WorldWideScience

Sample records for external knowledge representations

  1. On the Roles of External Knowledge Representations in Assessment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Behrens, John T.; Bennett, Randy E.; Demark, Sarah F.; Frezzo, Dennis C.; Levy, Roy; Robinson, Daniel H.; Rutstein, Daisy Wise; Shute, Valerie J.; Stanley, Ken; Winters, Fielding I.

    2010-01-01

    People use external knowledge representations (KRs) to identify, depict, transform, store, share, and archive information. Learning how to work with KRs is central to be-coming proficient in virtually every discipline. As such, KRs play central roles in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. We describe five key roles of KRs in assessment: (1)…

  2. On the Roles of External Knowledge Representations in Assessment Design. CSE Report 722

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Behrens, John T.; Bennett, Randy E.; Demark, Sarah F.; Frezzo, Dennis C.; Levy, Roy; Robinson, Daniel H.; Rutstein, Daisy Wise; Shute, Valerie J.; Stanley, Ken; Winters, Fielding I.

    2007-01-01

    People use external knowledge representations (EKRs) to identify, depict, transform, store, share, and archive information. Learning how to work with EKRs is central to becoming proficient in virtually every discipline. As such, EKRs play central roles in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Five key roles of EKRs in educational assessment are…

  3. The Effects of Idealized and Grounded Materials on Learning, Transfer, and Interest: An Organizing Framework for Categorizing External Knowledge Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Daniel M.; Schalk, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Research in both cognitive and educational psychology has explored the effect of different types of external knowledge representations (e.g., manipulatives, graphical/pictorial representations, texts) on a variety of important outcome measures. We place this large and multifaceted research literature into an organizing framework, classifying three…

  4. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  5. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  6. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  7. Knowledge representation with SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gotseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of supporting the software development process through the artificial intelligence. The expert systems could advise the Domain Engineer in programming without the detailed experience in programming languages. He will use and integrate, with the help of deductive database and domain knowledge, the previously developed software components to new complex functionalities. The objective of this document is to provide the knowledge representation about atomic Web Services which will be registered as the facts in the deductive database. The author proposes to use the decision rules in decision tables for representing the service model which consists of semantic specification, interface description, service quality (QoS, non-functional properties. Also the use of Domain Specific Languages (DSL for modeling Domain Engineers re-quests to the expert system will be considered within this document. As the illustrative use case for described knowledge representation the author proposes the domain of SOA-based geographic information systems (GIS which represent a new branch of information and communication technologies.

  8. Inferential knowledge, externalism and self-knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    R G Ford

    2004-01-01

    Privileged self-knowledge says, roughly, that we have non-empirical knowledge of our own thoughts. Externalism about mental content says, roughly, that our mental states are determined at least in part by our environment. It has been alleged that jointly assuming externalism about mental content and privileged self-knowledge are true has the consequence that any subject can have non-empirical knowledge of her own environment and this is intuitively absurd. The thesis investigates in various w...

  9. Concepts, ontologies, and knowledge representation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakus, Grega; Omerovic, Sanida; Tomažic, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Recording knowledge in a common framework that would make it possible to seamlessly share global knowledge remains an important challenge for researchers. This brief examines several ideas about the representation of knowledge addressing this challenge. A widespread general agreement is followed that states uniform knowledge representation should be achievable by using ontologies populated with concepts. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of the three introduced topics, following a uniform outline: definition, organization, and use. This brief is intended for those who want to get to know

  10. Knowledge Granularity and Representation of Knowledge: Towards Knowledge Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Maria A.; Owoc, Mieczyslaw L.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Knowledge granularity, usually identified with the size of knowledge granules, seems to be real challenge for knowledge consumers as well as for knowledge creators. In this paper, relationships between knowledge granularity as a result of different ways of a knowledge representation are considered. The paper deals with the problem of developing knowledge grid in the context of encapsulation of knowledge including different dimensions and measures. The origin of the pro...

  11. Representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R; Strijker, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    The representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs, a specific kind of semantic network, is discussed. Knowledge it systematically searched this reveals. inconsistencies, reducing superfluous research and knowledge, and showing gaps in a theory. This representation i

  12. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  13. Paired structures in knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, J.; Bustince, H.; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo;

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here it is clai......In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here...... of paired structures, generated from two paired concepts together with their associated neutrality, all of them to be modeled as fuzzy sets. In this way, paired structures can be viewed as a standard basic model from which different models arise. This unifying view should therefore allow a deeper analysis...

  14. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  15. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  16. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  17. External Representations for Data Distributions: In Search of Cognitive Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghana, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Data distributions can be represented using different external representations, such as histograms and boxplots. Although the role of external representations has been extensively studied in mathematics, this is less the case in statistics. This study helps to fill this gap by systematically varying the representation that accompanies a task…

  18. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-02-01

    This paper explores a case study of a class of Year 10 students (n=24) whose learning of genetics involved activities of BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). MERs can be verbal/textual, visual-graphical, or in other formats. Researchers claim that the functions of MERs in supporting student learning are to complement information or processes, to constrain the interpretation of abstract concepts, and to construct new viable conceptions. Over decades, research has shown that genetics remains linguistically and conceptually difficult for high school students. This case study using data from multiple sources enabled students'' development of genetics reasoning to be interpreted from an epistemological perspective. Pretest-posttest comparison after six weeks showed that most of the students (n=20) had improved their genetics reasoning but only for easier reasoning types. Findings indicated that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students'' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but only when students were mindful in their learning. Based on triangulation of data from multiple sources, MERs in BioLogica appeared to support learning largely by constraining students'' interpretation of phenomena of genetics.

  19. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  20. Fractal measure theory for knowledge representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿卫东; 潘云鹤

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of knowledge representation is attempted.Based on the fractal theory and information measuring principles and methods,a series of quantitative concepts for knowledge representation,e.g.information capacity,entropy,information processing channel (IPC),are proposed.From the viewpoint of information processing,the principles of maximum entropy and increasing entropy are discussed,and the types,characteristics and structures of information processing channel are also discussed.Finally,the quantitative theoretical analyses of several typical knowledge representation methods are given.

  1. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Chemical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2017-01-01

    Chemical representations serve as a communication tool not only in exchanges between scientists but also in chemistry lessons. The goals of the present study were to measure the extent of student teachers' knowledge about chemical representations, focusing on chemical formulae and structures in particular, and to explore which factors related to…

  2. Knowledge Representation for Decision Making Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Knowledge Representation for Decision Making Agents MAJ Peter Nesbitt Dr. Tom Anderson LTC Jonathan Alt Mr. David Ohmen Mr. Kyle Quinnell Mr. Mario...Torres TRADOC Analysis Center - Monterey 700 Dyer Road Monterey, California 93943 PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY: Peter A. Nesbitt Jonathan K. Alt MAJ, AR LTC...Include area code) 07/15/2013 Technical Report APR 2013 - JUN 2013 Knowledge Representation for Decision Making Agents MAJ Peter Nesbitt Dr Tom Anderson

  3. Social Ontology Documentation for Knowledge Externalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Corral, Gonzalo A.; Borrego-Díaz, Joaquín; Jiménez-Mavillard, Antonio

    Knowledge externalization and organization is a major challenge that companies must face. Also, they have to ask whether is possible to enhance its management. Mechanical processing of information represents a chance to carry out these tasks, as well as to turn intangible knowledge assets into real assets. Machine-readable knowledge provides a basis to enhance knowledge management. A promising approach is the empowering of Knowledge Externalization by the community (users, employees). In this paper, a social semantic tool (called OntoxicWiki) for enhancing the quality of knowledge is presented.

  4. Knowledge representation an approach to artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bench-Capon, TJM

    1990-01-01

    Although many texts exist offering an introduction to artificial intelligence (AI), this book is unique in that it places an emphasis on knowledge representation (KR) concepts. It includes small-scale implementations in PROLOG to illustrate the major KR paradigms and their developments.****back cover copy:**Knowledge representation is at the heart of the artificial intelligence enterprise: anyone writing a program which seeks to work by encoding and manipulating knowledge needs to pay attention to the scheme whereby he will represent the knowledge, and to be aware of the consequences of the ch

  5. [Health education: knowledge, social representation, and illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and practice of health and education, beginning with the notion of the hegemony (in health education practice) of strategies linked to the notion that to grasp established knowledge always leads to the acquisition of new behaviors and practices. Five different axioms have oriented education and health practices, either juxtaposed or at different moments: (1) the notion of overcoming the determination of knowledge over practices; (2) the determination of representations over practices; (3) the analysis of representations within the traditional framework of right and wrong; (4) reciprocity between representations and practices; and (5) the importance of considering practices amenable to re-elaboration through representations, thus situating experience in understanding subjects' illness processes, as well as the way subjects culturally construct illness. The article highlights the need for a link between social representations and illness-as-experience in health education practices.

  6. Accounting Knowledge Representation in PROLOG Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Patrut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper presents some original techniques for implementing accounting knowledge in PROLOG language. We will represent rules of operation of accounts, the texts of accounting operations, and how to compute the depreciation.

    Keywords: accounting, knowledge representation, PROLOG, depreciation, natural language processing

  7. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  8. Functional Knowledge Representation Based on Problem Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高济

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for functional knowledge representation based on problem reuction,which represents the organization of problem-solving activities in two levels:reduction and reasoning.The former makes the functional plans for problem-solving while the latter constructs functional units, called handlers,for executing subproblems designated by these plans.This approach emphasizes that the representation of domain knowledge should be closely combined with(rather than separated from)its use,therefore provides a set of reasoning-level primitives to construct handlers and formulate the control strategies for executing them,As reduction-level primitives,handlers are used to construct handler-associative networks,which become the executable representation of problem-reduction graphs,in order to realize the problem-solving methods suited to domain features.Besides,handlers and their control slots can be used to focus the attention of knowledge acquisition and reasoning control.

  9. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  10. Managing heterogeneous knowledge: A Theory of External Knowledge Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge integration has been theorised at the levels of organisations and inter-organisational dyads. However, no theory exists yet of the integration of knowledge from an organisation's environment. This paper addresses this void in the literature by presenting a theory of external knowledge

  11. Visual Knowledge Representation and Intelligent Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Automatic medical image analysis shows that image segmentation is a crucial task for any practical AI system in this field.On the basis of evaluation of the existing segmentation methods,a new image segmentation method is presented.To seek the perfct solution to knowledge representation in low level machine vision,a new knowledge representation approach--“Notebbok”approach is proposed and the processing of visual knowledge is discussed at all levels.To integrate the computer vision theory with Gestalt psychology and knowledge engineering,a new integrated method for intelligent image segmentation of sonargraphs- “Generalized-pattern guided segmentation”is proposed.With the methods and techniques mentioned above,the medical diagnosis expert system for sonargraphs can be built The work on the preliminary experiments is also introduced.

  12. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital......’s views are brought to light within the design interactions. A new digital reality is created at the periphery of the situated knowledge through continuous negotiations and joint meaning making....

  13. Software GOLUCA: Knowledge Representation in Mental Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Garcia, Luis M.; Luengo-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Godinho-Lopes, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    We present a new software, called Goluca (Godinho, Luengo, and Casas, 2007), based on the technique of Pathfinder Associative Networks (Schvaneveldt, 1989), which produces graphical representations of the cognitive structure of individuals in a given field knowledge. In this case, we studied the strategies used by teachers and its relationship…

  14. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories ...

  15. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital...

  16. Piano Students' Conceptions of Musical Scores as External Representations: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Alfredo; Perez Echeverria, Ma del Puy; Pozo, J. Ignacio; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    Musical scores are some of the most important learning tools for musicians' acquisition of musical knowledge. However, despite their educational relevance, very little is known about how music students "conceive" of these cultural external representations. Given that these conceptions might act as mediators of students' learning…

  17. Age-Related Changes in Children's Use of External Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazo, Philip David; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Nichols, Shana

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments explored 3- and 4-year olds' use of external representations. Results indicated that 4-year olds outperformed 3-year olds on self-recognition task; children performed better with photographs than drawings; a delay had no effect. Results suggested that assessments of self and other understanding may reflect children's ability to…

  18. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    When building up competences, a subsidiary of a multinational corporation (MNC) may rely onexternal knowledge sources like customers, suppliers, competitors or local science centers. Internalsourcing is also available through knowledge offered by headquarters or other affiliates. Thequestion...... is whether the two kinds of sources are mutual exclusive. A dilemma or organizationaltrade-off is foreseeable, since the more the subsidiary adapts its knowledge creation processes tohost country institutions, the less it will be able to utilize internal knowledge sources due to theinstitutional distance...... between the external and internal networks. However, newer organizationalforms, like the concept of the `differentiated MNC', imply a relatively smooth flow of knowledgeinside the MNC, indicating that we should not expect an organizational trade-off between internaland external sources. The subsidiary...

  19. Taxonomy development and knowledge representation of nurses' personal cognitive artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Sharon; Turley, James P

    2009-11-14

    Nurses prepare knowledge representations, or summaries of patient clinical data, each shift. These knowledge representations serve multiple purposes, including support of working memory, workload organization and prioritization, critical thinking, and reflection. This summary is integral to internal knowledge representations, working memory, and decision-making. Study of this nurse knowledge representation resulted in development of a taxonomy of knowledge representations necessary to nursing practice.This paper describes the methods used to elicit the knowledge representations and structures necessary for the work of clinical nurses, described the development of a taxonomy of this knowledge representation, and discusses translation of this methodology to the cognitive artifacts of other disciplines. Understanding the development and purpose of practitioner's knowledge representations provides important direction to informaticists seeking to create information technology alternatives. The outcome of this paper is to suggest a process template for transition of cognitive artifacts to an information system.

  20. Knowledge Representation Using Multilevel Flow Model in Expert System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2015-05-15

    As for the knowledge representation, of course, there are a great many methods available for knowledge representation. These include frames, causal models, and many others. This paper presents a novel method called Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), which is used for knowledge representation in G2 expert system. Knowledge representation plays a vital role in constructing knowledge bases. Moreover, it also has impact on building of generic fault model as well as knowledge bases. The MFM is particularly useful to describe system knowledge concisely as domain map in expert system when domain experts are not available.

  1. Feature selection for domain knowledge representation through multitask learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 Feature selection for domain knowledge representation through multitask learning Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems CSIR South Africa BRosman@csir.co.za Representation learning is a difficult and important problem...

  2. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2015-01-01

    Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR) to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining.

  3. An object-based methodology for knowledge representation in SGML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)|New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    An object-based methodology for knowledge representation and its Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) implementation is presented. The methodology includes class, perspective domain, and event constructs for representing knowledge within an object paradigm. The perspective construct allows for representation of knowledge from multiple and varying viewpoints. The event construct allows actual use of knowledge to be represented. The SGML implementation of the methodology facilitates usability, structured, yet flexible knowledge design, and sharing and reuse of knowledge class libraries.

  4. EO Model for Tacit Knowledge Externalization in Socio-Technical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas Suresh Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: A vital business activity within socio-technical enterprises is tacit knowledge externalization, which elicits and explicates tacit knowledge of enterprise employees as external knowledge. The aim of this paper is to integrate diverse aspects of externalization through the Enterprise Ontology model. Background: Across two decades, researchers have explored various aspects of tacit knowledge externalization. However, from the existing works, it is revealed that there is no uniform representation of the externalization process, which has resulted in divergent and contradictory interpretations across the literature. Methodology\t: The Enterprise Ontology model is constructed step-wise through the conceptual and measurement views. While the conceptual view encompasses three patterns that model the externalization process, the measurement view employs certainty-factor model to empirically measure the outcome of the externalization process. Contribution: The paper contributes towards knowledge management literature in two ways. The first contribution is the Enterprise Ontology model that integrates diverse aspects of externalization. The second contribution is a Web application that validates the model through a case study in banking. Findings: The findings show that the Enterprise Ontology model and the patterns are pragmatic in externalizing the tacit knowledge of experts in a problem-solving scenario within a banking enterprise. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Consider the diverse aspects (what, where, when, why, and how during the tacit knowledge externalization process. Future Research:\tTo extend the Enterprise Ontology model to include externalization from partially automated enterprise systems.

  5. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  6. Fuzzy attributes for knowledge representation and acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, R.L.; Webster, R.B.

    1996-04-01

    Repertory grids and other matrix-like structures can be used to represent knowledge and elicit knowledge from experts. A grid or matrix is a representation of a knowledge domain where the elements in the domain appear long the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the vertical axis. Each construct is rated for its presence in a given element or how much a construct applies to an element. Analysis of these ratings can determine similarities and differences between the elements. Traditionally, constructs are bipolar entities where a rating falls on a range from one pole to the other. For example, temperature may be represented by the bipolar construct hot-cold and a range of 1 to 5 in which 1 represents hot and 5 represents cold. Ratings of 2, 3, and 4 lie in between hot and cold. Additionally, all constructs in a grid have the same range of values and the range in arbitrarily chosen. This paper presents a method for translating grid ratings in to fuzzy membership values. The fuzzy membership values become the values for describing and analyzing the associations between elements. Thus, constructs no longer need to use the same scaling range and no longer need to be bipolar. A construct of an element now becomes a true attribute of an element. An attribute can be rated in its own range and with its own unit of measurement. In the previous example, the bipolar construct hot-cold becomes simply, temperature measured in degrees. Experts or users need no longer translate to an artificial rating range.

  7. HOW DO FIRMS SOURCE EXTERNAL KNOWLEDGE FOR INNOVATION? ANALYSING EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT KNOWLEDGE SOURCING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    KI H. KANG; JINA KANG

    2009-01-01

    In the era of "open innovation", external knowledge is a very important source for technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between external knowledge and performance of technology innovation. The effect of external knowledge on the performance of technology innovation can vary with different external knowledge sourcing methods. We identify three ways of external knowledge sourcing: information transfer from informal network, R&D collaboration and technology acqui...

  8. Design of Multi-attribute Knowledge Base Based on Hybrid Knowledge Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-jie; YANG Bao-an; ZHANG Ke-jing

    2006-01-01

    Based on the knowledge representation and knowledge reasoning, this paper addresses the creation of the multiattribute knowledge base on the basis of hybrid knowledge representation, with the help of object-oriented programming language and relational database. Compared with general knowledge base, multi-attribute knowledge base can enhance the ability of knowledge processing and application;integrate the heterogeneous knowledge, such as model,symbol, case-based sample knowledge; and support the whole decision process by integrated reasoning.

  9. Ologs: A Categorical Framework for Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, David I.; Kent, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the olog, or ontology log, a category-theoretic model for knowledge representation (KR). Grounded in formal mathematics, ologs can be rigorously formulated and cross-compared in ways that other KR models (such as semantic networks) cannot. An olog is similar to a relational database schema; in fact an olog can serve as a data repository if desired. Unlike database schemas, which are generally difficult to create or modify, ologs are designed to be user-friendly enough that authoring or reconfiguring an olog is a matter of course rather than a difficult chore. It is hoped that learning to author ologs is much simpler than learning a database definition language, despite their similarity. We describe ologs carefully and illustrate with many examples. As an application we show that any primitive recursive function can be described by an olog. We also show that ologs can be aligned or connected together into a larger network using functors. The various methods of information flow and institutions can then be used to integrate local and global world-views. We finish by providing several different avenues for future research. PMID:22303434

  10. Ologs: a categorical framework for knowledge representation

    CERN Document Server

    Spivak, David I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the olog, or ontology log, a category-theoretic model for knowledge representation (KR). Grounded in formal mathematics, ologs can be rigorously formulated and cross-compared in ways that other KR models (such as semantic networks) cannot. An olog is similar to a relational database schema; in fact an olog can serve as a data repository if desired. Unlike database schemas which are generally difficult to create or modify, ologs are designed to be user-friendly enough that authoring or reconfiguring an olog is a matter of course rather than a difficult chore. It is hoped that learning to author ologs is much simpler than learning a database definition language, despite their similarity. We describe ologs carefully and illustrate with many examples. As an application we show that any primitive recursive function can be described by an olog. We also show that ologs can be connected together into a larger network using functors. Sheaf semantics could then be employed to study local vs. ...

  11. Minimalist knowledge representation of primary care diseases in the medrapid.info knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal VanQuekelberghe

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions The 'knowledge entry' function allows fast formal representation of clinical knowledge (<14 minutes per disease and testing using the integrated quality management system. In the near future, new measures must be found to improve the problematic representation of disease time processes, descriptions, warnings and graphics to formally represent clinical knowledge using the medrapid 'knowledge entry' function.

  12. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors.

  13. A Knowledge Representation Model for Video—Based Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳志强; 潘云鹤

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,a brief survey on knowledge-based animation techniques is given.Then a VideoStream-based Knowledge Representation Model(VSKRM)for Joint Objects is presented which includes the knowledge representation of :Graphic Object,Action and VideoStream.Next a general description of the UI framework of a system is given based on the VSKRM model.Finally,a conclusion is reached.

  14. External knowledge search and use in new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, T.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    With rapidly shifting technological frontiers, innovative organizations cannot rely solely on internally generated knowledge and technologies anymore. Therefore, externally developed knowledge and technologies are getting more and more important in the development of new products. Not surprisingly,

  15. ONTOLOGY BASED SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION FOR SOFTWARE RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.Rene Robin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Domain specific knowledge representation is achieved through the use of ontologies. The ontology model of software risk management is an effective approach for the intercommunion between people from teaching and learning community, the communication and interoperation among various knowledge oriented applications, and the share and reuse of the software. But the lack of formal representation tools for domain modeling results in taking liberties with conceptualization. This paper narrates an ontology based semantic knowledge representation mechanism and the architecture we proposed has been successfully implemented for the domain software riskmanagement.

  16. Visual Literacy and Biochemistry Learning: The role of external representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J.S.V. Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual Literacy can bedefined as people’s ability to understand, use, think, learn and express themselves through external representations (ER in a given subject. This research aims to investigate the development of abilities of ERs reading and interpretation by students from a Biochemistry graduate course of theFederal University of São João Del-Rei. In this way, Visual Literacy level was  assessed using a questionnaire validatedin a previous educational research. This diagnosis questionnaire was elaborated according to six visual abilitiesidentified as essential for the study of the metabolic pathways. The initial statistical analysis of data collectedin this study was carried out using ANOVA method. Results obtained showed that the questionnaire used is adequate for the research and indicated that the level of Visual Literacy related to the metabolic processes increased significantly with the progress of the students in the graduation course. There was also an indication of a possible interference in the student’s performancedetermined by the cutoff punctuation in the university selection process.

  17. Knowledge Representation in the Context of E-business Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Elena Varlan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the theoretical principles of knowledge representation. The paper also tries to show how to represent knowledge in the context of e-business applications creating a
    tagging platform for economic knowledge using SKOS language.

  18. Scientific knowledge acquisition as a representational change process

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Most of science education research throughout many years, and the teaching models resulting fro this research, has been devoted, without much success, to promote the so-called conceptual change. In this paper students' alternative knowledge is interpreted as embodied implicit representations and it is argued that conceptual change must be interpreted as representational change.

  19. Scientific knowledge acquisition as a representational change process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Pozo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of science education research throughout many years, and the teaching models resulting fro this research, has been devoted, without much success, to promote the so-called conceptual change. In this paper students' alternative knowledge is interpreted as embodied implicit representations and it is argued that conceptual change must be interpreted as representational change.

  20. Biologically Plausible, Human-scale Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Eric; Gingerich, Matthew; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony (Shastri & Ajjanagadde, 1993), "mesh" binding (van der Velde & de Kamps, 2006), and conjunctive binding (Smolensky, 1990). Recent theoretical work has suggested that…

  1. Semantic Externalism and Self Knowledge: Privileged Access to the World

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The thesis is concerned to defend the compatibility of two plausible claims about the mind; semantic externalism and privileged access. It is further concerned to demonstrate one important implication of the conjunction of semantic externalism and privileged access, an implication which forces the rejection of the dichotomy between knowledge of one’s mind and knowledge of one’s world. Chapter one is a presentation of semantic externalism. Chapter two is a presentation of the claim of privileg...

  2. Graph-based knowledge representation computational foundations of conceptual graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Chein, Michel; Chein, Michel

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question of how far it is possible to go in knowledge representation and reasoning through graphs, the authors cover basic conceptual graphs, computational aspects, and kernel extensions. The basic mathematical notions are summarized.

  3. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein, Part I: Affordances and Limitations of Ribbon Diagrams, Vines, and Hydrophobic/Polar Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This project focuses on students' understanding of three external representations of the potassium ion channel protein. This is part I of a two-part study, which focuses on the affordances and…

  4. Knowledge Representations for Planning Manipulation Tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    In this book, the capability map, a novel general representation of the kinematic capabilities of a robot arm, is introduced. The capability map allows to determine how well regions of the workspace are reachable for the end effector in different orientations. It is a representation that can be machine processed as well as intuitively visualized for the human. The capability map and the derived algorithms are a valuable source of information for high- and low-level planning processes. The versatile applicability of the capability map is shown by examples from several distinct application domains. In human-robot interaction, a bi-manual interface for tele-operation is objectively evaluated. In low-level geometric planning, more human-like motion is planned for a humanoid robot while also reducing the computation time. And in high-level task reasoning, the suitability of a robot for a task is evaluated.    

  5. Knowledge representation in a world with vague concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresp, C. [Aachen Technical Univ. (Germany); Becks, A.; Klinkenberg, R.; Hiltner, J. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the foundation of a knowledge representation system is introduced. It deals with fuzzy concepts and uncertain relationships. The problem we finally wish to solve, lays in the fact that on the one hand most actual methods of knowledge representation are not able to deal with vague knowledge. On the other hand, those few methods that care for vagueness lack well-defined semantics and therefore do not have a implementation-independent behavior. The proposed method is designed to model vague knowledge with well-defined semantics. Besides the language definition, basic patterns of reasoning are introduced.

  6. Knowledge Representation and Natural-Language Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    that employ "semantic nets" and "frames" [ Woods 1975:50]. While this analysis is rather inelegant, it does appear to account for two constraints on...any participant in the action as rendering the action "easy": (86) Yolanda easily shot the arrow into the bullseye. (87) This exam is difficult. (88...lished manuscript, SRI International). Woods , William, 1975: "What’s in a link: foundations for semantic net- works", Representation and Understanding

  7. Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

  8. An Overview of OWL, a Language for Knowledge Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolovits, Peter; And Others

    This is a description of the motivation and overall organization of the OWL language for knowledge representation. OWL consists of a linguistic memory system (LMS), a memory of concepts in terms of which all English phrases and all knowledge of an application domain are represented; a theory of English grammar which tells how to map English…

  9. An object-based methodology for knowledge representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)|New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    An object based methodology for knowledge representation is presented. The constructs and notation to the methodology are described and illustrated with examples. The ``blocks world,`` a classic artificial intelligence problem, is used to illustrate some of the features of the methodology including perspectives and events. Representing knowledge with perspectives can enrich the detail of the knowledge and facilitate potential lines of reasoning. Events allow example uses of the knowledge to be represented along with the contained knowledge. Other features include the extensibility and maintainability of knowledge represented in the methodology.

  10. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool......). The standard or normal representation of a typical social network is through a graph data structure in 2D. The dynamics of larger social networks is so complex some time it becomes difficult to understand the various levels of interactions and dependencies just by mere representation through a tree or graph...... of complex social networks and complimenting the analytical results. This representation can also help authorities not necessarily having specific scientific background to understand and perhaps take preventive actions required in certain specific scenarios for example dealing with terrorist/covert networks....

  11. A Semantic Model Faced on the Uniform Product Knowledge Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Chengfeng; ZHANG Meiyu

    2006-01-01

    In order to realize the uniform knowledge representation including STEP and SGML, aimed at the defects of current methods, a new semantic model that is named XOEM+OWL is put forward. And then the correspondent mapping between STEP Schema Graph and OWL Schema Graph are build as Cos(sc,oc),so we can get the semantic pattern matching degree for the semantic representation on the product information. At last the example is presented.

  12. Semantic self-knowledge and episodic self-knowledge: independent or interrelated representations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    In this study of the structure of self-knowledge, we examined priming effects for the recall of personal episodes in order to investigate whether abstract trait knowledge and personal episodes are independent mental representations. We found that accessing similar abstract representations of traits facilitated a faster recall of related personal episodes than did accessing irrelevant abstract representations of traits (Experiments 1 and 2), reading a nonword prime (Experiments 2 and 3), accessing knowledge of one's mother (Experiment 3), or accessing semantic knowledge (Experiment 3). Contrary to previous findings, which indicated that abstract trait knowledge is represented independently of related personal episodes (e.g., Klein & Loftus, 1993; Tulving, 1993), our results suggest that abstract trait knowledge is associated with personal episodes, and therefore that semantic self-knowledge is associated with episodic self-knowledge in long-term self-knowledge.

  13. External representation of argumentation in CSCL and the management of cognitive load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, J.M.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.

    2002-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments, particularly environments where students share external representations, are discussed as an interesting area for the application of cognitive load theory (CLT). CSCL environments share a number of characteristics that will induce consid

  14. Knowledge Representation Methods in Expert System for Earthquake Prediction ESEP 3.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Wu Gengfeng; Zhang Bofeng; Zheng Zhaobi; Liu Hui; Li Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge representation is a key to the building of expert systems. The performance of knowledge representation methods directly affects the intelligence level and the problem-solving ability of the system. There are various kinds of knowledge representation methods in ESEP3.0. In this paper, the authors introduce the knowledge representation methods, such as structure knowledge, seismological and precursory forecast knowledge, machine learning knowledge, synthetic prediction knowledge, knowledge to validate and verify certainty factors of anomalous evidence and support knowledge, etc. and propose a model for validation of certainty factors of anomalous evidence. The knowledge representation methods represent all kinds of earthquake prediction knowledge well.

  15. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we aim to investigate knowledge as approach of describing possible worlds through classification schema, taxonomies, ontologies and semantic web. We focus on the historical background and the methods of culture and civilization representation. In this regard, we studied the ancient concern to classify knowledge, from the biblical period when the Tree Metaphor concentrated the essence of knowledge, to the Francis Bacon classification and then Paul Otlet and we analysed the languages used in the scientific fields and then in the information science filed, emphasizing on the improvements of the ICT: hypertext and semantic web. We paid a special attention to the knowledge construction through math language and exchange standards. The reason of the approach comes from the logic and philosophic base of the knowledge representation that underline the idea that only properly structured scientific domains ensure the progress of the society.

  16. Knowledge representation of rock plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, Armita; Babaie, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    The first iteration of the Rock Plastic Deformation (RPD) ontology models the semantics of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and mechanisms that occur during the deformation of the generally inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The ontology represents the knowledge about the production, reconfiguration, displacement, and consumption of the structural components that participate in these processes. It also formalizes the properties that are known by the structural geology and metamorphic petrology communities to hold between the instances of the spatial components and the dynamic processes, the state and system variables, the empirical flow laws that relate the variables, and the laboratory testing conditions and procedures. The modeling of some of the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts and relations of the RPD ontology is based on the class and property structure of some well-established top-level ontologies. The flexible and extensible design of the initial version of the RPD ontology allows it to develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of rocks under different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in solid Earth. The ontology will be used to annotate the datasets related to the microstructures and physical-chemical processes that involve them. This will help the autonomous and globally distributed communities of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and enhanced data integration and software interoperability.

  17. Knowledge Representation Of CT Scans Of The Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Laurens V.; Burke, M. W.; Rada, Roy

    1984-06-01

    We have been investigating diagnostic knowledge models which assist in the automatic classification of medical images by combining information extracted from each image with knowledge specific to that class of images. In a more general sense we are trying to integrate verbal and pictorial descriptions of disease via representations of knowledge, study automatic hypothesis generation as related to clinical medicine, evolve new mathematical image measures while integrating them into the total diagnostic process, and investigate ways to augment the knowledge of the physician. Specifically, we have constructed an artificial intelligence knowledge model using the technique of a production system blending pictorial and verbal knowledge about the respective CT scan and patient history. It is an attempt to tie together different sources of knowledge representation, picture feature extraction and hypothesis generation. Our knowledge reasoning and representation system (KRRS) works with data at the conscious reasoning level of the practicing physician while at the visual perceptional level we are building another production system, the picture parameter extractor (PPE). This paper describes KRRS and its relationship to PPE.

  18. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...... systems. In other words, it attempts to describe a theoretical model for concept understanding and to reflect the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’ in terminological knowledge representation systems. Finally, it will design an ontology that schemes the structure of concept understanding based...

  19. Multiple External Representations: Bridges or Barriers to Climate Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The continuous barrage of science related headlines and other media sources warn us of the need to heed the imperative for a science literate society. Climate change, genetics, evolution are a few of the charged and complex scientific topics requiring public understanding of the science to fully grasp the enormous reach of these topics in our daily lives. For instance, our global climate is changing as evidenced by the analysis of Earth observing satellite data, in-situ data, and proxy data records. How we as a global society decide to address the needs associated with a changing climate are contingent upon having a population that understands how the climate system functions, and can therefore make informed decisions on how to mitigate the effects of climate change. Communication in science relies heavily on the use of multiple representations to support the claims presented. However, these multiple representations require spatial and temporal skills to interpret information portrayed in them, and how a person engages with complex text and the multiple representations varies with the level of expertise one has with the content area. For example, a climatologist will likely identify anomalous data more quickly than a novice when presented with a graph of temperature change over time. These representations are used throughout textbooks as well as popular reading materials such as newspapers and magazines without much consideration for how a reader engages with complex text, diagrams, images, and graphs. If the ability to read and interact with scientific text found in popular literature is perceived as a worthy goal of scientific literacy, then it is imperative that readers understand the relationship between multiple representations and the text while interacting with the science literature they are reading. For example, in climate related articles multiple representations not only support the content, but they are part of the content not to be overlooked by a

  20. Dynamic updating of hippocampal object representations reflects new conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael L; Love, Bradley C; Preston, Alison R

    2016-11-15

    Concepts organize the relationship among individual stimuli or events by highlighting shared features. Often, new goals require updating conceptual knowledge to reflect relationships based on different goal-relevant features. Here, our aim is to determine how hippocampal (HPC) object representations are organized and updated to reflect changing conceptual knowledge. Participants learned two classification tasks in which successful learning required attention to different stimulus features, thus providing a means to index how representations of individual stimuli are reorganized according to changing task goals. We used a computational learning model to capture how people attended to goal-relevant features and organized object representations based on those features during learning. Using representational similarity analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we demonstrate that neural representations in left anterior HPC correspond with model predictions of concept organization. Moreover, we show that during early learning, when concept updating is most consequential, HPC is functionally coupled with prefrontal regions. Based on these findings, we propose that when task goals change, object representations in HPC can be organized in new ways, resulting in updated concepts that highlight the features most critical to the new goal.

  1. Using texts in science education: cognitive processes and knowledge representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul

    2010-04-23

    Texts form a powerful tool in teaching concepts and principles in science. How do readers extract information from a text, and what are the limitations in this process? Central to comprehension of and learning from a text is the construction of a coherent mental representation that integrates the textual information and relevant background knowledge. This representation engenders learning if it expands the reader's existing knowledge base or if it corrects misconceptions in this knowledge base. The Landscape Model captures the reading process and the influences of reader characteristics (such as working-memory capacity, reading goal, prior knowledge, and inferential skills) and text characteristics (such as content/structure of presented information, processing demands, and textual cues). The model suggests factors that can optimize--or jeopardize--learning science from text.

