse, plurilateral trade negotiations – i.e. among a group of WTO members – have intensified in recent years, and also recorded a series of concrete results in liberalizing specific sectors of international trade. Hence, there is a widely shared view that plurilateral trade negotiations could be an alternative for the multilateral ones. This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are plurilateral trade agreements? Which are the reasons behind the surge in plurilateral negotiations in recent years? What are the main achievements in liberalizing trade at the plurilateral level? What are the advantages of plurilateral negotiations relative to multilateral ones, and why are they considered an attractive alternative for negotiations at the multilateral level?

  20. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  1. Tariffs on power trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    For optimal use of power systems, transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and be paid according to a tariff system approximating to the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system

  2. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  3. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... in adverse institutional contexts, can be effective when they reinvent their repertoires of contention, through political action or campaigning along global value chains....

  4. The Carbon Trading Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Roger

    2003-12-01

    In response to the Kyoto Protocol, an international market for carbon dioxide tradable permits is likely to be created. Two of the key issues involved are explaining the concepts of tradable permits to industrialists, policy-makers and the man on the street, and anticipating how the market will evolve. A simple game of the market for carbon dioxide tradable permits has been developed and used that can help deal with both issues. As a pedagogical tool, this game benefits from simplicity (just a few pieces of paper are needed) and enables students to grasp the concepts and remember them through the intensity and fun of a trading 'pit'. The experiences also provide substantial insights into the evolution of the carbon dioxide permit market, particularly related to the evolution of trade volume, permit prices and country strategies

  5. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  6. International Trade Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article captures a brief history of the negotiations of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful Doha deal. First, this study shows that the nearly decade-long negotiation stalemate is caused by the opposite perceptions between industrialized countries and developing ones on agriculture, as well as by the influences of economic crisis on the world trade. Subsequently, some proposals are presented to solve the current crisis fro...

  7. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  8. Trading as Entertainment?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Dorn; Paul Sengmueller

    2009-01-01

    Among 1,000 German brokerage clients for whom both survey responses and actual trading records are available, investors who report enjoying investing or gambling turn over their portfolio at twice the rate of their peers. Including entertainment attributes as additional explanatory variables in cross-sectional regressions of portfolio turnover on objective investor attributes more than doubles the fraction of the total variation of portfolio turnover that can be explained. The results are rob...

  9. Firms, Technology and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Caldera Sanchez, Aida

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation studies the effect of economic integration on the performance of firms. The ongoing process of global economic integration has been characterized by dismantling of trade barriers and openness to foreign direct investments (FDI). These changes have not only brought opportunities to firms in terms of market access and the possibility to learn about foreign technologies brought in by foreign counterparts. The new economic environment has also posed new challenges throu...

  10. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, Luis Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    The international trade conventional theory not only continues being supported upon the classic principle of comparative advantage, but also, in response to the rationality inherent to the traditional economic system, al so neglects considering the biophysical conditions under which transable goods are produced. The linkage of environment to trade is a recent concern, and it is explained on the basis that the first one has become a barrier for the second one. The environmental cause defenders, so as the free market advocates, are exposing their arguments in a context in which not necessarily to build viable solutions to the conflict is possible. The world economy behavior and tendencies do not offer the conditions needed so as that the official thesis in which the GATT - Rio - WTO thought can be summarized and the positive linkage towards the environmental quality, explicitly claimed by that thesis, becomes reality. Form these considerations, it is argument in this article in the direction of establishing a new international trade pattern and also some ideas are presented as to its characterization ecological economic view

  11. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WHITH RAPESEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into consideration the international trade situation of rapeseed worldwide. To highlight the situation are analyzed sequentially imports and exports in five units continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Applicability and interest increased for trade with this product is emphasized by references from Romania. The study takes into consideration 2008-2010. In terms of world imports and their structure is noted preponderance Europe and Asia in the quantities imported - 87.38% (both, the weights low enough for Oceania and Africa - 0.04 together. If we analyze the situation of exports is apparent fact that Europe remains, as in the case of imports, the main player on the market (48.11%, but not followed by Asia, but of America with a very close relative weight (44 , 45%. Oceania owns more than 5% of world quantitatively of exports, while Asia and Africa have shares almost insignificant - 0.36 and 0.05% respectively. Regarding the situation of global trade balance exchanges for rapeseed can be seen a globally deficient character.

  12. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  13. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  14. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  15. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  16. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  17. ROMANIA’S FOREIGN TRADE BETWEEN 1945 AND 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei – Cristian Balasan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have analysed a “special” period in the history of Romania’s trade, namely the period when market economy was replaced by the state economy. It is the period preceding the transition. We analysed how Romania’s exports and imports have evolved between 1945 and 1989, highlighting the events that influenced trade, and also what changes occurred in the structure of exports and imports by product groups and, not least, who were the main external partners of Romania.

  18. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  19. Trade across frontiers: an overview of International trade before the advent of modern economic system in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboyade Sunday Ariyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El área ahora designadaNigeria tiene una larga historia de las comunidades de comercio a través de las fronteras con las tierras vecinas y distantes mucho antes de la llegada de los europeos y la introducción de los modernos sistema de comercio internacional. Las diversas organizaciones políticas que surgieron y que controlan diferentes partes de la zona participa-ron y se beneficiaron de manera efectiva del comercio de larga distancia, lo que les dio la oportunidad de intercambiar sus excedentes por lo que les faltaba, pero que estaba disponible en otros lugares, lejos o cerca. Con referencia a la naturaleza del medio ambiente de Nigeria, la especialización regional, las relaciones de comercio exterior y la capacidad de la economía tradicional, este trabajo examina el comercio internacional de la Nigeria precolonial y su im-pacto en la economía. Se concluye que la distorsión del comercio interregional y de la estructura de la economía nigeriana precolonial comenzó con la penetración gradual de los euro-peos en el interior del país para llevar a cabo la compra directa de palma a los productores después de la abolición del comercio de esclavos.     Palabras clave: Comercio, Comercio internacional, el comercio a larga distancia, el comercio exterior, la economía nigeriana.  _____________________ Abstract: The area now designated Nigeria has a long history of communities trading across frontiers with neighbours and distant lands long be-fore the arrival of the Europeans and the introduction of modern international trading system. The various polities that emerged and con-trolled different parts of the area participated effectively and benefited from long distance trade, which afforded them the opportunity to exchange their abundance for what they lacked but which was available elsewhere whether far or near. With reference to the nature of the Nigerian environment, regional specialisation, external trade relations and the capacity

