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Sample records for external insulation systems

  1. Description and characterization of systems for external insulation and retrofitting for Denmark with emphasis on the thermal performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1998-01-01

    to solve these problems insulation is often part of the retrofitting. As internal insulation has many disadvantages with regards to heat and moisture only systems for external insulation will be mentioned here.As there are several different systems for external insulation, each with different properties...

  2. Characterization of systems for external insulation and retrofitting with emphasis on the thermal performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus; Rose, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    or unsatisfactory architectural look. One way of solving these problems is by adding a retrofitting system with thermal insulation to the existing building envelope. If external insulation systems are used, a new rain screen is applied on the outside of the insulation. Insulation can be applied either on the inside...... to include the effect of thermal bridges by performing simple calculations, a task which normally requires the use of numerical models. The results show that thermal bridges in external insulation systems may decrease their thermal resistance by more than 25%.Key parameters was calculated by the use...... of numerical tools and the validity of the results was ensured by measurements in a Guarded Hot Box on a variety of constructions....

  3. Characterization of systems for external insulation and retrofitting with emphasis on the thermal performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus; Rose, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    a building designer with such a choice, key parameters for insulation systems are described in a uniform manner stating their performance with regards to aesthetics, heat transfer, moisture, durability, fire and economy. Parameters given for the total insulation capability enable the building designer......During the last decade retrofitting of buildings has received increased attention not only in northern Europe but throughout the world. Retrofitting of buildings is usually performed to solve one or more of the following problems: poor indoor climate, excessive heat losses, insufficient durability...... or unsatisfactory architectural look. One way of solving these problems is by adding a retrofitting system with thermal insulation to the existing building envelope. If external insulation systems are used, a new rain screen is applied on the outside of the insulation. Insulation can be applied either on the inside...

  4. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhenghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the load bearing wall. Comprehensive simulations of the fire tests were carried out using an advanced CFD fire simulation software Simtec (Simulation of Thermal Engineering Complex [1, 2], which is now released by Simtec Soft Sweden, with the turbulent flow, turbulent combustion, thermal radiation, soot formation, convective heat transfer, the fully coupled three dimensional heat transfer inside solid materials, the ‘burn-out' of the surface protection layer and the pyrolysis of the insulation layer, etc, all computed. The simulation is compared with experimental measurement for validation. The simulation well captured the burning and fire spread of the external insulation wall.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of External Thermal Insulation Composite System: Thin Rendered Expanded Polystyrene Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Hai-tao; LI Hui-qiang; YIN Xiu-qin

    2009-01-01

    The finite element model of an external thermal composite insulation system, thin rendered expanded polystyrene (EPS) board, was built with ANSYS 1.0, which had two forms: one with window and one without window. The finite element analysis results show that the EPS board had very good insulation capacity at both high or low temperature, stress concentration was produced in the center of wall and around window, and the maximum deformation was observed at the edge of board and the minimum deformation was in the center.

  6. Description and characterization of systems for external insulation and retrofitting for Denmark with emphasis on the thermal performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1998-01-01

    to solve these problems insulation is often part of the retrofitting. As internal insulation has many disadvantages with regards to heat and moisture only systems for external insulation will be mentioned here.As there are several different systems for external insulation, each with different properties......Lately there has been quite a large focus on retrofitting of the Danish buildings. The retrofitting of the building is done in order to solve one or more of the following problems: bad indoor climate, large use of energy for heating, insufficient durability or architectural unsatisfactory.In order...

  7. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  8. External insulation with cellular plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2014-01-01

    External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) can be used as extra insulation of existing buildings. The system can be made of cellular plastic materials or mineral wool. There is a European Technical guideline, ETAG 004, that describe the tests that shall be conducted on such systems....... This paper gives a comparison of systems with mineral wool and cellular plastic, based on experience from practice and literature. It is important to look at the details in the system and at long time stability of the properties such as thermal insulation, moisture and fire. Investigation of fire properties...... insulation....

  9. Building elements and systems using vacuum insulated panels in external walling; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a research project concerning vacuum-insulated building elements and systems. The advantages of the thin vacuum insulation panels (VIP) are listed and compared with the increasingly thick layers of conventional insulation required for low energy consumption buildings that meet so-called 'passive house' standard. The aims of the research project are discussed which addressed the particular requirements placed on the materials and their protection against external damage. The monitoring of vacuum state using RFID chips is discussed. Various protective elements are examined. Also, facade constructions and the avoidance of thermal short circuits are discussed. Illustrated examples of applications are presented and developments in this fast-moving area are commented on.

  10. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems: Critical Parameters for Surface Hygrothermal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Barreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS are often used in Europe. Despite its thermal advantages, low cost, and ease of application, this system has serious problems of biological growth causing the cladding defacement. Recent studies pointed that biological growth is due to high values of surface moisture content, which mostly results from the combined effect of exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. Based on numerical simulation, this paper points the most critical parameters involved in hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS, considering the influence of thermal and hygric properties of the external rendering, the effect of the characteristics of the façade, and the consequences of the exterior and interior climate on exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. The model used was previously validated by comparison with the results of an “in situ” campaign. The results of the sensitivity analyses show that relative humidity and temperature of the exterior air, atmospheric radiation, and emissivity of the exterior rendering are the parameters that most influence exterior surface condensation. Wind-driven rain depends mostly on horizontal rain, building’s height, wind velocity, and orientation. The drying capacity is influenced by short-wave absorbance, incident solar radiation, and orientation.

  11. Description and characterization of system for external insulation and retrofitting for Denmark with emphasis on the thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudbeck, C.; Svendsen, S.

    1999-06-01

    Lately there has been quite a large focus on retrofitting of the Danish buildings. The retrofitting of the building is done in order to solve one or more of the following problems: bad indoor climate, large use of energy for heating, insufficient durability or architectural unsatisfactory. In order to solve these problems insulation is often part of the retrofitting. As internal insulation has many disadvantages with regards to heat and moisture only systems for external insulation will be mentioned here. As there are several different systems for external insulation, each with different properties, there is a need for a systematic approach when the building designer chooses which system should be used on the building which is to be retrofitted. All 12 systems are described using a format that subdivides the information from the producers into description of the system, drawings showing the system and index-numbers regarding heat, moisture and economy. From the 12 systems descriptions it is seen that the investment cost for most of the system used for retrofitting and external insulation is almost equal. The parameters which separates the systems from each other is the maintenance cost and the cost of the heat transmission loss through the retrofitting-system. According to the calculations there is not one system which performs better than the others when changing the parameters. The choice of a system for retrofitting depends (as far as total economy is concerned) mainly on the maintenance cost (which is difficult to predict) and the energy cost. Likewise the life time of the retrofitting system does also influence the total economy. Apart from these three factors aesthetics should also be taken into account when choosing a retrofitting system but this aspect has not been dealt with in this report. (EHS)

  12. Effect of insulating layer material on RF-induced heating for external fixation system in 1.5 T MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Kainz, Wolfgang; Qian, Songsong; Wu, Wen; Chen, Ji

    2014-09-01

    The radio frequency (RF)-induced heating is a major concern when patients with medical devices are placed inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. In this article, numerical studies are applied to investigate the potentials of using insulated materials to reduce the RF heating for external fixation devices. It is found that by changing the dielectric constant of the insulation material, the RF-induced heating at the tips of devices can be altered. This study indicates a potential technique of developing external fixation device with low MRI RF heating.

  13. Mineral thermal insulation systems for low-energy buildings: Optimum insulation of external walls; Mineralische Aussenwaermedaemmsysteme fuer Niedrigenergiehaeuser: Der richtige Rahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, J. [Fixit AG, Weiach (Switzerland)

    1997-05-01

    Low-energy buildings are complex systems. Many different criteria must be observed in their construction, and object-specific details must be viewed in the context of the overall system. Good thermal insulation alone does not make a low-energy building, but also the energy turnover of the external wall construction and its environmental acceptability must be taken into account. HAUSTECH presents the example of a new low-energy building with an efficient solar system in order to indicate the criteria that must be observed in particular for wall constructions of low-energy buildings in the Swiss low mountain regions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Niedrigenergiehaeuser sind komplexe Systeme. Bei der Planung und Realisierung muessen die verschiedensten Anforderungskriterien beruecksichtigt und einzelne objektspezifische Details im Hinblick auf das ganze System hinterfragt werden. Eine gute Waermedaemmung allein macht noch kein Niedrigenergiehaus aus. Die ganzheitliche Betrachtung schliesst auch den Energiehaushalt der Aussenwandkonstruktion und deren Umweltvertraeglichkeit mit ein. `HAUS TECH` zeigt anhand eines kuerzlich fertiggestellten Niedringenergiehauses, in dem auch die Solartechnik wirkungsvoll eingesetzt wird, auf, welche Kriterien bei Wandkonstruktionen fuer solche Bauten im schweizerischen Mittelland besonders zu beachten sind. (orig.)

  14. 不燃保温材料与外墙外保温系统适应性分析%Analysis on Adaptability between Non-Combustible Thermal Insulation Material and External Thermal Insulation Composite System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉言; 赵金平; 谭丹君

    2012-01-01

    In view of the chaotic situation of non-combustible thermal insulation materials which are applied in the external thermal insulation composite system in China, the classification and characteristics of the wall thermal insulation system are analyzed. The technical requirements of the external thermal insulation composite system are summarized. The major tips of the adaptability between the non-combustible thermal insulation material and the external thermal insulation composite system include three facets; thermal conductivity, water absorption and chemical stability.%针对目前我国不燃无机保温材料在外墙外保温中应用出现的混乱的局面,分析了墙体保温系统的分类与特点,对外墙外保温系统这种墙体保温主导形式的技术要求进行了总结,指出不燃保温材料与外墙外保温系统适应性的重点问题在于导热系数、吸水性、化学稳定性三个方面.