  2. Terminological Importation for Adapting Reusable Knowledge Representation Components in the KSM Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, José Luis; Molina, Martin

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the adaptation approach of reusable knowledge representation components used in the KSM environment for the formulation and operationalisation of structured knowledge models. Reusable knowledge representation components in KSM are called primitives of representation. A primitive of representation provides: (1) a knowledge representation formalism (2) a set of tasks that use this knowledge together with several problem-solving methods to carry out these tasks (3) a knowled...

  3. The epistemic representation: visual production and communication of scientific knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Cantos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite its great influence on the History of Science, visual representations have attracted marginal interest until very recently and have often been regarded as a simple aid for mere illustration or scientific demonstration. However, it has been shown that visualization is an integral element of reasoning and a highly effective and common heuristic strategy in the scientific community and that the study of the conditions of visual production and communication are essential in the development of scientific knowledge. In this paper we deal with the nature of the various forms of visual representation of knowledge that have been happening throughout the history of science, taking as its starting point the illustrated monumental works and three-dimensional models that begin to develop within the scientific community around the fifteenth century. The main thesis of this paper is that any scientific visual representations have common elements that allow us to approach them from epistemic nature, heuristic and communicative dimension.

  4. Paired fuzzy sets as a basic structure for knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an unifying approach to a number of fuzzy models that share the existence of two opposite concepts. In particular, we stress that standard structures for knowledge representation are being built from a family of related concepts, paired concepts in case we simply consider...

  5. DKLFRS:A Default Knowledge Logical Framework Representation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范仲春; 邢汉承

    1992-01-01

    The traditional resasoning system based on first order predicate logic can't represent and handle default knowledge,This paper presents a logical framework representation approach for default reasoning.Based on Mixed SLDNF-resolution,a nonmonotonic reasoning system has been constructed.

  6. Hybrid Systems for Knowledge Representation in Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari P.V N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are few knowledge representation (KR techniques available for efficiently representing knowledge. However, with the increase in complexity, better methods are needed. Some researchers came up with hybrid mechanisms by combining two or more methods. In an effort to construct an intelligent computer system, a primary consideration is to represent large amounts of knowledge in a way that allows effective use and efficiently organizing information to facilitate making the recommended inferences. There are merits and demerits of combinations, and standardized method of KR is needed. In this paper, various hybrid schemes of KR were explored at length and details presented.

  7. Profiting from external knowledge: the impact of different external knowledge acquisition strategies on innovation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Kolympiris, C.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is key to company growth, but hinges on timely access to new knowledge. Individual companies have difficulty pursuing innovation and acquiring the knowledge they need on their own. Companies therefore resort to various governance modes (licensing-in, collaborations, mergers and acquisitio

  8. Profiting from external knowledge: the impact of different external knowledge acquisition strategies on innovation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Kolympiris, C.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is key to company growth, but hinges on timely access to new knowledge. Individual companies have difficulty pursuing innovation and acquiring the knowledge they need on their own. Companies therefore resort to various governance modes (licensing-in, collaborations, mergers and

  9. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....

  10. Data bases and knowledge representation for literary and linguistic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercone, N.; Goebel, R.

    1983-09-01

    In the design or selection of a computing system for literary and linguistic applications, an important consideration is the data base management methodology. Researchers can use either conventional data base management or data base management methods developed by specialists in artificial intelligence knowledge representation. For their stylistic and content analyses of text construction of vocabularies and language data banks, and interlanguage translation, the capabilities demanded of the data management system may vary substantially. The authors discuss and compare various suitable databases. 91 references.

  11. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2017-04-21

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge.We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of SemanticWeb based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics.https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl.robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Knowledge Representation and Fuzzy Reasoning of an Agricultural Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴顺祥; 倪子伟; 李茂青

    2002-01-01

    The design scheme of an agricultural expert system based on longan and cauliflower planting techniques is presented. Using an object-oriented design and a combination of the techniques in multimedia, database, expert system and artificial intelligence, an in-depth analysis and summary are made of the knowledge features of the agricultural multimedia expert system and data models involved. According to the practical problems in agricultural field, the architectures and functions of the system are designed, and some design ideas about the hybrid knowledge representation and fuzzy reasoning are proposed.

  13. Towards Ontology as Knowledge Representation for Intellectual Capital Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadjabbari, B.; Wongthongtham, P.; Dillon, T. S.

    For many years, physical asset indicators were the main evidence of an organization’s successful performance. However, the situation has changed after information technology revolution in the knowledge-based economy. Since 1980’s business performance has not been limited only to physical assets instead intellectual capital are increasingly playing a major role in business performance. In this paper, we utilize ontology as a tool for knowledge representation in the domain of intellectual capital measurement. The ontology classifies ways of intangible capital measurement.

  14. Knowledge Representation for Prognosis of Health Status in Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ceccaroni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, key points are discussed concerning knowledge representation for clinical decision support systems in the domain of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Information models, classifications and terminologies, such as the “virtual medical record” (vMR, the “international classification of functioning, disability and health” (ICF, the “international classification of diseases” (ICD and the “systematized nomenclature of medicine—clinical terms” (SNOMED CT, are used for knowledge integration and reasoning. A system is described that supports the measuring of functioning status, diversity, prognosis and similarity between patients in the post-acute stage, thus helping health professionals’ prescription of recommendations.

  15. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool....... Although, many analytical methods provide relationship dependencies, role of different nodes and their importance in the network. In this paper we are presenting a visualization of networks by rotating the network through various dimensions to provide a more realistic view to understand the dynamics...

  16. Distributing Working Memory Resources and the Use of External Representations on Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 一徳; 宮谷, 真人

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how problem solvers use distributing working memory resources over internal and external epresentations. Participants played three-dimensional versions of number guessing games. The playing of number guessing games is directly related to consumption of working memory resources. They could use arbitrarily the game record windows which are the external representations of these games and, thus, they could distribute working memory demands over internal working memory resource...

  17. What can biochemistry students learn about protein translation? Using variation theory to explore the space of learning created by some common external representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.

    actually learned about protein translation by viewing these external representations. From a phenomenographic analysis of student interviews, I was able to describe changes between students prior lived object of learning and their post lived object of learning. Based on the findings from this project, I can conclude that variation can be used to cue students to notice particular features of an external representation. Additionally, students' prior knowledge and, potentially, the intended objects of learning from previous instructors can also affect what students can learn from a representation. Finally, further study is needed to identify the extent to which mode and level of abstraction of an external representation affect student learning outcomes.

  18. Spatial representations are specific to different domains of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Rowena; Reeve, Robert A; Wilson, Sarah J

    2009-05-20

    There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains--mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments.

  19. Spatial representations are specific to different domains of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Beecham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains--mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments.

  20. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2005-01-01

    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  1. A framework for knowledge acquisition, representation and problem-solving in knowledge-based planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Bermudez, Iliana

    This research addresses the problem of developing planning knowledge-based applications. In particular, it is concerned with the problems of knowledge acquisition and representation---the issues that remain an impediment to the development of large-scale, knowledge-based planning applications. This work aims to develop a model of planning problem solving that facilitates expert knowledge elicitation and also supports effective problem solving. Achieving this goal requires determining the types of knowledge used by planning experts, the structure of this knowledge, and the problem-solving process that results in the plan. While answering these questions it became clear that the knowledge structure, as well as the process of problem solving, largely depends on the knowledge available to the expert. This dissertation proposes classification of planning problems based on their use of expert knowledge. Such classification can help in the selection of the appropriate planning method when dealing with a specific planning problem. The research concentrates on one of the identified classes of planning problems that can be characterized by well-defined and well-structured problem-solving knowledge. To achieve a more complete knowledge representation architecture for such problems, this work employs the task-specific approach to problem solving. The result of this endeavor is a task-specific methodology that allows the representation and use of planning knowledge in a structural, consistent manner specific to the domain of the application. The shell for building a knowledge-based planning application was created as a proof of concept for the methodology described in this dissertation. This shell enabled the development of a system for manufacturing planning---COMPLAN. COMPLAN encompasses knowledge related to four generic techniques used in composite material manufacturing and, given the description of the composite part, creates a family of plans capable of producing it.

  2. The Biochemistry Tetrahedron and the Development of the Taxonomy of Biochemistry External Representations (TOBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Marcy H.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Becker, Nicole; Harle, Marissa; Sutcliffe, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Visual literacy, the ability to interpret and create external representations (ERs), is essential to success in biochemistry. Studies have been conducted that describe students' abilities to use and interpret specific types of ERs. However, a framework for describing ERs derived through a naturalistic inquiry of biochemistry classrooms has not…

  3. the effect of external knowledge on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajad khani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most traditional organizations managers focus on tangible and financial assets such as land, money, labor and ... One of the industries where competition is intense day by day the concept of competitive advantage and value creation in its resolution finds the banking industry. In this regard, the present study sought to examine the impact of intangible assets (external knowledge to improve service quality and brand equity in the banking industry and the Export Development Bank of Iran. This type of survey and the statistical community with both customers and employees. Sampling survey is stratified, the sample size is 384 customers Cochran formula and the size of the staff, according to Morgan, is 86. Well for structural equation modeling analysis of data, ‌ Model (SEM and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA is used. Research findings show that external knowledge is directly significant effect on brand equity. Also, the effect of foreign knowledge through knowledge chain mediator variable exerts a positive impact on the quality of service and if there is a direct impact of foreign knowledge will affect the quality of service. The changing role of mediating variable chain is very strong. Significant impact on brand equity but also the quality of individual customers, suppliers and competitors are not the only dimensions of brand equity through a chain of significant impact on brand equity to the.

  4. Knowledge Representation in KDD Based on Linguistic Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德毅

    1997-01-01

    An important issue in Knowledge Discovery in Databases is to allo the discovered knowledge to be as close as possible to natural languages to satisfy user needs with tractability on one hand,and to offer KDD systems robustness on the other hand.At this junction,this paper describes a new concept of linguistic atoms with three digital characteristics:expected value Ex,entropy En,anddeviation D.The mathematical description has effectively integrated the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms in a unified way.Based on this model a method of knowledge representation in KDD is developed which bridges the gap between quantitative knowledge and qualitative knowledge.Mapping between quantitatives and qualitatives becomes much easier and interchangeable.In order to discover generalized knowledge from a database,one may use virtual linguistic terms and cloud transforms for the auto-generation of concept hierarchies to attributes.Predictive data mining with the cloud model is given for implementation.This further illustrates the advantages of this linguistic model in KDD.

  5. Towards OWL-based Knowledge Representation in Petrology

    CERN Document Server

    Shkotin, Alex; Kudryavtsev, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our work on development of OWL-driven systems for formal representation and reasoning about terminological knowledge and facts in petrology. The long-term aim of our project is to provide solid foundations for a large-scale integration of various kinds of knowledge, including basic terms, rock classification algorithms, findings and reports. We describe three steps we have taken towards that goal here. First, we develop a semi-automated procedure for transforming a database of igneous rock samples to texts in a controlled natural language (CNL), and then a collection of OWL ontologies. Second, we create an OWL ontology of important petrology terms currently described in natural language thesauri. We describe a prototype of a tool for collecting definitions from domain experts. Third, we present an approach to formalization of current industrial standards for classification of rock samples, which requires linear equations in OWL 2. In conclusion, we discuss a range of opportunities arising ...

  6. Diagnoses, syndromes, and diseases: a knowledge representation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Franz; Karras, Bryant T; Phillips, Richard; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wolf, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Despite their widespread use, the terms "syndrome", "disease" and "diagnosis" are sometimes utilized improperly and ambiguously, compounding the complexities of medical knowledge representation. The definitions and illustrative examples provided here will be useful for developers of diagnostic expert systems. Description of the Problem Representing medical knowledge is a highly complex endeavor. The improper use of the terms "syndrome", "disease" and their relations to "diagnosis" is one of the difficulties with which medical informaticians must deal, especially when developing expert systems to support diagnoses. Although ubiquitous in medical and lay discourse, the term "disease" has no unambiguous, generally accepted definition. How-ever, most of those using this term allow themselves the comfortable delusion that everyone knows what it means. Only sparse and fragmented literature could be found regarding this issue.

  7. MediaNet: a multimedia information network for knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Ana B.; Smith, John R.; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we present MediaNet, which is a knowledge representation framework that uses multimedia content for representing semantic and perceptual information. The main components of MediaNet include conceptual entities, which correspond to real world objects, and relationships among concepts. MediaNet allows the concepts and relationships to be defined or exemplified by multimedia content such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. MediaNet models the traditional relationship types such as generalization and aggregation but adds additional functionality by modeling perceptual relationships based on feature similarity. For example, MediaNet allows a concept such as car to be defined as a type of a transportation vehicle, but which is further defined and illustrated through example images, videos and sounds of cars. In constructing the MediaNet framework, we have built on the basic principles of semiotics and semantic networks in addition to utilizing the audio-visual content description framework being developed as part of the MPEG-7 multimedia content description standard. By integrating both conceptual and perceptual representations of knowledge, MediaNet has potential to impact a broad range of applications that deal with multimedia content at the semantic and perceptual levels. In particular, we have found that MediaNet can improve the performance of multimedia retrieval applications by using query expansion, refinement and translation across multiple content modalities. In this paper, we report on experiments that use MediaNet in searching for images. We construct the MediaNet knowledge base using both WordNet and an image network built from multiple example images and extracted color and texture descriptors. Initial experimental results demonstrate improved retrieval effectiveness using MediaNet in a content-based retrieval system.

  8. [Social representations of illness: Comparison of "expert" knowledge and "naïve" knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoffrion, C; Dupont, P; Tripodi, D; Roland-Lévy, C

    2016-06-01

    The link between social practices and representations is now well known. But while many studies have focused on the social representation of mental illness, in various populations, few studies have focused on the notion of disease/illness by comparing professionals and non-professionals health workers representations. Indeed, the disease is both a reality described, explained and treated by medicine; for those who are affected by a disease, it is an individual experience with psychological, social and cultural impacts. The social representation is determined by the structure of the social groups in which it develops; therefore, it is a form of knowledge socially shaped and shared by the members of a social group. Several theoretical extensions have been elaborated and particularly, the structural approach and the central core theory. These approaches sustain the arguments of a hierarchical organization of a social representation with a central core surrounded by peripheral zones. The central core is common and shared by the majority of the members of a given group, whereas the peripheral zones provide space for the individualization of the social knowledge. The main goal of our study is to highlight the social representations of disease in health professionals (HP) and in non-health professionals (NHP). The group of HP has been differentiated into three subgroups: "medical doctors", "nurses" and "pharmacists", while that of NHP in two subgroups: those submitted to a "long period medical treatment" and those "without treatment". Our aim is to show that there are different social and professional Representations of disease. The professional representations are specific social representations related to professional contexts. We formulate the following assumptions (a) that the social representations of HP and NHP will be articulated around a common central core. Nevertheless, we expect to find specific peripheral elements related to professional status, based on

  9. Disorganized attachment representation and atypical parenting in young school age children with externalizing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan; Stanley, Charlie; Peters, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the relationship of child attachment representation, psychopathology, and maternal atypical parenting in a high risk sample. Sixty-one consecutive clinical referrals with externalizing disorder aged 4 - 9 years were assessed for attachment representations measured with Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST), atypical parental expressed emotion (EE), maternal mood, and parent and teacher ratings of child behaviour. Disorganized attachment representations were found in 58% of cases, independent of ADHD symptoms. Pervasive disorganization was associated with very high maternal EE. Attachment status, maternal depression, and ADHD diagnosis were independently associated with parent-rated child behaviour problems; teacher ratings were associated with child's age and ADHD status. Disorganized attachment shows a high prevalence and independent associations with attention deficit symptomatology and maternal EE.

  10. Specialized knowledge representation and the parameterization of context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eFaber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Though instrumental in numerous disciplines, context has no universally accepted definition. In specialized knowledge resources it is timely and necessary to parameterize context with a view to more effectively facilitating knowledge representation, understanding, and acquisition, the main aims of terminological knowledge bases. This entails distinguishing different types of context as well as how they interact with each other. This is not a simple objective to achieve despite the fact that specialized discourse does not have as many contextual variables as those in general language (i.e. figurative meaning, irony, etc.. Even in specialized text, context is an extremely complex concept. In fact, contextual information can be specified in terms of scope or according to the type of information conveyed. It can be a textual excerpt or a whole document; a pragmatic convention or a whole culture; a concrete situation or a prototypical scenario. Although these versions of context are useful for the users of terminological resources, such resources rarely support context modeling. In this paper we propose a taxonomy of context primarily based on scope (local and global and further divided into syntactic, semantic and pragmatic facets. These facets cover the specification of different types of terminological information, such as predicate-argument structure, collocations, semantic relations, term variants, grammatical and lexical cohesion, communicative situations, subject fields and cultures.

  11. Specialized Knowledge Representation and the Parameterization of Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Pamela; León-Araúz, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Though instrumental in numerous disciplines, context has no universally accepted definition. In specialized knowledge resources it is timely and necessary to parameterize context with a view to more effectively facilitating knowledge representation, understanding, and acquisition, the main aims of terminological knowledge bases. This entails distinguishing different types of context as well as how they interact with each other. This is not a simple objective to achieve despite the fact that specialized discourse does not have as many contextual variables as those in general language (i.e., figurative meaning, irony, etc.). Even in specialized text, context is an extremely complex concept. In fact, contextual information can be specified in terms of scope or according to the type of information conveyed. It can be a textual excerpt or a whole document; a pragmatic convention or a whole culture; a concrete situation or a prototypical scenario. Although these versions of context are useful for the users of terminological resources, such resources rarely support context modeling. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of context primarily based on scope (local and global) and further divided into syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic facets. These facets cover the specification of different types of terminological information, such as predicate-argument structure, collocations, semantic relations, term variants, grammatical and lexical cohesion, communicative situations, subject fields, and cultures.

  12. Method of Dynamic Knowledge Representation and Learning Based on Fuzzy Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Sheng-jun; HU Chang-zhen; SUN Ming-qian

    2008-01-01

    A method of knowledge representation and learning based on fuzzy Petri nets was designed. In this way the parameters of weights, threshold value and certainty factor in knowledge model can be adjusted dynamically. The advantages of knowledge representation based on production rules and neural networks were integrated into this method. Just as production knowledge representation, this method has clear structure and specific parameters meaning. In addition, it has learning and parallel reasoning ability as neural networks knowledge representation does. The result of simulation shows that the learning algorithm can converge, and the parameters of weights, threshold value and certainty factor can reach the ideal level after training.

  13. Guideline Formalization and Knowledge Representation for Clinical Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago OLIVEIRA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} The prevalence of situations of medical error and defensive medicine in healthcare institutions is a great concern of the medical community. Clinical Practice Guidelines are regarded by most researchers as a way to mitigate theseoccurrences; however, there is a need to make them interactive, easier to update and to deploy. This paper provides a model for Computer-Interpretable Guidelines based on the generic tasks of the clinical process, devised to be included in the framework of a Clinical Decision Support System. Aiming to represent medical recommendations in a simple and intuitive way. Hence, this work proposes a knowledge representation formalism that uses an Extension to Logic Programming to handle incomplete information. This model is used to represent different cases of missing, conflicting and inexact information with the aid of a method to quantify its quality. The integration of the guideline model with the knowledge representation formalism yields a clinical decision model that relies on the development of multiple information scenarios and the exploration of different clinical hypotheses.

  14. Knowledge Representation of the Melody and Rhythm in Koto Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Sachiko; Shirai, Katsuhiko

    This paper describes the knowledge representation of the melody and rhythm in koto songs based on the structure of the domain: the scale, melisma (the melody in a syllable), and bar. We have encoded koto scores and extracted 2,3,4-note melodic patterns sequentially from the voice part of koto scores. The 2,3,4-note patterns used in the melisma are limited and the percentages of top patterns are high. The 3,4-note melodic patterns are examined at each scale degree. These patterns are more restricted than the patterns that are possible under the constraint of the scale. These typical patterns on the scale represent the knowledge of koto players. We have analyzed rhythms in two different ways. We have extracted rhythms depending on each melodic pattern, while we have extracted rhythms depending on each bar. The former are complicated and the latter are typical. This result indicates that koto players recognize melodic patterns and rhythmic patterns independently. Our analyses show the melodic patterns and rhythmic patterns that are acquired by koto players. These patterns will be applied to the description of variations of the melisma to build a score database. These patterns will also be applied to a composition and education. The melodic patterns can be extracted from other genres of Japanese traditional music, foreign old folk songs or chants by using this method.

  15. The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

  16. Knowledge Representation Issues in Semantic Graphs for Relationship Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, M; Chow, E; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2005-02-02

    An important task for Homeland Security is the prediction of threat vulnerabilities, such as through the detection of relationships between seemingly disjoint entities. A structure used for this task is a ''semantic graph'', also known as a ''relational data graph'' or an ''attributed relational graph''. These graphs encode relationships as typed links between a pair of typed nodes. Indeed, semantic graphs are very similar to semantic networks used in AI. The node and link types are related through an ontology graph (also known as a schema). Furthermore, each node has a set of attributes associated with it (e.g., ''age'' may be an attribute of a node of type ''person''). Unfortunately, the selection of types and attributes for both nodes and links depends on human expertise and is somewhat subjective and even arbitrary. This subjectiveness introduces biases into any algorithm that operates on semantic graphs. Here, we raise some knowledge representation issues for semantic graphs and provide some possible solutions using recently developed ideas in the field of complex networks. In particular, we use the concept of transitivity to evaluate the relevance of individual links in the semantic graph for detecting relationships. We also propose new statistical measures for semantic graphs and illustrate these semantic measures on graphs constructed from movies and terrorism data.

  17. A Research Study on Externalization of Tacit Knowledge Based on Web2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Lu, Kun

    In this era of knowledge economy, knowledge management, the key point of which is externalization of tacit knowledge, has been drawing more and more attention. By using the new concepts and tools emerging after Web 2.0 this paper provides a conceptual model to externalize and utilize of tacit knowledge on the basis of analysis and cogitation of difficult key issues during the process of externalization.

  18. Towards a unified account of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article argues for the need to reconcile symbolist and connectionist accounts of (second) language learning by propounding nine claims, aimed at integrating accounts of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language (L2) knowledge. Knowledge representation is claimed to be po

  19. Understanding Starts in the Mesocosm: Conceptual metaphor as a framework for external representations in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengiesser, Harald

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, researchers have become aware of the experiential grounding of scientific thought. Accordingly, research has shown that metaphorical mappings between experience-based source domains and abstract target domains are omnipresent in everyday and scientific language. The theory of conceptual metaphor explains these findings based on the assumption that understanding is embodied. Embodied understanding arises from recurrent bodily and social experience with our environment. As our perception is adapted to a medium-scale dimension, our embodied conceptions originate from this mesocosmic scale. With respect to this epistemological principle, we distinguish between micro-, meso- and macrocosmic phenomena. We use these insights to analyse how external representations of phenomena in the micro- and macrocosm can foster learning when they (a) address the students' learning demand by affording a mesocosmic experience or (b) assist reflection on embodied conceptions by representing their image schematic structure. We base our considerations on empirical evidence from teaching experiments on phenomena from the microcosm (microbial growth and signal conduction in neurons) and the macrocosm (greenhouse effect and carbon cycle). We discuss how the theory of conceptual metaphor can inform the development of external representations.

  20. Canonical quantization, path integral representations, and pseudoclassical description of massive Weyl neutrinos in external backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, Maxim; Gitman, D. M.

    2012-11-01

    We study massive 1/2-spin particles in various external backgrounds keeping in mind applications to neutrino physics. We are mainly interested in massive Majorana (Weyl) fields. However, massive neutral Dirac particles are also considered. We formulate classical Lagrangian theory of the massive Weyl field in terms of Grassmann-odd two-component spinors. Then we construct the Hamiltonian formulation of such a theory, which turns out to be a theory with second-class constraints. Using this formulation we canonically quantize the massive free Weyl field. We derive propagators of the Weyl field and relate them to the propagator of a massive Dirac particle. We also study the massive Weyl particles propagating in the background mater. We find the path integral representation for the propagator of such a field, as well as the corresponding pseudoclassical particle action. The massless limit of the Weyl field interacting with the matter is considered and compared with results of other works. Finally, the path integral representation for the propagator of the neutral massive Dirac particle with an anomalous magnetic moment moving in the background matter and external electromagnetic field, as well as the corresponding pseudoclassical particle action are constructed.

  1. Whose Knowledge, Whose Development? Use and Role of Local and External Knowledge in Agroforestry Projects in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Johanna; Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Gambon, Helen; Rist, Stephan; Altieri, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Agroforestry often relies on local knowledge, which is gaining recognition in development projects. However, how local knowledge can articulate with external and scientific knowledge is little known. Our study explored the use and integration of local and external knowledge in agroforestry projects in Bolivia. In 42 field visits and 62 interviews with agroforestry farmers, civil society representatives, and policymakers, we found a diverse knowledge base. We examined how local and external knowledge contribute to livelihood assets and tree and crop diversity. Projects based predominantly on external knowledge tended to promote a single combination of tree and crop species and targeted mainly financial capital, whereas projects with a local or mixed knowledge base tended to focus on food security and increased natural capital (e.g., soil restoration) and used a higher diversity of trees and crops than those with an external knowledge base. The integration of different forms of knowledge can enable farmers to better cope with new challenges emerging as a result of climate change, fluctuating market prices for cash crops, and surrounding destructive land use strategies such as uncontrolled fires and aerial fumigation with herbicides. However, many projects still tended to prioritize external knowledge and undervalue local knowledge—a tendency that has long been institutionalized in the formal educational system and in extension services. More dialogue is needed between different forms of knowledge, which can be promoted by strengthening local organizations and their networks, reforming agricultural educational institutions, and working in close interaction with policymakers.

  2. The epistemological aspect of self- knowledge in the light of psychological externalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pacholik-Żuromska, Anita; Żuromski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of reconciling self-knowledge based on first-person authority with externalism. We will argue that the externalist standpoint, and particularly that of psychological externalism, is the correct one; not only because it advances the thesis about the external determinants of mental content on which the justification of the content depends, but primarily because it offers a positive argument for solving the problem of self-knowledge by stating that the external env...

  3. Open Knowledge Representation Techniques and Its Application in Precision Forming Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision forming knowledge of precision forging parts can be acquired from various sources and generally requires an effective representation for its efficient reuse. According to the specific characteristics of the precision forming of car forging parts, the precision forming engineering knowledge has been classified into several kinds with the method of the open knowledge representation techniques for the different kinds of knowledge proposed. The open representation techniques of precision forming knowledge and its application are described in detail, and combined with the development of the precision forming design system of the automotive starter guiding cylinder based on knowledge. The results show that the precision forming knowledge is represented in an effective way will solve the problem of fusion of precision forming knowledge and precision forming manufacturing, and improve greatly the utilization efficiency of the precision forming knowledge.

  4. The Use of Formal Knowledge Representation in Operating on Resources Concerning Cast Iron Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluska-Nawarecka S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of materials selection in terms of their mechanical properties during the design of new products is a key issue of design. The complexity of this process is mainly due to a multitude of variants in the previously produced materials and the possibility of their further processing improving the properties. In everyday practice, the problem is solved basing on expert or designer knowledge. The paper is the proposition of a solution using computer-aided analysis of material experimental data, which may be acquired from external data sources. In both cases, taking into account the rapid growth of data, additional tools become increasingly important, mainly those which offer support for adding, viewing, and simple comparison of different experiments. In this paper, the use of formal knowledge representation in the form of an ontology is proposed as a bridge between physical repositories of data in the form of files and user queries, which are usually formulated in natural language. The number and the sophisticated internal structure of attributes or parameters that could be the criteria of the search for the user are an important issue in the traditional data search tools. Ontology, as a formal representation of knowledge, enables taking into account the known relationships between concepts in the field of cast iron, materials used and processing techniques. This allows the user to receive support by searching the results of experiments that relate to a specific material or processing treatment. Automatic presentation of the results which relate to similar materials or similar processing treatments is also possible, which should make the conducted analysis of the selection of materials or processing treatments more comprehensive by including a wider range of possible solutions.

  5. Does External Knowledge Sourcing Enhance Market Performance? Evidence from the Korean Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibaek; Yoo, Jaeheung; Choi, Munkee; Zo, Hangjung; Ciganek, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Firms continuously search for external knowledge that can contribute to product innovation, which may ultimately increase market performance. The relationship between external knowledge sourcing and market performance is not well-documented. The extant literature primarily examines the causal relationship between external knowledge sources and product innovation performance or to identify factors which moderates the relationship between external knowledge sourcing and product innovation. Non-technological innovations, such as organization and marketing innovations, intervene in the process of external knowledge sourcing to product innovation to market performance but has not been extensively examined. This study addresses two research questions: does external knowledge sourcing lead to market performance and how does external knowledge sourcing interact with a firm's different innovation activities to enhance market performance. This study proposes a comprehensive model to capture the causal mechanism from external knowledge sourcing to market performance. The research model was tested using survey data from manufacturing firms in South Korea and the results demonstrate a strong statistical relationship in the path of external knowledge sourcing (EKS) to product innovation performance (PIP) to market performance (MP). Organizational innovation is an antecedent to EKS while marketing innovation is a consequence of EKS, which significantly influences PIP and MP. The results imply that any potential EKS effort should also consider organizational innovations which may ultimately enhance market performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as concluding remarks.

  6. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  7. Conceptualizations of Representation Forms and Knowledge Organization of High School Teachers in Finland: "Magnetostatics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Sharareh; Emden, Markus

    2013-01-01

    One of the main components of teachers' pedagogical content knowledge refers to their use of representation forms. In a similar vein, organizing concepts logically and meaningfully is an essential element of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Since subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge of teachers are tightly connected as categories…

  8. External knowledge sourcing in the Spanish archaeological sector: Mapping the emergent stage of a business activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Parga-Dans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of innovation highlight the importance of external knowledge sourcing. Existing empirical works are based on national surveys and specific industries. The present study contributes to the analysis of strategies for sourcing external knowledge, based on a specific case study and moment in time: the Spanish archaeological sector and its emergence as a new business activity. Our results show that external knowledge sourcing involves diverse mechanisms, agents and two main strategies: cooperation and knowledge acquisition. In an expanding knowledge-based sector emerging in an uncertain context and whose sources of knowledge are scattered, innovation strategy should focus on the search for external knowledge –cooperation and acquisition strategies-, rather than on internal sources.

  9. Logical knowledge representation of regulatory relations in biomedical pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Hansen, Jens Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on regulatory relations, in for example regulatory pathways in biology, is used widely in experiment design by biomedical researchers and in systems biology. The knowledge has typically either been represented through simple graphs or through very expressive differential equation...

  10. Logical knowledge representation of regulatory relations in biomedical pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Hansen, Jens Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on regulatory relations, in for example regulatory pathways in biology, is used widely in experiment design by biomedical researchers and in systems biology. The knowledge has typically either been represented through simple graphs or through very expressive differential equation...

  11. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; A. Zahra, Shaker

    involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  12. Representability in DL-Lite_R knowledge base exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge base exchange can be considered as a generalization of data exchange in which the aim is to exchange between a source and a target connected through mappings, not only explicit knowledge, i.e., data, but also implicit knowledge in the form of axioms. Such problem has been investigated

  13. Representability in DL-Lite_R knowledge base exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge base exchange can be considered as a generalization of data exchange in which the aim is to exchange between a source and a target connected through mappings, not only explicit knowledge, i.e., data, but also implicit knowledge in the form of axioms. Such problem has been investigated rece

  14. REPRESENTATIONAL SPEECHES ON SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CARABOBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nairobi Osorio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to generate an interpretation of the social representations of teachers at the University of Carabobo, ranked PEII associated with the social transfer of knowledge. The qualitative research approach, phenomenological, hermeneutic, allowed evidence through observation of the phenomenon and the revision of the 'statements, the need to transform representations about the ways employed to transfer knowledge from the university to the social context; the study findings indicate that the conceptions of the researchers on the social transfer of knowledge located only in the plane of the diffusion of new knowledge and the centrality of university social responsibility.

  15. The Role of Knowledge in Visual Shape Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    EMDR ), of either the Energy-Trough or Parallel Forces type, can be used as a modular building block for constructing shape representations. Each EMDR ...In the bottom-up direction, a shape description enters the primitive feature side of an EMDR as a vector, S, describing a point in the high dimensional...feature space. An interpretation of this description, in terms of a location on the constraint surface maintained by this EMDR , emerges at the

  16. The recommendation system knowledge representation and reasoning procedures under uncertainty for metal casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kluska-Nawarecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an information system dedicated to requirements recommendation and knowledge sharing. It presents methodology of constructing domain knowledge base and application procedure on the example of production technology of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI. For knowledge representation and reasoning Logic of Plausible Reasoning (LPR is used. Both equally applicable LPR for formalization the knowledge of foundry technology, as well as the described system solution have the unique character.

  17. Variation in External Representations as Part of the Classroom Lecture: An Investigation of Virtual Cell Animations in Introductory Photosynthesis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Eric E.; Reindl, Katie M.; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G.; Schroeder, Noah L.; White, Alan R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of external representations (ERs) to introduce concepts in undergraduate biology has become increasingly common. Two of the most prevalent are static images and dynamic animations. While previous studies comparing static images and dynamic animations have resulted in somewhat conflicting findings in regards to learning outcomes, the…

  18. 知识表示方法比较%Comparative Study of Knowledge Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建炜; 燕路峰

    2011-01-01

    阐述知识表示的概念,介绍各种知识表示方法.通过讨沦知识表示的执行层、逻辑层、表示应用层三个层面,构建比较和评估各种知识表示方法在智能系统中的指标框架,并且进行简单的比较.最后,通过比较认为该框架可以指导我们选择合适的知识表示方法解决实际问题.%Firstly, the paper describes the concept of knowledge representation and a variety of knowledge representation.Secondly, it discusses tree levels of knowledge representation: implementational level, logical level and epistemological level.For each level, it sets a framework for comparing and evaluating intelligent knowledge representation.Then commonly-used knowledge representation schemes are compared with this framework.It is believed that this framewok can be efficiently used for comparsion and selection of nowledge representation scheme in spromblem solving.

  19. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to approach in this essay the technical paths used to represent hibrid documents in online environment using specific standars. The multimedia contents increase and the diverse storage formats need refined instruments for the search and retrieval process. Dedicated applications require a high level of interperability therefore the necesity of standardization. This study tries to argument theoretically the need to set and reflect logically the media objects properties in metadata schema and to illustrate the importance of ontologies and taxonomies in online environment representation.

  20. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; Zahra, Shaker A.

    2013-01-01

    Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm's interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...... involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  1. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; A. Zahra, Shaker

    Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities, but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm’s interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...... involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  2. Knowledge representation for integrated plant operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Integrated operation and maintenance of process plants has many advantages. One advantage is the improved economy obtained by reducing the number of plant shutdowns. Another is to increase reliability of operation by monitoring of risk levels during on-line maintenance. Integrated plant operation...... and maintenance require knowledge bases which can capture the interactions between the two plant activities. As an example, taking out a component or a subsystem for maintenance during operation will require a knowledge base representing the interactions between plant structure, functions, operating states...... and goals and incorporate knowledge about redundancy and reliability data. Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used build knowledge bases representing plant goals and functions and has been applied for fault diagnosis and supervisory control but currently it does not take into account structural information...