  20. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  1. TERMS OF TRADE EVOLUTION, CAUSES AND EFFECTS: CASE STUDY ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrea Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms of trade are meant to show the ratio by which a country is different in the level and dynamics of revenues from the exchange made by different categories of products on the external markets. The level of recorded revenues from the commercialization of products and services varies from country to country, and there is rarely a mutually beneficial exchange situation from these operations. Trade efficiency analysis lies in the determination of the terms of trade. In the current paper, international developments are analyzed based on net terms of trade index used by UNCTAD. Statistical data are provided by the World Bank, where export and import price index and the volume of imports and exports by countries were considered. The classification of the countries has been done according to the geographical orientation and based on the purchasing power parity, thus creating two tables, the first table highlighting seven regions, and the second table with seven categories of states including OPEC and non-OPEC members. The terms of trade evolution are influenced by certain important factors in the production process of goods and services. Some of these factors are mentioned: labour productivity; changes in commodity prices; yet, only the last factor is examined in this paper. Based on World Bank commodity price data, the evolution of major energy inputs such as crude oil, gas, coal, and major industrial raw materials such as aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, zinc, silver, gold, platinum and iron was analysed and interpreted. For Romania, the data on terms of trade evolution shows a dramatic situation. If terms of trade development presented a cyclical evolution, the economy as a whole would send an optimistic message. In contrast, the data presented in the following paper will show that our country has registered continuous depreciation of the terms of trade ratio, with a direct impact on external trade balance deficits, a rising external debt

  2. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  3. Malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuch, K.M.; Iryboz, T.; Firat, M.; Levy, C.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper illustrates the value of CT and MR in early diagnosis and spread of malignant external otitis. The authors retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with proved malignant external otitis examined with postcontrast high-resolution CT (15/15) and MR (6/15) (T1- and T2-weighting). Gallium studies were done in 6/15 patients. Early diagnosis was made when CT demonstrated a soft-tissue mass of the external auditory canal associated with scattered zones of cortical bone erosions (13/15). Spread of the disease was better delineated by MR than CT, especially skull base extension (6/15). Temporomandibular joint involvement with extension into parotid or/and masticator spaces 6/15 was as well detected with CT as with MR. If CT remains the first and best procedure for diagnosis, MR - despite its cost - appears a good procedure to depict exact anatomic spread, allowing therapeutic management

  4. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  5. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  6. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and...

  7. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building......The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  8. Livestock Disease Management for Trading Across Different Regulatory Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Andrew M; Jones, Glyn; Kleczkowski, Adam; Naylor, Rebecca; Timmis, Jon; White, Piran C L; Touza, Julia

    2018-02-12

    The maintenance of livestock health depends on the combined actions of many different actors, both within and across different regulatory frameworks. Prior work recognised that private risk management choices have the ability to reduce the spread of infection to trading partners. We evaluate the efficiency of farmers' alternative biosecurity choices in terms of their own-benefits from unilateral strategies and quantify the impact they may have in filtering the disease externality of trade. We use bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in England and Scotland as a case study, since this provides an example of a situation where contrasting strategies for BVD management occur between selling and purchasing farms. We use an agent-based bioeconomic model to assess the payoff dependence of farmers connected by trade but using different BVD management strategies. We compare three disease management actions: test-cull, test-cull with vaccination and vaccination alone. For a two-farm trading situation, all actions carried out by the selling farm provide substantial benefits to the purchasing farm in terms of disease avoided, with the greatest benefit resulting from test-culling with vaccination on the selling farm. Likewise, unilateral disease strategies by purchasers can be effective in reducing disease risks created through trade. We conclude that regulation needs to balance the trade-off between private gains from those bearing the disease management costs and the positive spillover effects on others.

  9. ASEAN’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Leu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a diversification explanation in order understand the development of PTAs in Southeast Asia. I argue that an important reason why ASEAN states participate in PTAs has been to diversify existing trade ties and to reduce overdependence on a narrow range of export markets. Southeast Asian countries have formed PTAs with markets with which they had weak or unexplored economic relations, as demonstrated by three case analyses: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA, the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA and the ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP. To maximise the economic gains and the diversification effects of PTA participation, ASEAN countries have pursued a strategy of strengthening economic unity while keeping external economic linkages as diversified as possible. Although East Asia, and especially China, was an important alternative market to reduce ASEAN’s dependence on trade with America, ASEAN countries have also pursued PTAs with a number of other trading partners. This paper explains how PTAs have helped ASEAN states to develop more policy autonomy in their trading environment.

  10. Mechanizing the Merc: The Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Rise of High-Frequency Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Donald

    2015-07-01

    This article investigates one important strand in the evolution of today's high-frequency trading or HFT (the fast, automated trading of large numbers of financial securities). That strand is the history of the automation of trading on what has become the world's most prominent futures exchange, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange or Merc. The process of the automation of the Merc was episodic, often driven by responses to perceived external threats, and involved both "local" politics and transnational considerations. The article discusses the relationship between the Merc's automation and the embodied, deeply social trading practices of the Merc's open-outcry trading pits, and compares how the Merc was mechanized with the quite different-and in a sense more explicitly "social"-project of automation launched by the Merc's rival, the Chicago Board of Trade.

  11. A Leading Trade Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, John Kornerup; Greve, Majbritt; Westergaard-Kabelmann, Thomas

    International companies are agents in the globalised economic system and as such they cause social and environmental externalities through their activities. It is a fundamental responsibility of companies to set systems in place to minimise negative impact and ensure compliance with regulation. I...

  12. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show......This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...

  13. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  14. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  15. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  16. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  17. Application Actuation Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    32 RCA PRICE-L Podel Calculated 0 & S Values 138 33 RCA PRICE LCC Summery - Typical LRU 139 34 Airplane Actuation Trade Study LCC Summary 140 35...results achieved can be duplicated by a user. The RCA PRICE Podel calculates the RDTSE. Production cost, and creates the YiDF file for use in the PCA...PR ICE L). Some of the basic program ground rules for this study were as follows: RCA - PRICE Cost Podel RCA - PRICE L Model Prototype Hardware 10

  18. Trading health for money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Persson, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Construction work is physically demanding and often associated with bodily pain. This article presents a study of construction workers’ practices of using and relating to their bodies at work through an agential realist framework for analysing the (re)configuration of the workers’ embodied...... subjectivity. The analysis draws on interviews with 32 Danish construction workers as well as brief observations. The article shows how ‘trading health for money’ becomes a mode for maintaining positive social, occupational and masculine identity among construction workers. Furthermore, it shows how the agency...

  19. International trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reports are presented; one has been prepared by the Uranium Institute and is submitted by the United Kingdom delegation, the other by the United States delegation. The report of the Uranium Institute deals with the influence of the government on international trade in uranium. This influence becomes apparent predominantly by export and import restrictions, as well as by price controls. The contribution submitted by the United States is a uranium market trend analysis, with pricing methods and contracting modes as well as the effect of government policies being investigated in the light of recent developments

  20. International nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biad, A.; Cormis, F. de; Kerever, A.

    1998-01-01

    This third part is relative to the international nuclear trade it includes: the 1996 EURATOM/Usa Agreement on the peaceful Uses of nuclear energy: EURATOM Strengthened, a case study on IVO Power engineering Oy as a supplier to Russia, lessons learned from the Us/EURATOM Agreement for Cooperation, negotiating the parameters of nuclear regulation: lessons from South Africa, Good and new business in Brazil's nuclear energy field, cooperation between Russia and european union in the nuclear field: the legal basis, present status and future prospects, the industrial implications of the non proliferation policy. (N.C.)