  15. 我国建筑外保温系统发展动态及趋势%The development of building external insulation systems in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓萍; 王国辉; 杜霞; 张晓颖; 胡胜利

    2011-01-01

    The fire prevention problems on the external wall insulation systems, the external insulation systems on big public construction with curtain wall and roofing insulation in our country are overviewed.The difference between the fire prevention codes inland and overseas is described and some suggestions about fire prevention problems are also given.The performance of insulation materials and the construction in our country make the usage of insulation materials in our country limited.More research on the partition of fire quarantine and the component of insulation materials according to the regional characteristics and the construction are needed.The research on the fire separation measures and the fire blocking in insulation curtain wall are needed%从外墙外保温、带有幕墙公共建筑外保温和屋面保温3个方面对我国防火安全问题、与国外防火规范要求的差距进行描述,并提出防火安全的相关建议.我国外墙外保温材料的技术性能以及我国的建筑形式导致外墙外保温材料在使用上受到限制.应根据我国区域特点和建筑实际情况,细致研究防火隔离区域的划分及防火隔离材料的构成.应加紧研究建筑幕墙保温系统中的防火分隔措施和防火封堵.

  16. Problems with plastered external heat insulation. Probleme mit verputzter Aussenwaermedaemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epple, H.; Foglia, A.; Preisig, H.; Pfefferkorn, J.

    1984-01-01

    Concerning execution, maintenance and service life, walls with plastered external heat insulation constitute an economic method. Owing to experience gained with plastered external heat insulation, it is possible today to provide reliable information on requirements made on ground material and operational execution. The author intends to contribute to a prevention of defects by giving concise examples. A survey on different types of external heat insulation is followed by a treatment of the problem areas of roof-edge connection, base end under ground, modernization of old buildings and cracks in plaster. Principal statements are made concerning steam diffusion, planning, materials and execution.

  17. Analysis of Air Flow in the Ventilated Insulating Air Layer of the External Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunská, Jana; Bullová, Iveta; Špaková, Miroslava

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with problems of impact of air flow in ventilated insulating air layer of the external wall on behaviour of thermal-technical parameters of the proposed external structure (according principles of STN 73 0549, which is not valid now), by comparing them in the calculation according to the valid STN standards, where air flow in the ventilated air layer is not taken into account, as well as by comparing them with behavior of thermal-technical parameters in the proposal of sandwich external wall with the contact heat insulation system without air cavity.

  18. Optimization of External Envelope Insulation Thickness: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Touloupaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost four years after the implementation deadline of the energy performance of buildings Directive recast (2010/31/EU and after being referred to the Court of Justice of the EU by the European Commission, Greece has not yet proceeded with the necessary calculations and legislative measures on the minimum, cost-optimal energy performance requirements for buildings. This paper aims to identify the optimal thickness of insulation that is cost-effective to apply in urban multi-family domestic buildings in the four climate zones of Greece. A reference building is selected in order to perform calculations over ten scenarios of external insulation thickness for each climate zone on a basic and three sensitivity analysis calculations according to the EU comparative methodology framework. The resulting energy savings for each insulation scenario are calculated, and then the cost-effectiveness of the measure is examined in financial and macroeconomic perspective for an economic lifecycle of 30 years. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of the national regulation’s current insulation limits and the externalities (funding gaps that need to be addressed in order to achieve the effective improvement of energy efficiency in Greek homes.

  19. Parametric Investigation of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kaynakli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have estimated the optimum thickness of thermal insulation materials used in building walls for different climate conditions. The economic parameters (inflation rate, discount rate, lifetime and energy costs, the heating/cooling loads of the building, the wall structure and the properties of the insulation material all affect the optimum insulation thickness. This study focused on the investigation of these parameters that affect the optimum thermal insulation thickness for building walls. To determine the optimum thickness and payback period, an economic model based on life-cycle cost analysis was used. As a result, the optimum thermal insulation thickness increased with increasing the heating and cooling energy requirements, the lifetime of the building, the inflation rate, energy costs and thermal conductivity of insulation. However, the thickness decreased with increasing the discount rate, the insulation material cost, the total wall resistance, the coefficient of performance (COP of the cooling system and the solar radiation incident on a wall. In addition, the effects of these parameters on the total life-cycle cost, payback periods and energy savings were also investigated.

  20. 轻质砂浆复合聚氨酯板外墙外保温系统施工技术∗%Construction Technology of External Thermal Insulation System Based on Lightweight Mortar Composite with Rigid Polyurethane Foam Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂芳; 王永魁; 罗淑湘; 邱军付

    2014-01-01

    硬泡聚氨酯复合板是近两年发展形成的一种新型保温板材,该板材采用薄抹灰外墙外保温系统,许多工程应用后出现了板框可见、板缝裂缝等质量问题,轻质砂浆复合聚氨酯板外墙外保温系统能有效解决该问题。详细介绍了系统构造、组成材料的性能、工艺流程及施工要点,并对系统技术优势进行了分析,通过工程验证表明:轻质砂浆复合聚氨酯板外墙外保温系统是一项值得推广应用的外墙外保温技术。%Rigid polyurethane composite foam board is a new external thermal board. After application of the thin plastering external thermal insulation with rigid polyurethane foam board, some buildings appear the quality problems of visible board frames and cracking gaps of rigid polyurethane foam board. The external thermal insulation system based on lightweight mortar composite with rigid polyurethane foam board can successfully solve these problems. Technical structure, the performance of the composite materials, construction process and key points are introduced in detail,and the technical advantages in the system are analyzed. The engineering application result shows that external thermal insulation system based on lightweight mortar composite with rigid polyurethane foam board is worth popularizing and applying.

  1. Preparation and Thermal Insulation Properties of External Wall Insulation Mortar System Using Solid Waste%基于废弃物利用的自保温墙体配套砂浆制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林柱; 杨芳; 谢子令; 赵善宇; 徐海珣

    2012-01-01

    采用淤泥陶砂、废弃加气混凝土结合传热系数小的玻化微珠为砂浆骨料,基于“复合化”思想,制备自保温墙体配套砂浆.采用正交实验探讨混掺砂浆的合理配比,控制4项参数:胶凝材料用量、陶砂(或废料)与玻化微珠体积比、硅灰取代量和胶粉掺量,以干容重、抗压强度、导热系数为考核指标,制备综合利废效果最佳的新型混掺复合保温砂浆.结果表明,陶砂玻化微珠复合砂浆导热系数0.16~0.29 W/(m·K),随着陶玻比增大而增大,因此陶砂体积含量增加有利于提高保温性能,加气废料玻化微珠复合砂浆的导热系数0.10~1.14 W/(m·K),与陶砂复合保温砂浆相比,有较大的降低.%Combining with vitrified micro bubbles(VB) , sludge ceramic sand(SC) and abandon aerated concrete(AC) were chosen in the paper as aggregate. Together with cementitious materials, novel external wall insulation mortar was prepared. Based on orthogonal method, the experiment was designed with four parameters: cementing materials dosage, SC/VB or AC/VB ratio, silica fume replacement ratio and rubber replacement ratio, and three key performance indicators: dry bulk density, compressive strength and thermal conductivity were test to check the performance of mortar samples. After synthetical design of the test, hybrid insulation mortar with optimal parameters and performances were produced, the thermal conductivity of sludge ceramic sand mortar is 0. 16~0. 29 W/(m · K), and increasing with improvement of the SC/VB ratio, while thermal conductivity of abandon aerated concrete mortar is 0. 10~0. 14 W/(m · K), it is lower than sludge ceramic sand mortar. They are expected to be promising insulation materials for building thermal insulation use.

  2. 某高层住宅建筑外墙外保温系统火灾技术调查%Investigation and lessons learned upon a high-rise residential building fire involving external insulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈纹; 刘激扬; 倪照鹏; 黄鑫

    2013-01-01

    对某高层住宅建筑外墙外保温系统火灾进行了调查并分析了火灾发生的原因.火灾时部分保温材料表面受热剥落而未发挥保护作用,外墙玻璃破裂后火势通过窗口进入建筑内部.建筑内的自动喷水灭火系统在火灾初期正常运行,走道部位的机械排烟系统因部分排烟阀机械故障未能发挥作用.建筑的外墙外保温系统施工改造应采用不燃保温材料;疏散楼梯间应设置在建筑的不同方位;高层建筑的施工用脚手架和踏板等应采用不燃材料.%An investigation has been carried out to study a high-rise residential building fire case involving external insulation system. Part of the external insulation materials dropped in the fire because of heat and fail to protect the building, and the fire spread into the building after the broking of glass of windows. The automatic sprinkler system operating normally at the beginning of the fire, but the malfunction of part of the exhaust value lead to the failure of mechanical smoke exhaust system at the walkway. The external insulation system must use the non-combustible materials: the evacuation stairwell must set at the different position of building; the scaffold and footboard used at the construction of high-rise building must be non-combustible.

  3. 夏热冬冷地区外墙保温系统技术发展趋势探讨%Discussion on the Development Trend of External Wall Insulation System Technology in Area with Hot Summer and Cold Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈敏奇

    2014-01-01

    当今,节能建筑已成为项目工程建筑中一个重要的组成部分。对结构外围护性能进行提高与改善、对外墙保温系统设计和构造进行优化,是节能建筑的重点工程。%Nowadays, building energy conservation has beco-me an important part of project construction. To enhance and improve envelope performance, and to improve optimize the external wal insulation system design and structure is a key project in building energy saving.

  4. Advances in Microsphere Insulation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. S.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    Microsphere insulation, typically consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. Microspheres provide robust, low-maintenance insulation systems for cryogenic transfer lines and dewars. They also do not suffer from compaction problems typical of perlite that result in the necessity to reinsulate dewars because of degraded thermal performance and potential damage to its support system. Since microspheres are load bearing, autonomous insulation panels enveloped with lightweight vacuum-barrier materials can be created. Comprehensive testing performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory located at the NASA Kennedy Space Center demonstrated competitive thermal performance with other bulk materials. Test conditions were representative of actual-use conditions and included cold vacuum pressure ranging from high vacuum to no vacuum and compression loads from 0 to 20 psi. While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual implementation has not been pursued. Innovative microsphere insulation system configurations and applications are evaluated.