  3. An Analysis of Elementary School Children's Fractional Knowledge Depicted with Circle, Rectangle, and Number Line Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunç-Pekkan, Zelha

    2015-01-01

    It is now well known that fractions are difficult concepts to learn as well as to teach. Teachers usually use circular pies, rectangular shapes and number lines on the paper as teaching tools for fraction instruction. This article contributes to the field by investigating how the widely used three external graphical representations (i.e., circle,…

  4. Canonical quantization, path integral representations, and pseudoclassical description of massive Weyl neutrinos in external backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    We study massive 1/2-spin particles in various external backgrounds keeping in mind applications to neutrino physics. We are mainly interested in massive Majorana (Weyl) fields. However, massive neutral Dirac particles have been also considered. We have formulated classical Lagrangian theory of the massive Weyl field in terms of Grassmann-odd two component spinors. Then we construct the Hamiltonian formulation of such a theory, which turns out to be a theory with second-class constraints. Using this formulation we canonically quantize the massive free Weyl field. We derive propagators of the Weyl field and relate them to the propagator of a massive Dirac particle. We also study the massive Weyl particles propagating in the background mater. We find the path integral representation for the propagator of such a field as well as the corresponding pseudoclassical particle action. The massless limit of the Weyl field interacting with the matter is considered and compared with results of other works. Finally, the p...

  5. An analysis of the educational value of low-fidelity anatomy models as external representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Cheng, Maurice M W

    2011-01-01

    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the literature on cognition, learning, and external representations. A literature search on these physical models in three popular anatomy journals published over a 10-year period from 2001 to 2010 found that all of them have low fidelity: they oftentimes do not closely resemble the regions of the human body they are representing. They include only a small number of the structures that exist in these regions of the human body and do not accurately represent the shape and surface details of these structures. However, these models strongly correspond to the human body in the spatial relationship of the represented structures, which is crucial to achieving their educational purpose of teaching three-dimensional comprehension and anatomical reasoning. The educational value of these models includes acting as memory aids, reducing cognitive overload, facilitating problem solving, and arousing students' enthusiasm and participation. Because these models often lack a close resemblance to the human body, their use in anatomy teaching should always be accompanied by adequate explanations to the students to establish the correspondence between the models and the parts of the human body they are representing. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Managing Open Innovation Connecting the Firm to External Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Spithoven, Andre; Frantzen, D J

    2012-01-01

    Open innovation is about firms' external relations with other firms and organisations. It is a topic which has attracted an immense amount of attention, but which has also been heavily criticised due to the diversity of the ideas and fuzziness of its key concepts. To date, the bulk of the literature on open innovation draws on case study material to illustrate the operation of firms in an anecdotal way. By contrast, this book examines open innovation practices by using large-scale datasets and stresses their impact on firm performance. The authors examine four key issues: differences between f

  7. Specifying Geographic Information - Ontology, Knowledge Representation, and Formal Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Vinther

    2007-01-01

    of domains and conceptualization of these. The thesis contributes a formalization of what is understood by domain models and conceptual models, when the focus is on geographic information. Moreover, it is shown how specifications for geographic information are related to this representational system...... of requirements and rules, building on terms from the domain and concept ontologies. In combination with the theoretical basis the analysis is used for developing an underlying model of notions, which defines the individual elements in a specification and the relations between them. In the chapters of the thesis...... this underlying model is extended to include a number of components, which each contribute to the model being able to form the basis of a strong and productive specification tool for the making and maintenance of specifications for geographic information. These components among others include description...

  8. Practitioner's knowledge representation a pathway to improve software effort estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to help organizations improve their effort estimates and effort estimation processes by providing a step-by-step methodology that takes them through the creation and validation of models that are based on their own knowledge and experience. Such models, once validated, can then be used to obtain predictions, carry out risk analyses, enhance their estimation processes for new projects and generally advance them as learning organizations.Emilia Mendes presents the Expert-Based Knowledge Engineering of Bayesian Networks (EKEBNs) methodology, which she has used and adapted during the course of several industry collaborations with different companies world-wide over more than 6 years. The book itself consists of two major parts: first, the methodology's foundations in knowledge management, effort estimation (with special emphasis on the intricacies of software and Web development) and Bayesian networks are detailed; then six industry case studies are presented which illustrate the pra...

  9. An empirical Bayes approach to network recovery using external knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpogbezan, Gino B; van der Vaart, Aad W; van Wieringen, Wessel N; Leday, Gwenaël G R; van de Wiel, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Reconstruction of a high-dimensional network may benefit substantially from the inclusion of prior knowledge on the network topology. In the case of gene interaction networks such knowledge may come for instance from pathway repositories like KEGG, or be inferred from data of a pilot study. The Bayesian framework provides a natural means of including such prior knowledge. Based on a Bayesian Simultaneous Equation Model, we develop an appealing Empirical Bayes (EB) procedure that automatically assesses the agreement of the used prior knowledge with the data at hand. We use variational Bayes method for posterior densities approximation and compare its accuracy with that of Gibbs sampling strategy. Our method is computationally fast, and can outperform known competitors. In a simulation study, we show that accurate prior data can greatly improve the reconstruction of the network, but need not harm the reconstruction if wrong. We demonstrate the benefits of the method in an analysis of gene expression data from GEO. In particular, the edges of the recovered network have superior reproducibility (compared to that of competitors) over resampled versions of the data. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Engaging Minds, Enhancing Comprehension and Constructing Knowledge through Visual Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Garcia, Ana; Villegas, Joaquin

    Advance organizers are used to teach specific contexts with different levels of complexity. Regardless of the educational level or context, the advance organizer (graphic organizer) is a tool that helps the learner connect the known to the unknown and remember the knowledge gained. To help in understanding this process, a case study was developed…

  11. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  12. Description of the Choquet Integral for Tactical Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    support Data Fusion Information Group ( DFIG ) model Level 5 user refinement in target labeling [14]. 3 Choquet Integral Constructs Rickard [15] has...Group ( DFIG ) model [14]. Warren has defined Globular Knowledge Fusion (GKF) as a method to synthesize information when interdependencies exist from

  13. The Representation of Pragmatic Knowledge in Recent ELT Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Han, Zhengrui

    2016-01-01

    Pragmatic competence has become an increasingly crucial component of language pedagogy. This article reports on a quantitative and qualitative study of ten English language textbooks used in Chinese universities with a particular focus on their coverage of pragmatic knowledge. Detailed analysis focused specifically on the mention of pragmatic…

  14. Determinants of green innovation, the impact of internal and external knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Stucki, Tobias; Woerter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive data set comprising 13 countries, 22 industries and a period of 30 years we investigate the impact of internal and external knowledge pools of both green and ‘other than green’ technologies on green patent activities. It turned out that the internal green knowledge stock is positively related to green patent activities with a considerably large marginal value. The country’s green knowledge stock and the green knowledge stock of the same industry in other countries are...

  15. An application of object-oriented knowledge representation to engineering expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, D. S.; Kamil, H.; Umaretiya, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes an object-oriented knowledge representation and its application to engineering expert systems. The object-oriented approach promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects and organized by defining relationships between the objects. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented as a tool for building and manipulating the object base. Rule-based knowledge representation is then used to simulate engineering design reasoning. Using a common object base, very large expert systems can be developed, comprised of small, individually processed, rule sets. The integration of these two schemes makes it easier to develop practical engineering expert systems. The general approach to applying this technology to the domain of the finite element analysis, design, and optimization of aerospace structures is discussed.

  16. Representation and Non-representation of Knowledge Mediation in Legal Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Aase Voldgaard

    takes place in different ways. A survey among lawyers (Larsen 2009) showed that, concerning legal contracts, mediation of knowledge is largely performed by legal experts, i.e. lawyers, to their clients during personal consultations before the contract is signed. Many lawyers prefer to explain difficult...

  17. Issues and challenges of knowledge representation and reasoning methods in situation assessment (Level 2 Fusion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Kadar, Ivan; Salerno, John; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M.; Das, Subrata; Powell, Gerald M.; Corkill, Daniel D.; Ruspini, Enrique H.

    2006-05-01

    Situation assessment (SA) involves deriving relations among entities, e.g., the aggregation of object states (i.e. classification and location). While SA has been recognized in the information fusion and human factors literature, there still exist open questions regarding knowledge representation and reasoning methods to afford SA. For instance, while lots of data is collected over a region of interest, how does this information get presented to an attention constrained user? The information overload can deteriorate cognitive reasoning so a pragmatic solution to knowledge representation is needed for effective and efficient situation understanding. In this paper, we present issues associated with Level 2 (Situation Assessment) including: (1) user perception and perceptual reasoning representation, (2) knowledge discovery process models, (3) procedural versus logical reasoning about relationships, (4) user-fusion interaction through performance metrics, and (5) syntactic and semantic representations. While a definitive conclusion is not the aim of the paper, many critical issues are proposed in order to characterize future successful strategies to knowledge representation and reasoning strategies for situation assessment.

  18. Sentiments analysis at conceptual level making use of the Narrative Knowledge Representation Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    2014-10-01

    This paper illustrates some of the knowledge representation structures and inference procedures proper to a high-level, fully implemented conceptual language, NKRL (Narrative Knowledge Representation Language). The aim is to show how these tools can be used to deal, in a sentiment analysis/opinion mining context, with some common types of human (and non-human) "behaviors". These behaviors correspond, in particular, to the concrete, mutual relationships among human and non-human characters that can be expressed under the form of non-fictional and real-time "narratives" (i.e., as logically and temporally structured sequences of "elementary events").

  19. Towards Representation and Validation of Knowledge in Students' Learning Pathway Using Variability Modeling Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Elfaki, Abdelrahman Osman; Aik, Kevin Loo Teow; Fong, Sim Liew; Bachok, Ruzi

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, E-learning system is considered as one of the main pillars in the learning system. Mainly, E-Learning system is designed to serve different types of students. Thus, providing different learning pathways are a must. In this paper, we introduce the variability technique to represent the knowledge in E-learning system. This representation provides different learning pathways which supports the students' diversity. Moreover, we validate the selection of learning pathway by introducing First Order Logic (FOL) rules. Keywords Learning Pathway ; Variability and knowledge representation ; IJCSI

  20. A NEW MODELLING METHOD FOR EVALUATING EXTERNAL DISTURBING POTENTIAL BASED ON THEORY OF UNIFIED REPRESENTATION OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For a special use a new modelling method of evaluating external disturbing potential is presented in this paper. Being different from classical methods in physical geodesy this method is grounded upon the theory of unified representation of gravitational field. The models created in this way are particularly satisfactory for a high-speed computation of gravitational field in low altitude because they take account of topographic effects and have their kernel functions with simple structure and weak singularity.

  1. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Navarrete

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  2. Graph Models for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning for Contemporary and Emerging Needs – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engels Rajangam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available —Reasoning is the fundamental capability which requires knowledge. Various graph models have proven to be very valuable in knowledge representation and reasoning. Recently, explosive data generation and accumulation capabilities have paved way for Big Data and Data Intensive Systems. Knowledge Representation and Reasoning with large and growing data is extremely challenging but crucial for businesses to predict trends and support decision making. Any contemporary, reasonably complex knowledge based system will have to consider this onslaught of data, to use appropriate and sufficient reasoning for semantic processing of information by machines. This paper surveys graph based knowledge representation and reasoning, various graph models such as Conceptual Graphs, Concept Graphs, Semantic Networks, Inference Graphs and Causal Bayesian Networks used for representation and reasoning, common and recent research uses of these graph models, typically in Big Data environment, and the near future needs and challenges for graph based KRR in computing systems. Observations are presented in a table, highlighting suitability of the surveyed graph models for contemporary scenarios.

  3. Representation and Non-representation of Knowledge Mediation in Legal Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Aase Voldgaard

    for the layman. Some legal experts, however, take these problems into account and mediate the legal knowledge that the layman is expected to be lacking in the wording of the legal contract. Using methods of text analysis, this paper explores the ways in which this is done. On the one hand, it is seen...... that the meanings and contents of the legal terms and expressions used in the contract are explained explicitly, and references are made to legal provisions important to the wording and function of the contract. On the other hand, however, some surprising exceptions are made, also in ‘layman-friendly’ contracts...

  4. Knowledge representation and rule-based solution system for dynamic programming model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祥培; 王旭茵

    2003-01-01

    A knowledge representation has been proposed using the state-space theory of Artificial Intelligencefor Dynamic Programming Model, in which a model can be defined as a six-tuple M = (I,G,O,T,D,S). Abuilding block modeling method uses the modules of a six-tuple to form a rule-based solution model. Moreover,a rule-based system has been designed and set up to solve the Dynamic Programming Model. This knowledge-based representation can be easily used to express symbolical knowledge and dynamic characteristics for Dynam-ic Programming Model, and the inference based on the knowledge in the process of solving Dynamic Program-ming Model can also be conveniently realized in computer.

  5. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan Sebastiaan; Döhring, Falko R.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is

  6. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems: A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available da

  7. Paired structures, imprecision types and two-level knowledge representation by means of opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    Opposition-based models are a current hot-topic in knowledge representation. The point of this paper is to suggest that opposition can be in fact introduced at two different levels, those of the predicates of interest being represented (as short/tall) and of the logical references (true/false) us...

  8. Advantages of Thesaurus Representation Using the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) Compared with Proposed Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio; Martinez Mendez, Francisco Javier; Rodriguez-Munoz, Jose Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an analysis of the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) compared with other alternatives for thesaurus representation in the Semantic Web. Method: Based on functional and structural changes of thesauri, provides an overview of the current context in which lexical paradigm is abandoned in favour of the…

  9. Learning spaces as representational scaffolds for learning conceptual knowledge of system behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, B.; Liem, J.; Beek, W.; Salles, P.; Linnebank, F.

    2010-01-01

    Scaffolding is a well-known approach to bridge the gap between novice and expert capabilities in a discovery-oriented learning environment. This paper discusses a set of knowledge representations referred to as Learning Spaces (LSs) that can be used to support learners in acquiring conceptual knowle

  10. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S.; Döhring, Falko R.; Asseldonk, van Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highl

  11. Mapping Knowledge Exchange in Early Modern Europe : Intellectual and Technological Geographies and Network Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of digital intellectual and technological geographies showing spatial distributions of information and proposes to combine these with network representations of actors and documents relevant for the history knowledge exchange in Early Modern Europe. The amount of

  12. A Semantic-Driven Knowledge Representation Model for the Materials Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A Materials Engineering Application (MEA has been presented as a solution for the problems of materials design, solutions simulation, production and processing, and service evaluation. Large amounts of data are generated in the MEA distributed and heterogeneous environment. As the demand for intelligent engineering information applications increases, the challenge is to effectively organize these complex data and provide timely and accurate on-demand services. In this paper, based on the supporting environment of Open Cloud Services Architecture (OCSA and Virtual DataSpace (VDS, a new semantic-driven knowledge representation model for MEA information is proposed. Faced with the MEA constantly changing user requirements, this model elaborates the semantic representation of data, services and their relationships to support the construction of domain knowledge ontology. Then, based on the ontology modeling in VDS, the semantic representations of association mapping, rule-based reasoning, and evolution tracking are analyzed to support MEA knowledge acquisition. Finally, an application example of knowledge representation in the field of materials engineering is given to illustrate the proposed model, and some experimental comparisons are discussed for evaluating and verifying the effectiveness of this method.

  13. The Regional Knowledge Economy; a Multilevel Perspective on Firm Performance and Localized Knowledge Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raspe, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the emerging knowledge economy, the accumulation and transfer of knowledge are considered to be important for economic growth. However, regional scientists and economic geographers stress that knowledge does not diffuse instantaneously around the world; instead, it agglomerates. For this reason,

  14. Towards a kernel theory of external knowledge integration for high-tech firms: exploring a failed theory test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Wijnhoven, Fons; Groen, Aard

    2007-01-01

    Designing information systems (ISs) requires a thorough understanding of the organizational knowledge processes in which these systems are used. Although much is known about internal organizational knowledge processes, the understanding of external knowledge processes is less developed. Hence, this

  15. Bayesian Diagnostic Network: A Powerful Model for Representation and Reasoning of Engineering Diagnostic Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhao-yong

    2005-01-01

    Engineering diagnosis is essential to the operation of industrial equipment. The key to successful diagnosis is correct knowledge representation and reasoning. The Bayesian network is a powerful tool for it. This paper utilizes the Bayesian network to represent and reason diagnostic knowledge, named Bayesian diagnostic network. It provides a three-layer topologic structure based on operating conditions, possible faults and corresponding symptoms. The paper also discusses an approximate stochastic sampling algorithm. Then a practical Bayesian network for gas turbine diagnosis is constructed on a platform developed under a Visual C++ environment. It shows that the Bayesian network is a powerful model for representation and reasoning of diagnostic knowledge. The three-layer structure and the approximate algorithm are effective also.

  16. Dynamic Uncertain Causality Graph for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Discrete DAG Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Developed from the dynamic causality diagram (DCD) model,a new approach for knowledge representation and reasoning named as dynamic uncertain causality graph (DUCG) is presented,which focuses on the compact representation of complex uncertain causalities and efficient probabilistic inference.It is pointed out that the existing models of compact representation and inference in Bayesian Network (BN) is applicable in single-valued cases,but may not be suitable to be applied in multi-valued cases.DUCG overcomes this problem and beyond.The main features of DUCG are:1) compactly and graphically representing complex conditional probability distributions (CPDs),regardless of whether the cases are single-valued or multi-valued; 2) able to perform exact reasoning in the case of the incomplete knowledge representation;3) simplifying the graphical knowledge base conditional on observations before other calculations,so that the scale and complexity of problem can be reduced exponentially; 4) the efficient two-step inference algorithm consisting of (a) logic operation to find all possible hypotheses in concern for given observations and (b) the probability calculation for these hypotheses; and 5) much less relying on the parameter accuracy.An alarm system example is provided to illustrate the DUCG methodology.

  17. Physics instruction induces changes in neural knowledge representation during successive stages of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-05-01

    Incremental instruction on the workings of a set of mechanical systems induced a progression of changes in the neural representations of the systems. The neural representations of four mechanical systems were assessed before, during, and after three phases of incremental instruction (which first provided information about the system components, then provided partial causal information, and finally provided full functional information). In 14 participants, the neural representations of four systems (a bathroom scale, a fire extinguisher, an automobile braking system, and a trumpet) were assessed using three recently developed techniques: (1) machine learning and classification of multi-voxel patterns; (2) localization of consistently responding voxels; and (3) representational similarity analysis (RSA). The neural representations of the systems progressed through four stages, or states, involving spatially and temporally distinct multi-voxel patterns: (1) initially, the representation was primarily visual (occipital cortex); (2) it subsequently included a large parietal component; (3) it eventually became cortically diverse (frontal, parietal, temporal, and medial frontal regions); and (4) at the end, it demonstrated a strong frontal cortex weighting (frontal and motor regions). At each stage of knowledge, it was possible for a classifier to identify which one of four mechanical systems a participant was thinking about, based on their brain activation patterns. The progression of representational states was suggestive of progressive stages of learning: (1) encoding information from the display; (2) mental animation, possibly involving imagining the components moving; (3) generating causal hypotheses associated with mental animation; and finally (4) determining how a person (probably oneself) would interact with the system. This interpretation yields an initial, cortically-grounded, theory of learning of physical systems that potentially can be related to cognitive

  18. Knowledge Representation and Inference for Analysis and Design of Database and Tabular Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Ligeza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rulebased systems constitute a powerful tool for specification of knowledge in design and implementation of knowledge based systems. They provide also a universal programming paradigm for domains such as intelligent control, decision support, situation classification and operational knowledge encoding. In order to assure safe and reliable performance, such system should satisfy certain formal requirements, including completeness and consistency. This paper addresses the issue of analysis and verification of selected properties of a class of such system in a systematic way. A uniform, tabular scheme of single-level rule-based systems is considered. Such systems can be applied as a generalized form of databases for specification of data pattern (unconditional knowledge, or can be used for defining attributive decision tables (conditional knowledge in form of rules. They can also serve as lower-level components of a hierarchical multi-level control and decision support knowledge-based systems. An algebraic knowledge representation paradigm using extended tabular representation, similar to relational database tables is presented and algebraic bases for system analysis, verification and design support are outlined.

  19. Sociology of Knowledge and Production of Normative Power in the European Union’s External Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    pole in the coming multipolar world, have dichotomised the advocacy of policy-making and the analysis of knowledge production of EU external actions. The article sets out, through an examination of the interlinking of policy-making and policy analysis, how such false dichotomies weaken the sociology...

  20. Sociology of Knowledge and Production of Normative Power in the European Union’s External Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    pole in the coming multipolar world, have dichotomised the advocacy of policy-making and the analysis of knowledge production of EU external actions. The chapter sets out, through an examination of the interlinking of policy-making and policy analysis, how such false dichotomies weaken the sociology...

  1. Emerging narrative forms of knowledge representation in the health sciences: two texts in a postmodern context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A

    2002-01-01

    Qualitative health researchers have recently begun to experiment with narrative forms of knowledge representation, often incorporating postmodern theory and related constructivist epistemology. However, misunderstanding of these ideas may lead to rejection of, or lack of interest in, these unconventional texts, which in turn might impede the use of narrative forms in the health sciences. The author's aim is to "open up" the provocative domain of ideas about knowledge representation and explain how the forms operate. Two texts are described with respect to narrative plotting, author's stance, character building, voices, and rhetorical tropes: Troubling the Angels, Patti Lather and Chris Smithies's account of support groups for women living with HIV/AIDS, and The Social Meaning of Surgery, Nicolas Fox's description and sociological analysis of daily life in the operating theater. Other examples of emerging forms are integrated and made relevant to the substantive texts chosen for analysis.

  2. Knowledge representation model for systems-level analysis of signal transduction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yup; Zimmer, Ralf; Lee, Sang-Yup; Hanisch, Daniel; Park, Sunwon

    2004-01-01

    A Petri-net based model for knowledge representation has been developed to describe as explicitly and formally as possible the molecular mechanisms of cell signaling and their pathological implications. A conceptual framework has been established for reconstructing and analyzing signal transduction networks on the basis of the formal representation. Such a conceptual framework renders it possible to qualitatively understand the cell signaling behavior at systems-level. The mechanisms of the complex signaling network are explored by applying the established framework to the signal transduction induced by potent proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha The corresponding expert-knowledge network is constructed to evaluate its mechanisms in detail. This strategy should be useful in drug target discovery and its validation.

  3. Organization And Knowledge Representation In An Expert System For Scene Segmentation In Histologic Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deborah B.; Griswold, W. G.; Kuhn, William P.; Bartels, H. G.; Shoemaker, Richard L.; Bartels, Peter H.

    1989-06-01

    An expert system to guide scene segmentation in histologic sections is described. The system uses a semantic net for knowledge representation. At each node of the net, frames are associated to allow the staging of additional information. Scene segmentation is the result of model-based reasoning, supported by a digital image processing library and adaptive selection of segmentation procedures to resolve local segmentation difficulties.

  4. Knowledge representation and communication with concept maps in teacher training of science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Pedrajas, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an educational innovation that we have made in the context of initial teacher training for secondary education of science and technology. In this educational experience computing resources and concept maps are used to develop teaching skills related to knowledge representation, oral communication, teamwork and practical use of ICT in the classroom. Initial results indicate that future teachers value positively the use of concept maps and computer resources as useful tools for teacher training.

  5. The basic professional knowledge of teachers and suborganizational transformation processes of external pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Danish research (Hansen 2009; Lund 2012) have shown, that the basic professional knowledge of the profession of teachers (theoretical and philosophical pedagogy and didactics ) is under press, when different kinds of extern pressure (Scott 2008, Institutions and Organizations) are to be implemented...... professional knowledge seem to take over. Furthermore this seems to happen in a paradoxical way, because it happens against an explicit wish in the profession of teachers. Research question: Which practices on a sub organizational level in schools can secure and support that the basic professional knowledge...

  6. ENACTIVISM AS A NEW VERSION OF EXTERNALISM AND THE PROBLEMS OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Pacholik-Żuromska, Anita; Nikolaus Copernicus University Torun Poland

    2013-01-01

    The main topic of this article concerns the question, whether the self-knowledge can be still authoritative from the enactivistic point of view. The problem rests on two assumptions: 1. The definition of self-knowledge claims that a subject has a direct given knowledge about an intentional contents of his attitudes. 2. The content of subject’s attitudes is determined by external factors, which could be unknown to the subject. It means that the subject has the limited access to the content or ...

  7. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-04-22

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge-as an ontological and/or aesthetic category-has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world.

  8. Stereoscopic representation of the breast from two mammographic view with external markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergi, Maria; Manohar, Anand

    2003-05-01

    A new breast imaging technique has been develoepd and tested for the stereoscopic representation of the breast. The method uses markers at specific locations on the breast surface and standard mammographic projections and was tested with an anthropomorphic phantom containing five mass-like objects at locations determined by a CT scan. The phantom was imaged with a GE Senographe 2000D digital system with and without the markers. The algorithm's modules included: 1) Breast area segmentation; 2) Pectoral muscle segmentation; 3) Registration and alignment of the mammographic projections based on selected reference points; 4) Breast volume estimation basdd on volume conservation principle during compression and shape definition using surface points; 5) 3D lesion(s) localization and representation. An interactive, ILD-based, graphical interface was also developed for the stereoscopic display of the breast. The reconstruction algorithm assumed that the breast shrinks and stretches uniformly when compression is applied and removed. The relative movement of the markers after compression allowed more accurate estimation of the shrinking and stretching of the surface offering a relatively simple and practical way to improve volume estimation and surface reconstruction. Such stereoscopic representation of the breast and associated findings may improve radiological interpretation and physical examinations for breast cancer diagnosis.

  9. Modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge for the Geospatial Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong; Gong, Jianya

    2008-12-01

    GML can only achieve geospatial interoperation at syntactic level. However, it is necessary to resolve difference of spatial cognition in the first place in most occasions, so ontology was introduced to describe geospatial information and services. But it is obviously difficult and improper to let users to find, match and compose services, especially in some occasions there are complicated business logics. Currently, with the gradual introduction of Semantic Web technology (e.g., OWL, SWRL), the focus of the interoperation of geospatial information has shifted from syntactic level to Semantic and even automatic, intelligent level. In this way, Geospatial Semantic Web (GSM) can be put forward as an augmentation to the Semantic Web that additionally includes geospatial abstractions as well as related reasoning, representation and query mechanisms. To advance the implementation of GSM, we first attempt to construct the mechanism of modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge, which are also two mostly foundational phases in knowledge engineering (KE). Our attitude in this paper is quite pragmatical: we argue that geospatial context is a formal model of the discriminate environment characters of geospatial knowledge, and the derivation, understanding and using of geospatial knowledge are located in geospatial context. Therefore, first, we put forward a primitive hierarchy of geospatial knowledge referencing first order logic, formal ontologies, rules and GML. Second, a metamodel of geospatial context is proposed and we use the modeling methods and representation languages of formal ontologies to process geospatial context. Thirdly, we extend Web Process Service (WPS) to be compatible with local DLL for geoprocessing and possess inference capability based on OWL.

  10. Profiting from external knowledge : how firms use different knowledge acquisition strategies to improve their innovation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Batterink, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, innovation has become essential for the competitive advantage of firms in a growing number of industries. Due to the fast development of technologies, changing customer demands, shortening of product life cycles, increased global competition and changing regulations, modern firms constantly have to look for new ways to prosper in this very dynamic business environment. To survive in this dynamic environment, firms increasingly look for ways to profit from knowledge in other o...

  11. Profiting from external knowledge : how firms use different knowledge acquisition strategies to improve their innovation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Batterink, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, innovation has become essential for the competitive advantage of firms in a growing number of industries. Due to the fast development of technologies, changing customer demands, shortening of product life cycles, increased global competition and changing regulations, modern firms constantly have to look for new ways to prosper in this very dynamic business environment. To survive in this dynamic environment, firms increasingly look for ways to profit from knowledge in other o...

  12. Examining the Influences of Epistemic Beliefs and Knowledge Representations on Cognitive Processing and Conceptual Change When Learning Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gina M.; Muis, Krista R.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Ranellucci, John; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Wang, Xihui

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, we manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with…

  13. Measuring beliefs in centimeters: private knowledge biases preschoolers' and adults' representation of others' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Jessica A; Bernstein, Daniel M; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    A novel task, using a continuous spatial layout, was created to investigate the degree to which (in centimeters) 3-year-old children's (N = 63), 5-year-old children's (N = 60), and adults' (N = 60) own privileged knowledge of the location of an object biased their representation of a protagonist's false belief about the object's location. At all ages, participants' knowledge of the object's actual location biased their search estimates, independent of the attentional or memory demands of the task. Children's degree of bias correlated with their performance on a classic change-of-location false belief task, controlling for age. This task is a novel tool for providing a quantitative measurement of the degree to which self-knowledge can bias estimates of others' beliefs.

  14. The matrix representation of fuzzy knowledge and its application to the expert systems design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Levchenko

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the diagnostic type expert systems design based on the special matrix representation of fuzzy predicates in the tribute model of the problem domain is presented. Intensive representation of predicates by means of sectional matrices is an analogue of the conjunctive normal form. Rules, positive examples and negative examples (in general, all fuzzy can be used to form knowledge base. Diagnostics problem is thought of as finding some attribute values provided that the information about other attribute values is available. Logical inference is based on an equivalent transformation of the matrix to that containing all prime disjuncts by using the operation of fuzzy resolution . Two strategies to carry out such transformation are described. On the basis of formalism presented the expert system shell EDIP is developed, the first version of that is non-fuzzy and the second one allows working with fuzzy data and conclusions.

  15. Right-Linear Languages Generated in Systems of Knowledge Representation based on LSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Danciulescu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tudor (Preda (2010 a method for formal languages generation based on labeled stratified graph representations is sketched. The author proves that the considered method can generate regular languages and context-sensitive languages by considering an exemplification of the proposed method for a particular regular language and another one for a particular contextsensitive language. At the end of the study, the author highlights some open problems for future research among which we remind: (1 The study of the language families that can be generated by means of these structures; (2 The study of the infiniteness of the languages that can be represented in stratified graphs. In this paper, we extend the method presented in Tudor (Preda(2010, by considering the stratified graph formalism in a system of knowledge representation and reasoning. More precisely, we propose a method that can be applied for generating any Right Linear Language construction. Our method is proved and exemplified in several cases.

  16. Symbolic representation based on trend features for knowledge discovery in long time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong YIN; Shu-qiang YANG; Xiao-qian ZHU; Shao-dong MA; Lu-min ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    The symbolic representation of time series has attracted much research interest recently. The high dimensionality typical of the data is challenging, especially as the time series becomes longer. The wide distribution of sensors collecting more and more data exacerbates the problem. Representing a time series effectively is an essential task for decision-making activities such as classification, prediction, and knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose a new symbolic representation method for long time series based on trend features, called trend feature symbolic approximation (TFSA). The method uses a two-step mechanism to segment long time series rapidly. Unlike some previous symbolic methods, it focuses on retaining most of the trend features and patterns of the original series. A time series is represented by trend symbols, which are also suitable for use in knowledge discovery, such as association rules mining. TFSA provides the lower bounding guarantee. Experimental results show that, compared with some previous methods, it not only has better segmentation efficiency and classification accuracy, but also is applicable for use in knowledge discovery from time series.

  17. Ontology patterns for tabular representations of biomedical knowledge on neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Filipe; Schober, Daniel; Medeiros, Zulma; Freitas, Fred; Schulz, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Ontology-like domain knowledge is frequently published in a tabular format embedded in scientific publications. We explore the re-use of such tabular content in the process of building NTDO, an ontology of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), where the representation of the interdependencies between hosts, pathogens and vectors plays a crucial role. As a proof of concept we analyzed a tabular compilation of knowledge about pathogens, vectors and geographic locations involved in the transmission of NTDs. After a thorough ontological analysis of the domain of interest, we formulated a comprehensive design pattern, rooted in the biomedical domain upper level ontology BioTop. This pattern was implemented in a VBA script which takes cell contents of an Excel spreadsheet and transforms them into OWL-DL. After minor manual post-processing, the correctness and completeness of the ontology was tested using pre-formulated competence questions as description logics (DL) queries. The expected results could be reproduced by the ontology. The proposed approach is recommended for optimizing the acquisition of ontological domain knowledge from tabular representations. Domain examples, source code and ontology are freely available on the web at http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~ntdo. fss3@cin.ufpe.br.

  18. Information extraction for legal knowledge representation – a review of approaches and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Andrei de Araujo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an introduction to Information Extraction systems and a survey of the known approaches of Information Extraction in the legal area. This work analyzes with particular attention the techniques that rely on the representation of legal knowledge as a means to achieve better performance, with emphasis on those techniques including ontologies and linguistic support. Some details of the systems implementations are presented, followed by an analysis of the positive and negative points of each approach, aiming to bring the reader a critical position regarding the solutions studied.

  19. Multi-leg Searching by Adopting Graph-based Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zarinah Mohd Yusof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the development of multi-leg searching concept by adopting graph-based knowledge representation. The research is aimed at proposing a searching concept that is capable of providing advanced information through retrieving not only direct but continuous related information from a point. It applies maximal join concept to merge multiple information networks for supporting multi-leg searching process. Node and edge similarity concept are also applied to determine transit node and alternative edges of the same route. A working prototype of flight networks domain is developed to represent the overview of the research.

  20. Professional Knowledge and Skills Required for Accounting Majors Who Intend to Become Auditors: Perceptions of External Auditors

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Uyar; Ali Haydar Gungormus

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to ascertain the professional knowledge and the skills/attributes that are considered important by external auditors for a graduate who intends to be an auditor. For this purpose, we conducted a survey on external auditors in Turkey. The research has two dimensions: skills dimension (twenty one items) and professional knowledge dimension (twenty four items). The results indicated that all skills except “knowledge of accounting software” are perceived to be important or very...

  1. Towards symbiosis in knowledge representation and natural language processing for structuring clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chunhua; Payne, Philip R O; Velez, Mark; Johnson, Stephen B; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The successful adoption by clinicians of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contained in clinical information systems requires efficient translation of free-text guidelines into computable formats. Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to improve the efficiency of such translation. However, it is laborious to develop NLP to structure free-text CPGs using existing formal knowledge representations (KR). In response to this challenge, this vision paper discusses the value and feasibility of supporting symbiosis in text-based knowledge acquisition (KA) and KR. We compare two ontologies: (1) an ontology manually created by domain experts for CPG eligibility criteria and (2) an upper-level ontology derived from a semantic pattern-based approach for automatic KA from CPG eligibility criteria text. Then we discuss the strengths and limitations of interweaving KA and NLP for KR purposes and important considerations for achieving the symbiosis of KR and NLP for structuring CPGs to achieve evidence-based clinical practice.

  2. Open and Closed R&D Processes: Internal Versus External Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saleh Al.Ansari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to help keep up with the ever changing business environments, firms arecontinuously attempting to find ways to open up their organizations boundaries, enablingexternal sources to be used. Through a means of restructuring their R&D systems, firmswill face challenges when it comes to balancing their external and internal R&D activities,allowing them to profit from the amount of external knowledge that they retrieve.Throughout this paper, discussions on the influences that R&D configuration has on theperformance of firms and moderating R&D capacity will be discussed further.According to researched findings, firms that continue to rely on external R&D actionsexperience an increase in innovative performance, up to a certain point. Larger shares ofexternal R&D services will reduce a firm’s performance. Finding the perfect mediumground is something that all chemical engineering firms will need to work on, in order toincrease innovative performance, but not ruin their performance in the same respects. Thispaper will provide an increased amount of understanding in regards to the open innovationparadigm, which suggests that opportunity costs open for R&D borders is a lot higher forfirms that possess high quality technologically based knowledge stock (Elsevier B.V., 2012.