  1. Passive-Aggressive Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Keim, Donald B.; Musto, David K.

    Fund managers can demand liquidity for their trading ideas or provide liquidity for others’ ideas. We identify the roles of these motives using a database of the individual transactions by Canadian equity funds. Both the cost and subsequent performance of their buys decline after strong inflows......, indicating the depletion of ideas and substitution into liquidity provision as funds put new money to work. Sales show little of this substitution, consistent with funds’ narrower latitude to provide liquidity to buyers. In general, the option to provide liquidity makes fund returns positive...

  2. External costs of nuclear-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.; Popescu, D.; Andrei, V.

    2004-01-01

    in market prices, such as security of supply, cost stability and broad economic impacts on employment and balance of trade. If such externalities would be internalized, the effect would be positive for nuclear energy in Romania. In conclusion, like other energy sources, nuclear energy has risks and benefits that need to be fully recognized and assessed to evaluate its external costs. Both internalized (direct) costs and externalities vary from country to country, and from technology to technology. For fossil fuels and biomass, external costs may be of the same order of magnitude as direct cost. Nuclear electricity, solar photovoltaic and wind power have external costs at least one order of magnitude lower than the direct cost. Beyond the competitive generation costs of existing nuclear power plants in most markets, benefits of nuclear power, that are not reflected currently in prices, include: security of supply, cost stability and the quasi absence of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases, other pollutant gases and particulates. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. The internalization of external costs for all electricity generating technologies will help nuclear energy to be more competitive. (authors)

  3. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  4. Retail yields and palatability evaluations of individual muscles from wet-aged and dry-aged beef ribeyes and top sirloin butts that were merchandised innovatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Miller, R K; Kerth, C R; Savell, J W

    2014-05-01

    Paired ribeyes (n=24) and top sirloin butts (n=24) were dry-aged or wet-aged for 35 days before being merchandised as individual muscles: M. spinalis thoracis, M. longissimus thoracis, M. gluteobiceps, and M. gluteus medius. Wet-aged subprimals had greater saleable yields than dry-aged. Dry-aged M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps received lower consumer overall like and flavor ratings than did wet-aged; interior muscles - M. longissimus thoracis and M. gluteus medius - did not differ. Trained panelists found higher musty and putrid flavors for dry-aged muscles closer to exterior surface. These flavors may have contributed to lower consumer overall like and flavor ratings for dry-aged M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps. Using innovative styles to cut beef allows for greater merchandising options. However, development of undesirable flavor characteristics may be more pronounced when exterior muscles - M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps - are exposed during dry-aging to extreme conditions and are consumed individually. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  6. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...... impressive results were forecast by simulating a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with the particular African problem of transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. These gains are significantly above both just intraAfrican tariff elimination and what may...

  7. Trade, investment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.; Brack, D.

    2000-01-01

    As liberalisation of global trade and investment accelerates, what happens to the environment? As the world heads for confrontation in Seattle, the questions intensify. Does foreign direct investment mean forsaking environmental protection? Or do multinational corporations export higher standards when they invest abroad? Can a powerful trading nation ban imports of tropical timber produced unsustainably? Should the World Trade Organisation take the views of industry or environmental groups into account when deciding? Must world trade rules be changed to accommodate environmental concerns? This book analyzes key issues in this increasingly controversial arena and includes contributions from Renato Ruggiero, former Director General of the World Trade Organization; The Rt Hon Brian Wilson MP, former UK Minister of Trade; Dr Magda Shahin, Deputy Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Pradeep Mehta, Secretary General, Consumer Unity and Trust Society, India; and Dr Michel Potier, Head of the Economics Division at the OECD's Environment Directorate. (Author)

  8. Globalization Crises, Trade,and Development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterizat......Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its...... that dependence and bolster the domestic economy while continuing to restructure the economy toward greater emphasis on the private sector. Growth, employment and poverty alleviation have been maintained at the expense of renewed inflation, larger budget deficits, and currency depreciation. The ‘stop-go’ nature...

  9. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  10. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Carro

    Full Text Available We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  11. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  12. Emissions trading stalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, R.

    1998-01-01

    A brief article examines prospects for emission trading of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Topics covered include a checklist of principles for any trading system, plans for oil companies to do it internally, the possibility for carbon sinks as well as emissions and developments around the world. (UK) alt. Directly northward of the Sigsbee Escarpment, there is a relatively thin, low-velocity zone known as a ''gumbo zone''. Here two other pressure compartments are proposed. The origin of them is two-fold. First, initial sedimentation consists of pelagic clay draped over oceanic and transitional crust. Later, as the continental margin progrades nearer sedimentation becomes hemipelagic and coarser as gravity-driven sediments predominate. Secondly, as the salt wedge overrides a given spot of the basement, it is possible to develop a shear couple between the migrating salt and the stationary basement. The resultant shear (the site of the next strike-slip fault) may change pressures beneath the salt such that the shear may create two pressure compartments. The differences between the two compartments may be accentuated by lithologic changes caused by depositional mechanisms. (author)

  13. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  14. STRUCTURE AND SHARES IN THE ROMANIAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TOMA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of a wider range of external trade sector of Romania was carried out in this paper. Main purpose of the paper was identification of the products which have submitted during the period 2002-2011 a wide dynamic with regard to trade of Romania, the total and in particular with the EU countries. The methodology used in this respect was detailed analysis of the data, of the structure of imports and exports and the dynamics of these exchanges during the ten years. Thus, we have identified productions which have had a production upward or downward trend in the structure of total trade. It is a case of grain, milk and seeds and oleaginous fruits and tobacco, which has had a positive development in imports and exports. Tobacco and meat products for the imports and live livestock and vegetables for the exports have registered a decreased share.

  15. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  16. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington; Arik Levinson; Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements.' The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a ...

  17. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington, Arik Levinson, and Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a "careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements." The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a...

  18. International climate policy and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuik, O.

    2000-01-01

    If a country takes steps to counter the greenhouse effect, it could influence the country's foreign trade. If a large group of countries consider such measures, e.g. the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol, that could possibly have major consequences for global trading patterns. How will the measures work out for countries, industries, and climate policy itself? Can countries mitigate any negative consequences for their trade balance? The results of a study to answer those questions are discussed

  19. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  20. Fraud risks in emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [nl

  1. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  2. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  3. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, A. [Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Faculty of Economics, Ryukoku University, Otsu (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership.

  4. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership

  5. Measuring the Information Content of Stock Trades.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasbrouck, Joel

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests that the interactions of security trades and quote revisions be modeled as a vector autoregressive system. Within this framework, a trade's information effect may be meaningfully measured as the ultimate price impact of the trade innovation. Estimates for a sample of NYSE issues suggest a trade's full price impact arrives only with a protracted lag; the impact is a positive and concave function of the trade size; large trades cause the spread to widen; trades occurring in ...

  6. Alternative trading systems in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mosionek-Schweda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first Polish alternative trading system – called NewConnect – was opened on 30 August 2007. It has the status of an organized market, but it is operated by the Warsaw Stock Exchange outside the regulated market. Two years later, on 30 September 2009, the WSE launched another market – Catalyst – which consists of four segments including: two regular markets and two alternative trading platforms. The present paper aims to describe fundamental rules of the Polish alternative trading platforms as well as to depict a short overview of their trading indicators and basic statistics.