  5. Research on Application of Lightweight Mortar Used as Internal and External Thermal Insulation System%轻质砂浆内外组合保温系统技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红玉; 钱忠勤

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the defects of the traditional building energy conservation system and the new type of lightweight mortar used as internal and external thermal insulation system for the building are presented. The improvement of the thermal insulation system, key technology of the energy conservation system, civil engineering application and the economic effect analysis are mainly discussed. The application shows that this kind of thermal insulation system has many obvious advantages; material property improvement, technical innovation and making full use of material properties. The new building material and the construction technology are energy saving, environmental protection and have very good application and promotion value in civil engineering field.%在分析当前建筑节能保温系统存在缺陷的基础上,提供了一种新型的轻质砂浆内外组合保温系统.文章着重介绍了该系统保温材料的改性研究理念;轻质砂浆内外组合保温系统实施以及工程应用实例及其效益分析.实践表明,该轻质砂浆内外组合保温系统摒弃了以往保温做法的缺陷,通过技术上的有效创新,使材料及其材料性能得以充分利用和发挥,从而达到节能、环保、持久的经济效益和社会效益,具有推广应用潜力.

  6. Autoclaved aerated concrete masonry with external insulation. Features of moisture conditions during the initial period of operation (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuptaraeva P.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building designs at the moment of commissioning include the initial (building and technological moisture. Thermal insulation systems influence on the yield of the initial moisture from the structures. However, there are no specific design requirements about determining initial moisture content in insulation systems.In this article the features of the initial period of operation on an example of aerated concrete are defined: the results of field surveys and calculations are shown and compared. On the basis of this comparison basic advice on the accounting features of the initial period of operation of autoclaved aerated concrete structures with external insulation are given.

  7. Temperature distribution of external thermal insulation systems under the attack of window spill plume%窗口火作用下外保温系统温度分布特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小兵; 赵成刚; 卢国建; 刘松林; 曾续斌

    2013-01-01

    采用真实尺度的3层建筑进行窗口火实体火灾实验,研究模塑聚苯乙烯(EPS)、挤塑聚苯乙烯(XPS)、聚氨酯(PUR)和酚醛(PF)等4种典型保温泡沫层的外墙外保温系统温度及室内温度的分布特性.研究结果表明:XPS和PF系统表面在横向立面上维持较高温度,EPS和PUR系统远离角落的区域表面温度较低且随着横向距离增大明显降低;热塑性外保温系统的内部温度明显高于热固性外保温系统;第2层和第3层距楼板高度0.9m以下的室内区域烟气温度暴露风险较小,但2层0.9m高度以上、3层1.8m高度以上的区域以及窗户区域均存在较高温度暴露风险.%Results of real scale window spill plume tests in a 3-story building are reported on four external insulation systems with insulation materials of expanded polystyrene foam (EPS),extruded polystyrene foam (XPS),polyurethane foam (PUR) and phenolic foam (PF).The research was focused on the examination of the temperature distribution of external thermal insulation system itself and its connected internal rooms.The tests showed that the lateral system surface temperatures of XPS and PF system were higher than EPS and PF system,and the latter showed a trend to decrease along with the lateral surface; Thermoplastic systems showed higher internal temperature than thermosetting systems; Internal area of the 2nd and 3rd story had relatively lower temperature exposure risk below 0.9 m height,however,areas above 0.9 m height of 2nd story and 1.8 m height of 3rd story and the window areas of 2nd and 3rd story all had high temperature exposure risk.

  8. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  9. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  10. THE STUDY ON MEASURING TECHNIQUE OF PARTIAL DISCHARGE IN GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR USING ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY METHOD WITH EXTERNAL SENSORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective In order to find early latent faults and prevent catastrophic failures, diagnosis of insulation condition by measuring technique of partial discharge(PD) in gas insulated switchgear (GIS) is applied in this paper, which is one of the most basic ways for diagnosis of insulation condition. Methods Ultra high frequency(UHF) PD detection method by using internal sensors has been proved efficient, because it may avoid the disturbance of corona, but the sensor installation of this method will be limited by the structure and operation condition of GIS.There are some of electromagnetic (E-M) waves leak from the place of insulation spacer, therefore, the external sensors UHF measuring PD technique is applied, which isn't limited by the operation condition of GIS. Results This paper analyzes propagated electromagnetic (E-M) waves of partial discharge pulse excited by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The signal collected at the outer point is more complex than that of the inner point, and the signals' amplitude of outer is about half of the inner, because it propagates through spacer and insulation slot. Set up UHF PD measuring system. The typical PD in 252kV GIS bus bar was measured using PD detection UHF technique with external sensors. Finally, compare the results of UHF measuring technique using external sensors with the results of FDTD method simulation and the traditional IEC60270 method detection. Conclusion The results of experiment shows that the UHF technique can realize the diagnosis of insulation condition, the results of FDTD method simulation and the result UHF method detection can demonstrate each other, which gives references to further researches and application for UHF PD measuring technique.

  11. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  12. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    and insulation has to be fulfilled. Based on a given design of the tapered insulation the total heat loss coefficient of the roof can be calculated using formulae in EN ISO 6946 for typical segments of the tapered insulation. Performing design and calculations for large roofs with numerous different segments can...... for design of flat roofs and a pc-program that can be used for calculating the total heat loss coefficient of externally insulated roofs with insulation in tapered layers, taking into account thermal bridges in the roof construction.......In order to achieve durability of flat roofs with external insulation, it is necessary to secure proper drainage of the roof, i.e. to avoid water leaking into the insulation. The design of the tapered insulation of the roof is quite difficult as requirements with respect to both drainage...

  13. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Fesmire, J. E. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida; Augustynowicz, S. D. [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    2008-01-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  14. Thermal insulation performance of green roof systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Serdar; Morgan, Susan; Retzlaff, William; Once, Orcun [southern Illinois University (United States)], e-mail: scelik@siue.edu, e-mail: smorgan@siue.edu, e-mail: wretzla@siue.edu, e-mail: oonce@siue.edu

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing costs of energy, good building insulation has become increasingly important. Among existing insulation techniques is the green roof system, which consists of covering the roof of a building envelop with plants. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of vegetation type and growth media on the thermal performance of green roof systems. Twelve different green roof samples were made with 4 different growth media and 3 sedum types. Temperature at the sample base was recorded every 15 minutes for 3 years; the insulation behavior was then analysed. Results showed that the insulation characteristics were achieved with a combination of haydite and sedum sexangulare. This study demonstrated that the choice of growth media and vegetation is important to the green roof system's performance; further research is required to better understand the interactions between growth media and plant roots.

  15. Study on the external wall insulation system for fire prevention based on numerical simulation%基于数值模拟的外墙保温体系防火问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平; 季经纬; 武爽

    2011-01-01

    针对国内现有的外墙外保温系统的防火性较差的现状,通过分析上海公寓楼外墙保温层的火灾,得到外墙外保温防火的三种重要因素(粘结或固定方式、防火隔离带的构造、防火保护面层).鉴于现在流行的保温材料为膨胀聚苯板(EPS),因而选用EPS作为模拟材料,利用数值模拟计算得出以下结论:认为火灾时有空腔的保温层比无空腔的保温层更危险;设置防火隔离带能有效得阻隔火灾的蔓延,较宽的隔离带效果更好.除此之外,外保温层防火设计中还应考虑以下三方面的问题,即遴选适当的保温材料、建议保温层也使用类似于防火分区的防火措施和保证保温效果的同时增加防火隔离带的宽度.研究结论和建议对于解决外墙保温体系防火问题具有重要的参考价值和现实意义.%Aiming at the status that the domestic existing exterior insulation system had poor fire resistance, through the analysis of apartment fire by exterior wall thermal insulation layer in Shanghai, three important factors exterior insulation fireproof were obtained induding binding or fixed mode, fire belt construction, fire protection layer. In view of the popular heat preservation material like EPS, it was selected to be the simulated material, and the following conclusions were obtained by numerical simulation: it was thought that in fire cavity insulation layer is more dangerous than no free cavity insulation; Setting fire belt can effectively block the spread of fire zone, and broader insulation belt has better effect. In addition, the design of insulation layer fire still should consider the following three problems, namely selecting proper insulation materials, suggesting insulation layer also use similar fire prevention measures liking fire compartment and increasing the midth of five bele at the same time of guaranteeing the thermal insulation. Research conclusions and recommendations for solving the

  16. Methods for the evaluation of thermal insulation systems and heat bridges of multi-leaf external walls and measures for the reduction of transmission heat losses of facades. Verfahren zur Beurteilung des Waermeschutzes und der Waermebruecken von mehrschaligen Aussenwaenden und Massnahmen zur Verminderung der Transmissionswaermeverluste von Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achtziger, J.

    1989-08-01

    When calculating the heat transition coefficient of multi-leaf external walls it shows that particular in case of lightweight metal facades and external walls with coverings the simplified method leads to a too favourable assessment of the building unit and that improvements of the thermal insulation do not have the effect desired. On the basis of exact experimental and arithmetical investigation methods the order of magnitude of the differences from thermal insulation have been found out and also to what extent these can be neglected or have correspondingly to be taken into account. Starting from these results functional influences have been deduced for the different wall constructions. Among the external wall systems investigated were metal constructions and windows, profiled sheet walls and multi-leaf walls of brickwork and of concrete shell as well as wood skeleton and wood panel constructions. The results of these are presented, comparisons are drawn, factors are named which influence the heat transition, the thermal insulation is judged and constructive suggestions for improvements are made. (HWJ).

  17. Insulation systems of the building construtions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiantcev Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructions of the exterior insulation and decoration combines materials of different functionality and constructive solutions allows to these materials to demonstrate their efficiency to the great extent. Fire safety of buildings is mandatory requirement for building systems. Some insulating material may belong to the group of combustible, but their use in structures so as to minimize the risk of fire. On the other hand, there are special designs, in which non-flammable insulation acts as a flame retardant barrier. In the article carried systematization of construction systems used in the flat and pitched roof during the insulation and wall covering and facades. Taking into account the experience of leading firms were considered the application features of using exterior finish systems: construction solutions, requirements for materials and recommendations about the installation these systems.The article deals with the construction ventilated roofing system of two types: flat roof and pitched roof seam. In the first case, the ventilation system is created using milled insulation boards in the second - by a ventilated gap. In both cases the natural convection of air in the air cavities. Ensuring operational stability insulation is laid on the stages of production of heat-insulating materials. It is important: firstly responsible execution of all process operations associated with providing regulatory properties of materials and secondly, the performance of additional operations associated with the produc-tion of materials, working in a specific design. An example of a material whose properties can modify for a particular application, are milled mineral wool (with air channels for systems of ventilated flat roof.