  3. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  4. A knowledge representation meta-model for rule-based modelling of signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of cellular signalling pathways and their deregulation in disease states, such as cancer, is a large and extremely complex task. Indeed, these systems involve many parts and processes but are studied piecewise and their literatures and data are consequently fragmented, distributed and sometimes—at least apparently—inconsistent. This makes it extremely difficult to build significant explanatory models with the result that effects in these systems that are brought about by many interacting factors are poorly understood. The rule-based approach to modelling has shown some promise for the representation of the highly combinatorial systems typically found in signalling where many of the proteins are composed of multiple binding domains, capable of simultaneous interactions, and/or peptide motifs controlled by post-translational modifications. However, the rule-based approach requires highly detailed information about the precise conditions for each and every interaction which is rarely available from any one single source. Rather, these conditions must be painstakingly inferred and curated, by hand, from information contained in many papers—each of which contains only part of the story. In this paper, we introduce a graph-based meta-model, attuned to the representation of cellular signalling networks, which aims to ease this massive cognitive burden on the rule-based curation process. This meta-model is a generalization of that used by Kappa and BNGL which allows for the flexible representation of knowledge at various levels of granularity. In particular, it allows us to deal with information which has either too little, or too much, detail with respect to the strict rule-based meta-model. Our approach provides a basis for the gradual aggregation of fragmented biological knowledge extracted from the literature into an instance of the meta-model from which we can define an automated translation into executable Kappa programs.

  5. Representation of External Qualities of the Person in the Russian And French Animalistic Phraseological Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Olegovich Puchkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Russian and French phraseological units with an animal name are considered with a special focus on their anthropomorphous semantics (external qualities of the person. The relevance of this research is caused by the urgent need of comparative studies of ethnocultural maps of the world that are encoded in phraseological corpus of any ethnos. Universal and ethno-specific features of animalistic phraseology are revealed in the article. The author states that the main function of animalistic phraseological units is not only pointing to some physical qualities of a person but assessing them. In the French map of the world the aesthetic criterion (beauty / ugliness dominates, whereas in the Russian map it is a physiological and social criteria (mainly, health and wellbeing. Superiority of the esthetic criterion in French is hidden in the mentality and is called the hedonism; opposing to it is Russian animalistic phraseology which is said to be originated from country folk traditions and is focused on physiological and social details in assessing the man's appearance. It is stated in the article that the lack of attention to esthetic criterion in the Russian phraseology may be explained by the influence of Orthodoxy on the content of the world map, the corporal beauty is opposed to internal, spiritual beauty. Contrary to it, under the influence of Catholicism an esthetic attitude to church rituals and corporal beauty was forwarded in the French culture. Finally, the author offers anthropological mechanism and an assessment function to be universal features of phraseology.

  6. External self-representations improve self-awareness in a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Nicholas B; Case, Laura K; Burrus, Caley J; Ramachandran, V S

    2015-01-01

    We have previously suggested that the social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be caused in part by a dysfunctional mirror neuron system (MNS). Since the recursive activity of a functioning MNS might enable the brain to integrate visual and motor sensations into a coherent body schema, the deficits in self-awareness often seen in ASD might be caused by the same mirror neuron dysfunction. CL is an autistic adolescent who is profoundly fascinated with his reflection, looking in mirrors at every opportunity. We demonstrate that CL's abnormal gait improves significantly when using a mirror for visual feedback. We also show that both the fascination and the happiness that CL derives from looking at a computer-generated reflection diminish when a delay is introduced between the camera input and screen output. We believe that immediate, real-time visual feedback allows CL to integrate motor sensations with external visual ones into a coherent body schema that he cannot internally generate, perhaps due to a dysfunctional MNS.

  7. An Approach for Externalization of Expert Tacit Knowledge Using a Query Management System in an E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Azeez; Khader, Sheik Abdul

    2014-01-01

    E-learning or electronic learning platforms facilitate delivery of the knowledge spectrum to the learning community through information and communication technologies. The transfer of knowledge takes place from experts to learners, and externalization of the knowledge transfer is significant. In the e-learning environment, the learners seek…

  8. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation for Food Security in the AIMS SIDS: Integrating External and Local Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mercer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches for food security under climate change, specifically for the Small Island Developing States (SIDS comprising the Africa, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (AIMS region. The focus is on integrating different knowledge forms. An analysis of current EbA approaches for food security is undertaken, alongside a review of methodologies for integrating local and external knowledge. Key gaps and actions for EbA for food security in the AIMS region, and potentially further afield, are identified. The gaps indicate the lack of coherence in AIMS SIDS approaching food security, in terms of policies and actions not reflecting the ecosystem-food-climate nexus, the lack of a regional framework despite similarities amongst the SIDS, and the infrequency with which knowledge integration occurs. To fill these gaps, suggested actions highlight knowledge identification and combination, learning from others and from history, using local champions, and regularly monitoring and evaluating progress. These actions will push forward the EbA agenda through improved development and use of knowledge, better connections amongst the AIMS SIDS and farther afield, and more local-national-regional collaboration.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Reinforcement Learning and Knowledge Representation: A Logical Off- and On-Policy Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Emad

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge Representation is important issue in reinforcement learning. In this paper, we bridge the gap between reinforcement learning and knowledge representation, by providing a rich knowledge representation framework, based on normal logic programs with answer set semantics, that is capable of solving model-free reinforcement learning problems for more complex do-mains and exploits the domain-specific knowledge. We prove the correctness of our approach. We show that the complexity of finding an offline and online policy for a model-free reinforcement learning problem in our approach is NP-complete. Moreover, we show that any model-free reinforcement learning problem in MDP environment can be encoded as a SAT problem. The importance of that is model-free reinforcement

  10. Cross-domain Collaborative Research and People Interoperability: Beyond Knowledge Representation Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. A.; Diviacco, P.; Busato, A.

    2016-12-01

    Geo-scientific research collaboration commonly faces of complex systems where multiple skills and competences are needed at the same time. Efficacy of such collaboration among researchers then becomes of paramount importance. Multidisciplinary studies draw from domains that are far from each other. Researchers also need to understand: how to extract what data they need and eventually produce something that can be used by others. The management of information and knowledge in this perspective is non-trivial. Interoperability is frequently sought in computer-to-computer environements, so-as to overcome mismatches in vocabulary, data formats, coordinate reference system and so on. Successful researcher collaboration also relies on interoperability of the people! Smaller, synchronous and face-to-face settings for researchers are knownn to enhance people interoperability. However changing settings; either geographically; temporally; or with increasing the team size, diversity, and expertise requires people-computer-people-computer (...) interoperability. To date, knowledge representation framework have been proposed but not proven as necessary and sufficient to achieve multi-way interoperability. In this contribution, we address epistemology and sociology of science advocating for a fluid perspective where science is mostly a social construct, conditioned by cognitive issues; especially cognitive bias. Bias cannot be obliterated. On the contrary it must be carefully taken into consideration. Information-centric interfaces built from different perspectives and ways of thinking by actors with different point of views, approaches and aims, are proposed as a means for enhancing people interoperability in computer-based settings. The contribution will provide details on the approach of augmenting and interfacing to knowledge representation frameworks to the cognitive-conceptual frameworks for people that are needed to meet and exceed collaborative research goals in the 21st

  11. The Measure Theory of Knowledge Representation Based on Agent%基于Agent的知识表达度量理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡长

    2001-01-01

    Agent is like human or intelligence object, which has ability to autonomy, guess, repercussion,cooperate,self-techer,mutual learning,and so on. Based on Agent, we have tried various ways to quantitative analysis for knoledge representation. From measure theory of knowledge, using measure principle of information theory,we study knowledge representation thoroughly,and regard Agent as carrier of knowledge,and give the measure theory of knowledge representation.

  12. What Do Biochemistry Students Pay Attention to in External Representations of Protein Translation? Tthe Case of the Shine-Dalgarno Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry instructors often use external representations--ranging from static diagrams to dynamic animations and from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations--to help their students visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. However, relatively little is known about how…

  13. Combining external and internal mixing representation of atmospheric aerosol for optical properties calculations: focus on absorption properties over Europe and North America using AERONET observations and AQMEII simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    The calculation of optical properties from knowledge of the composition and abundance of atmospheric aerosol implies a certain number of assumptions. First and if not known or explicitly simulated, a size distribution must be assigned to each aerosol component (e.g. sulfate-like inorganic ions, organic and back carbon, soil dust, sea salt). Second, physical-chemical properties such as the shape, density, complex refractive index, and hygroscopic factors must be associated to each aerosol species. Third, a representation of how the aerosol species combine together must be made: among those, the most popular are the assumptions of external mixing, in which each particle is assumed to be formed of a single compound and the optical properties may be calculated separately for each species, or of internal core-shell arrangement, in which each particle consists of a water-insoluble core coated with a water-soluble shell and that requires more elaborate calculations for optical properties. Previous work found that the assumption on the mixing state (external or core-shell internal) is the one that introduces the highest uncertainty, quantified in about 30% uncertainty on the calculation of monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single-scattering albedo (SSA). The external mixing assumption is generally more reasonable for freshly emitted aerosol, while the internal mixing case is associated with aged aerosol that had the time to form the coating around the core. Both approximations are thus regarded as valid, but in general a combination of the two mixing states may be expected in a given air mass. In this work, we test a simple empirical parameterization of the fraction of internally mixed particles (F_in) in a generic air mass. The F_in fraction is calculated in two alternative ways, one exploiting the NOz to NOx ratio (proxy of the photochemical aging), and the other using the relative abundance of black carbon with respect to other aerosol components (proxy of

  14. Landmark and route knowledge in children’s spatial representation of a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eNys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the development of landmark and route knowledge in complex wayfinding situations. Our study focuses on how children (aged 6, 8 and 10 years and young adults (n=79 indicate, recognize, and bind landmarks and directions in both verbal and visuo-spatial tasks after learning a virtual route. Performance in these tasks is also related to general verbal and visuo-spatial abilities as assessed by independent standardized tests (attention, working memory, perception of direction, production and comprehension of spatial terms, sentences and stories. The results first show that the quantity and quality of landmarks and directions produced and recognized by participants in both verbal and visuo-spatial tasks increased with age. In addition, an increase with age was observed in participants’ selection of decisional landmarks (i.e. landmarks associated with a change of direction, as well as in their capacity to bind landmarks and directions. Our results confirm the view that children first acquire landmark knowledge, then route knowledge, as shown by their late developing ability to bind knowledge of directions and landmarks. Overall, the quality of verbal and visuo-spatial information in participants’ spatial representations was found to vary mostly with their visuo-spatial abilities (attention and perception of directions and not with their verbal abilities. Interestingly, however, when asked to recognize landmarks encountered during the route, participants show an increasing bias with age toward choosing a related landmark of the same category, regardless of its visual characteristics, i.e. they incorrectly choose the picture of another fountain. The discussion highlights the need for further studies to determine more precisely the role of verbal and visuo-spatial knowledge and the nature of how children learn to represent and memorize routes.

  15. Combined numerical and linguistic knowledge representation and its application to medical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesad, Phayung; Yen, Gary G.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we propose a novel hybrid intelligent system (HIS) which provides a unified integration of numerical and linguistic knowledge representations. The proposed HIS is hierarchical integration of an incremental learning fuzzy neural network (ILFN) and a linguistic model, i.e., fuzzy expert system, optimized via the genetic algorithm. The ILFN is a self-organizing network with the capability of fast, one-pass, online, and incremental learning. The linguistic model is constructed based on knowledge embedded in the trained ILFN or provided by the domain expert. The knowledge captured from the low-level ILFN can be mapped to the higher-level linguistic model and vice versa. The GA is applied to optimize the linguistic model to maintain high accuracy, comprehensibility, completeness, compactness, and consistency. After the system being completely constructed, it can incrementally learn new information in both numerical and linguistic forms. To evaluate the system's performance, the well-known benchmark Wisconsin breast cancer data set was studied for an application to medical diagnosis. The simulation results have shown that the prosed HIS perform better than the individual standalone systems. The comparison results show that the linguistic rules extracted are competitive with or even superior to some well-known methods.

  16. Knowledge representation and management: towards an integration of a semantic web in daily health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, N; Charlet, J; Darmoni, Sj

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). A synopsis of the four selected articles for the IMIA Yearbook 2013 KRM section is provided, as well as highlights of current KRM trends, in particular, of the semantic web in daily health practice. The manual selection was performed in three stages: first a set of 3,106 articles, then a second set of 86 articles followed by a third set of 15 articles, and finally the last set of four chosen articles. Among the four selected articles (see Table 1), one focuses on knowledge engineering to prevent adverse drug events; the objective of the second is to propose mappings between clinical archetypes and SNOMED CT in the context of clinical practice; the third presents an ontology to create a question-answering system; the fourth describes a biomonitoring network based on semantic web technologies. These four articles clearly indicate that the health semantic web has become a part of daily practice of health professionals since 2012. In the review of the second set of 86 articles, the same topics included in the previous IMIA yearbook remain active research fields: Knowledge extraction, automatic indexing, information retrieval, natural language processing, management of health terminologies and ontologies.

  17. Learning multisensory representations for auditory-visual transfer of sequence category knowledge: a probabilistic language of thought approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    If a person is trained to recognize or categorize objects or events using one sensory modality, the person can often recognize or categorize those same (or similar) objects and events via a novel modality. This phenomenon is an instance of cross-modal transfer of knowledge. Here, we study the Multisensory Hypothesis which states that people extract the intrinsic, modality-independent properties of objects and events, and represent these properties in multisensory representations. These representations underlie cross-modal transfer of knowledge. We conducted an experiment evaluating whether people transfer sequence category knowledge across auditory and visual domains. Our experimental data clearly indicate that we do. We also developed a computational model accounting for our experimental results. Consistent with the probabilistic language of thought approach to cognitive modeling, our model formalizes multisensory representations as symbolic "computer programs" and uses Bayesian inference to learn these representations. Because the model demonstrates how the acquisition and use of amodal, multisensory representations can underlie cross-modal transfer of knowledge, and because the model accounts for subjects' experimental performances, our work lends credence to the Multisensory Hypothesis. Overall, our work suggests that people automatically extract and represent objects' and events' intrinsic properties, and use these properties to process and understand the same (and similar) objects and events when they are perceived through novel sensory modalities.

  18. 面向对象专家系统的知识表示方法研究%Knowledge Representation Method of the Object-oriented Exper System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温有奎

    2002-01-01

    A method for the construction of an object-oriented expert system with its knowledge database independent of program is introduced. Its knowledge representation,reasoning mechanism, semantic network and frame structure are described in detail. Fimally,the author compares the object-oriented knowledge representation method with the semantic network and frame structure.

  19. Visual representation of knowledge in the field of Library and Information Science of IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoon Sabetpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present research has been done to visual representation of knowledge and determination vacuum and density points of scientific trends of faculty members of state universities of IRAN in Library & Information Science field. Method: Curriculum Vitae of each faculty member with census method were collected and its content analyzed. Then using a checklist, the rate scientific tendencies were extracted. NodeXL software was deployed to map out the levels. Results: The results showed that the trends are concentrated in Scientometrics, Research method in Library & Information Science, information organization, information resources, psychology, Education, Management, the Web, Knowledge management, Academic Libraries, Information services, Information Theories and collection management. Apparently, the Library & Information Science community of experts pays little or no attention to the Library & Information Science applications in the fields of chemistry, Cartography, museum, law, art, school libraries as well as to independent subject clusters such as minorities in library, information architecture, mentoring in library science, library automation, preservation, oral history, cybernetics, copyright, information marketing and information economy. Lack of efforts on these areas is remarkable.

  20. Primary teachers' representations of division: assessing mathematical knowledge that has pedagogical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.

    2013-06-01

    This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers were assessed at the beginning and the end of school year (February and October, respectively) on their Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), through the use of a questionnaire involving teachers' responses to hypothetical teaching, planning, or assessment scenarios. We report here the results from one item that assessed teachers' MKT in relation to representations of division. Results indicated that teachers were more familiar with partitive than quotitive division, and found connecting appropriate story problems with a given form of division difficult. Teachers' relating their understanding of the forms of division to the context of division by a decimal number was also challenging. There were interesting variations in the data across primary grade levels, particularly in relation to change over time. Professional learning on these topics and other support within the project appeared to improve teachers' MKT in this area.

  1. Increasing Absorptive Capacity to Improve Internal and External Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Companies: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla-Gergely RÁCZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the absorptive capacity could be increased to improve internal and external knowledge transfer in subsidiaries of multinational companies. We look at the way in which the literature on absorptive capacity has evolved, and how it links the internal and external knowledge transfer. Based on 3 case studies conducted at Romanian subsidiaries of multinational companies, we find some patterns, which could explain how the successful knowledge flows should be managed within the multinational company and outside of it, in the supply chain network.

  2. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  3. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  4. Emerging representation technologies for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ton; Spector, J. Michael; Merrill, M. David; Elen, Jan; Bishop, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    When learners solve problems they often create an external representation to organize the information given in the problem statement, to translate this problem description into underlying domain terms, and to complete this with knowledge they already have. This representation is subsequently used to

  5. Social Intelligence and Top Management Team: An Exploratory Study of External Knowledge Acquisition for Strategic Change in Global IT Service Providers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric; Chadee, Doren; Raman, Revti

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the processes by which firms, particularly knowledge intensive firms, can augment their overall knowledge stock by tapping into external sources of knowledge. It is argued that Top Management Teams' (TMTs') social intelligence is a critical learning capability in acquiring external knowledge that leads to strategic change.…

  6. Social Intelligence and Top Management Team: An Exploratory Study of External Knowledge Acquisition for Strategic Change in Global IT Service Providers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric; Chadee, Doren; Raman, Revti

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the processes by which firms, particularly knowledge intensive firms, can augment their overall knowledge stock by tapping into external sources of knowledge. It is argued that Top Management Teams' (TMTs') social intelligence is a critical learning capability in acquiring external knowledge that leads to strategic change.…

  7. Dialect Variation and Phonological Knowledge: Phonological Representations and Metalinguistic Awareness among Beginning Readers who Speak Nonmainstream American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    Children's spoken nonmainstream American English (NMAE) dialect use and their knowledge about phonological representations of word pronunciations were assessed in a sample of 105 children in kindergarten through second grade. Children were given expressive and receptive tasks with dialect-sensitive stimuli. Students who produced many NMAE…

  8. Exploring the Progression in Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Representations: The Case of "Behavior of Gases"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adadan, Emine; Oner, Diler

    2014-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated how two preservice chemistry teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) representations of behavior of gases progressed in the context of a semester-long chemistry teaching methods course. The change in the participants' PCK components was interpreted with respect to the theoretical PCK learning…

  9. Leveraging external knowledge on molecular interactions in classification methods for risk prediction of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzelius, Christine; Johannes, Marc; Binder, Harald; Beissbarth, Tim

    2011-03-01

    Classification of patients based on molecular markers, for example into different risk groups, is a modern field in medical research. The aim of this classification is often a better diagnosis or individualized therapy. The search for molecular markers often utilizes extremely high-dimensional data sets (e.g. gene-expression microarrays). However, in situations where the number of measured markers (genes) is intrinsically higher than the number of available patients, standard methods from statistical learning fail to deal correctly with this so-called "curse of dimensionality". Also feature or dimension reduction techniques based on statistical models promise only limited success. Several recent methods explore ideas of how to quantify and incorporate biological prior knowledge of molecular interactions and known cellular processes into the feature selection process. This article aims to give an overview of such current methods as well as the databases, where this external knowledge can be obtained from. For illustration, two recent methods are compared in detail, a feature selection approach for support vector machines as well as a boosting approach for regression models. As a practical example, data on patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are considered, where the binary endpoint "relapse within first year" should be predicted. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Translational systems biology using an agent-based approach for dynamic knowledge representation: An evolutionary paradigm for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary C

    2010-01-01

    The greatest challenge facing the biomedical research community is the effective translation of basic mechanistic knowledge into clinically effective therapeutics. This challenge is most evident in attempts to understand and modulate "systems" processes/disorders, such as sepsis, cancer, and wound healing. Formulating an investigatory strategy for these issues requires the recognition that these are dynamic processes. Representation of the dynamic behavior of biological systems can aid in the investigation of complex pathophysiological processes by augmenting existing discovery procedures by integrating disparate information sources and knowledge. This approach is termed Translational Systems Biology. Focusing on the development of computational models capturing the behavior of mechanistic hypotheses provides a tool that bridges gaps in the understanding of a disease process by visualizing "thought experiments" to fill those gaps. Agent-based modeling is a computational method particularly well suited to the translation of mechanistic knowledge into a computational framework. Utilizing agent-based models as a means of dynamic hypothesis representation will be a vital means of describing, communicating, and integrating community-wide knowledge. The transparent representation of hypotheses in this dynamic fashion can form the basis of "knowledge ecologies," where selection between competing hypotheses will apply an evolutionary paradigm to the development of community knowledge.

  11. The development of human behavior analysis techniques - A study on knowledge representation methods for operator cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Tack [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The main objective of this project is modeling of human operator in a main control room of Nuclear Power Plant. For this purpose, we carried out research on knowledge representation and inference method based on Rasmussen`s decision ladder structure. And we have developed SACOM(Simulation= Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) using G2 shell on Sun workstations. SACOM consists of Operator Model, Interaction Analyzer, Situation Generator. Cognitive model aims to build a more detailed model of human operators in an effective way. SACOM is designed to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators more easily. The followings are main research topics carried out this year. First, in order to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators, more detailed scenarios are constructed. And, knowledge representation and inference methods are developed to support the scenarios. Second, meta knowledge structures are studied to support human operators 4 types of diagnoses. This work includes a study on meta and scheduler knowledge structures for generate-and-test, topographic, decision tree and case-based approaches. Third, domain knowledge structure are improved to support meta knowledge. Especially, domain knowledge structures are developed to model topographic diagnosis model. Fourth, more applicable interaction analyzer and situation generator are designed and implemented. The new version is implemented in G2 on Sun workstations. 35 refs., 49 figs. (author)

  12. Agile sensor tasking for CoIST using natural language knowledge representation and reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braines, David; de Mel, Geeth; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bergamaschi, Flavio; Preece, Alun

    2014-06-01

    We describe a system architecture aimed at supporting Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities in a Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) using natural language-based knowledge representation and reasoning, and semantic matching of mission tasks to ISR assets. We illustrate an application of the architecture using a High Value Target (HVT) surveillance scenario which demonstrates semi-automated matching and assignment of appropriate ISR assets based on information coming in from existing sensors and human patrols operating in an area of interest and encountering a potential HVT vehicle. We highlight a number of key components of the system but focus mainly on the human/machine conversational interaction involving soldiers on the field providing input in natural language via spoken voice to a mobile device, which is then processed to machine-processable Controlled Natural Language (CNL) and confirmed with the soldier. The system also supports CoIST analysts obtaining real-time situation awareness on the unfolding events through fused CNL information via tools available at the Command and Control (C2). The system demonstrates various modes of operation including: automatic task assignment following inference of new high-importance information, as well as semi-automatic processing, providing the CoIST analyst with situation awareness information relevant to the area of operation.

  13. Data and Knowledge Base on the Basis of the Expanded Matrix Model of Their Representation for the Intelligent System of Road-Climatic Zoning of Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskaya, A.; Cherepanov, D.; Selivanikova, O.

    2016-08-01

    An extended matrix model of data and knowledge representation on the investigated area, as well as a matrix model of data representation on the territory under investigation, are proposed for the intelligent system of road-climatic zoning of territories (RCZT) - the main information technology of RCZT. A part of the West Siberian region has been selected as the investigated territory. The extended matrix model of knowledge representation is filled out by knowledge engineers with participation of highly qualified experts in the field of RCZT. The matrix model of data representation on the territory under investigation is filled out by persons concerned in RCZT of the motor-roads management system.

  14. Hologram representation of design data in an expert system knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.; Klon, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel representational scheme for design object descriptions is presented. An abstract notion of modules and signals is developed as a conceptual foundation for the scheme. This abstraction relates the objects to the meaning of system descriptions. Anchored on this abstraction, a representational model which incorporates dynamic semantics for these objects is presented. This representational model is called a hologram scheme since it represents dual level information, namely, structural and semantic. The benefits of this scheme are presented.

  15. Exploring the Role of Physics Representations: An Illustrative Example from Students Sharing Knowledge about Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, Tobias; Airey, John; Linder, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In…

  16. Towards knowledge-based retrieval of medical images. The role of semantic indexing, image content representation and knowledge-based retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A

    1998-01-01

    Medicine is increasingly image-intensive. The central importance of imaging technologies such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making, combined with the trend to store many "traditional" clinical images such as conventional radiographs, microscopic pathology and dermatology images in digital format present both challenges and an opportunities for the designers of clinical information systems. The emergence of Multimedia Electronic Medical Record Systems (MEMRS), architectures that integrate medical images with text-based clinical data, will further hasten this trend. The development of these systems, storing a large and diverse set of medical images, suggests that in the future MEMRS will become important digital libraries supporting patient care, research and education. The representation and retrieval of clinical images within these systems is problematic as conventional database architectures and information retrieval models have, until recently, focused largely on text-based data. Medical imaging data differs in many ways from text-based medical data but perhaps the most important difference is that the information contained within imaging data is fundamentally knowledge-based. New representational and retrieval models for clinical images will be required to address this issue. Within the Image Engine multimedia medical record system project at the University of Pittsburgh we are evolving an approach to representation and retrieval of medical images which combines semantic indexing using the UMLS Metathesuarus, image content-based representation and knowledge-based image analysis.

  17. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gerard Wolff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The SP theory of intelligence, with its realisation in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realised in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory -- SP-neural -- is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory -- outlined in the paper -- provides indirect support for SP-neural.In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract, all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns, where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a ‘pattern’ is realised as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly, similar to Hebb's concept of a ‘cell assembly’ but with important differences.Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment, borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another.It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from

  18. Lexical-semantic body knowledge in 5- to 11-year-old children: How spatial body representation influences body semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Laurent; Jambaqué, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between lexico-semantic body knowledge (i.e., body semantics) and spatial body representation (i.e., structural body representation) by analyzing naming performances as a function of body structural topography. One hundred and forty-one children ranging from 5 years 2 months to 10 years 5 months old were asked to provide a lexical label for isolated body part pictures. We compared the children's naming performances according to the location of the body parts (body parts vs. head features and also upper vs. lower limbs) or to their involvement in motor skills (distal segments, joints, and broader body parts). The results showed that the children's naming performance was better for facial body parts than for other body parts. Furthermore, it was found that the naming of body parts was better for body parts related to action. These findings suggest that the development of a spatial body representation shapes the elaboration of semantic body representation processing. Moreover, this influence was not limited to younger children. In our discussion of these results, we focus on the important role of action in the development of body representations and semantic organization.

  19. Measuring Beliefs in Centimeters: Private Knowledge Biases Preschoolers' and Adults' Representation of Others' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    A novel task, using a continuous spatial layout, was created to investigate the degree to which (in centimeters) 3-year-old children's ("N" = 63), 5-year-old children's ("N" = 60), and adults' ("N" = 60) own privileged knowledge of the location of an object biased their representation of a…

  20. Knowledge-based prediction of three-dimensional dose distributions for external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Satomi; Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate knowledge-based 3D dose prediction for external beam radiotherapy. Methods: Using previously treated plans as training data, an artificial neural network (ANN) was trained to predict a dose matrix based on patient-specific geometric and planning parameters, such as the closest distance (r) to planning target volume (PTV) and organ-at-risks (OARs). Twenty-three prostate and 43 stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) cases with at least one nearby OAR were studied. All were planned with volumetric-modulated arc therapy to prescription doses of 81 Gy for prostate and 12–30 Gy for SRS. Using these clinically approved plans, ANNs were trained to predict dose matrix and the predictive accuracy was evaluated using the dose difference between the clinical plan and prediction, δD = D{sub clin} − D{sub pred}. The mean (〈δD{sub r}〉), standard deviation (σ{sub δD{sub r}}), and their interquartile range (IQR) for the training plans were evaluated at a 2–3 mm interval from the PTV boundary (r{sub PTV}) to assess prediction bias and precision. Initially, unfiltered models which were trained using all plans in the cohorts were created for each treatment site. The models predict approximately the average quality of OAR sparing. Emphasizing a subset of plans that exhibited superior to the average OAR sparing during training, refined models were created to predict high-quality rectum sparing for prostate and brainstem sparing for SRS. Using the refined model, potentially suboptimal plans were identified where the model predicted further sparing of the OARs was achievable. Replans were performed to test if the OAR sparing could be improved as predicted by the model. Results: The refined models demonstrated highly accurate dose distribution prediction. For prostate cases, the average prediction bias for all voxels irrespective of organ delineation ranged from −1% to 0% with maximum IQR of 3% over r{sub PTV} ∈ [ − 6, 30] mm. The

  1. Professional Knowledge and Skills Required for Accounting Majors Who Intend to Become Auditors: Perceptions of External Auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Uyar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to ascertain the professional knowledge and the skills/attributes that are considered important by external auditors for a graduate who intends to be an auditor. For this purpose, we conducted a survey on external auditors in Turkey. The research has two dimensions: skills dimension (twenty one items and professional knowledge dimension (twenty four items. The results indicated that all skills except “knowledge of accounting software” are perceived to be important or very important for the auditing profession. Among the most important skills that graduates are expected to possess are ethics, teamwork, and honesty. The results also demonstrated that some courses are perceived to be extremely necessary, e.g. Auditing, Microsoft Office Programs, Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Statement Analysis, Financial Accounting, Capital Market Board Regulations, Cost Accounting, and Managerial Accounting. In addition, cross analyses indicated that there are significant differences among subgroups based on gender, education, auditing firm, experience, and job title.

  2. Application and Methodology of Knowledge Representation Based on Semantic Web%语义Web 知识表示方法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜来红

    2011-01-01

    To meet the requirement of knowledge representation, discovery and management for networked environment, methodology of knowledge representation based on semantic Web is put forward.Then as an example,enterprise resource semantic Web knowledge representation is realized by Protégé platform.%为满足网络环境下知识表示、发现和管理的需求,提出了基于语义Web的知识表示方案.以企业资源知识表示为例,利用Protege工具实现了企业资源知识的语义Web表示.

  3. Cybernetics: A Possible Solution for the "Knowledge Gap" between "External" and "Internal" in Evaluation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the knowledge gap between evaluators and the entity being evaluated: the dilemma of the knowledge of professional evaluators vs. the in-depth knowledge of the evaluated subjects. In order to optimize evaluative outcomes, the author suggests an approach based on ideas borrowed from the science of cybernetics as a…

  4. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  5. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  6. Externalizing Tacit Knowledge in Independent Documentary Film Production via Pattern Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shu Yuan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Taiwan locally made documentary has been received high regards at international movie festivals and by domestic reviewers. The independent documentary producers in Taiwan are different from the commercial documentary producers in other countries. Since these producers in Taiwan don’t have enough funds to have a big production team, they have to possess whole knowledge in documentary production. The knowledge is hidden in the producers’ mind which is difficult to express, share, and disseminate. It will be helpful for the dissemination and application of the knowledge, if we can extract the valued tacit knowledge and express it systematically. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the types and characteristics of tacit knowledge from 12 independent documentary producers through the in-depth interview based on the process of the documentary production in Taiwan. An “IF-THEN-BECAUSE” framework of coding was used to identify the tacit knowledge, and twenty types of tacit knowledge were identified by the study. This study uses the concepts of pattern languages to express the tacit knowledge through “material”, “viewpoint” , “production”, “post-production” and “distribution and miscellaneous” classified from the literature, and integrate with the coding framework of “IF-THEN-BECAUSE” to display the tacit knowledge and to form the pattern language of independent documentary production. The study finds out that to utilize “IF-THEN-BECAUSE” as a coding framework and expression the outcome of knowledge extraction helps interviewer to identify tacit knowledge context of interviewee how they using the knowledge. This process is also good for tacit knowledge extraction. The outcome of tacit knowledge extractioncan systematically display the whole knowledge structure and context of documentary film-producing process. It is helpful for readers to have a comprehensive tacit knowledge that enables novice

  7. External Knowledge Sourcing and Green Innovation Growth with Environmental and Energy Regulations: Evidence from Manufacturing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the slacks-based measure-directional distance function (SBM-DDF, 2009 method for deriving the “Green Innovation Growth” rates of 28 manufacturing industries in China. The results indicate that the overall level of green innovation growth in China’s manufacturing is relatively low, with a declining trend. The tradeoffs among energy, environment and economy are rather sharp, and the “Porter Effect (1995” (environmental regulation will promote green technology innovation is not currently realized quickly in manufacturing. These evaluations imply an unsustainable development model in China, with significant differences among industries. By using a dynamic panel threshold model and employing an industry-level panel dataset for 2008–2014, we show that external knowledge sourcing has a significant negative impact on green innovation growth but with different constraints on R&D levels among industries. With the strengthening of R&D levels, gradually surpassing “critical mass”, the negative role of external knowledge sourcing in driving this mechanism becomes smaller and smaller; it has a non-linear relationship with the “threshold effect”. Consequently, we provide insights into the relationship among energy consumption, environmental pollution and technology innovation, and show how the heterogeneity of the R&D threshold affects differences in external knowledge sourcing and green innovation growth. These insights lead to a better understanding of the driving force, realizing path and policy design for green innovation growth.

  8. Knowledge and vision engines: a new generation of image understanding systems combining computational intelligence methods and model-based knowledge representation and reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvychko, Igor

    2000-10-01

    Vision is a part of a larger informational system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolving ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback, and provide image understanding, that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. The solution to Image Understanding problems is suggested in form of active multilevel hierarchical networks represented dually as discrete and continuous structures. Computational intelligence methods transform images into model-based knowledge representation. Certainty Dimension converts attractors in neural networks into fuzzy sets, preserving input-output relationships. Symbols naturally emerge in such networks. Symbolic Space is a dual structure that combines closed distributed space split by the set of fuzzy regions, and discrete set of symbols equivalent to the cores of regions represented as points in the Certainty dimension. Model Space carries knowledge in form of links and relations between the symbols, and supports graph, diagrammatic and topological operations. Composition of spaces works similar to M. Minsky frames and agents, Gerard Edelman's maps of maps, etc., combining machine learning, classification and analogy together with induction, deduction and other methods of higher level model-based reasoning. Based on such principles, an Image Understanding system can convert images into knowledge models, effectively resolving uncertainty and ambiguity via feedback projections and does not require supercomputers.

  9. Enhancing Entity Level Knowledge Representation and Environmental Sensing in COMBATXXI Using Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of...Representation And Environmental Sensing In COMBATXXI Using Unmanned Aircraft Systems 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Teters, James C. II 7...trip to Disneyland the first thought is the modes of “travel.” Travel could happen by driving, sailing, swimming (if you are a good swimmer) or flying

  10. Efficient Results in Semantic Interoperability for Health Care. Findings from the Section on Knowledge Representation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualmia, L F; Charlet, J

    2016-11-10

    To summarize excellent current research in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM) within the health and medical care domain. We provide a synopsis of the 2016 IMIA selected articles as well as a related synthetic overview of the current and future field activities. A first step of the selection was performed through MEDLINE querying with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the KRM section. The second step of the selection was completed by the two section editors who separately evaluated the set of 1,432 articles. The third step of the selection consisted of a collective work that merged the evaluation results to retain 15 articles for peer-review. The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook's section on Knowledge Representation and Management has yielded four excellent and interesting articles regarding semantic interoperability for health care by gathering heterogeneous sources (knowledge and data) and auditing ontologies. In the first article, the authors present a solution based on standards and Semantic Web technologies to access distributed and heterogeneous datasets in the domain of breast cancer clinical trials. The second article describes a knowledge-based recommendation system that relies on ontologies and Semantic Web rules in the context of chronic diseases dietary. The third article is related to concept-recognition and text-mining to derive common human diseases model and a phenotypic network of common diseases. In the fourth article, the authors highlight the need for auditing the SNOMED CT. They propose to use a crowdbased method for ontology engineering. The current research activities further illustrate the continuous convergence of Knowledge Representation and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care by proposing solutions to cope with the problem of semantic interoperability. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools able to

  11. Effects of Knowledge Representation Format and Hypermedia Instruction on Metacognitive Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayersman, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of hypermedia, memory, and metacognition focuses on a study of graduate students that examined how hypermedia instruction can influence structures of knowledge, format selection for graphical descriptions of hypermedia-related information, hypermedia knowledge, concept-map complexity, and metacognitive accuracy. Future research is…

  12. An Object-Oriented Approach to Knowledge Representation in a Biomedical Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, M.; Paton, R.; Speel, P.H.W.M.; Speel, P.H.W.M.; Rada, R.