  7. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  8. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  9. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  10. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  11. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  12. Stock in Trade: The Role of English in International Trade Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Rolf D.; Willes, Mary J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the use of English by merchandisers in Macao, where the required proficiency exceeds that these individuals can be expected to possess. Examples of serious language mistakes are given and contextual and other clues are identified. Possible solutions for these problems are suggested and potential directions of further enquiry are explored.…

  13. Risk-trading in flood management: An economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung Ting

    2017-09-15

    Although flood management is no longer exclusively a topic of engineering, flood mitigation continues to be associated with hard engineering options. Flood adaptation or the capacity to adapt to flood risk, as well as a demand for internalizing externalities caused by flood risk between regions, complicate flood management activities. Even though integrated river basin management has long been recommended to resolve the above issues, it has proven difficult to apply widely, and sometimes even to bring into existence. This article explores how internalization of externalities as well as the realization of integrated river basin management can be encouraged via the use of a market-based approach, namely a flood risk trading program. In addition to maintaining efficiency of optimal resource allocation, a flood risk trading program may also provide a more equitable distribution of benefits by facilitating decentralization. This article employs a graphical analysis to show how flood risk trading can be implemented to encourage mitigation measures that increase infiltration and storage capacity. A theoretical model is presented to demonstrate the economic conditions necessary for flood risk trading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...... of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were included...

  15. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

  16. International trade law perspectives on paperless trade and inclusive digital trade

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Andrew D.; Mishra, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border paperless trade is increasingly important to generate economic gains in a digitalised economy. Several developing and least developed countries will need to modernise their domestic laws and regulations to facilitate cross-border electronic transmissions, particularly to promote cloud computing and electronic payments. In recent trade agreements, trading partners have committed to deeper and more comprehensive provisions on electronic commerce, including adopting domestic laws on...

  17. On financial markets trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassini, Lorenzo; Franci, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the observation of the real trading activity, we propose a model of a stockmarket simulating all the typical phases taking place in a stock exchange. We show that there is no need of several classes of agents once one has introduced realistic constraints in order to confine money, time, gain and loss within an appropriate range. The main ingredients are local and global coupling, randomness, Zipf distribution of resources and price formation when inserting an order. The simulation starts with the initial public offer and comprises the broadcasting of news/advertisements and the building of the book, where all the selling and buying orders are stored. The model is able to reproduce fat tails and clustered volatility, the two most significant characteristics of a real stockmarket, being driven by very intuitive parameters.

  18. e-Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    PetroCosm is a B2B online exchange for the oil and gas industry. It links buyers and sellers to service providers in real-time product and service trading across the supply chain. It can facilitate the transfer of equipment and services for oil and gas companies around the world. This paper referred to the value-creation opportunities associated with electronically transforming oil and gas companies. Traditional businesses that use Internet technology extensively can shift their strategic perspective to an e-business perspective where the need for capital is minimized and more focus can be placed on productivity, creating a more efficient and dynamic company with potential for long-term competitive advantages. Many oil companies have moved forward with implementing the needed technology and management infrastructure for e-business. 10 figs.

  19. Trade in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In this report the Government has provided information on recent trends in Australia's energy trade and examined the implications of recent changes in those trends for the remainder of the 1980's. The opportunities for Australia as an energy exporter in the years ahead have been identified, along with related policy issues. The Committee has concluded that energy export projections made as recently as two years ago which foreshadowed massive increases in exports of coal, gas and uranium from Australia over the next couple of decades must now be considered excessively optimistic, given slack world economic conditions and the softer trend in world oil prices. The Committee has, however, cautioned against becoming too gloomy and of taking the immediate past period as a basis for projecting the longer term.

  20. e-Trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    PetroCosm is a B2B online exchange for the oil and gas industry. It links buyers and sellers to service providers in real-time product and service trading across the supply chain. It can facilitate the transfer of equipment and services for oil and gas companies around the world. This paper referred to the value-creation opportunities associated with electronically transforming oil and gas companies. Traditional businesses that use Internet technology extensively can shift their strategic perspective to an e-business perspective where the need for capital is minimized and more focus can be placed on productivity, creating a more efficient and dynamic company with potential for long-term competitive advantages. Many oil companies have moved forward with implementing the needed technology and management infrastructure for e-business. 10 figs

  1. The uranium International trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez U, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the understanding of how the present dynamic of uranium International trade is developed, the variables which fall into, the factors that are affecting and conditioning it, in order to clarify which are going to be the outlook in the future of this important resource in front of the present ecological situation and the energetic panorama of XXI Century. For this purpose, as starting point, the uranium is considered as a strategic material which importance take root in its energetic potential as alternate energy source, and for this reason in Chapter I, the general problem of raw materials, its classification and present situation in the global market is presented. In Chapter II, by means of a historical review, is explain what uranium is, how it was discovered, and how since the end of the past Century and during the last three decades of present, uranium pass of practically unknown element, to the position of a strategic raw material, which by degrees, generate an International market, owing to its utilization as a basic resource in the generation of energy. Chapter III, introduce us in the roll played by uranium, since its warlike applications until its utilization in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity. Also is explain the reason for this change in the perception at global level. Finally, in Chapter IV we enter upon specifically in the present conditions of the International market of this mineral throughout the trends of supply and demand, the main producers, users, price dynamics, and the correlation among these economical variables and other factors of political, social and ecological nature. All of these with the purpose to found out, if there exist, a meaning of the puzzle that seems to be the uranium International trade

  2. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  3. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2). (b...

  4. Development in Children's Thinking about International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Lephardt, Noreen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of how children reason about international trade. Explains that open ended questions were posed to students in grades 1-11 asking why nations trade, the benefits of trade, and their understanding of barriers to trade. Concludes that teaching fundamentals of international trade can be introduced as early as grade six. (DK)

  5. Factors of trade in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2014), s. 518-535 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/12/0080 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : bilateral trade * factors of trade * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2014

  6. How insiders traded before rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2013-01-01

    UK company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. This article investigates the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1890 to 1909 in the UK. It finds relatively few instances of directors who

  7. The Characteristics of Informed Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Hadiye; Easley, David; Hvidkjær, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the linkage of microstructure, accounting, and asset pricing. We determine the relationship between firm characteristics as captured by accounting and market data and a firm's probability of private information-based trade (PIN) as estimated from trade data. This allows us...

  8. Improving U.S. Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  9. Trading strategies of corporate insiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, O.; Maug, E.; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We test two complementary theories of optimal trading strategies by analyzing the transaction patterns of corporate insiders. According to information-based theories, investors trade faster if they compete with others for exploiting the same information, while liquidity-based theories predict the

  10. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  11. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  12. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  13. Creative Trade for Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, international trade in creative goods and services has been expanding. But this upward march is not lifting all boats. Although many developing countries are endowed with vast cultural wealth, they still lag behind. In addition, women are not faring well. Much needs to be done to expand creative trade for human development. Suggestions here include implementing a Women Art...