  18. Development of a Generator Stator Insulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    16 - ’ ’ , .. . .- " ’ m’ mm II- - mm system will see. The primary factors that bear on suitability of an insulation system for this application are...heavily covered with a black gummy deposit. Both of these areas appeared suspect and were investigated further. It appeared that the long-time failure

  19. Robust Multilayer Insulation for Cryogenic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Scholtens, B. F.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    New requirements for thermal insulation include robust Multilayer insulation (MU) systems that work for a range of environments from high vacuum to no vacuum. Improved MLI systems must be simple to install and maintain while meeting the life-cycle cost and thermal performance objectives. Performance of actual MLI systems has been previously shown to be much worse than ideal MLI. Spacecraft that must contain cryogens for both lunar service (high vacuum) and ground launch operations (no vacuum) are planned. Future cryogenic spacecraft for the soft vacuum environment of Mars are also envisioned. Industry products using robust MLI can benefit from improved cost-efficiency and system safety. Novel materials have been developed to operate as excellent thermal insulators at vacuum levels that are much less stringent than the absolute high vacuum requirement of current MLI systems. One such robust system, Layered Composite Insulation (LCI), has been developed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The experimental testing and development of LCI is the focus of this paper. LCI thermal performance under cryogenic conditions is shown to be six times better than MLI at soft vacuum and similar to MLI at high vacuum. The experimental apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux data for LCI systems are compared with other MLI systems.

  20. Optimization of Korean crop storage insulation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongho Yoon [Taejon National Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Taejon (Korea); Euyjoon Lee [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Passive Solar Research Team, Taejon (Korea); Krarti, Moncef [Colorado Univ., CEAE Dept., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2003-05-01

    With the increasing concerns with the quality and the safety of foods, several standards and guidelines have been developed to improve the design, construction and operation of storage warehouses. Several cool storage buildings have been constructed in Korea during the last decade. However, there are no specific standards or guidelines for energy use reduction in refrigerated structures. The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of various insulation systems on the total cooling load of the cool storage structures with particular consideration given to the product thermal mass to find optimal insulation thicknesses for each envelope component for various climatic locations in Korea. An energy analysis model was developed using the DOE-2.1E program. To determine the optimal configuration for the storage building insulation system, life cycle cost analysis was conducted. The selection of optimal insulation configuration for each climatic location is based on various criteria including cost and energy minimization. The results presented in this paper provide easy to use design guidelines to select the optimal insulation thickness for crop storage facilities in Korea. (Author)

  1. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Mutschler, E. [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the BOA system, a mobile pipe-external crawler used to remotely strip and bag (possibly contaminated) asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations across the DOE weapons complex. The mechanical removal of ACLIM is very cost-effective due to the relatively low productivity and high cost involved in human removal scenarios. BOA, a mechanical system capable of removing most forms of lagging (paper, plaster, aluminum sheet, clamps, screws and chicken-wire), and insulation (paper, tar, asbestos fiber, mag-block) uses a circular cutter and compression paddles to cut and strip the insulation off the pipe through compression, while a HEPA-filter and encapsulant system maintain a certifiable vacuum and moisture content inside the system and on the pipe, respectively. The crawler system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. Key design parameters and performance parameters are developed and used in performance testing. Since the current system is a testbed, we also discuss future enhancements and outline two deployment scenarios (robotic and manual) for the final system to be designed and completed by the end of FY `95. An on-site demonstration is currently planned for Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  2. 玻化微珠保温砂浆在外墙防火构造中的应用%Application of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar in external fireproof construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 李珠; 郭秀华

    2012-01-01

    介绍玻化微珠保温砂浆的性能,并对外保温系统进行防火安全分析,证明玻化微珠保温砂浆在外墙外保温系统防火构造中应用是可行的,可有效阻止保温系统的火势蔓延,具有优良的阻燃效果.%By introducing the performance of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar, and analyzing on fire protection of exterior insulation system,the feasibility of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar as fireproof in external insulation is proved. The thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar can effectively prevent fire spreading in external wall exterior insulation system and has an excellent flame retardant effect.

  3. Research and Application of Fire Resisting Building External Insulation Formwork Technology%防火建筑外保温模板技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚通稳

    2016-01-01

    Under the requirements of insulation outside the building and fire protection performance, combined with the characteristics of existing external insulation system and insulation materials, a new kind of insulation material, namely fire resisting building external insulation formwork was designed. Through the detection and analysis on the slurry fluidity of fire isolation component, the compressive and flexural strength and wet density, the suitable mix proportion was chosen. By the comprehensive analysis on insulation and construction performance, it is pointed out that this component can meet wall concrete pouring and building energy-saving requirement.%在建筑物外保温系统防火性能要求下,结合现有外保温系统和保温材料特点,设计出一种新型保温材料——防火建筑外保温模板.通过对防火隔离设计部件料浆流动性、试件抗折、抗压强度和湿密度进行检测及数据分析,确定生产配料方案;对由企业生产并自然养护28d保温模板进行保温与施工性能综合分析,该制品满足墙体混凝土浇筑的施工与建筑物节能要求.

  4. Steady state theoretical model of fired clay hollow bricks for enhanced external wall thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchair, Ammar [Laboratoire de Recherche Cadre Bati et Environnement, Departement d' Architecture, Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Jijel, BP 98 Ouled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria)

    2008-10-15

    This paper proposes a theoretical model to study the steady state thermal behavior of fired clay hollow bricks for enhanced external wall thermal insulation. The study aims at the development of new materials and structural components with good thermal material properties, with respect to energy saving and ecological design. Thermal insulation capacity of two external walls of different thicknesses, constructed of locally produced bricks, is studied. The basic brick units used for the investigation are small-size bricks with eight equal cavities or recesses and big-size bricks with twelve equal recesses. Their recesses configuration has been varied to perform the assessment. The insulation materials injected within brick recesses during the assessment are granulated cork and expanded polystyrene. The improvement in the thermal performance of the walls will be the result of optimization among the various factors such as brick cavity configurations, integration of insulation within brick recesses and the cavity surface emissivities. So emphasis is given to the study of the impact of these factors singly or in combination on the overall thermal resistance of walls in order to find out the best design solutions to maximize their thermal insulation capacity. Computer modeling and calculations performed, for steady state conditions, show that the increase in hollow brick cavity height contributes to the improvement of the overall thermal resistance of the order of 18-20%. The improvement could significantly increase to the range of 88.64% and 93.33%, if the bricks used are injected with the insulating material. If the cavity surface emissivities are lowered to 0.3, the improvement will be 72.73-78.33%. The results have also shown that replacing the cork by expanded polystyrene (EPS), having lower thermal conductivity, would not improve significantly the overall thermal resistance. This improvement is 9.08% for a wall of small-size bricks having configuration BS2CV and 8

  5. Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Zhu, Guoqing; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-08-30

    With the Government of China's proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

  6. Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007, the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS software. Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel, such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

  7. Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Zhu, Guoqing; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies. PMID:27589774

  8. Thermal Insulation System for Large Flame Buckets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, E. Eugene, Jr.; Gamblin, Tonya Pleshette

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the use of thermal protection coatings, single tiles, and layered insulation systems to protect the walls of the flame buckets used in the testing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, while reducing the cost and maintenance of the system. The physical behavior is modeled by a plane wall boundary value problem with a convective frontface condition and a backface condition designed to provide higher heat rates through the material.

  9. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  10. EVALUATION OF THERMAL INSULATION FOR THREE DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION OF EXTERNAL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summers increasingly hot are bringing large thermal problems within homes and businesses, leading to increased demand for installation of air conditioners and the consequent high energy consumption. Constructions with thermal insulation on its external walls thatcould reduce energy use or even supply the use of such equipment. Due to these factors the present study was to evaluate the insulation in three boxes built with different materials, one made of wooden boards with plain walls, and two built with plywood, wall insulation andinterior walls filled with rice husk and Styrofoam®. The boxes were built after placed in drying oven at 40 °C, then noted the temperature inside the same interval every five minutes using a digital thermometer. The box with inner Styrofoam® showed the lowest variation among the three evaluated, followed by the box of rice husk. These two materials also showed good thermal initial, unlike the box built only with wood, which showed a large interiorheating, lay in a drying oven.

  11. 功能性乳液界面剂在酚醛泡沫外墙保温系统中的应用%Study on the application of emulsion interface agent in phenolic foam panel for external thermal insulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志明; 李晴; 张美音

    2013-01-01

    通过自由基乳液聚合,合成具有核壳结构的苯丙乳液,以此乳液作为酚醛树脂泡沫材料的界面剂,考察了此种界面剂对酚醛树脂泡沫材料应用性能的影响.试验结果表明,用合成的苯丙乳液界面剂处理酚醛泡沫材料,可以有效地解决酚醛泡沫材料强度低、吸水率大、酸性强等方面的缺点,使得酚醛泡沫材料在建筑外墙保温系统中得到更广泛的应用.%Styrene-acnlic emulsions with core-shell structure had been prepared by the polymerization of free-base emulsion, and applied as interface agent on phenolic foam panel. The effects of this kind of interface agent on phenolic foam panel for external thermal insulation system were investigated. The results show that phenolic foam strength, water absorption (by mass) and pH value were improved by this emulsion interface agent,and made phenolic foams have a wide range of applications on external thermal insulation system.

  12. Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Isao; Ikami, Toshiichi.