    1994-01-01

    An object-oriented approach has been applied to the different stages involved in developing a knowledge base about insulin metabolism. At an early stage the separation of terminological and assertional knowledge was made. The terminological component was developed by medical experts and represented

  13. The development of the representation of conceptual knowledge in memory and the design of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge comprises facts, concepts and principles. Skills are categorized as either cognitive or motor skills, which are essential for solving problems. The acquisition of knowledge and skills is guided by instructions and by presenting problems to students. Firstly, the instructions for acquiring

  14. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: Analysis and Representation of Student Conceptions Concerning Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Problems concerning conceptual change from existing knowledge (accumulated from everyday experiences or earlier teaching) to new scientific knowledge concerning natural phenomena are fundamentally the same for Western and non-Western students. However, difficulties experienced by non-Western students are magnified by factors such as their cultural…

  15. Quality of children's knowledge representations in digital text comprehension: Evidence from pathfinder networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fesel, S.S.; Segers, P.C.J.; Clariana, R.B.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Children in primary school read digital texts for school purposes while current research has shown that forming a coherent knowledge structure of such texts is challenging. We compared the quality of ninety 6th grade children's knowledge structures after the reading of four different hierarchically

  16. Quality of children's knowledge representations in digital text comprehension: Evidence from pathfinder networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fesel, S.S.; Segers, P.C.J.; Clariana, R.B.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Children in primary school read digital texts for school purposes while current research has shown that forming a coherent knowledge structure of such texts is challenging. We compared the quality of ninety 6th grade children's knowledge structures after the reading of four different hierarchically

  17. "Eating at Us": Representations of Knowledge in the Activist Documentary Film "Food, Inc."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Rick; Swan, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Writing on social movement learning and environmental adult education invokes particular views on knowledge that need further examination and development in relation to food social movements. Although food social movements take different forms, the paper argues that the politics of food knowledge is at the centre of many of these movements.…

  18. A flexible representation of omic knowledge for thorough analysis of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demura Taku

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand microarray data reasonably in the context of other existing biological knowledge, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the data utilizing every aspect of available omic knowledge libraries. So far, a number of bioinformatics tools have been developed. However, each of them is restricted to deal with one type of omic knowledge, e.g., pathways, interactions or gene ontology. Now that the varieties of omic knowledge are expanding, analysis tools need a way to deal with any type of omic knowledge. Hence, we have designed the Omic Space Markup Language (OSML that can represent a wide range of omic knowledge, and also, we have developed a tool named GSCope3, which can statistically analyze microarray data in comparison with the OSML-formatted omic knowledge data. Results In order to test the applicability of OSML to represent a variety of omic knowledge specifically useful for analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, we have constructed a Biological Knowledge Library (BiKLi by converting eight different types of omic knowledge into OSML-formatted datasets. We applied GSCope3 and BiKLi to previously reported A. thaliana microarray data, so as to extract any additional insights from the data. As a result, we have discovered a new insight that lignin formation resists drought stress and activates transcription of many water channel genes to oppose drought stress; and most of the 20S proteasome subunit genes show similar expression profiles under drought stress. In addition to this novel discovery, similar findings previously reported were also quickly confirmed using GSCope3 and BiKLi. Conclusion GSCope3 can statistically analyze microarray data in the context of any OSML-represented omic knowledge. OSML is not restricted to a specific data type structure, but it can represent a wide range of omic knowledge. It allows us to convert new types of omic knowledge into datasets that can be

  19. Product Knowledge Representation and Integration Technology in Web-based Collaborative Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Wentao; TIAN Ling; LUO Wei; TONG Bingshu

    2006-01-01

    Because of the complexity of modern product design, the web-based collaborative product design aroused considerable attention of manufacturers in the last few years with the development of Internet technology. But it is still hardly achievable due to the difficulty to share product knowledge from different designers and systems. In this paper, we firstly create an ontology-based product model, which consists of PPR (Product, Process and Resource) concept models and PPR characteristic models, to describe product knowledge. Afterwards, how to represent the model in XML is discussed in detail. Then the mechanism of product knowledge collection and integration from different application systems based on interface agents is introduced. At last, a web-based open-architecture product knowledge integrating and sharing prototype system AD-HUB is developed. An example is also given and it shows that the theory discussed in this paper is efficient to represent and integrate product knowledge in web-based collaborative design processes.

  20. Representation of Industrial Knowledge - as a Basis for Developing and Maintaning Product Configurators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    -oriented companies such benefits as: shorter lead times, improved quality of product specifications, preservation of knowledge, use of fewer resources for specifying products, optimized products, less routine work, improved certainty of delivery, and less time needed for training new employees. Unfortunately...... relevant domain knowledge. Despite this fact, research in the knowledge acquisition process of configuration projects is an area that has been much neglected till now. Therefore, this thesis deals with some of the most important aspects of the knowledge acquisition process in configuration projects...... a software perspective. This is done by proposing definitions of the modelling techniques that a software-based documentation system should support. To test the definitions, a software prototype is developed. In conclusion, this thesis provides new insights into the knowledge acquisition process...

  1. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Caribbean Small Island Developing States: Integrating Local and External Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Kurvits

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS are vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise, invasive species, ocean acidification, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and changing hazard regimes including hurricanes, floods and drought. Given high dependencies in Caribbean SIDS on natural resources for livelihoods, a focus on ecosystems and their interaction with people is essential for climate change adaptation. Increasingly, ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches are being highlighted as an approach to address climate change impacts. Specifically, EbA encourages the use of local and external knowledge about ecosystems to identify climate change adaptation approaches. This paper critically reviews EbA in Caribbean SIDS, focusing on the need to integrate local and external knowledge. An analysis of current EbA in the Caribbean is undertaken alongside a review of methodologies used to integrate local and external expertise for EbA. Finally key gaps, lessons learnt and suggested ways forward for EbA in Caribbean SIDS and potentially further afield are identified.

  2. Aware Computing in Spatial Language Understanding Guided by Cognitively Inspired Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yokota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.

  3. Representation of Structural Geology Knowledge with Ontology: Design and Implementation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, H. A.

    2004-12-01

    Ontology of a specific geological discipline is a domain model providing a vocabulary about key geological concepts and their relationships, and processes, theories, and principles in that field. Geologists apply existing domain knowledge when they study a geologic object such as the San Andreas Fault. The knowledge is based, explicitly and/or implicitly, on geologists' conceptualization or view of the world of geological objects, concepts, and their meaning and relationships. Ontology represents the domain knowledge by explicitly and formally specifying such conceptualizations shared by a community of geoscientists in a specific domain (e.g., stratigraphy). Ontology is used to more efficiently and formally share, reuse, and analyze domain knowledge (not just data), and to identify its implicit assumptions. Building an ontology begins by defining the purpose and scope of the ontology, and involves capturing the domain knowledge by identifying, evaluating, and documenting the concepts and their relations. These activities lead to the definition of classes representing the key domain concepts, in a taxonomic hierarchy, and their properties and values. This paper discusses the design principles, development process, life cycle, and methods required to build domain ontologies in geosciences. The Protégé 2000 ontology-building tool and OWL markup language are applied to build an ontology for a part of the structural geology domain.

  4. Assessment lessons from K-12 education research: Knowledge representation, learning, and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    2012-02-01

    Research on teaching to the test in K-12 settings has documented the lack of generalized understanding of underlying principles in tested subjects. This is similar to the experience of physics students who can complete computational problems without conceptual understanding. The PER community is well aware of the importance of explicit representations of learning goals as well as the role of the formative assessment process, especially feedback and self assessment, in promoting or deterring students' engagement and willingness to take responsibility for their own learning. Key principles from socio-cultural learning theory and research on motivation are summarized and used to identify instructional and assessment practices that hold the most promise for engaging students in developing deep conceptual understanding.

  5. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-04-05

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations.

  6. Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Personalized Web-Based e-Learning Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation that is so natural for teaching by humans is a challenging issue for electronic learning tools. Adaptation in classic teaching is based on observations made about students during teaching. Similar idea was employed in user-adapted (personalized) eLearning applications. Knowledge about...... a user inferred from user interactions with the eLeanrning systems is used to adapt o®ered learning resources and guide a learner through them. This keynote gives an overview about knowledge and rules taken into account in current adaptive eLearning prototypes when adapting learning instructions....... Adaptation is usually based on knowledge about learning esources and users. Rules are used for heuristics to match the learning resources with learners and infer adaptation decisions....

  7. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  8. Internal and External Regulation to Support Knowledge Construction and Convergence in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Margarida; Lambropoulos, Niki

    2011-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) activities aim to promote collaborative knowledge construction and convergence. During the CSCL activity, the students should regulate their learning activity, at the individual and collective level. This implies an organisation cost related to the coordination of the activity with the team-mates…

  9. A Bayesian network approach to knowledge integration and representation of farm irrigation: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. J.; Robertson, D. E.; Haines, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    Irrigation is important to many agricultural businesses but also has implications for catchment health. A considerable body of knowledge exists on how irrigation management affects farm business and catchment health. However, this knowledge is fragmentary; is available in many forms such as qualitative and quantitative; is dispersed in scientific literature, technical reports, and the minds of individuals; and is of varying degrees of certainty. Bayesian networks allow the integration of dispersed knowledge into quantitative systems models. This study describes the development, validation, and application of a Bayesian network model of farm irrigation in the Shepparton Irrigation Region of northern Victoria, Australia. In this first paper we describe the process used to integrate a range of sources of knowledge to develop a model of farm irrigation. We describe the principal model components and summarize the reaction to the model and its development process by local stakeholders. Subsequent papers in this series describe model validation and the application of the model to assess the regional impact of historical and future management intervention.

  10. Quantitative imaging biomarker ontology (QIBO) for knowledge representation of biomedical imaging biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Andrew J; Liu, Tiffany Ting; Savig, Erica; Suzek, Baris E; Ouellette, M; Danagoulian, J; Wernsing, G; Rubin, Daniel L; Paik, David

    2013-08-01

    A widening array of novel imaging biomarkers is being developed using ever more powerful clinical and preclinical imaging modalities. These biomarkers have demonstrated effectiveness in quantifying biological processes as they occur in vivo and in the early prediction of therapeutic outcomes. However, quantitative imaging biomarker data and knowledge are not standardized, representing a critical barrier to accumulating medical knowledge based on quantitative imaging data. We use an ontology to represent, integrate, and harmonize heterogeneous knowledge across the domain of imaging biomarkers. This advances the goal of developing applications to (1) improve precision and recall of storage and retrieval of quantitative imaging-related data using standardized terminology; (2) streamline the discovery and development of novel imaging biomarkers by normalizing knowledge across heterogeneous resources; (3) effectively annotate imaging experiments thus aiding comprehension, re-use, and reproducibility; and (4) provide validation frameworks through rigorous specification as a basis for testable hypotheses and compliance tests. We have developed the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Ontology (QIBO), which currently consists of 488 terms spanning the following upper classes: experimental subject, biological intervention, imaging agent, imaging instrument, image post-processing algorithm, biological target, indicated biology, and biomarker application. We have demonstrated that QIBO can be used to annotate imaging experiments with standardized terms in the ontology and to generate hypotheses for novel imaging biomarker-disease associations. Our results established the utility of QIBO in enabling integrated analysis of quantitative imaging data.

  11. Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Personalized Web-Based e-Learning Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation that is so natural for teaching by humans is a challenging issue for electronic learning tools. Adaptation in classic teaching is based on observations made about students during teaching. Similar idea was employed in user-adapted (personalized) eLearning applications. Knowledge about...

  12. Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2016-01-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and

  13. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  14. PDON: Parkinson's disease ontology for representation and modeling of the Parkinson's disease knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Scordis, Phil; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Page, Matt; Müller, Bernd; Springstubbe, Stephan; Wüllner, Ullrich; Scheller, Dieter; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-09-22

    Despite the unprecedented and increasing amount of data, relatively little progress has been made in molecular characterization of mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease. In the area of Parkinson's research, there is a pressing need to integrate various pieces of information into a meaningful context of presumed disease mechanism(s). Disease ontologies provide a novel means for organizing, integrating, and standardizing the knowledge domains specific to disease in a compact, formalized and computer-readable form and serve as a reference for knowledge exchange or systems modeling of disease mechanism. The Parkinson's disease ontology was built according to the life cycle of ontology building. Structural, functional, and expert evaluation of the ontology was performed to ensure the quality and usability of the ontology. A novelty metric has been introduced to measure the gain of new knowledge using the ontology. Finally, a cause-and-effect model was built around PINK1 and two gene expression studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-annotated to demonstrate the usability of the ontology. The Parkinson's disease ontology with a subclass-based taxonomic hierarchy covers the broad spectrum of major biomedical concepts from molecular to clinical features of the disease, and also reflects different views on disease features held by molecular biologists, clinicians and drug developers. The current version of the ontology contains 632 concepts, which are organized under nine views. The structural evaluation showed the balanced dispersion of concept classes throughout the ontology. The functional evaluation demonstrated that the ontology-driven literature search could gain novel knowledge not present in the reference Parkinson's knowledge map. The ontology was able to answer specific questions related to Parkinson's when evaluated by experts. Finally, the added value of the Parkinson's disease ontology is demonstrated by ontology-driven modeling of PINK1

  15. Investigating Pre-Service Science Teachers (PSTs)’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Through Extended Content Representation (CoRe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, R. R.; Liliasari, L.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to attain an insight into pre-service science teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) as an integrative competency that is addressed by 21st century skills. The methods used in the study was descriptive. Nineteen pre-service science teachers (PSTs) of an educational university in Indonesia were involved in a semester long school science course. The course mainly develop students’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) by utilizing content representation (CoRe) template. Furthermore an infusion of technological knowledge (TK) analysis led to the study of their TPACK by extending the template with a question in line to TK. The extended CoRe and self-reported survey were employed as instruments. The analysis of data used were quantitative and qualitative technique to obtain the insight into PSTs’ PCK and TK. The results shows contrary value of PCK and TK identified by CoRe template to those measured by self-reported survey. However, the PSTs perceive their TPACK much higher, that, is 74.74%. Further investigation regarding PSTs ability to compose lesson plan was recommended for further research to capture more comprehensive insight into PSTs’ TPACK.

  16. Developing Knowledge Representation in Emergency Medical Assistance by Using Semantic Web Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Heloise; Rocha, Cristiano C.; Todesco, José Leomar; Dantas, M. A. R.

    In this research, a knowledge-based architecture for a mobile emergency medical assistance system is presented. It is based on the France SAMU model and dopts the ontology and mobile computing approaches. The contribution is characterized for providing routines and medical protocol specifications for specialists through the use of their natural language, collecting elements from this language to develop an ontology domain, and using a semantic cache for an enhanced utilization of mobile devices. A prototype of the proposal was implemented in order to support specialists during a day-to-day basis considering knowledge engineering aided by mobile computing techniques. These differentiated characteristics have proved to be successfully at early experiments utilizing the implemented prototype.

  17. CADMIUM II: acquisition and representation of radiological knowledge for computerized decision support in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, E.; Taylor, P.; Lee, R.; Fox, J.; Sordo, M.; Todd-Pokropek, A.

    2000-01-01

    CADMIUM II is a system for the interpretation of mammograms. A novel aspect of the system is that it combines symbolic reasoning with image processing, in contrast with most other approaches, which use only image processing and rely on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to classify mammograms. A problem of ANNs is that the advice they give cannot be traced back to communicable diagnostic inferences. Our approach is to provide advice based on explicit knowledge about the diagnostic process. To this end, we have conducted a knowledge elicitation study which looked at the descriptors used by expert radiologists when making diagnostic decisions about mammograms. The analysis of the radiologists' reports yielded a set of salient diagnostic features. These were used to inform the advice provided by the symbolic decision making component of CADMIUM II. PMID:11079834

  18. Representações dos professores sobre saber histórico escolar Teachers' representations about schoool historical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldimar Pontes Cardoso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta alguns resultados de uma pesquisa de campo realizada em 2002 com o objetivo de compreender como os professores de História do ensino médio representam o saber histórico escolar que produzem cotidianamente na relação com seus alunos. A pesquisa foi formulada com base na teoria das representações de Henri Lefebvre e adotou a metodologia da observação participante interpretativa proposta por Frederick Erickson. Foram observadas aulas de quatro professores de História de uma escola da rede oficial de ensino do Estado de São Paulo durante todo o ano letivo. A análise dos dados sugere que as representações dos professores são marcadas pela oposição sistemática aos chamados "professores tradicionais" e aos "historiadores positivistas".This article presents some results of a field research carried out in 2002 with the aim of understanding how History teachers in the secondary school represent the school historical knowledge produced daily in their relationship with the students. The research was formulated based on Henri Lefebvre's representation theory and adopted an interpretative participant observation methodology proposed by Frederick Erickson. Four government school teachers in the State of Sao Paulo were observed during the whole academic year. The data analysis suggests that the teachers' representations are marked by a systematic opposition to the so called.

  19. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Communication and Planning Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    based on a notion called granules and processes that are continuous are modeled discretely in h manner that permits serial as well as concurrent...knowledge of the plan, search mechanism The physical knowled ’e. called Phvsics ^ I 1-3 5 i BBN Laboratories Inc. Report No 6636 g...34""^"^M^^^lt^^-^t^Ti-M^n^ i&n BBN Laboratories Inc. Report No. 6636 Throughout the peper , we consider how these formal results affect

  20. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2017-03-31

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  1. Where is meaning when form is gone? Knowledge representation on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence A. Brooks

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that legacy methods of knowledge represenation do not transfer well to a Web environment. Legacy methods assume discrete documents that persist through time. Web documents are often products of dynamic scripts, database manipulations and caching or distributed processing. The size and rate of growth of the Web prohibits labor-intensive methods such as manual cataloging. This essay suggests that an appropriate future home of content-bearing metadata is extensible markup technologies. Meaning can be incorporated in Extensible Markup Language (XML various ways such as semanticaly rich markup tags, attributes and links among XML sources.

  2. Knowledge structure representation and automated updates in intelligent information management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Stephen; Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A continuing effort to apply rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with projected Space Station-era information management systems is examined. In particular, timely updating of the various databases and knowledge structures within the proposed intelligent information management system (IIMS) is critical to support decision making processes. Because of the significantly large amounts of data entering the IIMS on a daily basis, information updates will need to be automatically performed with some systems requiring that data be incorporated and made available to users within a few hours. Meeting these demands depends first, on the design and implementation of information structures that are easily modified and expanded, and second, on the incorporation of intelligent automated update techniques that will allow meaningful information relationships to be established. Potential techniques are studied for developing such an automated update capability and IIMS update requirements are examined in light of results obtained from the IIMS prototyping effort.

  3. The Peasant Poor and Images of Poverty: Finnish Proverbs as Discursive Representations of Cultural Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Stark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the core idea of poverty proverbs as hints of cultural knowledge in old Finnish rural countryside. Until World War II, most of the Finns lived in a high-risk society with only few institutions to guarantee their safety and well-being. The continuous threat of absolute poverty was evident for the majority of the Finns. The basis of this research is 204 proverbs that contain the words poor, poverty, pity or unfortunate. The proverbs analyzed and classified here were collected in the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society between the years 1885 and 1950. The ideational level of the proverbs in the context of social history is crucial in revealing the schematic structure that people use to communicate about rural poverty.

  4. Expert Knowledge Representation in Bilingual e-Dictionaries. A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ortego Antón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of new concepts and terms has risen rapidly due to scientific and technological development. Additionally, expert knowledge, which used to be exclusive for experts, also interests middlebrow language users. Compilers of e-dictionaries, aware of this change, are gathering in new editions specialised terms that have become part of our daily lives. In the current globalised world, the need to transfer scientific knowledge to other languages arises, so one of the main tools that translators and, specially, translation trainees employ to look up an unknown term are bilingual dictionaries. Hence, we consider that the study of the treatment given to computing terms in bilingual dictionaries is a field that needs to be reviewed. From an ad hoc corpus composed of texts from the main journals published in the UK and the USA, the most frequent terms belonging to computing are extracted using TermoStat Web 3.0 (Drouin, 2003. Then, we verify how terms are gathered in the dictionary wordlist, if they are labelled or not, which translation equivalents are given and if they are followed by contextual data. In addition, we check the use of the given equivalents in two Spanish reference corpora: Corpus del Español and Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual. The results from the analysis might suggest a need to take into account new proposals in order to implement the data gathered in these reference works as well as inform new procedures in the design and use of these tools from the point of view of translators as main users.

  5. Knowledge representation and management: benefits and challenges of the semantic web for the fields of KRM and NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A-M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize excellent current research in the field of knowledge representation and management (KRM). A synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2011 is provided and an attempt to highlight the current trends in the field is sketched. This last decade, with the extension of the text-based web towards a semantic-structured web, NLP techniques have experienced a renewed interest in knowledge extraction. This trend is corroborated through the five papers selected for the KRM section of the Yearbook 2011. They all depict outstanding studies that exploit NLP technologies whenever possible in order to accurately extract meaningful information from various biomedical textual sources. Bringing semantic structure to the meaningful content of textual web pages affords the user with cooperative sharing and intelligent finding of electronic data. As exemplified by the best paper selection, more and more advanced biomedical applications aim at exploiting the meaningful richness of free-text documents in order to generate semantic metadata and recently to learn and populate domain ontologies. These later are becoming a key piece as they allow portraying the semantics of the Semantic Web content. Maintaining their consistency with documents and semantic annotations that refer to them is a crucial challenge of the Semantic Web for the coming years.

  6. Bridging Real World Semantics to Model World Semantics for Taxonomy Based Knowledge Representation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-Hum Kwon; Chee-Yang Song; Chang-Joo Moon; Doo-Kwon Baik

    2005-01-01

    As a mean to map ontology concepts, a similarity technique is employed. Especially a context dependent concept mapping is tackled, which needs contextual information from knowledge taxonomy. Context-based semantic similarity differs from the real world similarity in that it requires contextual information to calculate similarity. The notion of semantic coupling is introduced to derive similarity for a taxonomy-based system. The semantic coupling shows the degree of semantic cohesiveness for a group of concepts toward a given context. In order to calculate the semantic coupling effectively, the edge counting method is revisited for measuring basic semantic similarity by considering the weighting attributes from where they affect an edge's strength. The attributes of scaling depth effect, semantic relation type, and virtual connection for the edge counting are considered. Furthermore, how the proposed edge counting method could be well adapted for calculating context-based similarity is showed. Thorough experimental results are provided for both edge counting and context-based similarity. The results of proposed edge counting were encouraging compared with other combined approaches, and the context-based similarity also showed understandable results. The novel contributions of this paper come from two aspects.First, the similarity is increased to the viable level for edge counting. Second, a mechanism is provided to derive a contextbased similarity in taxonomy-based system, which has emerged as a hot issue in the literature such as Semantic Web, MDR,and other ontology-mapping environments.

  7. On Equivalence of FIS and ELM for Interpretable Rule-Based Knowledge Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shen Yuong; Yap, Keem Siah; Yap, Hwa Jen; Tan, Shing Chiang; Chang, Siow Wee

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy extreme learning machine (F-ELM) that embeds fuzzy membership functions and rules into the hidden layer of extreme learning machine (ELM). Similar to the concept of ELM that employed the random initialization technique, three parameters of F-ELM are randomly assigned. They are the standard deviation of the membership functions, matrix-C (rule-combination matrix), and matrix-D [don't care (DC) matrix]. Fuzzy if-then rules are formulated by the rule-combination Matrix of F-ELM, and a DC approach is adopted to minimize the number of input attributes in the rules. Furthermore, F-ELM utilizes the output weights of the ELM to form the target class and confidence factor for each of the rules. This is to indicate that the corresponding consequent parameters are determined analytically. The operations of F-ELM are equivalent to a fuzzy inference system. Several benchmark data sets and a real world fault detection and diagnosis problem have been used to empirically evaluate the efficacy of the proposed F-ELM in handling pattern classification tasks. The results show that the accuracy rates of F-ELM are comparable (if not superior) to ELM with distinctive ability of providing explicit knowledge in the form of interpretable rule base.

  8. Representations of knowledge about dominoes in demented and normal elderly players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, W W; English, S; Dean, K; Rogers, C L; Olson, K A

    1999-04-01

    1. Dementia patients who retain musical and game-playing skills exhibit impaired performance on explicit memory tests of knowledge about their retained skill. 2. Dementia patients who retain skill at playing dominoes can answer complex questions about the play of the game almost as well as normal elderly domino players when the questions are presented with real dominoes. 3. The aim of this study was to determine if skilled dementia patients could answer questions about domino play when the stimuli were two-dimensional drawings of dominoes. 4. Seventeen dementia patients and eight normal elderly domino players were tested on two forms of the Domino Quiz: first with real dominoes, then with two-dimensional drawings; other neuropsychological tests were given at the same time. 5. Fourteen of the 17 patients and all of the controls showed no decline in answering questions about domino play when two-dimensional drawings were used. These patients showed retained symbolic processing of information about dominoes despite declines in overall mental status, generation of words from specific semantic categories, and recognition memory for domino terminology. 6. Because the 14 patients with retained domino skill performed as accurately as controls on both administrations of a letter cancellation task, the ability to process familiar symbols may be important to their game-playing skill.

  9. Cognitive Dissonance as an Instructional Tool for Understanding Chemical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, David; Clarebout, Geraldine; Elen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Previous research on multiple external representations (MER) indicates that sequencing representations (compared with presenting them as a whole) can, in some cases, increase conceptual understanding if there is interference between internal and external representations. We tested this mechanism by sequencing different combinations of scientific and abstract chemical representations and presenting them to 133 learners with low prior knowledge of the represented domain. The results provide insight into three separate mechanisms of learning with MER. (1) A memory (number of ideas reproduced) and (2) an accuracy (correctness of these ideas) effects occur when two representations are presented in a sequence. An accuracy and a (3) redundancy (number of redundant ideas remembered) effects occur when three representations are presented in a sequence. A necessary precondition for these effects is that descriptive formats are placed before depictive formats. The identified effects are analyzed in terms of the concept of cognitive dissonance.

  10. Variation in external representations as part of the classroom lecture:An investigation of virtual cell animations in introductory photosynthesis instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Eric E; Reindl, Katie M; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G; Schroeder, Noah L; White, Alan R

    2017-05-01

    The use of external representations (ERs) to introduce concepts in undergraduate biology has become increasingly common. Two of the most prevalent are static images and dynamic animations. While previous studies comparing static images and dynamic animations have resulted in somewhat conflicting findings in regards to learning outcomes, the benefits of each have been shown individually. Using ERs developed by the Virtual Cell Animation project, we aim to further investigate student learning using different ERs as part of an introductory biology lecture. We focus our study on the topic of photosynthesis as reports have noted that students struggle with a number of basic photosynthesis concepts. Students (n = 167) in ten sections of introductory biology laboratory were introduced to photosynthesis concepts by instructional lectures differing only in the format of the embedded ERs. Normalized gain scores were calculated, showing that students who learned with dynamic animations outperformed students who learned from static images on the posttest. The results of this study provide possible instructional guidelines for those delivering photosynthesis instruction in the introductory biology classroom. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):226-234, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Limited knowledge of fraction representations differentiates middle school students with mathematics learning disability (dyscalculia) versus low mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Myers, Gwen F; Lewis, Katherine E; Hanich, Laurie B; Murphy, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions equivalent to one-half, fraction pairs with common denominators) differentiates those with mathematics learning disability (MLD) versus low achievement (LA) or typical achievement (TA) in mathematics and whether long-term learning trajectories of this knowledge also differentiate these groups. We confirmed that although fourth graders with TA (n=93) were more accurate in evaluating "one-half" fractions than in evaluating "non-half" fractions (until they reached ceiling performance levels on both types of fractions), children with MLD (n=11) did not show a one-half advantage until Grade 7 and did not reach ceiling performance even by Grade 8. Both the MLD and LA groups had early difficulties with fractions, but by Grade 5 the LA group approached performance levels of the TA group and deviated from the MLD group. All groups showed a visual model advantage over Arabic number representation of fractions, but this advantage was short-lived for the TA group (because ceiling level was achieved across formats), whereas it was slightly more persistent for the LA group and persisted through Grade 8 for children with MLD. Thus, difficulties with fractions persist through Grade 8 for many students, but the nature and trajectories of those difficulties vary across children with math difficulties (MLD or LA).

  12. How to make a good animation: A grounded cognition model of how visual representation design affects the construction of abstract physics knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongzhou; Gladding, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor's intuition, which leads to a significant variance in their effectiveness. In this paper we propose a cognitive mechanism based on grounded cognition, suggesting that visual perception affects understanding by activating "perceptual symbols": the basic cognitive unit used by the brain to construct a concept. A good visual representation activates perceptual symbols that are essential for the construction of the represented concept, whereas a bad representation does the opposite. As a proof of concept, we conducted a clinical experiment in which participants received three different versions of a multimedia tutorial teaching the integral expression of electric potential. The three versions were only different by the details of the visual representation design, only one of which contained perceptual features that activate perceptual symbols essential for constructing the idea of "accumulation." On a following post-test, participants receiving this version of tutorial significantly outperformed those who received the other two versions of tutorials designed to mimic conventional visual representations used in classrooms.

  13. Representation of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    construct an ISA link from CLYDE to BIRD to make the match possible. The matcher would bind BIRD-? to the node CLYDE, OWN-? to OWN-, a, nd NEST-? to...which references the element most recently added to the context. -- A new rule, i.e., a rule/ binding instantiation that has not occurred previously. -- A...handling mixed-initiative dialogues, Indirect answers, and anaphoric references--could be facilitated by the ability to provide expectations and

  14. Knowledge Representation in PARKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    vehicle) (isa [road-vehicle] [vehicle]) (make-category ’car) (isa [car) [road-vehicle]) (make-category ’plymouth) (isa [plymouth] [ carl ) (make-category...J. Haugeland, editor, The MIT Press. Cambridge. MA, 1981, 95-128. REFERENCES 29 [15] Nebel , Bernhard, "Computational Complexity of Terminolog- ical

  15. The inner representation of the external world - from conditioned reflexes to high level mental functions in the light of Nobel Prizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilágyi T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the seminal results of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Laureates are presented. First, a historical review of the development of our knowledge is provided along with the major paradigm shifts, by looking at the Nobel prizes awarded in the field of neuroscience in the last 110 years. We outline the major discoveries that were necessary for humankind to pass through the road leading to the remarkable understanding of high level mental functions, which led to this year’s Nobel Prize award. Next, the ground breaking discoveries of this year Nobel laureates are presented, which provide insights how neural representations of the environment are formed in the association cortices. These cortical areas are many synapses away from sensory receptors and motor outputs, and their activity do not reflect directly the activation patterns of the receptor population, but depends more strongly on intrinsic cortical computations. We also present how ensembles of specialized cells work together to compute complex cognitive functions and behaviour.

  16. [Study of knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation in sports instructors of public sport centers in Asturias (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cuervo, Coral; Cuartas Álvarez, Tatiana; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation (AED) in sport instructors working in public sport centers in Asturias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on sports instructors in May 2014, by completing a self-administered questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of AED, with 25 items and four possible answers, only one valid, divided into five categories (emergency medical system in Asturias, initial assessment, circulation,airway and use of AED). Age, gender, work experience as sports instructor, previous training courses, education and training and employment contract were studied as epidemiological variables. A total 26 questionnaires (52%) were collected in public sports centers, and 84% of total responses were correct. It should be emphasized that among the wrong answers, 42.30% did not know what was the first action in a cardiac arrest, and 36.62% did not know how to perform a complete cardiopulmonary resuscitation if the person affected had a perioral injury, with 46.15% not knowing how to respond to a cardiac arrest due to drowning. It is recommended to include the management of cardiac arrest in their workplace in the training plans and the continuing education of sports instructors, at least every two years, according to national laws and laws from Asturias, including also training on the use and management of AED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Promoting pedagogical content knowledge development for early career secondary teachers in science and technology using content representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John; Eames, Chris; Hume, Anne; Lockley, John

    2012-11-01

    Background: This research addressed the key area of early career teacher education and aimed to explore the use of a 'content representation' (CoRe) as a mediational tool to develop early career secondary teacher pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study was situated in the subject areas of science and technology, where sound teacher knowledge is particularly important to student engagement. Purpose: The study was designed to examine whether such a tool (a CoRe), co-designed by an early career secondary teacher with expert content and pedagogy specialists, can enhance the PCK of early career teachers. The research questions were: How can experts in content and pedagogy work together with early career teachers to develop one science topic CoRe and one technology topic CoRe to support the development of PCK for early career secondary teachers? How does the use of a collaboratively designed CoRe affect the planning of an early career secondary teacher in science or technology? How has engagement in the development and use of an expert-informed CoRe developed an early career teacher's PCK? Sample: The research design incorporated a unique partnership between two expert classroom teachers, two content experts, four early career teachers, and four researchers experienced in science and technology education. Design: This study employed an interpretivist-based methodology and an action research approach within a four-case study design. Data were gathered using qualitative research methods focused on semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Results: The study indicated that CoRes, developed through this collaborative process, helped the early career teachers focus on the big picture of the topic, emphasize particularly relevant areas of content and consider alternative ways of planning for their teaching. Conclusions: This paper presents an analysis of the process of CoRe development by the teacher-expert partnerships and the effect that had on

  18. Friends' Knowledge of Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Adjustment: Accuracy, Bias, and the Influences of Gender, Grade, Positive Friendship Quality, and Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Lance P.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that close friends may be knowledgeable of youth's psychological adjustment. However, friends are understudied as reporters of adjustment. The current study examines associations between self- and friend-reports of internalizing and externalizing adjustment in a community sample of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade youth.…

  19. Influence of the knowledge representation on the results of risks calculation; Influence de la representation de la connaissance sur les resultats de calcul de risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudrit, C. [Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse, 31 (France); Mercat-Rommens, C.; Chojnacki, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (DPAM/SEMIC/LMPC), Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    In the field of radioecology, uncertainty was especially apprehended within a purely probabilistic framework. This report presents the various mathematical theories which make it possible to represent dubious information: theory of probabilities, theory of possibilities, theory of belief function. The influence of the choice of these various mathematical models to represent knowledge is then studied on the example of the transfer of strontium 90 from an atmospheric deposit to the man through the cow s milk consumption. (authors)

  20. 采煤机概念设计的知识表示与知识推理%Knowledge representation and reasoning of shearer conceptual design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁华; 杨兆建; 姚晶

    2011-01-01

    为实现采煤机概念设计知识和经验的重用,针对采煤机设计领域知识的可分解性、多样性和模糊性等特点,提出了以面向对象为主、产生式规则为辅的知识表示方法,建立了采煤机概念设计实例库和规则库,并将基于实例和规则推理的集成推理机制应用于采煤机概念设计知识推理中.最后以UG为平台开发了采煤机概念设计系统,实现了知识驱动的采煤机概念设计自动化,积累了设计经验和知识,缩短了产品设计周期.通过工程应用实例验证了该方法的有效性与可靠性.%For reusing of design knowledge and experience of shearer conceptual design,aiming at the decomposability,diversity and fuzziness of knowledge in the field of shearer design,knowledge representation is proposed in it which is mainly the knowledge representation for object-oriented,production rules as complement, then case base and nde base for shearer conceptual design are establishead, and an integrated mechanism based on cases and rules reasoning is applied to knowledge reasoning of shearer conceptual design. With Unigraphics as the platform,shear conceptual design system was developed,which automation of knowledge-driven conceptual design is achieved,design experience and knowledge is accumulated, and the design cycle is shortened.The method is verified with high effectiveness and credibility through engineering application.