  14. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  15. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  16. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important.

  17. Rogue trading at Lloyds Bank International, 1974: Operational risk in volatile markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, C

    2017-01-01

    Rogue trading has been a persistent feature of international financial markets over the past thirty years, but there is remarkably little historical treatment of this phenomenon. To begin to fill this gap, evidence from company and official archives is used to expose the anatomy of a rogue trading scandal at Lloyds Bank International in 1974. The rush to internationalize, the conflict between rules and norms, and the failure of internal and external checks all contributed to the largest singl...

  18. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  19. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  20. Fashion Merchandising Module. An Advanced-Level Option for Distribution and Marketing. For the U.S.O.E. Occupational Cluster of 04.02 Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clis, Pat; And Others

    This instructional module on fashion merchandising is designed as a guide for secondary education teachers who are helping twelfth grade students develop occupational competency for entry-level positions in fashion-related jobs. An introductory section covers module goals, career opportunities and employment demands, administrative considerations,…

  1. Managing Behaviour of Retail Trade Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Maryna M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of management of behaviour of retail trade consumers. It shows importance of this topic at the stage of market changes in economic and social spheres. Generalising theoretical provisions about models of consumer behaviour, the article marks out three main groups of factors that influence them: external, internal and situational. The authors offer to allocate sensor forms of communications into a separate group of factors due to a distinctive property of their impact – orientation at subconsciousness of consumers. The article analyses a psychological process of making a decision on purchase of a commodity and draws a conclusion about necessity of exerting subconsciousness influence upon consumer behaviour using the modern marketing instruments. It develops an improved model of consumer behaviour, which takes into account innovation means of impact on the buyer. The prospect of further development of this direction in science is creation of theoretical methods of managing consumer behaviour on the basis of co-operation of specialists in the field of economy, management, marketing, sociology and psychology, which would be applied in practice of management of trade enterprises.

  2. Trade and the governance of ecosystem services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling

    2008-01-01

    We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)

  3. Trade and the governance of ecosystem services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)

  4. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  5. Free trade or just trade? The world trade organisation, human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author critically examines the role of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In recent years, it is noted, the organisation's agenda of trade liberalisation, its perceived lack of accountability and insensitivity to human rights have attracted intense criticism. It has been asserted that provisions of WTO agreements concerning ...

  6. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  7. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. Background Every five years, pursuant to section 751...'') and the International Trade Commission automatically initiate and conduct a review to determine...

  8. External corners as heat bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1984-08-01

    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  9. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  10. THE RECENT TREND OF ROMANIA’S INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei – Cristian Balasan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the recent developments regarding the Romania trade in goods. We highlight how Romania’s trade in goods evolved after the EU accession. In this period Romania’s exports and imports were influenced by the economic crisis, which had a major impact especially on imports. The paper presents the primary trends that have set the volume, dynamics, structure and performance of trade in Romania in the crisis and post-crisis period. We have noticed what changes took place in the structure of exports and imports of goods and also who were the main external partners of Romania.

  11. Emissions trading in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapfel, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the article 'Emissions trading in the Netherlands. The optimal route towards an international scheme?' (issue 1, 2002) Mulder asks the question to what extent a Dutch national CO2 trading scheme is a worthwhile effort toward an international trading scheme (i.e. is it a first step toward a European-wide emissions trading scheme) when presenting the proposal of the Dutch Commission on CO2 trade and related economic analysis. His conclusion, underlined by modeling results, is that a national scheme along the lines proposed by the Dutch Commission is an expensive policy instrument due to the high transaction costs. The first-best option according to Mulder is to impose CO2-emissions trading with an absolute ceiling on an international level. In the meantime, he states, improving the design of the energy tax system may be an efficient alternative. In this comment I would like to address two issues. First, does the approach proposed by the Dutch Commission make sense from a European perspective towards an EU-wide cap and trade allowance scheme as proposed by the European Commission in October 2001? and Second, what might this Dutch model and philosophy, scaled up to the EU level, look like?

  12. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  13. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  14. Trade Adjustment Assistant: Experiences of Six Trade-Impacted Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... with lower-priced imports close or relocate to lower-wage countries abroad. The federal government recognizes that while the benefits of free trade are widely dispersed across the economy, the costs of worker dislocation effects are more localized...

  15. Decree no 76-845 of 1 September 1976 setting up a Council for external nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Decree has set up a Council for External Nuclear Policy, chaired by the President of the Republic, and includes the Prime Minister, the Ministers for Economy and Finance (these duties are presently discharged by the Prime Minister), Defence, Industry, Trade and Crafts, External Trade, and the Administrator-General of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, as well as the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The duty of this Council is to define the various aspects of external nuclear policy, in particular, regarding the export of technology, equipment and sensitive nuclear products. (NEA) [fr

  16. Review of inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, Canada's National Energy Board released two discussion papers on inter-utility trade. Responses to the papers were received from utilities, government agencies, and other interested parties with regard to questions concerning measures that could be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain commercial access to available transmission capacity through intermediate provinces for wheeling purposes. The Board's review had estimated long-term net benefits from enhanced inter-utility cooperation at $23-32.5 billion by the year 2000 from such types of transactions as seasonal diversity exchanges and long-term firm sales. Seven types of options to achieve enhanced inter-utility trade were identified. Most of the respondent utilities and provinces that have direct access to external markets tended to prefer the status quo, opposing mandated solutions but supporting (or at least not opposing) federal monitoring of progress on enhanced inter-utility cooperation. Provinces and utilities without direct access to external markets tended to support (as a last resort) mandated solutions to disputes concerning electricity trade. Since the Board review, important events in the North American electricity supply industry have occurred; these are described, focusing on the US Energy Policy Act that gives powers to order transmission access. The formation by US utilities of regional transmission groups (RTGs) with federal encouragement is discussed, along with the implications for Canadian utilities that may want to become members of particular RTGs. The advantages and drawbacks of selecting the various options for enhancing inter-utility trade are then summarized. 1 tab

  17. INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNANCE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri L.F. de GROOT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ineffective institutions and bad governance increase transaction costs and reduce international transport flows. In this paper, we empirically investigate this basic notion, and we show that it can account for several, so far, somewhat puzzling results in the empirical literature estimating gravity equations of bilateral trade. More specifically, we show that differences in the quality and effectiveness of institutions offer an explanation for the tendency of OECD countries to trade disproportionately with each other, and with non-OECD countries, as well as for the positive effect of GDP per capita on bilateral trade.

  18. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  19. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction...

  20. Greasing the Wheels of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik P. van Dalen; Aico P. van Vuuren

    2003-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in 'De Economist' , 2005, 153(2), 139-165. How much does a nation spend on resources to 'grease the wheels of trade'? To examine this question the Dutch economy is used as an exemplary case as the Netherlands are known as a nation of traders. This image was derived in the seventeenth century from successes in long distance trade, shipping and financial innovations. Despite its historical background in trading the potential to 'truck and barter' ...