    1990-09-17

    The insulating properties of transmission line insulators are reduced when the insulator becomes contaminated. Such contamination is promoted by the adherence of rainwater including dusts and/or absorbing of dusts and gas when the insulated surface is wetted with rainwater. It is known to treat insulators with water repellent compounds to avoid this problem, but known treatments have certain disadvantages such as loss of water repellency in a short time. An object of this invention is to overcome these disadvantages and to provide an insulator having a high usefulness and excellent water repellency which can be easily treated and maintained over a long period of time. It has been found that if a glass layer itself forming the surface of the insulator has water repellent properties, the water repellency of the insulator surface is not lost. According to the invention, the glassy surface is treated with silane or silazane to provide a surface layer of the proper water repellency. The insulator surface may be preferably treated in such a manner that the insulator is immersed in a bath of silane or silazane. Experiments are described to illustrate the performance of insulators treated according to the invention in comparison to non-treated insulators. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  14. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    be quite tedious, and therefore a method to generate and optimize solutions has been developed and implemented in a program that also takes into account the effects of different types of thermal bridges, i.e. roof windows, insulation fasteners, roof/wall joints etc. This paper describes a new method...... for design of flat roofs and a pc-program that can be used for calculating the total heat loss coefficient of externally insulated roofs with insulation in tapered layers, taking into account thermal bridges in the roof construction....

  15. Insulation system in an integrated motor compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihvo, V.

    2010-07-01

    natural gas is discussed based on a vast set of experimental tests with the gas mixture representing the real gas mixture at the wellhead. The mixture was created by mixing dry hydrocarbon gas, heavy hydrocarbon compounds, monoethylene glycol, and water. The mixture was chosen to be more aggressive by increasing the amount of liquid substances. Furthermore, the temperature and pressure were increased, which resulted in accelerated test conditions. The time required to detect severe degradation was thus decreased. The test program included a comparison of materials, an analysis of the effects of different compounds in the gas mixture, namely water and heavy hydrocarbons, on the aging, an analysis of the effects of temperature and exposure duration, and also an analysis on the e ect of sudden pressure changes on the degradation of the insulating materials. It was found in the tests that an insulation consisting of mica, glass, and epoxy resin can tolerate the raw natural gas, but it experiences some degradation. The key material in the composite insulation is the resin, which largely defines the performance of the insulation system. The degradation of the insulation is mostly determined by the amount of gas mixture diffused into it. The diffusion was seen to follow Fick's second law, but the coefficients were not accurately defined. The diffusion was not sensitive to temperature, but it was dependent upon the thermodynamic state of the gas mixture, in other words, the amounts of liquid components in the gas. The weight increase observed was mostly related to heavy hydrocarbon compounds, which act as plasticizers in the epoxy resin. The diffusion of these compounds is determined by the crosslink density of the resin. Water causes slight changes in the chemical structure, but these changes do not significantly contribute to the aging phenomena. Sudden changes in pressure can lead to severe damages in the insulation, because the motion of the di used gas is able to create

  16. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  17. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, G.; Chen, W. [TECO-Westinghouse Motor Co., Round Rock, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Adjustable speed drives (ASD) are commonly used in power electronics and control systems. It is estimated that more than 15 per cent of medium voltage motors are currently fed by such drives worldwide. A research project was conducted to examine the influence of medium voltage pulse width modulated (PWM) ASD on motor stator insulation systems. The findings, based on accelerated laboratory tests, have helped designers to improve the capabilities of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors. Repetitive, high magnitude voltage spikes with fast rise time create significant stress on insulation systems. Gradual deterioration and premature failure of the motor insulation can result from surge voltages which generate surface discharges between phase windings/end windings, or partial discharges between stator turns. However, there is no industrial standard to evaluate motor insulation life under ASD-cable-motor conditions. Several material manufacturers have developed their own version of corona resistant material. However, the insulation life of ASD-fed motors does not depend solely on the raw materials. Rather, it depends on the complete insulation system, including the stator manufacturing process. In order to address this problem, TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company has developed special design criteria and manufacturing practices in order to reduce winding insulation temperature and to compensate for the additional heat generated by high frequency contents in the PWM voltage waveform. A patent pending new cooling system should reduce winding temperature by 15 to 20 degrees C. This paper presented design considerations for turn insulation, groundwall insulation, and a voltage stress grading system. A new thermal class H insulation system was also described. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Insulation systems for superconducting transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    the electrical insulation is placed outside both the superconducting tube and the cryostat. The superconducting tube is cooled by liquid nitrogen which is pumped through the hollow part of the tube.2) The cryogenic dielectric design, where the electrical insulation is placed inside the cryostat and thus is kept...

  19. Magnetically insulated electron flows in pulsed power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawconnell, Robert I.

    1989-08-01

    Magnetic insulation is crucial in the operation of large pulsed power systems. Particular attention will be paid to describing magnetic insulation in realistic pulsed power systems. A theoretical model is developed that allows the production of self consistent magnetically insulated laminar flows in perturbed cylindrical systems given only the electron density profile. The theory is checked and justified by detailed comparisons with results from a 2-dimensional electromagnetic code, MASK. The procedure followed in the theoretical development is to use the relativistic Vlasov equation, Ampere's law and Gauss' law, to obtain a relation between the density profile and the velocity profile for insulated flows. Given the density profile and the corresponding derived velocity profile, a self consistent flow solution is obtained by means of Maxwell's equations. It is checked by taking a special case (corresponding to no perturbations) which results in the well known Brillouin flow theory. Emphasis is placed on determining the magnetic insulation threshold of a pulsed power system employing a plasma erosion opening switch. The procedure employed in the computational study is to vary critical aspects of the pulsed power system and then note whether magnetic insulation breaks down. The point at which magnetic insulation breaks down (as a function of geometry, load impedance, and applied voltage) is the magnetic insulation threshold for the system.

  20. The preparation of geopolymer-based external thermal insulating materials%地质聚合物基外墙外保温材料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 盛世亮; 崔学民; 刘海锋; 巢启

    2012-01-01

    The new composite inorganic -organic external thermal insulating material was developed by taking geopolymer as the cementations material and polystyrene foam particle as the thermal insulating lightweight aggregate. The influences of geopolymeric slurry, ratio of slurry and polystyrene foam particle and compression ratio on the thermal conductivity and density of the insulation material were studied. The flame resistance of thermal insulating material has arrived at Bl .and the properties have reached the requirement of national standard JG 158-2004 "External Thermal Insulating Rendering Systems Made of Mortar with Mineral Binder and Using Expanded Polystyrene Granule as Aggregate".%采用地质聚合物为胶结材料,以聚苯乙烯泡沫颗粒为保温轻骨料,研制了一种新型的有机-无机复合建筑外墙外保温材料.系统地研究了地质聚合物浆料、地质聚合物浆料与聚苯乙烯泡沫颗粒的混合比、压缩比对保温材料的导热系数、密度等性能的影响.所制备的保温材料防火性能达到B1级,各项性能指标均达到JG 158-2004《胶粉聚苯颗粒外墙外保温系统》标准的要求.

  1. Determination of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thicknesses for External Walls Considering the Heating, Cooling and Annual Energy Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer KAYNAKLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimization of thermal insulation thickness applied to the external walls of buildings has been carried out comparatively based on the seasonal (space-heating and cooling and the annual energy requirements considering solar radiation effect. This study has been performed for four degree-day regions of Turkey, namely, Iskenderun (in the first region, Istanbul (in the second region, Ankara (in the third region and Ardahan (in the fourth region. By determining the sol-air temperatures for each region and maximizing the present worth value of seasonal and annual energy savings, the optimum thermal insulation thicknesses have been calculated. The effects of solar radiation on heating-cooling energy requirements, the variation of optimum insulation thicknesses and payback periods with respect to degree-day regions, the differences between the analyses based on seasonal and annual have been presented in tabular and graphical form.

  2. Flow Induced Electrification of Liquid Insulated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Andrew Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The transport or motion of semi-insulating liquids has led to flow induced static electrification and catastrophic failures in several industries. While techniques for reducing the hazard have been developed, the roles of seemingly important parameters are poorly understood. The objective of this thesis was to measure and understand the fundamental parameters of the flow electrification process that, together with the laws of electroquasistatics and physicochemical hydrodynamics, can be used to predict the performance of complex flow systems, with particular attention to transformer applications. A rotating cylindrical electrode apparatus, which provided cylindrical Couette flow, was used to simulate flow electrification in an electric power transformer. The apparatus had Shell Diala A transformer oil filling the annulus between coaxial cylindrical stainless steel electrodes that were either bare metal, or covered by a thin copper sheet and/or EHV-Weidmann HiVal pressboard insulation. Extensive experiments characterized the time transient and steady state behavior of the electrification through measurements of the volume charge density, the terminal voltage, and the terminal current as the system was driven out of equilibrium by changes in the flow rate (inner cylinder rotation rates of 100-1400 rpm, Reynolds numbers of 5 times 10^3-5 times 10^5), temperature (15-70 ^circ), insulation moisture content (0.5-20 ppm in the oil), applied voltage (0-2 kV DC), and concentration of the non-ionizable anti-static additive 1,2,3 benzotriazole (BTA, 0-60 ppm). Generally, the electrification increased with flow rate and temperature but the BTA appeared to cause competing effects: it decreased the volume charge density on the liquid side of the interface (by a factor of 4), which reduces the electrification, but also decreased the oil conductivity (by a factor of 10), which enhances the electrification. A critical oil BTA concentration of 5 -8 ppm minimized the electrification

  3. Improving the reliability of stator insulation system in rotating machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.K.; Sedding, H.G.; Culbert, I.M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON, (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Reliable performance of rotating machines, especially generators and primary heat transport pump motors, is critical to the efficient operation on nuclear stations. A significant number of premature machine failures have been attributed to the stator insulation problems. Ontario Hydro has attempted to assure the long term reliability of the insulation system in critical rotating machines through proper specifications and quality assurance tests for new machines and periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests on machines in service. The experience gained over the last twenty years is presented in this paper. Functional specifications have been developed for the insulation system in critical rotating machines based on engineering considerations and our past experience. These specifications include insulation stress, insulation resistance and polarization index, partial discharge levels, dissipation factor and tip up, AC and DC hipot tests. Voltage endurance tests are specified for groundwall insulation system of full size production coils and bars. For machines with multi-turn coils, turn insulation strength for fast fronted surges in specified and verified through tests on all coils in the factory and on samples of finished coils in the laboratory. Periodic on-line and off-line diagnostic tests were performed to assess the condition of the stator insulation system in machines in service. Partial discharges are measured on-line using several techniques to detect any excessive degradation of the insulation system in critical machines. Novel sensors have been developed and installed in several machines to facilitate measurements of partial discharges on operating machines. Several off-line tests are performed either to confirm the problems indicated by the on-line test or to assess the insulation system in machines which cannot be easily tested on-line. Experience with these tests, including their capabilities and limitations, are presented. (author)

  4. The Effect Of Thermal Insulation Of An Apartment Building On The Thermo-Hydraulic Stability Of Its Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurčová, Mária

    2015-12-01

    The contribution aims to investigate the effect of the decreased thermal losses of an apartment building due to the thermal insulation of opaque external building constructions and the replacement of transparent constructions. It emphasizes the effect of the thermal characteristics of external constructions on the functionality of the existing heating system in the building and the related requirements for the renovation of the heating system in order to ensure the hydraulic stability of the system and the thermal comfort of the inhabitants.