  1. 航次决策知识及其表示方法构建%Voyage Decision Making Knowledge and Representation Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春晖; 胡正华

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the utilization of the accumulated knowledge past for shipping companies, the paper presents the three-tiered knowledge objects representation based on the deep research of the knowledge about voyage decision making. Aiming to represent the static common sense and dynamic experience, the paper constructs the basic knowledge objects and the course knowledge objects respectively; then, the paper constructs the experience objects to solve the problem of specific voyage decision-making knowledge acquisition. At last, based on the business knowledge of the shipping companv. YIHAI. the paper does the application research, and verify the efficiency of the representation.%为了加强航运企业对以往积累知识的利用,本文在对航次决策领域知识进行详细研究的基础上,构建了一种三层次知识对象表示方法.针对航次决策静态常识性知识、动态经验性知识,本文分别构建了基础知识对象、过程知识对象;然后针对获取特定航次决策知识问题,本文构建了经验知识对象进行求解.最后,本文借助构建好的知识表示方法对益海船务公司积累的业务知识进行表示,同时开展了相应的应用研究,验证了表示方法的有效性.

  2. A building characterization-based method for the advancement of knowledge on external architectural features of traditional rural buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto, S. M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant role that traditional rural buildings have with regard to environmental conservation and rural development is widely acknowledged by the scientific community. These buildings must be protected from inappropriate building interventions that may stem from their rather superficial knowledge. Therefore, this study was directed towards overcoming such a limitation by developing a method based on traditional rural buildings’ characterization. In particular, the study aimed at the characterization of building materials and techniques used for the construction of a number of building components that make up the external envelope of traditional rural buildings. The application of the method to a homogeneous area of the Etna Regional Park (Italy highlighted the need to improve the technical norms of the park’s Territorial Coordination Plan to respect the building characteristics of the traditional rural buildings located in the protected area.La comunidad científica le atribuye a las construcciones rurales tradicionales un papel fundamental en términos de conservación del medioambiente y de evolución rural. Dichos edificios deben ser protegidos contra obras inapropiadas debidas a un conocimiento más bien superficial. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de eliminar dichas limitaciones desarrollando un método basado en la caracterización de las construcciones rurales tradicionales, que puede ser aplicado para mejorar el conocimiento de estas últimas. En particular, el susodicho estudio tiene la finalidad de caracterizar los materiales y las técnicas constructivas a emplear para la construcción de algunos componentes del envoltorio externo de las construcciones rurales tradicionales. La aplicación del método propuesto a una zona homogénea del Parque Regional del Etna (Italia puso de relieve la necesidad de mejorar las normas técnicas del Plan de Coordinación Territorial del parque para respetar las caracter

  3. Meaningful main effects or intriguing interactions? Examining the influences of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations on cognitive processing and conceptual change when learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gina M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing and conceptual change when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, I manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with individuals' epistemic beliefs to facilitate or constrain learning. In accordance with definitions from Royce's (1983) framework of psychological epistemology, texts were developed to present Newtonian concepts in either a rational or a metaphorical format. Seventy-five undergraduate students completed questionnaires designed to measure their epistemic beliefs and their misconceptions about Newton's laws of motion. Participants then read the first of two instructional texts (in either a rational or metaphorical format), and were asked to think aloud while reading. After reading the text, participants completed a recall task and a post-test of selected items regarding Newtonian concepts. These steps were repeated with a second instructional text (in either a rational or metaphorical format, depending on which format was assigned previously). Participants' think-aloud sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then blindly coded, and their recalls were scored for total number of correctly recalled ideas from the text. Changes in misconceptions were analyzed by examining changes in participants' responses to selected questions about Newtonian concepts from pretest to posttest. Results revealed that when individuals' epistemic beliefs were congruent with the knowledge representations in their assigned texts, they performed better on both online measures of learning (e.g., use of processing strategies) and offline products of learning (e.g., text recall, changes in misconceptions) than when their epistemic beliefs were incongruent with the knowledge representations. These results have implications for how

  4. Quiver representations

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.

  5. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  6. Understanding the Role of Representation in Interorganizational Knowledge Integration: A Case Study of an IT Outsourcing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werr, Andreas; Runsten, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current paper aims at contributing to the understanding of interorganizational knowledge integration by highlighting the role of individuals' understandings of the task and how they shape knowledge integrating behaviours. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a framework of knowledge integration as heedful interrelating.…

  7. Understanding the Role of Representation in Interorganizational Knowledge Integration: A Case Study of an IT Outsourcing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werr, Andreas; Runsten, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current paper aims at contributing to the understanding of interorganizational knowledge integration by highlighting the role of individuals' understandings of the task and how they shape knowledge integrating behaviours. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a framework of knowledge integration as heedful interrelating.…

  8. [Reliability and external validity of a questionnaire to assess the knowledge about risk and cardiovascular disease and in patients attending Spanish community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amariles, Pedro; Pino-Marín, Daniel; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; García-Jiménez, Emilio; Roig-Sánchez, Inés; Faus, María José

    2016-11-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire, with a validation preliminary, to assess knowledge of cardiovascular risk (CVR) and cardiovascular disease in patients attending community pharmacies in Spain. To complement the external validity, establishing the relationship between an educational activity and the increase in knowledge about CVR and cardiovascular disease. Sub-analysis of a controlled clinical study, EMDADER-CV, in which a questionnaire about knowledge concerning CVR was applied at 4 different times. Spanish Community Pharmacies. There were 323 patients in the control group, from the 640 who completed the study. Intraclass correlation coefficient to assess the reliability in 3 comparisons (post-educational activity with week 16, post-educational activity with week 32, and week 16 with week 32); and the non-parametric Friedman test to establish the relationship between an oral and written educational activity with increasing knowledge. For the 323 patients in the 3 comparisons, the intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.624; 0.608 and 0.801, respectively (fair-good to excellent reliability). So, the Friedman test showed a statistically significant relationship between educational activity and increased knowledge (p < .0001). According to the intraclass correlation coefficient, the questionnaire aimed at assessing the knowledge on CVR and cardiovascular disease has a reliability between acceptable and excellent, which added to the previous validation, shows that the instrument meets the criteria of validity and reliability. Furthermore, the questionnaire showed the ability to relate an increase in knowledge with an educational intervention, feature that complements its external validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases. The representation of geographic knowledge: Toward a universal framework. [relations (mathematics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.

  10. An On-Line Computational Model of Human Sentence Interpretation: A Theory of the Representation and Use of Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    PINKER , STEVEN . 1989. Learnability and cognition: The acquisition of argument structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. POLLARD, CARL & IVAN A. SAG. 1987...subregularities which Wilensky (1990) has proposed for the representation of lexical semantics and the broad-range rules which Pinker (1989) has...structures of verbs, have been proposed by Pinker (1989). Lexical rules, however, are not used in CIG. Recall that the use of lexical rules is ruled out by

  11. 一种经验型隐性知识表征及获取方法研究%An Empirical Tacit Knowledge Representation and Acquisition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利军; 蒋祖华; 宋博

    2013-01-01

    Based on review and analysis of existing tacit knowledge acquisition methods and problems,a definition of empirical tacit knowledge for the decision-making is presented.After analyzing the characteristics of the empirical tacit knowledge,its representation method is given.And then a "two-stage acquisition method" to acquire empirical tacit knowledge for decision making is proposed,which can complete the transformation and acquisition process of tacit knowledge from "tacit knowledge in the minds of experts" to "original tacit knowledge",and to "structured tacit knowledge".Finally,a case study of plant facility planning decision-making is provided to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach.%在分析和总结现有隐性知识获取方法及存在问题的基础上,提出了一种面向决策的经验型隐性知识的概念,给出其形式化定义和表征方法,进而提出面向决策的经验型隐性知识“两阶段法”获取方法,可以完成从“专家头脑中的隐性知识-初始状态隐性知识-结构化隐性知识”的知识转化及获取过程.以工厂设施规划为例,验证经验型隐性知识获取方法的合理性和有效性.

  12. Friends’ Knowledge of Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Adjustment: Accuracy, Bias, and the Influences of Gender, Grade, Positive Friendship Quality, and Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that close friends may be knowledgeable of youth’s psychological adjustment. However, friends are understudied as reporters of adjustment. The current study examines associations between self- and friend-reports of internalizing and externalizing adjustment in a community sample of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade youth. The study extends prior work by considering the degree to which friends’ reports of youth adjustment are accurate (i.e., predicted by youths’ actual adjustment) versus biased (i.e., predicted by the friend reporters’ own adjustment). Findings indicated stronger bias effects than accuracy effects, but the accuracy effects were significant for both internalizing and externalizing adjustment. Additionally, friends who perceived their relationships as high in positive quality, friends in relationships high in disclosure, and girls perceived youths’ internalizing symptoms most accurately. Knowledge of externalizing adjustment was not influenced by gender, grade, relationship quality, or self-disclosure. Findings suggest that friends could play an important role in prevention efforts. PMID:19377867

  13. Not-Invented-Here: How Institutionalized Socialization Practices Affect the Formation of Negative Attitudes Toward External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Fosfuri, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Management literature highlights several potential benefits of institutionalized socialization practices that attempt to increase cohesiveness among employees. This article posits that such practices might also contribute to a biased perception of internally generated knowledge and therefore...... technologically specialized companies....

  14. Knowledge and representation of model management%模型管理的知识及其表示方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延章

    2011-01-01

    运用辩证系统的思维方法论,从客观事物到主观认知的全过程和不同科学域的共性整体特征出发,较系统地探讨了模型及其管理的知识系统.首先梳理给出基本概念属性模型、数据和信息模型、结构和知识(狭义)模型、问题模型、数学模型和决策或优化模型六个层次的模型集合,明晰模型概念体系与层次关系.然后,基于知识工程的理论方法,抽象给出了模型的共性知识、模型的建立知识、模型应用知识、模型的可视化及交互知识,建立了相应知识元模型,形成了一个较系统的形式化知识体系,为模型管理奠定了知识基础.%Using the thinking methodology of dialectical systems, beginning with the whole process from things that objectively exist to the subjective perception and the common characteristics of different scientific fields, this paper systematically discusses the model and the knowledge systems it managed. First, it gives the sixlevel model set including the model of basic concept attribute, the model of data and information, the model of problem, and the model of optimization or decision etc., and clarifies the concept system and layer relations of the model. Then, based on the theory of knowledge engineering, this paper gives the knowledge of model including the common knowledge, the instruction knowledge, the application knowledge, the visualized and interactive knowledge, and builds the knowledge element accordingly. In this way, a more systematic knowledge system is formed, and lays a knowledge foundation for model management

  15. Data-mining to build a knowledge representation store for clinical decision support. Studies on curation and validation based on machine performance in multiple choice medical licensing examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry; Boray, Srinidhi

    2016-06-01

    Extracting medical knowledge by structured data mining of many medical records and from unstructured data mining of natural language source text on the Internet will become increasingly important for clinical decision support. Output from these sources can be transformed into large numbers of elements of knowledge in a Knowledge Representation Store (KRS), here using the notation and to some extent the algebraic principles of the Q-UEL Web-based universal exchange and inference language described previously, rooted in Dirac notation from quantum mechanics and linguistic theory. In a KRS, semantic structures or statements about the world of interest to medicine are analogous to natural language sentences seen as formed from noun phrases separated by verbs, prepositions and other descriptions of relationships. A convenient method of testing and better curating these elements of knowledge is by having the computer use them to take the test of a multiple choice medical licensing examination. It is a venture which perhaps tells us almost as much about the reasoning of students and examiners as it does about the requirements for Artificial Intelligence as employed in clinical decision making. It emphasizes the role of context and of contextual probabilities as opposed to the more familiar intrinsic probabilities, and of a preliminary form of logic that we call presyllogistic reasoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sociocultural Knowledge and Visual Re(-)Presentations of Black Masculinity and Community: Reading "The Wire" for Critical Multicultural Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Kraehe, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we consider the implications of using popular visual media as a pedagogic tool for helping teachers acquire critical sociocultural knowledge to work more effectively with students of color, particularly Black males. Drawing from a textual analysis (McKee 2001, 2003; Rose 2001) conducted in the critical visual studies tradition…

  17. Limited Knowledge of Fraction Representations Differentiates Middle School Students with Mathematics Learning Disability (Dyscalculia) versus Low Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.; Lewis, Katherine E.; Hanich, Laurie B.; Murphy, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions…

  18. Constructible Authentic Representations: Designing Video Games That Enable Players to Utilize Knowledge Developed In-Game to Reason about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Nathan R.; Wilensky, Uri

    2014-01-01

    While video games have become a source of excitement for educational designers, creating informal game experiences that players can draw on when thinking and reasoning in non-game contexts has proved challenging. In this paper we present a design principle for creating educational video games that enables players to draw on knowledge resources…

  19. Totality and Representation: A History of Knowledge Management through European Documentation, Critical Modernity, and Post-Fordism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents European documentalist, critical modernist, and Autonomous Marxist influenced post-Fordist views regarding the management of knowledge in mid- and late-twentieth century Western modernity and postmodernity, and the complex theoretical and ideological debates, especially concerning issues of language and community. Discusses views of…

  20. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the knowledge, attitudes and social representations of cholera in the extreme northern region of Cameroon: the case of Maroua I, Maroua Ii And Mokolo

    OpenAIRE

    Amaah, Penn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An effective fight against cholera requires an in-depth consideration of the knowledge, attitudes and social representations of cholera within a population. Cholera outbreaks persist in the Extreme North of Cameroon because of the inadequate integration of representations of cholera, water and hygiene in the fight against this disease. Through a constructivist intercultural approach not conflicting with the western ethnocentric model, socio-cultural/religious and historical ideol...

  1. Der Aufbau mentaler Modelle durch bildliche Darstellungen: Eine experimentalle Studie uber die Bedeutung der Merkmalsdimensionen Elaboriertheit und Strukturierheit im Sachunterricht der Grundschule (The Development of Mental Processes through Graphic Representation with Diverging Degrees of Elaboration and Structurization: An Experimental Study Carried Out in Elementary Science Instruction in Primary School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martschinke, Sabine

    1996-01-01

    Examines types of graphical representation as to their suitability for knowledge acquisition in primary grades. Uses the concept of mental models to clarify the relationship between external presentation and internal representation of knowledge. Finds that students who learned with highly elaborated and highly structured pictures displayed the…

  2. Der Aufbau mentaler Modelle durch bildliche Darstellungen: Eine experimentalle Studie uber die Bedeutung der Merkmalsdimensionen Elaboriertheit und Strukturierheit im Sachunterricht der Grundschule (The Development of Mental Processes through Graphic Representation with Diverging Degrees of Elaboration and Structurization: An Experimental Study Carried Out in Elementary Science Instruction in Primary School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martschinke, Sabine

    1996-01-01

    Examines types of graphical representation as to their suitability for knowledge acquisition in primary grades. Uses the concept of mental models to clarify the relationship between external presentation and internal representation of knowledge. Finds that students who learned with highly elaborated and highly structured pictures displayed the…

  3. NNF and NNPrF—Fuzzy Petri Nets Based on Neural Network for Knowledge Representation,Reasoning and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周奕; 吴时霖

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes NNF-a fuzzy Petri Net system based on neural network for proposition logic repesentation,and gives the formal definition of NNF.For the NNF model,forward reasoning algorithm,backward reasoning algorithm and knowledge learning algorithm are discussed based on weight training algorithm of neural network-Back Propagation algorithm.Thus NNF is endowed with the ability of learning a rule.The paper concludes with a discussion on extending NNF to predicate logic,forming NNPrF,and proposing the formal definition and a reasoning algorithm of NNPrF.

  4. Multiple Interactive Representations for Fractions Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Laurens; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol; Taatgen, Niels; Aleven,; Kay, J; Mostow, J

    2010-01-01

    Multiple External Representations (MERs) have been used successfully in instructional activities, including fractions However, students often have difficulties making the connections between the MERs spontaneously We argue that interactive fraction representations may help students in discovering re

  5. The Use of Lesson Study Combined with Content Representation in the Planning of Physics Lessons During Field Practice to Develop Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhler, Martin Vogt

    2016-08-01

    Recent research, both internationally and in Norway, has clearly expressed concerns about missing connections between subject-matter knowledge, pedagogical competence and real-life practice in schools. This study addresses this problem within the domain of field practice in teacher education, studying pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics lesson. Two means of intervention were introduced. The first was lesson study, which is a method for planning, carrying out and reflecting on a research lesson in detail with a learner and content-centered focus. This was used in combination with a second means, content representations, which is a systematic tool that connects overall teaching aims with pedagogical prompts. Changes in teaching were assessed through the construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). A deductive coding analysis was carried out for this purpose. Transcripts of pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics lesson were coded into four main PCK categories, which were thereafter divided into 16 PCK sub-categories. The results showed that the intervention affected the pre-service teachers' potential to start developing PCK. First, they focused much more on categories concerning the learners. Second, they focused far more uniformly in all of the four main categories comprising PCK. Consequently, these differences could affect their potential to start developing PCK.

  6. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  7. Understanding Possibilities and Limitations of Abstract Chemical Representations for Achieving Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, David M. J.; Elen, Jan; Schraepen, Beno; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    When learning with abstract and scientific multiple external representations (MERs), low prior knowledge learners are said to have difficulties in using these MERs to achieve conceptual understanding. Yet little is known about what these limitations precisely entail. In order to understand this, we presented 101 learners with low prior knowledge…

  8. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus......Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  9. Research on the Mechanism of Online Collaborative Assessment that Promote Knowledge Representation%促进知识表征的在线协作评价机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志强; 龙琴琴; 王靖; 王秋爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge representation is a hot topic concerned by online collaborative learning. Existing researches have tried to promote students’ level of knowledge representation by peer-collaborative assessment. However, there still lack of sufficient con-cerns about the development of effective assessment criteria to promote students ’ level of knowledge representation. Therefore, based on knowledge representation of concept map, this study explored the rubrics formation mechanism of collaborative assessment which facilitate students’ level of knowledge representation by using quasi-experimental research method, questionnaire method and obser-vation method. The study concluded that compared to student collaborative developing assessment criteria, providing assessment crite-ria by teacher was a better way to promote students’ level of knowledge representation. What’s more, the clarity of description of as-sessment criteria influenced the quality of the structure and concept linking of students ’ concept maps. According to the conclusions, this study raised the strategies for developing collaborative assessment criteria which promotes students ’ level of knowledge represen-tation and proposed follow-up research prospects.%知识表征是在线协作学习关注的热点问题。已有研究试图通过同伴协作评价来促进知识表征水平的提升,然而对如何生成有效的协作评价量规尚缺乏足够的关注。针对上述问题,通过选取概念图作为知识表征方法,运用准实验研究、问卷调查及观察法,对促进知识表征的协作评价量规生成机制进行探索。主要研究结论认为:较之学习者生成评价量规,教师设置评价量规更能够促进知识表征水平的提升。评价量规描述的清晰程度能够影响学习者生成概念结构与概念连接的质量。最后,基于结论提出促进知识表征的评价量规生成策略及后续研究展望。

  10. Knowledge Technology Applications for Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kent

    2000-01-01

    We investigate how the knowledge in knowledge technology applications for knowledge management can be represented to let the user directly manage the knowledge content of the applications. In paper I we design a representation of diagnosis knowledge that allows the user to add new components and inspect the function of the device. The representation allows an integration of model based knowledge with compiled and heuristic knowledge so that the device and its function can be represented a sui...

  11. Inspire and Factors of Affecting the External Representation of Mathematics Word Problem%数学应用题外部表征的影响因素及启发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢强; 单永明

    2012-01-01

    Some factors of affecting the external representation of math word problems mainly contain the surface features of text, mathematical symbols, text familiarity, illustrations, problems and text of location, different rewordings, the reality of situational content and so on. Some studies can be advanced from the following aspects in the future: for the math word problems of situational background of different levels of complexity, how text familiarity affects the representation of math word problems? How dynamic conditions itself and the irrelevant information which contain color, shape etc in animated presentation affect the problem-solving in some degree? In the process of children's understanding and solving math word problems, which dimensions are more important to help the students understand mathematical relationships in math word problems when are emphasized in constructing situation model, in order to construct appropriate situation model, conduct correct representation of math word problems?%数学应用题表征类型中的外部表征的影响因素,主要包括文本表面特征、数学符号、文本内容熟悉程度、插图、问题与文本的呈现位置、不同的措辞、情境内容的现实性等.未来可以从以下几个方面进行进一步研究:对不同复杂程度情境背景的应用题而言,题材熟悉度对应用题表征的影响如何?动态呈现方式本身以及动画呈现中的颜色、形状等无关信息对问题解决的影响程度如何?在儿童理解和解决数学应用题过程中,强调情境模型构建的5个维度中的哪些维度更有利于学生理解应用题中的数学关系,以便构建合适的情境模型,进行正确的数学表征?

  12. Knowledgeable Feedback via a Cast of Virtual Characters with Different Competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.; Liem, J.; Linnebank, F.; Bühling, R.; Wißner, M.; Lozano, E.; Gracia del Río, J.; Bredeweg, B.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.

    2011-01-01

    DynaLearn (http://www.DynaLearn.eu) develops a cognitive artefact that engages learners in an active learning by modelling process to develop conceptual system knowledge. Learners create external representations using diagrams. The diagrams capture conceptual knowledge using the Garp3 Qualitative Re

  13. Research and Application Based on the Concept Map Knowledge Representation Method%基于概念图的知识表示方法研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程媛

    2012-01-01

      The research field of artificial intelligence knowledge representation is one of the core problems of artificial intelli⁃gence technology, is restricted to the bottleneck. Concept map with its simple, intuitive, semantic expression capability is strong wait for a characteristic, be used as a knowledge representation method, can effectively represent natural language is defined, by the artificial intelligence domain widespread attention. This paper mainly discusses the methods of knowledge representation based on concept map and concept map in the internal representation of realization.%  知识表示是人工智能研究领域的核心问题之一,也是制约人工智能技术发转的的瓶颈。概念图以其简单、直观、语义表达能力强等特点,被用来作为知识的表示方法,能有效的表示自然语言的定义,受到人工智能领域的广泛关注。该文主要讨论基于概念图的知识表示方法及概念图内部表示的实现。

  14. 一种基于十元格蕴涵代数的知识表示方法%AN APPROACH FOR KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION BASED ON TEN-ELEMENT LATTICE IMPLICATION ALGEBRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宏亮; 徐本强; 邹丽

    2013-01-01

    不确定知识表示中常使用语言值来表达其真实程度和可信程度.为处理具有语言值可信度的不确定性知识表示问题,基于十元格蕴涵代数,建立一个十元语言值可信度因子知识表示模型,并实现了具有语言值可信度因子的知识推理.所提出的知识表示方法可以有效地表达具有可比性或不可比性的语言值不确定性信息.实例说明所提出的方法在表示知识时能够尽量模拟具有语言值信息的人类思维模式,有利于对不确定性知识的智能处理.%In uncertain knowledge representation, linguistic values are often used to express its truth degree and credibility. In order to deal with the uncertain knowledge representation issue with linguistic value credibility, in this paper we construct a knowledge representation model with ten-element linguistic value credibility factors based on ten-element lattice implication algebra, and achieve the knowledge reasoning with linguistic value credibility factors. The proposed approach for knowledge representation can effectively express both comparable and incomparable uncertainty information of linguistic value. Examples illustrate that the proposed approach can simulate human thinking mode with linguistic values information as much as possible, which benefits to the smart processing of uncertain knowledge.

  15. Conceptual Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldager, Steen Nikolaj

    2003-01-01

    , in particular the works of Gottlob Frege and Rudolf Carnap, we start by defining when a logical formalism is intensional. We then examine whether the current formalizations of concepts are intensional. The result is negative in the sense that none of the prevalent formalizations are intensional. This motivates...... udgangspunkt i hovedbidragene til intensionalitet, der stammer fra Gottlob Frege og Rudolf Carnap, starter vi med at definere, hvornår en logisk formalisme er intensionel. Derefter undersøger vi, hvorvidt de nuværende formaliseringer af begrebsviden er intensionelle. Resultatet er negativt, idet ingen af de...

  16. Workshop on SHAring and Reusing architectural Knowledge (SHARK 2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Lago, Patricia; Kruchten, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Architectural Knowledge (AK) is defined as the integrated representation of the software architecture of a software-intensive system or family of systems along with architectural decisions and their rationale, external influence and the development environment. The SHARK workshop series focuses on c

  17. Representation and Re-Presentation in Litigation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court’s criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to “litigation science” than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words, is not precisely what a jury would see anyway. Courts are sites of repeated re-representations of scientific knowledge. In sum, the screening approach fails to take account of the wealth of existing scholarship on the production and validation of scientific facts. An unreflective application of that approach thus puts courts at risk of relying upon a “junk science” of the nature of scientific knowledge. PMID:18197311

  18. Action Knowledge in Intellectual Capital Statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2004-01-01

    Within the field of intellectual capital and knowledge management, the concept of knowledge is burdened by the naïve view of knowledge as passive representations of external reality. An alternative definition is proposed. ''Action knowledge'' is the categories and distinctions that guide human...... activity in appropriate ways. In the organisation, this definition highlights the intelligent actions taken by organisational members in pursuit of their goals. The paper offers a design for an intellectual capital statement that emphasises action knowledge in the organisation. A case is presented......: the intellectual capital statement of the Danish consulting firm, Nellemann Konsulenterne A/S. It shows a major concern with knowledge sharing and learning activities that bring out the dynamic nature of knowledge, as opposed to the ''amount'' of knowledge stored in databases and intranets...

  19. 外部知识获取影响企业创新绩效的作用机理%Effect Mechanism of External Knowledge Acquisition on Enterprise's Innovation Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志华; 王冬冬; 赵婧

    2014-01-01

    从外部知识需要通过企业内部实践才能加以利用这一思路出发,基于中国489家大中型企业的调查数据,运用SPSS21.0软件实证探讨了内部沟通和创新激励对外部知识向创新绩效转化的影响机理。层级回归结果显示:外部知识获取对企业创新绩效的提升具有显著作用,内部沟通和创新激励在上述关系中起部分中介作用。%This paper ,based on the perspective that external knowledge needs to be internalized by internal firm practices ,explores the effect of intra‐firm communication and innovation incentive on the transformation from external knowledge to firm innovation performance by using 489 large and medium‐sized companies in China and SPSS21 .0 software .The hierarchical regression results show as follows :external knowledge ac‐quisition has the positive impact on firm's innovation performance ;intra‐firm communication and innovation incentive moderate the relationship between external knowledge acquisition and firms innovation performance .

  20. 法律知识的因果表达和非单调推理模型%Causal Knowledge Representation and Nonmonotonic Reasoning Models in Law Consultant Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干红华; 潘云鹤

    2001-01-01

    Causal reasoning is the most important feature in law consultant systems. This paper analy-ses the structure of law clauses,proposes a representation model for law knowledge in terms of causal relationships and nonmonotonic reasoning models based on it. These models are successfully applied in the implementation of NBU-CALA+ ,a law expert consultant system for case analysis and interpreta-tion.

  1. Characteristic analysis of and application strategy of knowledge representation in information age%信息时代知识表征的特征分析与应用策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧臣; 文洁

    2011-01-01

    In information age,with technological advances and media development,the form and characteristics of knowledge representation have changed a lot.The types of knowledge representation in information age include main text,hypertext,concept maps,multimedia and virtual reality and so on.Different types have their own unique features.In order to improve the learning effectively using of knowledge representation,it requires the appropriate strategy.%信息时代,伴随着技术进步和媒介发展,知识表征的形式和特征发生了很大变化。信息时代的知识表征主要有文本、超文本、概念图、多媒体和虚拟现实等类型,不同类型有各自的独特功能。更好地利用知识表征提高学习的效率和效果,需要恰当的策略。

  2. Cognitive Dissonance as an Instructional Tool for Understanding Chemical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, David; Clarebout, Geraldine; Elen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on multiple external representations (MER) indicates that sequencing representations (compared with presenting them as a whole) can, in some cases, increase conceptual understanding if there is interference between internal and external representations. We tested this mechanism by sequencing different combinations of scientific…

  3. Sociocognitive Perspectives on Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Elin K.; Shaw, Debora

    1998-01-01

    Discusses research dealing with the cognitive aspects of formal systems of knowledge representation. Highlights include the origins and theoretical foundations of the cognitive viewpoint; cognition and information science; cognitivism, mentalism, and subjective individualism; categorization; mental models; and sociocognitive approaches to indexing…

  4. Sociocognitive Perspectives on Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Elin K.; Shaw, Debora

    1998-01-01

    Discusses research dealing with the cognitive aspects of formal systems of knowledge representation. Highlights include the origins and theoretical foundations of the cognitive viewpoint; cognition and information science; cognitivism, mentalism, and subjective individualism; categorization; mental models; and sociocognitive approaches to indexing…

  5. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  6. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  7. Using Representations of Practice to Elicit Mathematics Teachers' Tacit Knowledge of Practice: A Comparison of Responses to Animations and Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Patricio; Kosko, Karl W.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared conversations among groups of teachers of high school geometry that had been elicited by a representation of instruction (either a video or an animation) and facilitated with an open-ended agenda. All artifacts used represented instruction scenarios that departed from what, according to prior work, had been hypothesized as…

  8. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

  9. Metaphores et representations du cerveau plurilingue: conceptions naives ou construction du savior? Exemples dans le contexte d'enseignement andorran (Metaphors and Representations of the Multilingual Brain: Naive Conceptions or Knowledge Construction? Examples in the Context of Andorran Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruy, Martine Marquillo

    2000-01-01

    This article concentrates on the use of metaphors characterizing a multilingual brain in a corpus of oral interactions drawn from the Andorran part of an international research study. First, the situation and the status of metaphors in fields connected to the elaboration of knowledge is questioned. Next, the most important metaphors associated to…

  10. Understanding Possibilities and Limitations of Abstract Chemical Representations for Achieving Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, David M. J.; Elen, Jan; Schraepen, Beno; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2014-03-01

    When learning with abstract and scientific multiple external representations (MERs), low prior knowledge learners are said to have difficulties in using these MERs to achieve conceptual understanding. Yet little is known about what these limitations precisely entail. In order to understand this, we presented 101 learners with low prior knowledge of abstract scientific MERs to see (a) how many, and what kind of ideas (propositions) learners remembered from these MERs and (b) what the impact of these ideas is on conceptual understanding of the content. Propositional analysis indicates that learners created flawed internal representations. The discussion analyses the potentials that the learners have in using abstract representations to increase their understanding of scientific information and possible effects of instruction.

  11. Fifth International Workshop on Sharing and Reusing Architectural Knowledge (SHARK 2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lago, Patricia; Avgeriou, Paris; Kruchten, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Architectural Knowledge (AK) is defined as the integrated representation of the software architecture of a software-intensive system or family of systems along with architectural decisions and their rationale, external influence and the development environment. The SHARK workshop series focuses on c

  12. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  13. Research of Knowledge Representation Building in the Field of Corn Based on Ontology%基于本体的玉米领域知识表示构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 陈桂芬

    2012-01-01

    传统的人工智能采用不同的建模方法、开发工具进行知识表示,使得各种知识表示之间缺乏互操作性,本体的引入解决了这一问题。对基于本体的知识表示方法进行了探索,对玉米领域知识本体进行了构建。结果表明,本体可有效地解决复杂知识间表达的异构问题,使计算机对信息的理解升至为语义层次,利于玉米智能系统的研制。%Different modeling methods and tools were used in the traditional artificial intelligence to express knowledge,which led to the lack of interoperability between all kinds of knowledge,and ontology could solve the problem.In this paper,the knowledge representation method based on ontology was investigated,and the corn field knowledge ontology was built.The result showed that ontology could effectively solve the heterogeneous problem of expression of complex knowledge and make the computer to understand information for the semantic level,and benefit to develop the intelligent systems of corn.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the knowledge, attitudes and social representations of cholera in the extreme northern region of Cameroon: the case of Maroua I, Maroua Ii And Mokolo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaah, Penn

    2014-01-01

    An effective fight against cholera requires an in-depth consideration of the knowledge, attitudes and social representations of cholera within a population. Cholera outbreaks persist in the Extreme North of Cameroon because of the inadequate integration of representations of cholera, water and hygiene in the fight against this disease. Through a constructivist intercultural approach not conflicting with the western ethnocentric model, socio-cultural/religious and historical ideologies can be reconciled to provide optimal and sustainable healthcare solutions to the repeated and long lasting cholera epidemics using participative research, intercultural mediation and dialogue in Cameroon. Through a cross-sectional, ethnographic and participative study, data was generated using semi-directed in-depth interviews of key informants, collection of videos, pictures and the completion of 2 pre-tested questionnaire types in 3 communities (Maroua I, Maroua II and Mokolo). Quantitative data was entered using Ms Excel and Epi Info 7, and analysed using Epi Info 7. Qualitative data was analysed inductively using the concept of social representations. Results show evidence of the inadequate integration of cultural and socio-cultural factors favouring cholera spread and a respondent population majority unable to identify this (92.82%). Equally identifying environmental and cultural factors, the results bring out the impact of the on-going cholera combating strategy. Representations of cholera, cultural and socio-cultural values are not adequately considered in the fight against cholera. We recommend policy-makers and health actors to improve on the integration of these through advocacy, in designing, communicating and implementing effective prevention strategies via participative research, intercultural mediation and dialogue.

  15. 中国大学外语教师实践性知识元表征探究%Research onthe Meta-representation of Chinese College Foreign Language Teachers’Practical Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴光钢; 颜奕

    2015-01-01

    The practical knowledge of college foreign language teachers generates from a complex and non-linear system.It is enriched through the dynamic and open meta-representation and is in continuous development in contradiction and self-adaptability.On the basis of activity theory and complexity theory, we can find that research on college foreign language teachers can analyze and explain the meta-representation of practical knowledge which is of different connotations and unnecessarily comprehensive. To know macroscopically the practical knowledge of college foreign language teachers,to understand the uniqueness of foreign languages,and to highlight the identities of college foreign teachers,can provide new research methods and significant reference for teachers to do with practical knowledge.%大学外语教师的实践性知识,是在复杂和非线性的系统中产生、丰富的,以动态和开放性的元表征生成并拓展,在矛盾和自适应性中不断发展变化。通过活动理论与复杂理论的视角研究大学外语教师,可以解析和探讨其部分现象、不同层次内涵和未必全面的实践性知识元表征。宏观认识大学外语教师的实践性知识的元表征,理解并把握外语学科知识的独特性,突出和强调大学外语教师的身份属性,可以为教师实践性知识提供新的研究方法和思路。

  16. Representations for Supporting Students' Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2005-01-01

    that students’ context awareness can significantly be enhanced by the use of appropriate external representations which guide them to activate context inducing cognitive processes. By embedding such representations in a case based learning environment we expect to guide students’ processing of the rich...