  1. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  2. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Bevalac external beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  4. Bevalac external beamline optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested

  5. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  6. Environmental Regulation and International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A. [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of 'dirty' domestic industries, and as a result, 'pollution havens' emerge in countries where environmental regulation is 'over-lax.' We examine the impact of pollution abatement and control costs on net exports in order to grasp this phenomenon. Theoretically, our analysis is related to a general equilibrium model of trade and pollution nesting the pollution haven motive for trade with the factor endowment motive. We analyze data on two-digit ISIC manufacturing industries during the period 1977-1992 in Germany, the Netherlands and the US, and show that trade patterns in 'dirty' commodities are jointly determined by relative factor endowments and environmental stringency differentials.

  7. Aspects related to 'emission trading'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, Ovidiu

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the aspects of international GHG (greenhouse gases) emission trading, such as: quality of GHG emission data, possible partners, monitoring activity, market mechanisms and difficulties. The following conclusions are drown: - debates on international trade with GHG emissions are currently in a very early stage; - actions are possible and feasible, particularly after Kyoto Conference, as versatile mechanism (besides the Joint Implementation Projects) which have in view the lowering of the global emission costs in different zones of the planet; - difficulties concerning monitoring, reporting and verification, practically preclude implementing a system of emission trading covering all the GHG, all the sources and reservoirs; - an international viable system of emission trading could initiate with a limited number of participants and consideration of only emission categories easy to be confined and surveyed; - existence of a national market and corresponding institutions for monitoring which could booster an international system development

  8. Trade implications of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, G.

    1994-01-01

    The general equilibrium impact of environmental taxes does not consist simply consist in a reduction of international trade. This rather depends on the particular circumstances in which the tax is imposed. The trade impacts of environmental regulation which have been measured empirically are almost negligable. Even simulation studies predict strong effects only for very few sectors of the economy. Since the environmental taxes are imposed in order to induce a reallocation of the economy away from the polluting towards the less polluting activities, one can not expect that the polluting industries will not need to shrink or need to introduce abatement measures. This internal reallocation will necessarily be accompanied by a restructuring of trade between economies. Hence, mitigating these trade effects is about as meaningful as mitigating the internal restructuring of the economy. (orig./UA)

  9. The impact of fair trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Fair Trade started as an effort to enable smallholder producers from developing countries to successfully compete in international markets. Better access to market outlets and stable prices are considered key principles for sustainable poverty reduction and stakeholder

  10. Topics on electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-01-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  11. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  12. To Trade or Not to Trade: Firm-Level Analysis of Emissions Trading in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, Jessica; Loefgren, Aasa; Sterner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies - given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market-based policies - is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allow us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries

  13. ASEAN - China Free Trade Area : A quantitative study of Trade diversion and Trade creation effects on ASEAN - China trade flows

    OpenAIRE

    Duong Xuan, Vinh

    2011-01-01

    The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China have a long history of trading with each other. They are economic partners as well as competitors for many years. In order to push their economic relationship to a higher level, in November 2002, ASEAN and China signed the initial framework agreement, determined on establishing the ASEAN - China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) among the eleven countries by 2010 for the ASEAN-6 (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)...

  14. Trade Credit and Informational Asymmetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Janet Kiholm

    1987-01-01

    Commonly used trade credit terms implicitly define a high interest rate that operates as an efficient screening device where information about buyer default risk is asymmetrically held. By offering trade credit, a seller can identify prospective defaults more quickl y than if financial institutions were the sole providers of short-ter m financing. The information is valuable in cases where a seller has made nonsalvageable investments in buyers since it enables the seller to take actions to pr...

  15. Trade liberalization and gender inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Women consistently work less in the labor market and earn lower wages than men. While economic empowerment of women is an important objective in itself, women's economic activity also matters as a condition for sustained economic growth. The political debate on the labor market impacts of international trade typically differentiates workers by their educational attainment or skills. Gender is a further dimension in which the impacts of trade liberalization can differ. In a globalizing world i...

  16. Optimal Trading with Alpha Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Passerini; Samuel E. Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of optimal trading using general alpha predictors with linear costs and temporary impact. We do this within the framework of stochastic optimization with finite horizon using both limit and market orders. Consistently with other studies, we find that the presence of linear costs induces a no-trading zone when using market orders, and a corresponding market-making zone when using limit orders. We show that, when combining both market and limit orders, the problem is furthe...

  17. Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Spamann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...

  18. Trade Liberalization and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Conconi; Patrick Legros; Andrew F. Newman

    2008-01-01

    We embed a simple incomplete-contracts model of organization design in a standard two-country perfectly-competitive trade model to examine how the liberalization of product and factor markets affects the ownership structure of firms. In our model, managers decide whether or not to integrate their firms, trading off the pecuniary benefits of coordinating production decisions with the private benefits of operating in their preferred ways. The price of output is a crucial determinant of this cho...

  19. Organ trade using social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Alrogy; Dunia Jawdat; Muhannad Alsemari; Abdulrahman Alharbi; Abdullah Alasaad; Ali H Hajeer

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to Febru...

  20. GLOBALIZATION & REGIONALIZATION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Frunză

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization refers to the growing interdependence of countries, resulting from the increasing integration of trade, finance, investments, labor markets and ideas in one globalmarketplace. The most important elements of this process are the international trade and the cross-border investment flows. Economic globalization has increased the specialization of workers, while the companies compete in global markets. Even globalization has recently become a common topic in academic discourse, many economists focused, from the 1980s and 1990s, in addition to globalization, on regionalization - the growth of networks of interdependence within multinational regions of the world. The recent decades arecharacterized by the fact that the world trade grew faster than world output, which implies that an increasing share of world GDP crosses international borders. The trend is explained, mostly, by thesubstantially declining of the trade barriers during the same period, as a result of successive trade negotiation rounds under the auspices of the GATT/WTO, unilateral trade liberalization and regional tradeagreements. Even there are global connections between all the countries, the strongest political and economic integration is being created within a few specific regions of the world: Europe, North America and East Asia.

  1. Vulnerability of countries to food-production crises propagating in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the international trade of food and agricultural commodities has undergone a marked increase of exchanged volumes and an expansion of the trade network. This globalization of trade has both positive and negative effects, but the interconnectedness and external dependency of countries generate complex dynamics which are often difficult to understand and model. In this study we consider the volume of water used for the production of agricultural commodities, virtually exchanged among countries through commodity trade, i.e. the virtual water trade. Then, we set up a parsimonious mechanistic model describing the propagation, into the global trade network, of food-production crises generated locally by a social, economic or environmental event (such as war, economic crisis, drought, pest). The model, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries, bases on rules derived from observed virtual water flows and on data-based and statistically verified assumption. It is also tested on real case studies that prove its capability to capture the main features of crises propagation. The model is then employed as the basis for the development of an index of country vulnerability, measuring the exposure of countries to crises propagating in the virtual water trade network. Results of the analysis are discussed within the context of socio-economic and environmental conditions of countries, showing that not only water-scarce, but also wealthy and globalized countries, are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis for the period 1986-2011 reveals that the global average vulnerability has strongly increased over time, confirming the increased exposure of countries to external crises which may occur in the virtual water trade network.