  5. An Innovative Use of Renewable Ground Heat for Insulation in Low Exergy Building Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjürg Leibundgut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground heat is a renewable resource that is readily available for buildings in cool climates, but its relatively low temperature requires the use of a heat pump to extract it for heating. We developed a system that uses low temperature ground heat directly in a building wall to reduce transmission heat losses. The Active Low Exergy Geothermal Insulation Systems (ALEGIS minimizes exergy demand and maximizes the use of renewable geothermal heat from the ground. A fluid is pumped into a small pipe network in an external layer of a wall construction that is linked to a ground heat source. This decouples the building from the outside temperature, therefore eliminating large peak demands and reducing the primary energy demand. Our steady-state analysis shows that at a design temperature of −10 °C the 6 cm thick active insulation system has equivalent performance to 11 cm of passive insulation. Our comparison of heating performance of a building with our active insulation system versus a building with static insulation of the same thickness shows a 15% reduction in annual electricity demand, and thus exergy input. We present an overview of the operation and analysis of our low exergy concept and its modeled performance.

  6. Layered composite thermal insulation system for nonvacuum cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    A problem common to both space launch applications and cryogenic propulsion test facilities is providing suitable thermal insulation for complex cryogenic piping, tanks, and components that cannot be vacuum-jacketed or otherwise be broad-area-covered. To meet such requirements and provide a practical solution to the problem, a layered composite insulation system has been developed for nonvacuum applications and extreme environmental exposure conditions. Layered composite insulation system for extreme conditions (or LCX) is particularly suited for complex piping or tank systems that are difficult or practically impossible to insulate by conventional means. Consisting of several functional layers, the aerogel blanket-based system can be tailored to specific thermal and mechanical performance requirements. The operational principle of the system is layer-pairs working in combination. Each layer pair is comprised of a primary insulation layer and a compressible radiant barrier layer. Vacuum-jacketed piping systems, whether part of the ground equipment or the flight vehicle, typically include numerous terminations, disconnects, umbilical connections, or branches that must be insulated by nonvacuum means. Broad-area insulation systems, such as spray foam or rigid foam panels, are often the lightweight materials of choice for vehicle tanks, but the plumbing elements, feedthroughs, appurtenances, and structural supports all create "hot spot" areas that are not readily insulated by similar means. Finally, the design layouts of valve control skids used for launch pads and test stands can be nearly impossible to insulate because of their complexity and high density of components and instrumentation. Primary requirements for such nonvacuum thermal insulation systems include the combination of harsh conditions, including full weather exposure, vibration, and structural loads. Further requirements include reliability and the right level of system breathability for thermal

  7. External Tank CIL Closed Loop Verification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Eugene A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Lockheed Martin was requested to develop a closed loop CIL system following the Challenger accident. The system that was developed has proven to be very robust with minimal problems since implementation, having zero escapes in the last 7 years (27 External Tanks). We are currently investigating expansion of the CIL Closed Loop system to include "MI" CILs.

  8. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  9. Cr doped topological insulator Bi2Se3 under external electric field: A first-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ruqian; Zhang, Jian-Min; Yang, Yanmin; Xu, Guigui; Zhong, Kehua; Huang, Zhigao

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigated the magnetic topological insulator (MTI) Cr-doped Bi2Se3 film using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). The band structure of Cr doped 3QL-Bi2Se3 film was calculated comparing with pure Bi2Se3 film. Our results demonstrate that the doping of Cr atom changes the degenerate surface state of pure Bi2Se3, inducing the ferromagnetism. Under the external electric field, the band gap of pure Bi2Se3 films is determined by the charge transfer and the effect of spin-orbital coupling (SOC). For the MTI, the electric field will redistribute the electrons and enhance the magnetism. Our results will further promote the development of the electronic and spintronic applications of topological insulator.

  10. Facade insulation with mineral wool. Fassadendaemmung mit Mineralwolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-10-01

    Mineral wool insulations have proved worthwhile in construction engineering as apart from their very good thermal and sound insulating properties and they can be used nearly everywhere in construction as means of fire protection. With the passing of the 3rd Waermeschutzverordnung (regulation about thermal insulation) the requirements on the insulation of buildings have drastically increased. In this article insulation systems for external walls with mineral wool are described which are suited to meet also this new high insulation standard. (orig.)

  11. Radon Sub-slab Suctioning System Integrated in Insulating Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This poster presents a new radon sub-slab suctioning system. This system makes use of a grid of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground floor slab. For this purpose a new system of prefabricated lightweight elements is introduced...

  12. 外墙保温体系节能及其防裂机理研究%Study on energy - saving and splitproof mechanism of thermal insulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月月; 倪修全; 王德明

    2011-01-01

    阐述了建筑物节能保温效果降低的主要原因是墙体裂缝,从抗裂的角度分析了外墙外保温的优势,并提出了外墙保温体系裂缝控制的原则和防护措施。%The paper illustrates wall rifts is the main reason why building insulation energy -saving effect reduces, from shearcracking strength this article analyses the advantages of exterior wall insulation, and puts forward the restraining principle and protective measures of rifts in external wall external thermal insulation system.

  13. Layered Thermal Insulation Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2015-01-01

    From the high performance arena of cryogenic equipment, several different layered thermal insulation systems have been developed for industrial and commercial applications. In addition to the proven areas in cold-work applications for piping and tanks, the new Layered Composite Insulation for Extreme Environments (LCX) has potential for broader industrial use as well as for commercial applications. The LCX technology provides a unique combination of thermal, mechanical, and weathering performance capability that is both cost-effective and enabling. Industry applications may include, for example, liquid nitrogen (LN2) systems for food processing, liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems for transportation or power, and chilled water cooling facilities. Example commercial applications may include commercial residential building construction, hot water piping, HVAC systems, refrigerated trucks, cold chain shipping containers, and a various consumer products. The LCX system is highly tailorable to the end-use application and can be pre-fabricated or field assembled as needed. Product forms of LCX include rigid sheets, semi-flexible sheets, cylindrical clam-shells, removable covers, or flexible strips for wrapping. With increasing system control and reliability requirements as well as demands for higher energy efficiencies, thermal insulation in harsh environments is a growing challenge. The LCX technology grew out of solving problems in the insulation of mechanically complex cryogenic systems that must operate in outdoor, humid conditions. Insulation for cold work includes equipment for everything from liquid helium to chilled water. And in the middle are systems for LNG, LN2, liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) that must operate in the ambient environment. Different LCX systems have been demonstrated for sub-ambient conditions but are capable of moderately high temperature applications as well.

  14. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  15. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  16. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  17. 混凝土面层绝热外挂墙板%Concrete faceplate thermal insulation external installation wall panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗刚; 黄远洋; 刘吉贵; 李鸿辉; 张阳

    2011-01-01

    介绍一种新型的适合外挂的混凝土夹芯墙板以及该墙板的设计思想和样品的制作方法.该夹芯墙板设置了连接混凝土面层的拉结件,形成了在力学性能上与绝热芯材无关的箱型结构.拉结件采用低导热系数、高抗拉强度的材料制作,从而消除了板内的冷桥.实验表明该墙板具有良好的力学性能、防火性能、水密性能、抗风压性能及抗震性能.通过样板房搭建,初步证实该新型墙板在实际工程中的可操作性,其外挂的安装方式可以彻底消除主体结构梁、柱的冷桥问题,是一种高效绝热、低成本的新型墙板.%In this article,a new type of concrete thermal insulation sandwich external wall panel, as well as its design ideal and way af sample producing are introduced. The sandwich wall panel has pulling parts to connecting the concrete faceplates,forming a box structure with the mechanical properties irrelevant to the thermal insulation core material. The pulling parts are made with materials of low thermal conductivity but high tensile strength,so the cold bridges effect in the panel is eliminated.The experiments results show that this external wall panel has good quality on mechanical properties, fire resiatance,water tightness,wind load resistance performance and seismic performance. The sample room's setup has confirmed the new type wall panel's operability in the actual building project, and the external installatian mode can thoroughly solve the problem of cold bridges effect in the main building structures, such as beams and columns, which proves this is a new type wall panel of high thermal insulation efficient and low cost.

  18. Heat transfer through a well insulated external wooden frame wall. An investigation of the effects of normal defects in the insulation resulting from incident wind and air flow through the wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roots, P.