  17. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a Danish research project with young people in vulnerable positions. Young people are involved throughout the research process, including the interpretation of material produced through interviews, and discussions on how reflections and conclusions from the research should......, and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  18. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  19. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods: Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results: A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions: The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge

  20. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M; Grotzer, Tina A

    2014-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. A significant improvement was found in students' learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students' report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction.

  1. Language, knowledge, and mystical mediation: magic, clergy and intervention on the nature in the quotidian and representations in Medieval West - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.15881

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Reading of documents of ecclesiastical source produced during Middle Ages provides the very clear percept of the presence of various categories of mediators between the natural world and mystical forces, in the daily routine of the western men. On the one hand, there were the wizards, expert supposedly endowed with special knowledge, who used as a resource various forms of exercise of divinatory arts and techniques of manipulation of elements of nature. During Middle Ages the ecclesiastical discourse searched opposing to their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages. 

  2. Study on DSS modeling knowledge representation%决策支持系统中的建模知识表示研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梯云; 冯玉强; 周宽久

    2001-01-01

    A knowledge-based modeling support system is issued in this paper.Its knowledge consists of three parts:modeling rule knowledge,variable type knowl edge and data mapping knowledge.The modeling rule knowledge represents the deci sion-maker's modeling process.The variable type knowledge defines data types f o r all variables in the modling rule knowledge.The data mapping knowledge defin es sources of the data required during solving.After the decision-maker input s a problem,the modeling support system will solve it according to the modeling knowledge automatically and at last commit the result to the decision-maker. M eanwhile, machine learning is adopted to acquire knowledge during problem solvi ng.%提出一种基于知识的建模支持系统,该系统的知识由三部分组成:构模规则知 识、变量类型知识以及数据映射知识.构模规则知识描述了决策者的构模过程;变量类型知 识定义了构模规则知识中所有变量的数据类型;数据映射知识描述求解过程所需数据的来源 .对于决策者输入的一个实际决策问题,系统能够根据问题描述按照构模知识自动进行求解 ,同时对经验进行学习,生成经验规则.

  3. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  4. Study on the Influencing Mechanism of External Knowledge Search on Innovation Performance%外部知识搜寻对创新绩效的作用机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 刘侠

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of open innovation , external knowledge search has been the focus in the field of innovation . Considering the fact that few studies explore the influencing mechanism of external knowledge search and the lack of empirical tests for Chinese firms , this study investigates the boundary condition and the influencing mechanism of external knowledge search ( breadth and depth ) from external market environment and internal innovation strategy .In a questionnaire survey of 294 Chinese firms, this study employs confirmatory factor analysis to test the reliability and validity of the measurements , and adopts hierarchical moderated regression to examine the hypotheses .Results show that: ①both types of search channel ( search breadth) and the strength of search on the specific channel (search depth) exert significant linear effects on innovation perform-ance, which means there is no significant overly search problem;②the match of external knowledge search and market environ-ments ( competition intensity and market dynamism ) significantly affect innovation performance .In the market with fierce compe-titions, breadth search is more effective;in the more dynamic market that exists high varies of consumer demands and product technologies , depth search is more effective;and ③the match of external knowledge search and innovation strategy significantly influences innovation performance , and depth search and exploitative innovation interactively affect innovation performance .%开放式创新背景下,外部知识搜寻成为创新领域的热点问题。针对已有研究对外部知识搜寻作用机理研究的不足和中国企业实证检验的缺失,从外部市场环境和内部创新策略两个层面探讨外部知识搜寻(宽度和深度)的作用边界和作用机理。采用问卷调研方法获取294家中国企业的数据,利用验证性因子分析方法检验测量量表信度和效度,采用层级调节回归分析方

  5. The Role of Peer Contacts in the Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Adolescents' Externalizing Behaviors: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects (through peer contacts) of parental knowledge on adolescents' delinquent and aggressive problem behavior, using latent growth curve modeling. A sample of 457 13- to 14-year old adolescents at first measurement wave (M = 13.27; SD = 0.45 years) filled out questionnaires…

  6. Representation and Dimensional Reduction of the Universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠超

    2004-01-01

    The external space we live in or the apparent dimension in the Kaluza-Klein model can be identified by using the right representation in quantum cosmology. The external dimension of the Freund-Rubin model is min(s, n - s),where s is the rank of the antisymmetric field strength in the model.

  7. Development of Image Overlay and Knowledge Transfer Module Technologies Aimed at Enhancing Feasibility and External Validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Jacob L; Pitts, Meaghan; Maksymowych, Walter P; Lambert, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Semiquantitative arthritis scoring assesses disease burden by scoring presence/extent of features such as bone marrow lesion (BML) or effusion in multiple anatomic regions at a joint. An image overlay clarifying region borders may enhance feasibility and reliability of these scoring systems. To be scalable for use in large clinical trials, systematic computer-based user training is desirable. We developed an overlay and user training module for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based scoring of hip osteoarthritis (OA). We designed a semitransparent 2-dimensional image overlay applied to individual MRI slices to facilitate hip OA scoring [HIMRISS (Hip Inflammation MRI Scoring System)], initially using freeware and then in a customized HTML Web browser environment. We developed a systematic knowledge translation package including instructional presentation, fully scored expert consensus cases, and video tutorials for training in the use of these scoring systems with the overlays. Three musculoskeletal radiologists who had not used this scoring system before each performed a scoring exercise with no overlay, then repeated this with overlays after completing the training module. Based on postexercise interviews and a reader survey, we identified and corrected problems in the module. The entire training process was then repeated using 3 new readers. Overlays were considered useful, particularly when integrated into a Web browser. The knowledge translation module was considered conceptually valuable, but as initially implemented was too lengthy and not sufficiently interactive. Semitransparent image overlays and standardized knowledge translation modules for reader training show promise to facilitate reader calibration using MRI-based scoring systems. Based on our experience, knowledge translation modules should emphasize close feedback evaluating performance and reader time efficiency.

  8. Teorias feministas e representações sociais: desafios dos conhecimentos situados para a psicologia social Feminist Theories and Social Representations: challenges of the situated knowledges for social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa analisar o contributo das teorias feministas para as epistemologias e práticas metodológicas das ciências sociais, nomeadamente da psicologia social. Partindo da apresentação das propostas feministas da Terceira Vaga para as ciências e da epistemologia dialógica das representações sociais, discutimos as possibilidades de uma conceptualização assente nos conhecimentos situados para o desenvolvimento de saberes científicos emancipatórios. Assim, analisaremos o modo como os conhecimentos situados e os desafios que colocam podem engendrar uma mudança nas práticas científicas da psicologia social e das ciências sociais.This paper aims at analysing the contribution of feminist theories for the epistemology and methodological practices of the social sciences, namely of social psychology. Departing from the presentation of Third Wave feminist proposals and from the dialogical epistemology of social representations, we discuss the possibilities for a conceptualisation based on situated knowledges, for the development of emancipatory scientific knowledges. Hence, we will debate the way how situated knowledges and the challenges they pose can change scientific praxis in social psychology and in social sciences.

  9. The field representation language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.

  10. External Knowledge Acquisition Needs a Hand? The Dual Effects of Industry-University Collaborations on High-Tech Firms’ Innovation Capability in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren

    2012-01-01

    with prior research, we use negative binomial regression model together with a Hausman specification test to determine whether a random- or fixed-effects model should be employed. Data We employ a unique dataset on technology in-license from the Chinese Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) in this study...... of knowledge input, i.e. some indigenous technological inventions, and, 2) to facilitate firms’ technological learning with respect to absorbing, adapting and diffusing acquired foreign technologies to local market. The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of these two roles on firms' innovation...

  11. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  12. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  13. Image-based 3D modeling for the knowledge and the representation of archaeological dig and pottery: Sant'Omobono and Sarno project's strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianolio, S.; Mermati, F.; Genovese, G.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a "standard" method that is being developed by ARESlab of Rome's La Sapienza University for the documentation and the representation of the archaeological artifacts and structures through automatic photogrammetry software. The image-based 3D modeling technique was applied in two projects: in Sarno and in Rome. The first is a small city in Campania region along Via Popilia, known as the ancient way from Capua to Rhegion. The interest in this city is based on the recovery of over 2100 tombs from local necropolis that contained more than 100.000 artifacts collected in "Museo Nazionale Archeologico della Valle del Sarno". In Rome the project regards the archaeological area of Insula Volusiana placed in Forum Boarium close to Sant'Omobono sacred area. During the studies photographs were taken by Canon EOS 5D Mark II and Canon EOS 600D cameras. 3D model and meshes were created in Photoscan software. The TOF-CW Z+F IMAGER® 5006h laser scanner is used to dense data collection of archaeological area of Rome and to make a metric comparison between range-based and image-based techniques. In these projects the IBM as a low-cost technique proved to be a high accuracy improvement if planned correctly and it shown also how it helps to obtain a relief of complex strata and architectures compared to traditional manual documentation methods (e.g. two-dimensional drawings). The multidimensional recording can be used for future studies of the archaeological heritage, especially for the "destructive" character of an excavation. The presented methodology is suitable for the 3D registration and the accuracy of the methodology improved also the scientific value.

  14. Differences on the image of Brazil in external markets according to consumers’ age, gender, knowledge about the country and country of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldi, J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A country’s image could be managed to give greater value to products from that country, while making the country more attractive to investors and more desirable as a tourism destination. Considering two important gaps in the literature on country image (discrepant results on the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on the image of a country and few studies on the image of Brazil, this paper’s objective is to check for differences on Brazil image according to the following consumers’ characteristics: age, gender, knowledge about Brazil and country of residence. A quantitative survey was distributed to 380 respondents from four European countries: Germany, Ireland, England and France. This study concluded that beliefs about countries may differ according to the degree of perceived similarity with a given country and to certain demographic issues, and respondents that had better evaluations on Brazil’s image were: young, men, with a high level of knowledge about Brazil and from France. Moreover, aspects related to communication, distribution and differentiation of Brazilian products were those that received the worst evaluation by consumers participating in the survey, which indicates the need for greater investments from both the Brazilian government and the private sector in communicating and promoting Brazilian products abroad.

  15. Educação em saúde: conhecimentos, representações sociais e experiências da doença Health education: knowledge, social representation, and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Flávia Gazzinelli

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a teoria e prática da educação e saúde. Parte da idéia da hegemonia, na prática pedagógica em saúde, de estratégias ligadas à noção de que a apreensão de saber instituído sempre leva à aquisição de novos comportamentos e práticas. Diferentes axiomas têm norteado as práticas de educação e saúde em momentos distintos e/ou justapostos. O primeiro axioma volta-se para a idéia da superação da relação de determinação dos conhecimentos sobre as práticas; o segundo refere-se à relação de determinação das representações sobre as práticas; o terceiro vincula-se à análise das representações dentro do tradicional quadro de erros e acertos; o quarto trata da relação de reciprocidade entre as representações e as práticas; e o quinto se traduz na importância de se considerarem as práticas como passíveis de reelaboração pelas representações, apontando assim o lugar da experiência no entendimento dos processos de adoecimento dos sujeitos, bem como a forma como culturalmente constroem a doença. O artigo destaca a necessidade de se buscar uma articulação entre as representações sociais e a experiência da doença nas práticas educativas em saúde.This article discusses the theory and practice of health and education, beginning with the notion of the hegemony (in health education practice of strategies linked to the notion that to grasp established knowledge always leads to the acquisition of new behaviors and practices. Five different axioms have oriented education and health practices, either juxtaposed or at different moments: (1 the notion of overcoming the determination of knowledge over practices; (2 the determination of representations over practices; (3 the analysis of representations within the traditional framework of right and wrong; (4 reciprocity between representations and practices; and (5 the importance of considering practices amenable to re-elaboration through

  16. Representation of identities and the politics of representation in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavillil Rajagopalan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper, I make a plea for viewing representation as first and foremost a political matter. I argue that by so doing we may avoid the many of pitfalls of contemporary theories of cognition as they attempt to tackle the issue of representation. Most of these problems have to do with the fact that representation is treated exclusively as a mimetic or theatrical question. The fact of the matter is however that representation also has a political dimension. Indeed it has always had this political dimension which, counterintuitive though it may seem at first glimpse, manifests itself even in very the attempt to aestheticise the whole issue of representation (as in some versions of postmodernism or to deny its role altogether as a tertium quid between the external world and the cognising mind (as in contemporary neo-pragmatism. I also contend that, by recognising the political nature of representation, we also pave the way for endorsing the thesis that the mind is a social construct, thereby taking some steam out of the thesis of "mind-brain identity" (so-called "identity theory of mind".

  17. Representations of content: psychological foundations and didactical background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Janko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical study concerns the issue of representations. Representation is a concept used when analysing and explaining human perception, cognition, communication, and learning. Firstly, we introduce the psychological foundations of the concept. Secondly, we clarify the concept of representations and its division in cognitive psychology. We define two basic forms of external representations - verbal and visual. In social psychology, the concept is used for explaining of how much individual cognition is determined by socio-cultural factors. Further, we mention the concept of representations that draws on the Theory of social representations (Moscovici and Vygotsky's ideas. The author seeks to develop a concept of representations usable in didactic discourse. The importance of representations for content-oriented didactics is clarified. We also define the levels on which a teacher reasons when using representations during instruction. Representations of curricular content, which are believed to play an important role when presenting the content to students, are also mentioned.

  18. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  19. From the description of activities to the identification of risks for clinical management: a proposal of building, merging and sharing knowledge representations of care processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, Pascal; Joubert, Michel; Collomp, Rémy; Quaranta, Jean-François; Fieschi, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Management of clinical processes and hospital activities takes advantage of business process reengineering methodology. It is now recognized that care process modeling must integrate the definition of goals and the assessment of risk. Two kinds of issues have been outlined: 1) the lack of an integrated model to identify and describe processes and their components according to a functional point of view; and 2) an increasing amount of documents that hospital staff members have to create, collect, index and maintain. As initial models focused only on a structural view of activities, we reviewed different sources of standards and norms to extract and classify a set of metadata aimed at describing any activity and its outcomes. The model includes links to structured terminologies to name attributes or value them. An object-oriented information model has been created and implemented to test the relevance and the feasibility of the modeling approach. Conceptually speaking, this model gives opportunity to bridge tacit and explicit knowledge. Practically speaking, limits to generalization remain partly due to the lack of a template processes database.

  20. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current......Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... by ‘professionals’ to ‘laypeople’. The thesis articulates problems in VR’s current application, specifically the CAVE and Panorama theatres, and seeks an understanding of how these problems may be addressed. The central questions that have motivated this research project are thus: What is architectural VR...

  1. El impacto de las representaciones sociales en la psicología de los conocimientos sociales: problemas y perspectivas The impact of social representations on the psychology of social knowledge: issues and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Castorina

    2008-12-01

    the minimum epistemic conditions for establishing a dialogue between some investigation programs in knowledge psychology and the psychology of social representations.

  2. Octonionic matrix representation and electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanyal, B. C. [Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus, Almora (India)

    2014-12-15

    Keeping in mind the important role of octonion algebra, we have obtained the electromagnetic field equations of dyons with an octonionic 8 x 8 matrix representation. In this paper, we consider the eight - dimensional octonionic space as a combination of two (external and internal) four-dimensional spaces for the existence of magnetic monopoles (dyons) in a higher-dimensional formalism. As such, we describe the octonion wave equations in terms of eight components from the 8 x 8 matrix representation. The octonion forms of the generalized potential, fields and current source of dyons in terms of 8 x 8 matrix are discussed in a consistent manner. Thus, we have obtained the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations of dyons from an 8x8 matrix representation of the octonion wave equations in a compact and consistent manner. The generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations are fully symmetric Maxwell equations and allow for the possibility of magnetic charges and currents, analogous to electric charges and currents. Accordingly, we have obtained the octonionic Dirac wave equations in an external field from the matrix representation of the octonion-valued potentials of dyons.

  3. Integrating pedagogical content knowledge and pedagogical/psychological knowledge in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In teacher education at universities, general pedagogical and psychological principles are often treated separately from subject matter knowledge and therefore run the risk of not being applied in the teaching subject. In an experimental study (N = 60 mathematics student teachers) we investigated the effects of providing aspects of general pedagogical/psychological knowledge (PPK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in an integrated or separated way. In both conditions (“integrated” vs. “separated”), participants individually worked on computer-based learning environments addressing the same topic: use and handling of multiple external representations, a central issue in mathematics. We experimentally varied whether PPK aspects and PCK aspects were treated integrated or apart from one another. As expected, the integrated condition led to greater application of pedagogical/psychological aspects and an increase in applying both knowledge types simultaneously compared to the separated condition. Overall, our findings indicate beneficial effects of an integrated design in teacher education. PMID:25191300

  4. Role of Dentate Gyrus in Aligning Internal Spatial Map to External Landmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Woon Ryoung; Sun, Woong; Jung, Min Whan

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals form internal representations of external space based on their own body movement (dead reckoning) as well as external landmarks. It is poorly understood, however, how different types of information are integrated to form a unified representation of external space. To examine the role of dentate gyrus (DG) in this process, we…

  5. Ambientes educativos e conhecimento social: um estudo sobre as representações de escola Educative environments and social knowledge: a study regarding representations about school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Giachetto Saravali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta parte de uma pesquisa sobre a construção do conhecimento social fundamentada na teoria piagetiana. Os dados analisados referem-se às ideias de crianças entre 7 e 8 anos a respeito da escola. Os sujeitos foram alunos de duas classes de primeira série: uma considerada ambiente tradicional e a outra considerada ambiente sócio-moral construtivista. Os dados obtidos sofreram análise qualitativa e quantitativa e as respostas dos sujeitos foram comparadas, com a finalidade de descobrir possíveis diferenças naquilo que as crianças pensam em função do ambiente escolar do qual participam. Os resultados demonstraram que as crianças não possuem compreensão real da função da escola e que houve diferença significativa em função do ambiente escolar pesquisado, especificamente em relação à compreensão que os sujeitos apresentam das razões para a existência de uma escola e das caracterizações de uma escola boa e uma escola ruim. Dessa forma, as crianças inseridas no ambiente tradicional consideram que para a existência de uma escola é necessário somente aspectos materiais; já aquelas inseridas no ambiente sócio-moral construtivista consideram a necessidade de outros elementos, tais como as pessoas. As crianças inseridas no ambiente considerado construtivista também apontam aspectos subjetivos e referentes a comportamentos considerados adequados para a caracterização de uma boa escola, o que não ocorre com os alunos do ambiente tradicional.This article presents part of a research on the social construction of knowledge based on the Piagetian theory. The analyzed data refer to 7 and 8 year-old children ideas about school. The research participants were first grade students of two different classrooms from two different schools: one of the schools was considered traditional whereas the other was considered a model of socio-moral constructivism. The data have undergone qualitative and quantitative analysis

  6. Research on Teacher-Student Interaction in Accounting Practice Teaching Based on Tactic Knowledge Externalization%基于隐性知识外化的会计实践教学师生互动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国城; 杨丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge-sharing model between teachers and students directly determines the effect of practice teaching of accounting. Based on the creation theory of tactic knowledge externalization, we carry out a survey to teachers and students of accounting from two universities. The survey shows that schools, teachers and students each exert their own influence on teacher-student interaction in accounting practice teaching. To better earry out practice teaching, schools should make their own efforts as well as to guide teachers and students to make their best.%师生之间的知识共享模式直接决定高校会计专业实践教学的效果。基于隐性知识外化的知识创造理论视角对两所高校会计专业师生进行问卷调查的结果显示,学校、教师、学生都以不同的方式对会计实践教学中师生的互动行为施加影响。高校应该一方面加强自身努力,另一方面引导教师与学生作出各自的努力,以更好地开展会计实践教学。

  7. Self-knowledge and content externalism

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Espí, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    El externismo concibe el significado de las expresiones y el contenido de las actitudes mentales como determinados, en parte, por relaciones del sujeto con su entorno natural o social. Un problema central para el externismo es su aparente incompatibilidad con el autoconocimiento (el privilegio del Cogito cartesiano). La tesis central del artículo es que externismo y autoconocimiento, contra esta apariencia, son realmente compatibles. A favor de esta tesis arguyo que el externismo, correctamen...

  8. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  9. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  10. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  11. Survey of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    from the header. As discussed in [Smith, Welty & McGuinness 2004] much of an OWL ontology concerns classes, instances of classes, class individuals...OWL language has only scratched the surface; we refer the reader to [Smith, Welty & McGuinness 2004] for a complete guide. As a Semantic Web technology...Parsia, B., Grau, B. C., Kalyanpur, A. & Katz, Y. (2007) Pellet: A pratical OWL DL reasoner, Journal of Web Semantics 5(2). Smith, M. K., Welty , C

  12. Management of Knowledge Representation Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ramesh S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the efforts undertaken over the last two years to identify the issues underlying the current difficulties in sharing and reuse, and a community wide initiative to overcome them. First, we discuss four bottlenecks to sharing and reuse, present a vision of a future in which these bottlenecks have been ameliorated, and describe the efforts of the initiative's four working groups to address these bottlenecks. We then address the supporting technology and infrastructure that is critical to enabling the vision of the future. Finally, we consider topics of longer-range interest by reviewing some of the research issues raised by our vision.

  13. An Episodic Knowledge Representation for Narrative Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    planet was forming, *therefore there was a planet; etc. For sentehces like "A little boy (who used to live here) is now a man," and "A cer- tain violinist ...utterance event; this seems to be involved in one reading of a certain violinist in the second sentence, viz., the reading where this has present reference...In another reading, (sometime violinist ) is involved.) 11. [[(The a: 4)I’)

  14. Knowledge Representation and Natural-Language Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-07

    seriously that part of common sense pychology that holds that beliefs and desires cause actions, then we had best take seriously the claim that, on the...this? Well, one alternative is as follows: there is a wide range of ways in which the environment might be abnormal and, moreover, be so in a way that...would defeat the rule. The organism must believe, for each of those ways, a proposition to the effect that the environment is not abnormal in that way

  15. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brusaporci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  16. Elements of social representation theory incollaborative tagging systems

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori; Andre Luiz Appel; Eduardo Michellotti Bettoni; Denise Fukumi Tsunoda; Frank Coelho de Alcântara

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the information representation process based on the Moscovici's Social Representation Theory and domain analysis in Information Science. The aim was to identify mechanisms and constituent dimensions of social representation in collaborative tagging systems/social bookmarking systems. Scientific knowledge was defined as the object/phenomenon of representation in these systems; and the tag as the shareable structure of meaning that connects participants and resources. The...

  17. Using Augmentations as Bridges from Concrete to Abstract Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Zufferey, Guillaume; Jermann, Patrick; Do-Lenh, Son; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    We describe a pedagogical approach supporting the acquisition of abstraction skills by apprentices in logistics. Apprentices start with a concrete representation in the form of a small-scale model which aims at engaging them in learning activities. Multiple External Representations are used to progressively introduce more abstract representations displayed on paper-based forms called TinkerSheets. We present the implementation of this approach on the TinkerTable, a tabletop learning e...

  18. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  19. Dependency Language Representation Using Conceptual Graphs. Autonomic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    http://www.sei.cmu.edu/staff/wjhDeployDesc.html. 30. [Hay94] Hayes, P. (1994) "Aristotelian and Platonic Views of Knowledge Representations...Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 1999. [7] P. Hayes, "Aristotelian and Platonic Views of Knowledge Representations," presented at Second

  20. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  1. Representation and propagation of imprecise and uncertain knowledge: applied to risk assessments related by polluted sites and soils; Representation et propagation de connaissances imprecises et incertaines: application a l'evaluation des risques lies aux sites et aux sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudrit, C

    2005-10-15

    Currently, decisions pertaining to the management of potentially polluted sites very often rely on the evaluation of risks for man and the environment. This evaluation is carried out with the help of models which simulate the transfer of pollutants from a source to a vulnerable target, for different scenarios of exposure. The selection of parameter values of these models is based as much as possible on the data collected at the time of on-site investigations (phase of diagnosis). However, due to time and financial constraints, information regarding model parameters is often incomplete and imprecise. This leads to uncertainty that needs to be accounted for the decision-making process. Uncertainty regarding model parameters may have essentially two origins. It may arise from randomness due to natural variability resulting from heterogeneity of population or the fluctuations of a quantity in time. Or it may be caused by impreciseness due to a lack of information resulting, for example, from systematic measurement errors or expert opinions. In risk assessment, no distinction is traditionally made between these two types of uncertainty, both being represented by means of a single probability distribution. So, uncertainty in risk assessment models is generally addressed within a purely probabilistic framework. This approach comes down to assuming that knowledge regarding model parameters is always of random nature (variability). Such knowledge is represented by single probability distributions typically propagated through the risk model using the Monte-Carlo technique. Even if this approach is well-known, the difficulty is to avoid an arbitrary choice of the shape of probability distributions assigned to model parameters. Indeed in the context of risk assessment related to pollutant exposure, knowledge of some parameters is often imprecise or incomplete. The use of single probability distribution to represent this type of knowledge becomes subjective and partly arbitrary

  2. SABERES DEL DOCENTE Y REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES: IMPLICANCIAS PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE LAS CIENCIAS NATURALES (KNOWLEDGE OF THE TEACHER AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING OF NATURAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Aguilar Susana

    2011-08-01

    hierarchical organization of terms – about different aspects related to the teaching and learning of Natural Sciences. To analyze the structures and identify the common elements that cut across these studies and present certain stability, we considered the classification of teacher‟s knowledge offered by Braslavsky and Birgin (substantive, pedagogic and institutional. The obtained results have allowed us to have access to important information about the meanings shared by this professional group. Thus, the similarity between the structures of the different groups shows that there exists a representation that allows us to describe what these teachers are and what they do, which correspond to traditional education approaches, marking the differences with other groups and other professional activities. The categories that appear in a constant way, beyond the topics proposed in every particular case, are related to the fact of "educating", that is, developing schooled subjects for the social world in which they live. Consequently, it can be inferred that the social demands puts strong pressure on the teachers and seem to turn their attention to other functions (supportive, sanitary, of social assistance away from their professional performance and which do not constitute the essence of the social function they attribute to themselves and which they aim at retaining over time.

  3. Representation as the representation of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, FR

    This essay deals, mainly, with the notion of representation. Representation is associated with texts and, as such, is contrasted to the true singular statement. It is argued that the relationship between the text and what the text represents can never be modeled on the relationship between the true

  4. Dynamic imagery in children's representations of number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Noel; Mulligan, Joanne

    1995-04-01

    An exploratory study of 77 high ability Grade 5 and 6 children investigated links between their understanding of the numeration system and their representations of the counting sequence 1-100. Analysis of children's explanations, and pictorial and notational recordings of the numbers 1-100 revealed three dimensions of external representation—pictorial, ikonic, or notational characteristics—thus providing evidence of creative structural development of the number system, and evidence for the static or dynamic nature of the internal representation. Our observations indicated that children used a wide variety of internal images of which about 30% were dynamic internal representations. Children with a high level of understanding of the numeration system showed evidence of both structure and dynamic imagery in their representations.

  5. The interaction of representation and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Alan

    2013-09-08

    Automated reasoning is an enabling technology for many applications of informatics. These applications include verifying that a computer program meets its specification; enabling a robot to form a plan to achieve a task and answering questions by combining information from diverse sources, e.g. on the Internet, etc. How is automated reasoning possible? Firstly, knowledge of a domain must be stored in a computer, usually in the form of logical formulae. This knowledge might, for instance, have been entered manually, retrieved from the Internet or perceived in the environment via sensors, such as cameras. Secondly, rules of inference are applied to old knowledge to derive new knowledge. Automated reasoning techniques have been adapted from logic, a branch of mathematics that was originally designed to formalize the reasoning of humans, especially mathematicians. My special interest is in the way that representation and reasoning interact. Successful reasoning is dependent on appropriate representation of both knowledge and successful methods of reasoning. Failures of reasoning can suggest changes of representation. This process of representational change can also be automated. We will illustrate the automation of representational change by drawing on recent work in my research group.

  6. Battlespace Representation for Air, Space, and Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    Battlespace Representation for Air, Space, and Cyber James McCracken 1 , and Denise Aleva 2 1 The Design Knowledge Company, Fairborn, Ohio, U.S.A...pages 336-343, Washington. IEEE Computer Society Press. (1996). [3] McCracken , James R. Unpublished internal training manual. The Design...Knowledge Company. Fairborn, OH. (2011). [4] McCracken , James R. Questions: Assessing the structure of knowledge and the use of information in design

  7. Social representations about science among students

    OpenAIRE

    Špela Šoštarič

    2003-01-01

    The article presents the results of a comparative study on social representations about science among students of social and natural sciences. My interest was focused mainly on the scientific metaparadigms we can find behind these representations, especially positivism and constructivism. The basic epistemological difference between the two is in accepting or rejecting the possibility of acquiring objective knowledge about reality. In the first part of the research I used my own questionnaire...

  8. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Luana Kelle Batista; UNAERP; Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa Silva; UNAERP; Moura, Guilherme César Batista; UNINOVAFAPI; Matos,Francisca Tereza Coelho; Falcão,Carlos Alberto Monteiro; Monte, Thiago LIma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating in...

  9. The Effects of Representational Format on Learning Combinatorics from an Interactive Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolloffel, Bas; Eysink, Tessa H. S.; de Jong, Ton; Wilhelm, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of different external representational formats on learning combinatorics and probability theory in an inquiry based learning environment. Five conditions were compared in a pre-test post-test design: three conditions each using a single external representational format (Diagram, Arithmetic, or Text), and…

  10. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  11. Essays on knowledge sourcing and technological capability : A knowledge structure perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    In today’s increasingly competitive and rapidly changing markets that depend heavily on innovation, firms are increasingly opt to use external knowledge sourcing strategies to complement their internal efforts in developing technological capabilities. While external knowledge sourcing strategy can

  12. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  13. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  14. STUDY ON THE REPRESENTATION OF THE PLÜCKER CONOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN Delia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and construction related design requires an in-depth knowledge of all the systems of representation of solids and surfaces. This paper presents a comparative study on the representation of the Plücker conoid using the three systems of representation, i.e. axonometry, the orthogonal projection on two planes of projection and the projection with elevation. Each of these representation systems has its own advantages and disadvantages. They relate to the practical aspect of measuring the true lengths, respectively sizes of angles and surfaces. Then, the way in which the representation is perceived spatially by specialists or non-specialists is also of importance.

  15. Representation theory of finite monoids

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...

  16. Conocimiento del desfibrilador automático externo (DEA por parte de candidatos a instructores en reanimación básica Trainee basic reanimation instructors' knowledge concerning an automated external defibrillator (DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NavarroVargas José Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El uso apropiado del desfibrilador automático externo (DEA hace parte del tercer eslabón de la cadena de supervivencia, fundamental para el manejo del paro cardiaco más frecuente en el adulto, la Fibrilación Ventricular (FV. La capacitación en las maniobras básicas de reanimación tiene 3 estaciones de trabajo: la RCP o maniobras de compresiones y ventilaciones, el manejo de la obstrucción de la vía aérea y el manejo del DEA. Objetivo. Evaluar el conocimiento previo que tienen sobre el DEA, los aspirantes a instructores en Reanimación Cardiocerebropulmonar (RCCP Básico. Material y Métodos. Estudio de corte transversal descriptivo, en asistentes al taller de formación de instructores en RCCP Básico (n=4 residentes de anestesiología y 29 anestesiólogos, durante el Congreso Peruano de Anestesiología (octubre de 2012. En la estación de manejo del DEA se realizó un taller de formación de instructores en RCCP Básico a 4 residentes de anestesiología y 29 anestesiólogos. En la estación del manejo del DEA se realizó una encuesta a partir de 3 interrogantes básicos: ¿para qué sirve?, los factores que interfieren en su funcionamiento y las indicaciones. Resultados. Los 33 asistentes respondieron la encuesta. 17 participantes, respondieron correctamente la primera pregunta. En la segunda pregunta, 14 participantes no propusieron ningún factor; 11 acertaron con un solo factor, 3 con 2 factores y 5 con 3 factores. En la tercera pregunta, 14 contestaron correctamente. Conclusión. Este estudio encontró un desconocimiento al ingreso al taller, de los principios básicos del DEA. Se sugiere continuar con los lineamientos básicos de enseñanza en el manejo del DEA y de renovar la adquisición de estas competencias en un periodo no mayor de 2 años.Background. The proper use of an automated external defibrillator (AED forms part of the third link in the chain of survival; it is fundamental in managing ventricular

  17. On Granular Knowledge Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

  18. Interpretive Viewers and Structured Programs: The Implicit Representation of Soap Opera Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates regular viewers' representations of soap opera characters to discover the nature of these representations, the extent to which they reflect the application of social knowledge, and the extent to which they reflect the structure of the program. (MS)

  19. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  20. A social representation is not a quiet thing: exploring the critical potential of social representations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Caroline

    2006-03-01

    Following Moscovici (1972), this paper addresses the questions: What is the aim of research within a social representations perspective? Is it to support or to criticize the social order? Is it to consolidate or transform it? After a brief overview of social representations theory, I argue that while the theory appears to have the conceptual tools to begin this critical task, there are serious criticisms and points of underdevelopment that need addressing. In order for social representations theory to develop into a rigorously critical theory there are three controversial issues that require clarification. These are (a) the relationship between psychological processes and social practices, (b) the reification and legitimization of different knowledge systems, and (c) agency and resistance in the co-construction of self-identity. After discussing each issue in turn, with illustrations from research on racializing representations, I conclude the paper with a discussion of the role of representations in the ideological construction and contestation of reality.

  1. Case Based Reasoning: Case Representation Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker H. El-Sappagh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case Based Reasoning (CBR is an important technique in artificial intelligence, which has been applied to various kinds of problems in a wide range of domains. Selecting case representation formalism is critical for the proper operation of the overall CBR system. In this paper, we survey and evaluate all of the existing case representation methodologies. Moreover, the case retrieval and future challenges for effective CBR are explained. Case representation methods are grouped in to knowledge-intensive approaches and traditional approaches. The first group overweight the second one. The first methods depend on ontology and enhance all CBR processes including case representation, retrieval, storage, and adaptation. By using a proposed set of qualitative metrics, the existing methods based on ontology for case representation are studied and evaluated in details. All these systems have limitations. No approach exceeds 53% of the specified metrics. The results of the survey explain the current limitations of CBR systems. It shows that ontology usage in case representation needs improvements to achieve semantic representation and semantic retrieval in CBR system.

  2. IMAGES AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATION: SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS CONTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Gonçalves Terra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common sense knowledge formation is object of study of the Social Representation Theory, which highlights the role of communication in the production of comprehension by the subjects. The visual images favor the socialization of meanings and are active elements in the formation of social representations. Given the expressive role of the images in the formation of representational contents, this paper aims to present a semiotics analysis method for researches on social representations. The semiotic analysis of images was selected as a theoretical and methodological basis, for offering the means required for guidance for an effective research method to identify the social representations of socially shared iconic signs. The analysis method was explored by means of analytical procedures, employed for the apprehension of social representations of the feminine in posters for Brazilian Ministry of Health campaigns, which allowed access to the network of meanings associated with the analyzed visual image. It should be emphasized that the relevance of the use of semiotic analysis to analyze social representations, which presents itself as a fertile perspective for further studies expanding the possibilities of exploitation of visual content.