  2. Environmental accounts and trade - a Swedish pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadeskog, A.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental accounts are supposed to register environmental impacts of economic activities performed by residents on a national basis. However, the international division of labour is not explicitly addressed. A small, open, economy like Sweden use resources, and thereby cause emissions, in other countries due to what is imported for intermediate or final use. On the other hand, the things we export to other countries cause emissions in Sweden. This means that there is an environmental balance of trade that is not explicitly addressed in the accounts. There are however possibilities to estimate these effects. Through input-output analysis it is possible to analyse the value added chain of the different goods and service that make up the final demand, i.e. a form of cradle-to-grave analysis. Environmental trade can be estimated in several ways. One method is to assume that emissions follow the pattern of the trade balance and equal out over time, i.e. ignore the problem. Another method is to calculate the effect of differences in volume and composition in exports and imports. In most cases this is done using the domestic input-output tables and emission coefficients, i.e. assuming that all trading partners have identical resource use, technology and economic structure. A pilot study of the environmental trade balance for Sweden, using different aggregated emissions data for our trading partners and the Swedish input-output table, show that the results calculated with these methods will underestimate external emissions considerably for carbon dioxides and sulphur dioxides. However, for nitrogen oxides emission these methods seem to suffice

  3. Local-scale dynamics and local drivers of bushmeat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaki, Angela; Gray, Steven A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Skibins, Jeffrey C; Rentsch, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Bushmeat management policies are often developed outside the communities in which they are to be implemented. These policies are also routinely designed to be applied uniformly across communities with little regard for variation in social or ecological conditions. We used fuzzy-logic cognitive mapping, a form of participatory modeling, to compare the assumptions driving externally generated bushmeat management policies with perceptions of bushmeat trade dynamics collected from local community members who admitted to being recently engaged in bushmeat trading (e.g., hunters, sellers, consumers). Data were collected during 9 workshops in 4 Tanzanian villages bordering Serengeti National Park. Specifically, we evaluated 9 community-generated models for the presence of the central factors that comprise and drive the bushmeat trade and whether or not models included the same core concepts, relationships, and logical chains of reasoning on which bushmeat conservation policies are commonly based. Across local communities, there was agreement about the most central factors important to understanding the bushmeat trade (e.g., animal recruitment, low income, and scarcity of food crops). These matched policy assumptions. However, the factors perceived to drive social-ecological bushmeat trade dynamics were more diverse and varied considerably across communities (e.g., presence or absence of collaborative law enforcement, increasing human population, market demand, cultural preference). Sensitive conservation issues, such as the bushmeat trade, that require cooperation between communities and outside conservation organizations can benefit from participatory modeling approaches that make local-scale dynamics and conservation policy assumptions explicit. Further, communities' and conservation organizations' perceptions need to be aligned. This can improve success by allowing context appropriate policies to be developed, monitored, and appropriately adapted as new evidence is

  4. COPING WITH GLOBAL MELTDOWN: INDIA’S EXTERNAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sethi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available n 2008 the world economy landed itself in the midst of the most severe financial recession which originated in the developed countries and spread to the developing countries which were hit hard through capital reversals, rising borrowing costs, collapsing world trade and commodity prices, and subsiding remittances. India’s engagement with the global economy became deeper from the 1990s and this made it inevitable to be affected by the global meltdown. This paper attempts to analyze the impact of the global recession on the external sector of the Indian economy. A pre and post recession (2008 analysis is undertaken to see the impact on trade, capital flows, exchange rates and foreign exchange reserves and external debt. The analysis reveals that while India was adversely impacted due to the slowdown in trade, capital flows and outsourcing; the impact has not been as much as in many other Asian economies. The capital flows were soon back, as India seemed like a save haven for funds with reasonable growth and interest rates. The Indian banking and regulatory system has been credited for following prudential norms and India’s huge domestic market and fiscal stimulus have got the economy almost back on track with growth rates looking up again.

  5. International trade in services: A scoping study of services trade and estimates of benefits from services trade liberalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ballingall, John; Stephenson, John

    2005-01-01

    This is a scoping study. It summarises the dynamics of services trade in the world economy and discusses some of the benefits of services trade liberalisation from a qualitative and quantitative view point. We place particular emphasis on the role and interests of developing and least developed countries in world services trade. The study also provides an overview of services trade in the New Zealand economy, and, in places, highlights aspects of services trade where New Zealand’s interests m...

  6. 27 CFR 19.165 - Trade names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade names. 19.165 Section 19.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Trade names. (a) Operating permits. Where a trade name is to be used in connection with the operations...

  7. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a... manufacturers in trading. These credits must be used in the same averaging set as generated. (b) Credits for...

  8. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading... engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits banked...

  9. Trading Cost Management of Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Xing (Rang)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper documents the trading behaviour of actively managed equity mutual funds from the perspective of their trading cost management. Consistent with the predictions in the literature of portfolio choice with trading costs, I present three main findings. Firstly, mutual funds trade

  10. The Cultural Trade Index : An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The Cultural Trade Index aims to shed light on cultural trade and stimulate interest in how this little-known area can contribute to economic diversification, boost shared prosperity, and reduce extreme poverty. As the first index of its kind, the Cultural Trade Index would gather cultural trade data scattered across different sources, place them in one place, and show how countries are pe...

  11. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit

  12. Pollution added credit trading (PACT). New dimensions in emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Thomas, Tom

    1996-01-01

    To date, sources of hazardous, toxic, or otherwise harmful emissions have been regulated on a pollutant by pollutant basis. Environmental policies, even the more advanced 'incentive-based' programs, have focused on individual substances rather than on the overall environmental problem to which the substances contribute. This has produced results that are less economically efficient and ecologically effective than is desirable. A more comprehensive approach combines the principles of emission reduction credit trading with advances made recently in the field of environmental impact assessment, to yield an advanced form of inter-pollutant trading, which we refer to as pollution added credit trading (PACT). PACT incorporates a method for estimating the total environmental harm generated (pollution added) by a facility emitting a variety of pollutants. Weightings that reflect relative harm are used to calculate total pollution added. Each facility covered by PACT would receive annual allowances for total pollution added that they could discharge to the environment. As with existing emissions trading programs, surplus allowances could be sold and shortfalls would be covered by purchasing other facilities' surplus allowances. PACT is more efficient than single-pollutant emissions trading in that it captures differences in marginal reduction costs that exist between pollutants as well as between facilities. It is more ecologically effective because it focuses on the overall environmental problem, rather than on the individual pollutants that contribute to the problem

  13. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO FREE TRADE WITHIN FAIR TRADE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and fair trade are considered an ambiguous term with relative meanings of identification. Objectively, free and fair trade does not mean completely free and fair, but it means trade under binding rules obeyed by member countries as a consequence of their commitment after signing and ratification of the WTO agreements. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the issue and does an effort to harmonise between free trade and fair trade within the WTO system. Perdagangan bebas dan perdagangan yang adil adalah dua istilah yang ambigu maknanya. Secara obyektif, perdagangan bebas tidak bermakna bebas dan adil seluruhnya, tetapi bermakna sebuah perdagangan di bawah aturan-aturan mengikat setelah negara anggota menandatangani dan meratifikasi kesepakatan WTO. Tetapi dalam realitas kebanyakan Negara, terutama negara berkembang tidak mampu untuk membuka pasar dan menurunkan tarif secara keseluruhan. Persoalan tidak berimbangnya kekuatan, kurang demokrasi, krisis legitimasi dan dobel standar dalam WTO sistem merupakan sebuah tantangan yang masih berlanjut. Paper ini akan mengkaji persoalan ini dan berupaya mengharmonisasikan antara perdagangan bebas dan adil dalam sistem WTO.