    1997-05-01

    The heat requirement of a building can turn out to be greater than was calculated at the design stage. The reason for this may be that heat transport through the building envelope is greater than expected. This in turn can be due to the structure not fulfilling the design requirements in respect to windtightness and airtightness. In addition, there may be defects in the quality of the workmanship of the insulation that significantly reduce the thermal resistance of the external wall. The objective of this investigation has been to ascertain how normal variations in the insulation can affect heat transport through a well-insulated wooden frame external wall under the influences of incident wind or wind flow through the wall. These `normal variations` have been taken to be the presence of electrical conduits, breaks in the insulation, airgaps and nogging pieces, either singly or in combination. For incident wind, measurements in a hotbox and theoretical simulations have shown that the presence of electrical conduits, breaks in the insulation, airgaps or nogging pieces in a well-insulated wooden frame external wall, whether singly or in combination, have negligible effect on thermal transport when subjected to incidnet wind. Heat transport is affected, however, by the presence of a break in the insulation: the combination of electrical conduits, airgaps, a nogging piece and a 16 mm gap in the insulation increased the U-value of the wall by 0.028 W/(m{sup 2.}K) at the most. Measuring the effects of a flow of air through the insulation involved simulating a break in the air seal. A pressure difference of between 10 Pa and 20 Pa was established, causing air to flow from the cold side to the warm side. Measurements and calculations have shown that normal variations in the insulation have a negligible effect on the transmission losses on the cold side, due to the heat exchange effect of the insulation, which raises the temperature of the air flowing through it. This has

  19. 可再分散乳胶粉对外墙外保温及饰面性能影响%Influence of the re-dispersible latex powder on external insulation and ornamental surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛

    2009-01-01

    According to the experiment, the author studies the influences of the re-dispersible latex powder on external insulation and ornamen-tal surface system performance, mixes the re-dispersible latex powder with different ratios into the external insulation and ornamental surface system (EIFS), research proves that it can perform bottom layer pedormance of the EIFS effectively, thus promoting protracted nature and durability of the EIFS.%通过试验研究了可再分散乳胶粉对外墙外保温及饰面系统性能的影响,研究表明,在外墙外保温及饰面系统(EIFS)中掺入不同比例的可再分散乳胶粉,可有效改善EIFS底层的性能,从而提高EIFS的长期性和耐久性能.

  20. An improved approach for the application of Trombe wall system to building construction with selective thermo-insulation facades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jie; LUO ChengLong; SUN Wei; YU HanCheng; HE Wei; PEI Gang

    2009-01-01

    An improved Trombe wall is proposed to adapt to building construction with selective thermo-insula-tion facades (internal and cavity wall insulation, but not external wall insulation system). The case study is conducted in Xining, Capital city of Qinghai province in China, where the general building fa-cades are mostly selective thermo-insulation fagades to fight against the severe cold. A numerical analysis is undertaken to show the effects on the improvement of the building's thermal environment by comparing the improved Trombe wall system with the classical Trombe wall system. The operating efficiency of the improved Trombe wall can be up to 33.85%, an increase of 56%. The results show that the improved Trombe wall works more effectively than the classical Trombe wall system in utilizing solar energy for the sample building.

  1. High performance thermal insulation systems (HiPTI). Vacuum insulated products (VIP). Proceedings of the international conference and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M.; Bertschinger, H.

    2001-07-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop held at EMPA Duebendorf, Switzerland, in January 2001. The papers presented at the conference's first day included contributions on the role of high-performance insulation in energy efficiency - providing an overview of available technologies and reviewing physical aspects of heat transfer and the development of thermal insulation as well as the state of the art of glazing technologies such as high-performance and vacuum glazing. Also, vacuum-insulated products (VIP) with fumed silica, applications of VIP systems in technical building systems, nanogels, VIP packaging materials and technologies, measurement of physical properties, VIP for advanced retrofit solutions for buildings and existing and future applications for advanced low energy building are discussed. Finally, research and development concerning VIP for buildings are reported on. The workshops held on the second day covered a preliminary study on high-performance thermal insulation materials with gastight porosity, flexible pipes with high performance thermal insulation, evaluation of modern insulation systems by simulation methods as well as the development of vacuum insulation panels with a stainless steel envelope.

  2. Complete Phase Diagrams for a Holographic Superconductor/Insulator System

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Gary T

    2010-01-01

    The gravitational dual of an insulator/superconductor transition driven by increasing the chemical potential has recently been constructed. However, the system was studied in a probe limit and only a part of the phase diagram was obtained. We include the backreaction and construct the complete phase diagram for this system. For fixed chemical potential there are typically two phase transitions as the temperature is lowered. Surprisingly, for a certain range of parameters, the system first becomes a superconductor and then becomes an insulator as the temperature approaches zero. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also construct the gravitational dual of a Bose-Einstein condensate of glueballs in a confining gauge theory.

  3. The Effect Of Thermal Insulation Of An Apartment Building On The Thermo-Hydraulic Stability Of Its Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurčová Mária

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution aims to investigate the effect of the decreased thermal losses of an apartment building due to the thermal insulation of opaque external building constructions and the replacement of transparent constructions. It emphasizes the effect of the thermal characteristics of external constructions on the functionality of the existing heating system in the building and the related requirements for the renovation of the heating system in order to ensure the hydraulic stability of the system and the thermal comfort of the inhabitants.

  4. Design of the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior facing of the facade thermal insulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Veliborka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various facade facings - systems made of thermal insulation materials with the finishing facade renders which are directly applied to the facade walls are simple for construction and are applied in the newly built structures and they are also suitable for the application in the cases of the energy revitalization of the existing buildings. The exterior walls, and especially their outer layers, are exposed to various atmospheric influences. They cause different effects in the walls, one of them being the occurrence of the water vapor condensation. In the walls with the facade thermal insulation systems, the occurrence of the water vapor condensation may be caused by the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior render. At certain temperatures and humidity of the external and internal air, there are several conditions for the occurrence of the water vapor condensation in the wall with the facade thermal insulation system, when the exterior render is of higher relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion. Therefore, it is useful to determine the vapor diffusion characteristics, that is, highest values of the relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion of the exterior renders which will not cause the condensation of the water vapor in the wall, or at least those that will not cause the impermissible dampening of the wall material, and will allow for the possibility of moisture drying.

  5. Validation of a pulsed eddy current system for measuring wall thinning through insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Colin R.; de Raad, Jan A.

    1996-11-01

    There have been several failures in power plant feedwater piping systems due to wall thinning caused by flow- accelerated corrosion of the inner surface. Detection of wastage in susceptible pipes is costly as traditional NDE methods such as ultrasonic testing entail removal and reinstallation of insulation over many meters of pipework. Radiography is one solution to this problem, but it is slow to apply and requires careful attention to safety. The RTD Incotest system uses pulsed eddy current technology to measure pipewall thickness through insulation and external cladding. The technology has been licensed from Arco, Inc., who originally developed the technique for large diameter pipelines and storage tanks where the area interrogated was made deliberately large. This paper describes an optimized Incotest systems which can detect and measure internal or external wall wastage which is more localized and typical of flow-accelerated corrosion. Improvements have also been made to the inspection and data acquisition in order to increase the inspection rate and overall productivity. Ultimately the performance of the optimized Incotest system has been verified on samples which contain artificial and real corrosion.

  6. Heating systems for well-insulated buildings. Dimensioning principles; Varmeanlaeg til velisolerede bygninger; Dimensioneringsprincipper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxhof, B.; Wittchen, K.B.

    1993-12-01

    Three different investigations on intermittent heating in well insulated buildings were carried out, two of them dealing with buildings insulated according to the current Building Regulations BR-82 (a school and an office building) and one dealing with a one-family low-energy house having a transmission heat loss that is only 30-35% of the loss from a similar house insulated according to BR-82. The objective was to examine to which degree demands on a reasonably short re-heating period should be included in the design criteria for heating systems. Presently, heating systems in Denmark are designed to meet a steady-state heat load, calculated with a design outdoor temperature of -12 deg. C. Experiments with cooling-off and heating-up periods were carried out in rooms in the three buildings, and monitoring results were used to adapt computer models to an acceptable agreement between calculated and measured temperatures. The models were used to analyze heating-up sequences under different external conditions and heat emitter ratings. The need was evident for larger power ratings than those specified in the current design rules, meeting the steady-state demand at the set design temperatures, typically at least twice the steady-state value to obtain satisfactory re-heating after night set-back, especially for buildings that just meet the demands in the Building Regulations or are only slightly better insulated. Here, the temperature might drop 4-6 K during the set-back period, and the re-heating period can be unreasonably long, if the heating system is not over-sized compared to the present steady-state design rules. If a low-energy house has an even lower available re-heating power subsequent requirements can be supplied by a small portable fan-coil heater. (AB)

  7. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  8. Radiation and gas conduction heat transport across a helium dewer multilayer insulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report describes a method for calculating mixed heat transfer through the multilayer insulation used to insulated a 4K liquid helium cryostat. The method described permits one to estimate the insulation potential for a multilayer insulation system from first principles. The heat transfer regimes included are: radiation, conduction by free molecule gas conduction, and conduction through continuum gas conduction. Heat transfer in the transition region between the two gas conduction regimes is also included.

  9. Construction technology of waterproofing and insulation in spraying rigid polyurethane foam on external wall%外墙喷涂聚氨酯硬泡体防水保温一体化施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国永

    2012-01-01

      Rigid polyurethane foam is a new type of building material. Rigid polyurethane foam external wall insulation system is a thermal insulation system with excellent properties, which can achieve 65 % of energy conservation. This article describes characteristics, structure, construction process and construction technology of rigid polyurethane foam external thermal insulation system.%  聚氨酯硬泡体是一种新型建筑材料。聚氨酯硬泡体外墙外保温系统是技术先进、性能优良的保温体系,其应用和推广对于实现65%的节能目标具有重要意义。针对喷涂法介绍聚氨酯硬泡体外墙防水保温一体化系统的特点、构造、施工流程和施工工艺等。

  10. Final Report: Research Study on Development of Environmental Friendly Spray-on Foam Insulation (SOFI) for the External Tank (ET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, James M.

    1996-01-01

    The selection and quantification of four foams using a more environmentally friendly HCFC-141b blowing agent replacing foams that used the CFC-11 blowing agent for the external tank (ET) LWT has been addressed along with problems and solutions that were encountered during verification. The effort on two lower density spray foams for the ET SLWT are presented, but predicted weight savings were not encouraging. Suggestions for possible problem solving are included along with a new approach for selecting foams for qualification as back-up foams for the foams used on the ET LWT. We investigated three resins for use as thermally sprayed coatings for corrosion prevention on metal. The best coating was obtained with a thermoplastic polyimide resin. This coating has a good chance of meeting ET requirements. Possible third generation blowing agents have been shown usable in polyurethane spray and pour foams, and solubility in isocyannate foam components are acceptable. We considered aerogels as insulation materials on space vehicles, and suggested a liner for a liquid oxygen (LOX) composite tank.