  3. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social eventsunder the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structuralapproach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  4. 企业外部知识网络能力的结构测量——基于结构洞理论的研究%Research on the Structure and Measurement of Corporate External Knowledge Network Capability Based on the Structural Holes Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海花; 谢富纪

    2012-01-01

    以开放式创新模式下企业外部知识网络建设面临的挑战为基点,引入结构洞理论,基于对外部知识网络中结构洞的规划、占据、利用、剖析和拓展.识别企业外部知识网络能力的结构体系和内部作用机理;利用实证研究确定了涵盖网络构想能力、网络建构能力、网络利用能力、网络解构能力和网络重构能力等5个维度,共12个子维度和37个题项的企业外部知识网络能力测量量表。在此基础上.提出了“一纵一横”的企业外部知识网络能力的提升路径.即从战略层面到战术操作再回归到战略的纵向动态循环.以及从知识结点到知识链再到利益的横向持续推进。本研究从结构洞理论的视角揭示了企业外部知识网络能力的多维度构成和内部演化机理.研究结果弥补了现有研究中知识网络能力和一般网络能力之间、外部知识网络和内部知识网络之间模糊不清的不足.并能够为后续研究提供理论支撑和实证基础。%This paper proposes five major challenges facing the company in process of building the external knowledge network capability. Then, with the introduction of structural holes theory, this paper continues on discussing the constitution of corporate external knowledge network capability and redefines its factors on the basic process of planning, occupation, utilization, analysis and development of the structure holes. Hereafter, the paper builds the structural system of the external knowledge network capability and investigates its internal mechanism. After that, based on the existing literature, through empirical research, this paper establishes a formal measurement scale which includes five dimensions (network conceiving capability, network constructing capability, network utilizing capability, network deconstructing capability and network reconstructing capability), and consists of 12 sub-dimensions and 37

  5. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  6. Concept theory and semiotics in knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, Alon; Thellefsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The paper explores the basics of semiotic analysis and concept theory that represents two dominant approaches to knowledge representation, and explores how these approaches are fruitful for knowledge organization. Design/methodology/approach - In particular the semiotic theory formulate...

  7. Using Distributed Representations to Disambiguate Biomedical and Clinical Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tulkens, Stéphan; Šuster, Simon; Daelemans, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a knowledge-based method for Word Sense Disambiguation in the domains of biomedical and clinical text. We combine word representations created on large corpora with a small number of definitions from the UMLS to create concept representations, which we then compare to representations of the context of ambiguous terms. Using no relational information, we obtain comparable performance to previous approaches on the MSH-WSD dataset, which is a well-known dataset in the bi...

  8. [Training and representation of dementia of workers in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Stéphane; Gallin, Aurélie; Stefanuto, Muriel; Treffel, Sylvie; Antoine, Marc; Denormandie, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Training could be a lever for improving the quality of care of residents with dementia in nursing homes by changing social representations. Beyond a simple assessment of acquired knowledge, a change of social representations could be indicative of a true appropriation of the content of the training. A study was carried out to assess the impact of training on nursing home caregivers' representations of dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  9. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  10. Mobile Knowledge, Karma Points and Digital Peers: The Tacit Epistemology and Linguistic Representation of MOOCs / Savoir mobile, points de karma et pairs numériques : l’épistémologie tacite et la représentation linguistique des MOOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Rafferty Portmess

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Media representations of massive open online courses (MOOCs such as those offered by Coursera, edX and Udacity reflect tension and ambiguity in their bold promise of democratized education and global knowledge sharing. An approach to MOOCs that emphasizes the tacit epistemology of such representations suggests a richer account of the ambiguities of MOOCs, the unsettled linguistic and visual representations that reflect the strange lifeworld of global online courses and the pressing need for promising innovation that seeks to serve the restless global desire for knowledge. This perspective piece critically appraises the linguistic laboratory of thought such representation reveals and its destabilized rhetoric of technology and educational practice. The mobile knowledge of MOOCs, detached from context and educational purpose and indifferent to cultural boundary distortions, contains both the promise of democratized education and the shadow of post-colonial knowledge export. Les représentations médiatiques des cours en ligne ouverts et massifs (MOOC en anglais comme ceux offerts par Coursera, edX et Udacity reflètent une tension et une ambiguïté occasionnées par leur audacieuse promesse de démocratisation de l’éducation et de partage global du savoir. Étudier les MOOC en accentuant l'épistémologie tacite de ces représentations mène à une explication plus riche des ambiguïtés inhérentes aux MOOC, de l’incertitude des représentations linguistiques et visuelles reflétant l’étrange monde vécu des cours en ligne à l’échelle globale et le besoin pressant d'innovation prometteuse visant à répondre au désir insatiable de connaissance à travers le monde. Le présent essai évalue de manière critique le laboratoire linguistique d’idées révélées par une telle représentation ainsi que son discours instable sur la technologie et sur les pratiques pédagogiques. Libéré de tout contexte et d’objectif pédagogique et

  11. An association of external and internal enamel pearls.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan S; Charan C

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of an association of external enamel pearl with internal enamel pearl on the root of a molar. To the best of our knowledge, association of external and internal enamel pearls has not been previously reported. We discussed the histogenesis of enamel pearls and proposed that internal enamel pearl formation may be a continuation of formation of external enamel pearl.

  12. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-06-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems.

  13. The idea of external and internal cultivation-Compare Wu-Cheng’s“knowledge and behavior”with Wang-Yangming’s“the unity of knowledge and action”%合内外之道-吴澄的“知行兼赅”与王阳明的“知行合一”比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立群

    2016-01-01

    The theory of knowing and doing plays a significant role in Chinese traditional philosophy.The central thesis of it is“character”and “natural law”.Will it be possible to be sanctified,and how to be sanctified has been the focus-set of this theory.Accordingly,the resulting questions of knowing and doing closely connect to the temperament theory and the theory of Ontology.Both Wu Cheng and Wang Yang-ming’s theory begin with the theory of knowing and do-ing.Wu-Cheng’s investigation of things and extension of knowledge was mainly focusing on the lack of Zhu Xi’s study by emphasizing the strength of Lu school to cover the shortage of Zhu Xi’s theory,and illustrating the unity of external and internal cultivation by taking the idea as its premise.Wang Yang-ming pointed out that Zhu Xi misunderstood the theory of knowing and doing because he put the reason and mind second,and in the point of view of“the mind is princi-ple”,the theory of knowing and doing was neither internal nor external.They both had similar views on explaining the theory of knowing and doing.As to knowing,Wu-Cheng regarded the innate mind as knowing.He also believed that knowing only came from practice.Wu Cheng promoted the theory of knowledge and behavior after analyzing the theory of knowing and doing in the aspect of“enlightenment is investigation,practice is truth”.But Wang Yang-ming claimed that knowing and doing and Ontology were inseparable from one another.First he explained that“knowing without doingis nothing”,and he further theorized that “knowing is practice”.Then he explained how knowing and doing came up with the unity based on the dynamic process of knowing-doing-knowing.In Wang Yang-ming’s opinion,the unity of knowledge and action was a dynamic process.From self-knowledge to things-in-itself,the unity of knowing and action can be completed in the process of natural knowledge and actual knowledge.As to the relationship between know-ing and doing,Wu and

  14. The spatial representation of market information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeSarbo, WS; Degeratu, AM; Wedel, M; Saxton, MK

    2001-01-01

    To be used effectively, market knowledge and information must be structured and represented in ways that are parsimonious and conducive to efficient managerial decision making. This manuscript proposes a new latent structure spatial model for the representation of market information that meets this

  15. Knowledge related activities in open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Välling, Margus; Boyd, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Theory and practice both have recognised the importance of external knowledge to enhance organisations’ innovation performance. Due to organisations’ growing interest in effectively collaborating with external knowledge sources, research has investigated the importance of firm-external stakeholder...... interaction in open innovation. Despite valuable insights into the importance of the variety of external knowledge sources to enhance (open) innovation, research has overlooked so far that managers’ characteristics and practices are relevant for the absorption of external knowledge in open innovation. Thus...... organisations. Our findings show that the exploration, transformation, and exploitation of external knowledge are associated with a distinct set of managers’ characteristics and practices that capture the dominant pattern of processing external knowledge in open innovation....

  16. Unpacking Exoplanet Detection Using Pedagogical Discipline Representations (PDRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Edward E.; Chambers, Timothy G.; Wallace, Colin Scott; Brissenden, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Successful educators know the importance of using multiple representations to teach the content of their disciplines. We have all seen the moments of epiphany that can be inspired when engaging with just the right representation of a difficult concept. The formal study of the cognitive impact of different representations on learners is now an active area of education research. The affordances of a particular representation are defined as the elements of disciplinary knowledge that students are able to access and reason about using that representation. Instructors with expert pedagogical content knowledge teach each topic using representations with complementary affordances, maximizing their students’ opportunity to develop fluency with all aspects of the topic. The work presented here examines how we have applied the theory of affordances to the development of pedagogical discipline representation (PDR) in an effort to provide access to, and help non-science-majors engage in expert-like reasoning about, general relativity as applied to detection of exoplanets. We define a pedagogical discipline representation (PDR) as a representation that has been uniquely tailored for the purpose of teaching a specific topic within a discipline. PDRs can be simplified versions of expert representations or can be highly contextualized with features that purposefully help unpack specific reasoning or concepts, and engage learners’ pre-existing mental models while promoting and enabling critical discourse. Examples of PDRs used for instruction and assessment will be provided along with preliminary results documenting the effectiveness of their use in the classroom.

  17. Extensions of tempered representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.

    2013-01-01

    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the computa

  18. Multiple sparse representations classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Plenge (Esben); S.K. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); E. Meijering (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In t

  19. Embedded Data Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion of physical data referents - the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds - and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded representations, which display data so that it spatially coincides with data referents. Drawing on examples from visualization, ubiquitous computing, and art, we explore the role of spatial indirection, scale, and interaction for embedded representations. We also examine the tradeoffs between non-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.

  20. Representation and Reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This essay focuses on the historical text as a whole. It does so by conceiving of the historical text as representation - in the way the we may say of a photo or a painting that it represents the person depicted on it. It is argued that representation cannot be properly understood by modelling it on

  1. The Impact Research of External Social Capital on Performance of New Venture---Acting through Knowledge Acquisition%外部社会资本对新创企业绩效的影响研究--知识获取的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍盛祥; 陶文庆

    2014-01-01

    基于企业知识理论的观点认为知识资源已成为企业最为重要的战略性资源。外部社会资本作为新创企业社会关系网络在创业活动中的嵌入,是企业知识获取的重要手段。该文以社会资本理论为基础,通过对湖北省内116家新创企业的有效问卷调查及结构方程分析,研究表明,新创企业外部社会资本的结构维度、关系维度、认知维度对知识获取、新创企业绩效有显著影响,知识获取在新创企业外部社会资本与新创企业绩效的关系中起到部分中介作用。因此新创企业应加强外部社会资本构建和管理能力,促进知识获取,从而实现企业绩效的提升。%Knowledge resources has become the most important strategic resource based on the view of enterprise knowledge theory . External social capital as a start -up social network embedded in entrepreneurial activity , is the enterprise important means of knowledge acquisition . Taking social capital theory as foundation , this article analyzed structural equation and questionnaire data of 116 new ventures in Hubei Province . The research results have shown that structural dimensions , relational dimension and cognitive dimensions of external social capital can have remarkable influences on knowledge acquisition as well as new venture performance . Besides , knowledge acquisition plays a part of the intermediary role between external social capital and new venture performance .Therefore ,we hold the attitude that new ventures should strengthen the construction and management of external social capital to accelerate the knowledge acquisition , thereby fully playing a role in promoting enterprise performance .

  2. Knowledge Transfer in Collaborative Knowledge Management: A Semiotic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Jastroch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Codification and transfer of knowledge is essential in the practice of knowledge management. Theoretical knowledge, like scientific theories and models, by nature comes in coded representation for the explicit purpose of transfer. Practical knowledge, as involved frequently in engineering or business operations, however, is a priori uncoded, making transfer for further use or the generation of new knowledge difficult. A great deal of systems engineering effort in recent years has been focused on resolving issues related to this sort of knowledge transfer. Semantic technologies play a major role in here, along with the development of ontologies. This paper presents a semiotic perspective on transfer of knowledge within collaborations.

  3. Group and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2017-01-01

    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  4. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...... are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion...... of physical data referents – the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds – and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded...

  5. The adolescent towards knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Compagnucci, Elsa Rosa; Cardós, Paula Daniela; Denegri, Adriana; Barboza, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    The following article deals with knowledge, relationships, representations and values that pupils together with teachers perform daily at school. It includes our research project called “Adolescence and School” which has been implemented since 1995 in our Institution, subject called “Psychological Foundation on education”. Throughout its development, we have tried to get to know about in what positions teachers and students are towards knowledge. Our purpose is to make a critic- ref...

  6. The adolescent towards knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Compagnucci, Elsa Rosa; Cardós, Paula Daniela

    2003-01-01

    The following article deals with knowledge, relationships, representations and values that pupils together with teachers perform daily at school. It includes our research project called "Adolescence and School" which has been implemented since 1995 in our Institution, subject called "Psychological Foundation on education". Throughout its development, we have tried to get to know about in what positions teachers and students are towards knowledge. Our purpose is to make a critic- reflexive per...

  7. Representation and management of narrative information theoretical principles and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    Written from a multidisciplinary perspective, this book supplies an exhaustive description of NKRL and of the associated knowledge representation principles. It also constitutes an invaluable source of reference for practitioners, researchers and graduates.

  8. Social representation of the kinesiotherapist profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice ABALAŞE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific approach is focused on identifying the social representation of the profession of physical therapist referring to mental images of social reality to a group consensus meeting. The goal of research identifies social representation of the profession of physical therapist, on the premise that students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport have made a social representation of the profession of physical therapist in accordance with the description of the occupation of COR. Working method was based on the questionnaire. Interpretation of results, the first two items of the questionnaire was done through word association technique, developed by P. Verges (1 and an alternative method for determining the structure and organization of elements representation proposed by. C. Havârneanu (2. Qualitative analysis reveals that students’ specialization Physical Therapy and Special Motricity believes that a therapist uses therapy as a strategy to work, and it must be applied professionally. Respondents considered, as shown in the data collected, that this profession is subject to skills, education, cognitive baggage, all sending to knowledge, experience and passion. The core refers to the complex representation obtained thanks cognitive process by which individuals or groups in familiar transforms abstract and it integrates knowledge of their system.

  9. Progress for the Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Early Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Bhandari, Bishwo [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Sludern, Daniel [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Sampath, Ram [Centroid PIC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current progress and status related to the Industry Application #2 focusing on External Hazards. For this industry application within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) R&D Pathway, we will create the Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) approach to represent meaningful (i.e., realistic facility representation) event scenarios and consequences by using an advanced 3D facility representation that will evaluate external hazards such as flooding and earthquakes in order to identify, model and analyze the appropriate physics that needs to be included to determine plant vulnerabilities related to external events; manage the communication and interactions between different physics modeling and analysis technologies; and develop the computational infrastructure through tools related to plant representation, scenario depiction, and physics prediction. One of the unique aspects of the RISMC approach is how it couples probabilistic approaches (the scenario) with mechanistic phenomena representation (the physics) through simulation. This simulation-based modeling allows decision makers to focus on a variety of safety, performance, or economic metrics. In this report, we describe the evaluation of various physics toolkits related to flooding representation. Ultimately, we will be coupling the flooding representation with other events such as earthquakes in order to provide coupled physics analysis for scenarios where interactions exist.

  10. Body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmus, Magdalena

    2017-08-29

    Neuropsychological literature suggests that body representation is a multidimensional concept consisting of various types of representations. Previous studies have demonstrated dissociations between three types of body representation specified by the kind of data and processes, i.e. body schema, body structural description, and body semantics. The aim of the study was to describe the state of body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries and to provide evidence for the different types of body representation. The question about correlations between body representation deficits and neuropsychological dysfunctions was also investigated. Fifty patients after strokes and 50 control individuals participated in the study. They were examined with tasks referring to dynamic representation of body parts positions, topological body map, and lexical and semantic knowledge about the body. Data analysis showed that vascular brain injuries result in deficits of body representation, which may co-occur with cognitive dysfunctions, but the latter are a possible risk factor for body representation deficits rather than sufficient or imperative requisites for them. The study suggests that types of body representation may be separated on the basis not only of their content, but also of their relation with self. Principal component analysis revealed three factors, which explained over 66% of results variance. The factors, which may be interpreted as types or dimensions of mental model of a body, represent different degrees of connection with self. The results indicate another possibility of body representation types classification, which should be verified in future research.

  11. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  12. Concept theory and semiotics in knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, Alon; Thellefsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The paper explores the basics of semiotic analysis and concept theory that represents two dominant approaches to knowledge representation, and explores how these approaches are fruitful for knowledge organization. Design/methodology/approach - In particular the semiotic theory formulated...... of signs and Dahlberg’s model is thought from the perspective and demand of better KOS development. We find that Dahlberg’s concept model provides us with a detailed method for analyzing and representing concepts in a KOS, where semiotics provides the philosophical context for representation. Originality....../value - This paper is the first paper that combines theories of knowledge representation, semiotic and concept theory, within the context of knowledge organization....

  13. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  14. Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel between Teaching Chemical Engineering and Developing Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are expert systems development and teaching, the representation and processing of knowledge, knowledge representation in chemical engineering, and expert systems in chemical engineering. The seven phases of expert system development are illustrated. (CW)

  15. Lexical is as lexical does: computational approaches to lexical representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    In much of neuroimaging and neuropsychology, regions of the brain have been associated with ‘lexical representation’, with little consideration as to what this cognitive construct actually denotes. Within current computational models of word recognition, there are a number of different approaches to the representation of lexical knowledge. Structural lexical representations, found in original theories of word recognition, have been instantiated in modern localist models. However, such a representational scheme lacks neural plausibility in terms of economy and flexibility. Connectionist models have therefore adopted distributed representations of form and meaning. Semantic representations in connectionist models necessarily encode lexical knowledge. Yet when equipped with recurrent connections, connectionist models can also develop attractors for familiar forms that function as lexical representations. Current behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence shows a clear role for semantic information, but also suggests some modality- and task-specific lexical representations. A variety of connectionist architectures could implement these distributed functional representations, and further experimental and simulation work is required to discriminate between these alternatives. Future conceptualisations of lexical representations will therefore emerge from a synergy between modelling and neuroscience. PMID:25893204

  16. Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins

    2000-11-01

    Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.

  17. Income, Ideology, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Tausanovitch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Do legislators represent the rich better than they represent the poor? Recent work provides mixed support for this proposition. I test the hypothesis of differential representation using a data set on the political preferences of 318,537 individuals. Evidence of differential representation in the House of Representatives is weak. Support for differential representation is stronger in the Senate. In recent years, representation has occurred primarily through the selection of a legislator from the appropriate party. Although the preferences of higher-income constituents account for more of the variation in legislator voting behavior, higher-income constituents also account for much more of the variation in district preferences. In light of the low level of overall responsiveness, differential responsiveness appears small.

  18. Ordering ambiguity versus representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza de Dutra, A [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ , Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, C.P. 205, 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-06

    In this work we show that the ordering ambiguity on quantization depends on the representation choice. This property is then used to solve unambiguously some particular systems. Finally, we speculate on the consequences for more involved cases.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological representation assigned to a complex word must provide the formal structure .... This brings us to the cases where, on Williams's (1981a:258) analysis, the compositional notion ...... Die en moda Ii tei t . Kaaps tad: Ba 1 kema.

  20. Function, anticipation, representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickhard, Mark. H.

    2001-06-01

    Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.

  1. 基于本体的建设项目管理企业知识表示研究%The research of knowledge representation based on ontology in construction project management enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 邓晓红; 刘京明

    2012-01-01

    First of all, this paper analyzes the present situation of having rich information resources in construction project management enterprise. In the same time, some knowledge and experience is difficult to save. Then, the basic framework of the knowledge is provided in construction project management enterprise. The knowledge is divided into two parts, one is named knowledge space, and another is information space. Finally, this paper uses Protege to construct the ontology model of knowledge space of construction project management enterprise.%首先分析了现有建设项目管理企业知识信息资源日益庞大的趋势及有些知识和经验难以保存的问题,提出建设项目管理企业知识的基本架构,将建设项目管理企业知识中的知识库划分为建设项目管理企业知识空间和建设项目管理企业信息空间,并利用Protégé构造了建设项目管理企业知识空间的本体模型。

  2. Knowledge Diversity, Transfer and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Moreira, Solon; Markus, Arjan

    from the widely accepted view that distant, externally-developed knowledge is difficult to incorporate into the focal firm?s own production. We suggest that high levels of intrafirm network diversity, tie strength, and network density are essential for a diversity of knowledge inputs, knowledge...

  3. Making Connections: Elementary Teachers' Construction of Division Word Problems and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    If teachers make few connections among multiple representations of division, supporting students in using representations to develop operation sense demanded by national standards will not occur. Studies have investigated how prospective and practicing teachers use representations to develop knowledge of fraction division. However, few studies…

  4. A course in finite group representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This graduate-level text provides a thorough grounding in the representation theory of finite groups over fields and rings. The book provides a balanced and comprehensive account of the subject, detailing the methods needed to analyze representations that arise in many areas of mathematics. Key topics include the construction and use of character tables, the role of induction and restriction, projective and simple modules for group algebras, indecomposable representations, Brauer characters, and block theory. This classroom-tested text provides motivation through a large number of worked examples, with exercises at the end of each chapter that test the reader's knowledge, provide further examples and practice, and include results not proven in the text. Prerequisites include a graduate course in abstract algebra, and familiarity with the properties of groups, rings, field extensions, and linear algebra.

  5. Materials Driven Architectural Design and Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to outline a framework for a deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design. While materials and architecture in the process of realisation are tightly connected, architectural design and representation are often distanced from...... another role in relation to architectural production. It is, in this paper, the intention to point at material research as an active initiator in explorative approaches to architectural design methods and architectural representation. This paper will point at the inclusion of tangible and experimental...... material research in the early phases of architectural design and to that of the architectural set of tools and representation. The paper will through use of existing research and the author’s own material research and practice suggest a way of using a combination of digital drawing, digital fabrication...

  6. Representation model for injection mould-repair knowledge based on domain ontology%注射模改模知识应用本体的建模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申凯伦; 毛宁; 陈庆新

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic of injection mould-repair knowledge and a method of representing knowledge by ontology were analyzed, and a new mode for constructing application ontology was proposed. Discussion was emphasized on four modeling methods, including clone, combination, transmission, new built, etc. Finally, Protege software was used to establish an application ontology of injection mould-repair knowledge which was then converted to Web OWL language. The method has been practically proved good in representing injection mould-repair knowledge.%分析了注射模改模知识的特点和本体表示知识的方法,提出了构建应用本体的新模式,重点讨论了构造应用本体的克隆、合并、遗传,新建等4种建模方法,利用Protege软件建立了注射模改模知识应用本体,并转换为Web OWL语言.实践证明该方法能够较好地表示注射模改模知识.

  7. Influencing Factors of Corporate External Knowledge Network Capabilities:An Interactive Empirical Study%企业外部知识网络能力的影响因素:一个交互效应的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海花; 周嵩安

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation from the funnel-type closed innovation to the sieve-type open innovation, the exogenous knowledge search and external knowledge sources management are becoming the components of corporate innovation system. It is increasingly becoming one of the important topics in both corporate practice and theoretical research how to improve the external knowledge network capabilities. This paper, by applying the combination of qualitative and quantitative research, systematically reveals the“black box”of factors influencing the external knowledge network capabilities from multi-dimen⁃sions, including macro environment, inter-organizational situation, micro firm and content attribute and so on. Based on the research findings,the paper proposes the strategies to enhance the external knowledge network capabilities from multiple perspectives, namely building the macro environment“monitor”to instantaneously scan and take advantage of opportuni⁃ties, configuring heterogeneous knowledge potential energy to promote knowledge network embeddedness, fostering culture and internal resources to form network construction foundation,and developing employees’ learning and creative abilities to construct knowledge absorption and transfer platform.%随着漏斗式的封闭创新向筛子式的开放创新的转变,外源知识搜索和外部知识源管理逐渐纳入企业创新系统的范畴。如何提升外部知识网络能力,日益成为企业实践界和理论研究界愈来愈关注的重要课题之一。文章运用质化研究和量化研究相结合的方式,从宏观环境、中观情境、微观主体和内容属性等多维度系统地探秘企业外部知识网络能力影响因素的“黑箱”,基于研究结论从多个角度提出企业外部知识网络能力的提升策略,即建立宏观环境“监控器”,即时扫描并利用各种机会;配置异质化知识势能,提升知识网络嵌入性;培育文化与

  8. Representation, interaction, and intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Richard

    2007-09-10

    What the participants share, their common "sense" of the world, creates a foundation, a framing, an orientation that enables human actors to see and act in coordination with one another. For recurrent activities, the methods the participants use to understand each other as they act change, making the intersubjective space in which actors operate richer and easier to produce. This article works through some of the issues that emerge from a close examination of intersubjectivity as it is managed through representation and interaction. The data that are presented document, in detail, a sequence of related interactions, within and across episodes of cooperation, where continuity and change can be observed. The emergence of conversational structure and coordinating representations are significant milestones in the long-term development of a representational practice that support the runtime co-construction of intersubjective space. Conversational structures emerge interactively to mediate recurrent points of coordination in the domain activity, and only secondarily the conversation itself. Coordinating representations change the representational practice of the participants by making it easier to manage their "shared view" of the collective work, enabling the participants to make progress, expand the field of the common activity, while exhibiting more control of if and when explicit grounding occurs.

  9. [Pneumonia and its social representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui-Sutton, Alicia; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Angel; Halabe-Cherem, José

    2009-01-01

    To correlate the sociostructural variables with the knowledge about pneumonia and to explore the social representations about the etiology, prevention, development and treatment in poor communities. A survey in 848 adults from seven Rural Health Centers affiliated to IMSS-Oportunidades Program in four States, was carried out. One-third of the sample did not understand the term pneumonia; 35 % of the patients with risk factors did not know its etiology; 43 % did not know about associated complications but 85 % considered that it causes death. The use of antibiotics was recognized as a therapeutic measure by 78 % and 20 % did not know how to prevent pneumonia. The findings showed a positive attitude to immunization but inadequate information about respiratory diseases. In neighborhoods with insufficient public services (purified water, electricity and paved roads) the ignorance about pneumonia tended to increase.

  10. Social representations about science among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Šoštarič

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a comparative study on social representations about science among students of social and natural sciences. My interest was focused mainly on the scientific metaparadigms we can find behind these representations, especially positivism and constructivism. The basic epistemological difference between the two is in accepting or rejecting the possibility of acquiring objective knowledge about reality. In the first part of the research I used my own questionnaire about social representations about science and scientific knowledge. In the second part the interviews were performed with students who had obtained extreme scores on the questionnaire – in any of the two directions. The results of the questionnaire indicated that the students of natural sciences hold more positivistic representations and the students of social sciences more constructivistic ones. In the interviews these differences disappeared. Surprising resemblances were evident especially at the ontological and epistemological levels. I try to examine these results from the viewpoint of Tajfel's social identity theory and Bečaj's understanding of the structural model of the enviroment.

  11. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  12. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...

  13. Perception as Abduction: Turning Sensor Data into Meaningful Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Murray

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low-level sensor data is transformed into a symbolic representation of the external world, drawing together aspects such as incompleteness, top-down information flow, active perception, attention, and sensor fusion in a…

  14. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  15. Post-representational cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  16. Learning network representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Luis G.

    2017-02-01

    In this review I present several representation learning methods, and discuss the latest advancements with emphasis in applications to network science. Representation learning is a set of techniques that has the goal of efficiently mapping data structures into convenient latent spaces. Either for dimensionality reduction or for gaining semantic content, this type of feature embeddings has demonstrated to be useful, for example, for node classification or link prediction tasks, among many other relevant applications to networks. I provide a description of the state-of-the-art of network representation learning as well as a detailed account of the connections with other fields of study such as continuous word embeddings and deep learning architectures. Finally, I provide a broad view of several applications of these techniques to networks in various domains.

  17. SUBJECTIVITY: SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdete Rejane Ferro Zago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family, first family group of human beings, is the collective dimension of human existence and becomes responsible for the formation of the first social identity, as well as the constitution of subjectivity. Subjectivity is the inner world of each and every human being. This inner world is made up of emotions, feelings and thoughts. It is through this inner world that the individual relates to the social world, appointed by the outside world. This relationship follows the individual characteristics that mark the individual as unique, originated in shaping the individual, when they built the knowledge and beliefs. social representation as a form of knowledge, socially elaborated, shared with a practical purpose, contributing to the construction of a common reality to a social group. Is thus built up the social representation of the family.

  18. Mobilities and Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    , literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars...... to consider how they and their peers are currently confronting representations of mobility. This is particularly timely given the growing academic focus on practices, material mediation, and nonrepresentational theories, as well as on bodily reactions, emotions, and feelings that, according to those theories...

  19. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  20. Geometry of Knowledge for Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Germano

    2013-01-01

    The book is on the geometry of agent knowledge. The important concept studied in this book is the Field and its Geometric Representation. To develop a geometric image of the gravity , Einstein used Tensor Calculus but this is very different from the knowledge instruments used now, as for instance techniques of data mining , neural networks , formal concept analysis ,quantum computer and other topics. The aim of this book is to rebuild the tensor calculus in order to give a geometric representation of agent knowledge. By using a new geometry of knowledge we can unify all the topics that have been studied in recent years to create a bridge between the geometric representation of the physical phenomena and the geometric representation of the individual and subjective knowledge of the agents.

  1. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  2. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  3. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  4. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  5. Desiderata for computable representations of electronic health records-driven phenotype algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Huan; Thompson, William K; Rasmussen, Luke V; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Jiang, Guoqian; Kiefer, Richard; Zhu, Qian; Xu, Jie; Montague, Enid; Carrell, David S; Lingren, Todd; Mentch, Frank D; Ni, Yizhao; Wehbe, Firas H; Peissig, Peggy L; Tromp, Gerard; Larson, Eric B; Chute, Christopher G; Pathak, Jyotishman; Speltz, Peter; Kho, Abel N; Jarvik, Gail P; Bejan, Cosmin A; Williams, Marc S; Borthwick, Kenneth; Kitchner, Terrie E; Roden, Dan M; Harris, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic health records (EHRs) are increasingly used for clinical and translational research through the creation of phenotype algorithms. Currently, phenotype algorithms are most commonly represented as noncomputable descriptive documents and knowledge artifacts that detail the protocols for querying diagnoses, symptoms, procedures, medications, and/or text-driven medical concepts, and are primarily meant for human comprehension. We present desiderata for developing a computable phenotype representation model (PheRM). Methods A team of clinicians and informaticians reviewed common features for multisite phenotype algorithms published in PheKB.org and existing phenotype representation platforms. We also evaluated well-known diagnostic criteria and clinical decision-making guidelines to encompass a broader category of algorithms. Results We propose 10 desired characteristics for a flexible, computable PheRM: (1) structure clinical data into queryable forms; (2) recommend use of a common data model, but also support customization for the variability and availability of EHR data among sites; (3) support both human-readable and computable representations of phenotype algorithms; (4) implement set operations and relational algebra for modeling phenotype algorithms; (5) represent phenotype criteria with structured rules; (6) support defining temporal relations between events; (7) use standardized terminologies and ontologies, and facilitate reuse of value sets; (8) define representations for text searching and natural language processing; (9) provide interfaces for external software algorithms; and (10) maintain backward compatibility. Conclusion A computable PheRM is needed for true phenotype portability and reliability across different EHR products and healthcare systems. These desiderata are a guide to inform the establishment and evolution of EHR phenotype algorithm authoring platforms and languages. PMID:26342218

  6. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  7. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  8. Why Use Multiple Representations in the Mathematics Classroom? Views of English and German Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Anika; Kuntze, Sebastian; Lerman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with multiple representations and their connections plays a key role for learners to build up conceptual knowledge in the mathematics classroom. Hence, professional knowledge and views of mathematics teachers regarding the use of multiple representations certainly merit attention. In particular, investigating such views of preservice…

  9. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  10. Compact Information Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    network traffic, information retrieval, and databases are faced with very large, inherently high-dimensional, or naturally streaming datasets. This...proposal aims at developing mathematically rigorous and general- purpose statistical methods based on stable random projections, to achieve compact...detections (e.g., DDoS attacks), machine learning, databases , and search. Fundamentally, compact data representations are highly beneficial because they

  11. Representation and human reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, Alice G.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation and reasoning are two sides of sharing information. Representations of the context and common ground must capture the rich content of what has been said, by linking to situations in the world as well as to what has been said before, common sense and to the presuppositions and entailme

  12. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...... algebras and of simple algebraic groups. The first section contains some background on equivariant cohomology....

  13. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  14. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2012-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  15. Women and political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  16. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  17. Spectral representation of fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Haiyun; Bazen, Asker M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kevenaar, Tom A.M.; Akkermans, Anton H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Most fingerprint recognition systems are based on the use of a minutiae set, which is an unordered collection of minutiae locations and directions suffering from various deformations such as translation, rotation and scaling. The spectral minutiae representation introduced in this paper is a novel m

  18. Evaluation of need for ontologies to manage domain content for the Reportable Conditions Knowledge Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilbeck, Karen L; Lipstein, Julie; McGarvey, Sunanda; Staes, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    The Reportable Condition Knowledge Management System (RCKMS) is envisioned to be a single, comprehensive, authoritative, real-time portal to author, view and access computable information about reportable conditions. The system is designed for use by hospitals, laboratories, health information exchanges, and providers to meet public health reporting requirements. The RCKMS Knowledge Representation Workgroup was tasked to explore the need for ontologies to support RCKMS functionality. The workgroup reviewed relevant projects and defined criteria to evaluate candidate knowledge domain areas for ontology development. The use of ontologies is justified for this project to unify the semantics used to describe similar reportable events and concepts between different jurisdictions and over time, to aid data integration, and to manage large, unwieldy datasets that evolve, and are sometimes externally managed.

  19. A taxonomy of external and internal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Marvin M; Golomb, Julie D; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over--the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

  20. Nonlinear External Kink Computing with NIMROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    Vertical displacement events (VDEs) during disruptions often include non-axisymmetric activity, including external kink modes, which are driven unstable as contact with the wall eats into the q-profile. The NIMROD code is being applied to study external-kink-unstable tokamak profiles in toroidal and cylindrical geometries. Simulations with external kinks show the plasma swallowing a vacuum bubble, similar to. NIMROD reproduces external kinks in both geometries, using an outer vacuum region (modeled as a plasma with a large resistivity), but as the boundary between the vacuum and plasma regions becomes more 3D, the resistivity becomes a 3D function, and it becomes more difficult for algebraic solves to converge. To help allow non-axisymmetric, nonlinear VDE calculations to proceed without restrictively small time-steps, several computational algorithms have been tested. Flexible GMRES, using a Fourier and real space representation for the toroidal angle has shown improvements. Off-diagonal preconditioning and a multigrid approach were tested and showed little improvement. A least squares finite element method (LSQFEM) has also helped improve the algebraic solve. This effort is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Award Numbers DE-FG02-06ER54850 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.