  14. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO FREE TRADE WITHIN FAIR TRADE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and fair trade are considered an ambiguous term with relative meanings of identification. Objectively, free and fair trade does not mean completely free and fair, but it means trade under binding rules obeyed by member countries as a consequence of their commitment after signing and ratification of the WTO agreements. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the issue and does an effort to harmonise between free trade and fair trade within the WTO system.   Perdagangan bebas dan perdagangan yang adil adalah dua istilah yang ambigu maknanya. Secara obyektif, perdagangan bebas tidak bermakna bebas dan adil seluruhnya, tetapi bermakna sebuah perdagangan di bawah aturan-aturan mengikat setelah negara anggota menandatangani dan meratifikasi kesepakatan WTO. Tetapi dalam realitas kebanyakan Negara, terutama negara berkembang tidak mampu untuk membuka pasar dan menurunkan tarif secara keseluruhan. Persoalan tidak berimbangnya kekuatan, kurang demokrasi, krisis legitimasi dan dobel standar dalam WTO sistem merupakan sebuah tantangan yang masih berlanjut. Paper ini akan mengkaji persoalan ini dan berupaya mengharmonisasikan antara perdagangan bebas dan adil dalam sistem WTO.

  15. A microbial model of economic trading and comparative advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Peter J; Simpson, Zachary B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2015-01-07

    The economic theory of comparative advantage postulates that beneficial trading relationships can be arrived at by two self-interested entities producing the same goods as long as they have opposing relative efficiencies in producing those goods. The theory predicts that upon entering trade, in order to maximize consumption both entities will specialize in producing the good they can produce at higher efficiency, that the weaker entity will specialize more completely than the stronger entity, and that both will be able to consume more goods as a result of trade than either would be able to alone. We extend this theory to the realm of unicellular organisms by developing mathematical models of genetic circuits that allow trading of a common good (specifically, signaling molecules) required for growth in bacteria in order to demonstrate comparative advantage interactions. In Conception 1, the experimenter controls production rates via exogenous inducers, allowing exploration of the parameter space of specialization. In Conception 2, the circuits self-regulate via feedback mechanisms. Our models indicate that these genetic circuits can demonstrate comparative advantage, and that cooperation in such a manner is particularly favored under stringent external conditions and when the cost of production is not overly high. Further work could involve implementing the models in living bacteria and searching for naturally occurring cooperative relationships between bacteria that conform to the principles of comparative advantage. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Electricity as a traded good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sunderasan

    2013-01-01

    Electric power has traditionally been classified as a non-traded good, produced and consumed within the country of origin. More recently, electricity has been traded across national borders and in certain cases, viz., Bhutan, has been the dominant export; in other situations, it is used to repay debts owed to neighboring countries. This paper investigates the role of electricity as the primary export, analyzes its valuation, and then goes on to evaluate the impact on the terms of trade. We conclude that in the medium-term, the electric power exporting economy would be better off developing its manufacturing sector to diversify its exposure and to protect its trade interests. The case of Bhutanese hydro-electricity exports to India is studied and the change in trade advantage with every increase in power tariff is ascertained. It is found that a 1.26% annual increase in (non-food) consumer prices is correlated with a 1% increase in electricity export tariff. While the causality from electric power tariff to Indian manufactures prices is not established statistically, a change in manufactures prices feeding back into consumer prices in Bhutan is statistically significant. Suggestions are offered for Bhutan to reduce dependence on Indian imports and to diversify its export market exposure. - Highlights: • Electricity as principal export of small economy. • Bilateral trade with large economy. • Tourism as major income generator for small economy. • Partial equilibrium model involving key variables. • Small economy would need to diversify. • Important subject for inter-temporal and inter-regional trade of power

  17. Some Remarks on the Slave Trade in the Heart of the Golden Horde (14th century in the Wake of C. Verlinden’s Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pubblici

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: For decades the slave trade was very lucrative for the Italian merchants who travelled to the East. The formation of the Mongol Empire, and the economic and demographic growth occurred in Europe, have contributed to the increase of both, the demand of slaves and the supply human merchandise. Trade increased with the simultaneous increase in the number of journeys of western merchants to the East. The creation of a structured trading system on the Black Sea coast has allowed Genoa and Venice to strengthen their trade relations with the dominant centers of power in loco: the Golden Horde of the Mongols and the Mamluks of Egypt. Materials: This article is a preliminary critical mapping of a larger project I’m working on, and which aims to explore the relationship between Italian commercial immigration and the slave trade in the Venetian settlement of Tana, situated in the mouth of the Don, and representing the easternmost outpost of all Latin Trading System in the East in the 13th and 14th centuries. Based on a solid historiographical tradition and the Venetian documentary sources, I’m trying to restore the perception of a slave in the unique context of the Golden Horde, where the western urban mercantile and the eastern nomadic factors came into contact. Results and novelty of the research: While many of the conclusions of this research are still to be confirmed, a primary investigation has shown that slaves were not only the primary and most profitable resource for Italian merchants, but also the most direct and effective means to penetrate and understand an ethnic and culturally stranger context.

  18. The ExternE project: methodology, objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent studies on external costs of energy systems, in particular the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. To evaluate the impact and damage cost of a pollutant, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis; this involves the calculation of increased pollutant concentrations in all affected regions due to an incremental emission (e.g. μg/m 3 of particles, using models of atmospheric dispersion and chemistry), followed by the calculation of physical impacts (e.g. number of cases of asthma due to these particles, using a dose-response function). The entire so-called fuel chain (or fuel cycle) is evaluated and compared on the basis of delivered end use energy. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, NO x and SO x ) from the combustion of fossil fuels impose a heavy toll, in addition to the cost of global warming. The external costs are especially large for coal; even for 'good current technology' they may be comparable to the price of electricity. For natural gas the external costs are about a third to a half of coal. The external costs of nuclear are small compared to the price of electricity (at most a few %), and so are the external costs of most renewable energy systems. (authors)

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Institute for International Trade

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFRA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiations and policy makers.

  20. Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Charles M C; Ready, Mark J

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative methods for classifying individual trades as market buy or market sell orders using intraday trade and quote data. The authors document two potential problems with quote-based methods of trade classification: quotes may be recorded ahead of trades that triggered them, and trades inside the spread are not readily classifiable. These problems are analyzed in the context of the interaction between exchange floor agents. The authors then propose and test relativel...