  11. Study on Downsizing Techniques for Conventional Motor with Solid Insulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Ohtake, Atsushi; Enomoto, Yuji

    Downsizing has become essential in the development of motors recently in order to meet requirements related to environmental issues such as resource depletion and energy shortages. To fulfill these demands, we propose downsizing techniques for a conventional motor where a solid insulation system is hired and a large amount of insulation resin was employed to replace structural metal materials used in conventional motors. This paper deals with a feasibility study of a solid insulation system applied downsized motor. The optimal heat design, mechanically stable structure, and proper insulation resin are proposed and discussed. A prototype motor was manufactured, and results of a basic insulation test, temperature rise test and noise test are presented.

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  13. Influence of Insulating Materials on Green Building Rating System Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bisegna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of a change in the thermal insulating material on both the energy and environmental performance of a building, evaluated through two different green building assessment methods: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED and Istituto per l’innovazione e Trasparenza degli Appalti e la Compatibilità Ambientale (ITACA. LEED is one of the most qualified rating systems at an international level; it assesses building sustainability thanks to a point-based system where credits are divided into six different categories. One of these is fully related to building materials. The ITACA procedure derives from the international evaluation system Sustainable Building Tool (SBTool, modified according to the Italian context. In the region of Umbria, ITACA certification is composed of 20 technical sheets, which are classified into five macro-areas. The analysis was developed on a residential building located in the central Italy. It was built taking into account the principles of sustainability as far as both structural and technical solutions are concerned. In order to evaluate the influence of thermal insulating material, different configurations of the envelope were considered, replacing the original material (glass wool with a synthetic one (expanded polystyrene, EPS and two natural materials (wood fiber and kenaf. The study aims to highlight how the materials characteristics can affect building energy and environmental performance and to point out the different approaches of the analyzed protocols.

  14. 外墙保温材料在工程中的选择与应用%Selection and Application of External Wall Thermal Insulation Materials in Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔路苗

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates the domestic status and trend of external wall thermal insulation materials and compares several commonly used ones.%概述了国内建筑外墙保温材料的应用现状和发展趋势,对几种常用的外墙保温材料的特点作了分析与比较.

  15. Comparative Study on Fire Safety Standards of Exterior Insulation System%外墙外保温系统防火标准对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春玲

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了国外外墙外保温系统防火的主要要求,对比分析了我国规范的不足与差异.在此基础上,提出保温材料的燃烧性能不是评价外保温系统防火性能的唯一指标,应从材料的燃烧性能和系统的防火性能两方面提出要求,全面评价外墙外保温系统的火灾风险和隐患.对于外墙外保温系统的防火问题,应秉承科学、严谨的态度合理解决,建立开放性的、性能化的外墙外保温防火技术标准要求.%In this paper, the main requirements of exterior insulation system in foreign countries were described, and the deficiencies and differences in standards between China and foreign countries were comparatively analyzed. And then,it was pointed out that combustion properties was not the only indicator to evaluate the fire performance of exterior insulation system. To comprehensively evaluate the fire risks and hazards of the external insulation system, the requirements shoud be proposed from the combustion performance of insulation materials and fire performance of the insulation system. As a conclusion,for the fire issue of external thermal insulation system, it should be reasonably solved with the scientific and rigorous attitude. In addition, the open and performance-based standards of fire requirements on the external thermal insulation system should be established.

  16. 谈寒冷地区外墙保温施工要点%On external wall heat insulation construction points in cold areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃华

    2014-01-01

    In order to accelerate the circular economy and realize the social and economic sustainable development, the paper explores the exter-nal wall heat insulation construction technique in cold areas, analyzes the technical requirements for the external wall and heat insulation, illus-trates the selection principle for the external wall and exterior heat insulation materials, and points out the materials can meet the demands for the safe long-term stability and energy-saving long-term stability.%为加快发展循环经济,实现经济社会的可持续发展,对寒冷地区外墙保温施工技术进行了探讨,分析了外墙外保温的技术要求,阐述了外墙外保温材料的选择原则、方法,指出外墙保温材料应满足安全长期稳定、节能效果长期稳定等要求。

  17. 民用建筑外保温材料应用问题探讨%Discussion on application problems of external insulation materials of civil building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范平安

    2012-01-01

    从建筑外保温材料的开发、安全、效果、造价、应用和国家规范、标准以及管理过程和工作程序等方面入手,阐述民用建筑外保温装饰材料的特点、技术、应用现状及火灾原因,并提出解决问题的方法与对策,为民用建筑外保温装饰材料的应用提供参考.%Based on analysis of development, safety, effective-ness, cost, application, codes and standards and management of external insulation materials of building, features, technology, application situation and fire cause of external insulation materi-als were described, measurement was proposed, giving refer-ence for the application of external insulation materials of civil building.

  18. 高层建筑典型外墙保温材料火蔓延特性数值模拟研究%Simulation of Fire Spread of Typical External Wall Insulation Materials in High-rise Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章涛林; 周晓冬; 雷杲; 汪文君; 龚俊辉; 杨立中

    2012-01-01

    有机保温材料被广泛应用于高层建筑外墙保温体系的同时,也可能增加高层建筑的火灾风险.本文通过计算机模拟,着重研究了保温材料之一的聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料(EPS)的火蔓延速率、失重速率及温度场分布等特性.研究结果发现:发生火灾后,外墙保温材料可以在很短的时间内自下而上蔓延至整个材料表面,并有表皮着火的现象.在火焰到达材料顶部之前,向上火蔓延占主导地位,材料中部区域明显燃烧脱落,火焰在材料两端上部继续燃烧,有向下加速蔓延的趋势;之后,火焰沿着材料中部内侧向下剧烈燃烧,材料呈V字型燃烧直至熄灭.在高层建筑外墙外保温材料火蔓延中,不同着火点情况下的燃烧速率随时间变化的趋势相似,且会形成两个波峰.%Organic insulation materials are widely used in the external wall insulation system of high-rise buildings, but it also increases the risk of external wall fire. This paper, based on computer simulation, focuses attention mainly on the fire spread rate, mass loss rate, temperature distribution and other characteristics of one of the insulation materials Expanded Polystyrene (EPS). The study found that after the ignition of the external insulation material, in a very short period of time, fire spreads to the entire surface from bottom up, and has a feature of skin burning. Upward fire spread dominates before it reached the top of the material. The central region of the material was remarkably burned off. While the upper ends of the material continued to burn, accelerating the trend of downwards spread, then fire spreads downwards intensely along the middle of inside material and materials burned into a V-shape until extinguished. The burning rate curve is similar under different ignition points as to the fire spread of external insulation materials in high-rise building, forming two peaks.

  19. 建筑节能条件下外墙外保温技术在工程中的应用%Application of Thermal Insulation Technology of External Walls in Building Energy Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵强

    2015-01-01

    Thermal insulation of external walls is an important technology in building energy conservation. This paper illustrates the energy saving characteristics from three aspects:the necessity,the superiority and the structural system.%外墙外保温技术是建筑节能中一项重要的技术.从外墙外保温技术的必要性、优越性和结构体系等3个方面,阐述了其节能的性能特点.

  20. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  1. Low temperature thermal properties of composite insulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P. E.; Bauer-McDaniel, T. S.; Reed, R. P.

    The thermal contraction and thermal conductivity of candidate composite insulation systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor toroidal field coils were measured from 295 to 4 K. Matrix materials consisted of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy suitable for vacuum impregnation, a tetrafunctional epoxy suitable for pre-impregnation, a polyimide system produced by a high-pressure laminating process, and a bismaleimide system. These matrix materials were combined with S-2 glass fabric and various barrier systems, such as ceramic and organic coatings, polyimide film and mica/glass. Thermal contraction was measured by the strain gauge method in which strain gauges are attached directly to the specimen. The thermal contraction in the through-thickness direction was different at 4 K for each resin system and changed slightly with the addition of electrical barriers. The thermal conductivity of the materials, with and without the electrical barriers, was similar at 4 K, but more distinctive at higher temperatures. The systems with the ceramic coatings exhibited the highest thermal conductivities at all temperatures.

  2. Theoretical study of Kondo effect and related transport properties in topological insulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xianhao

    This thesis presents theoretical studies of the Kondo effect and related transport properties in topological insulator systems. The thesis mainly covers two topics: the Kondo effect on the surface of a bulk topological insulator material and the Kondo effect in a topological insulator quantum dot. Other relevant background knowledge and theoretical techniques for the transport calculations are also discussed in the thesis. For the first topic, we investigate the role of magnetic impurities in the transport properties of a three-dimensional topological insulator's surface states. First, we combine the second-order perturbation theory and the Boltzmann transport equation to calculate the magnetically induced resistivity in a topological insulator. Our result shows a non-perturbative behavior when conduction electrons and magnetic impurities' spins are antiferromagnetically coupled. The surface resistivity is found to display an oscillatory rather than isotropic behavior compared to the conventional Kondo effect. Both the variational method and renormalization group (RG) analysis are employed to compute the Kondo temperature, through which the non-perturbative behavior is confirmed. We further study the RG flows and demonstrate that the RG trajectories eventually flow into a strong coupling regime if the coupling is antiferromagnetic. This work is motivated by the recent transport experiments, in which surface currents were detected in topological insulators. The calculation is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the low temperature dip observed in the experimental R - T curve, and it might be one of the possible origins of the dip. For the second main topic, we investigate theoretically the nonequilibrium transport properties of a topological insulator quantum dot (TIQD) in the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regime. An Anderson impurity model is applied to a TIQD system coupled to two external leads, and we show that the model realizes the spin-orbital Kondo effect

  3. Insulation co-ordination in high-voltage electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diesendorf, W

    2015-01-01

    Insulation Co-ordination in High-Voltage Electric Power Systems deals with the methods of insulation needed in different circumstances. The book covers topics such as overvoltages and lightning surges; disruptive discharge and withstand voltages; self-restoring and non-self-restoring insulation; lightning overvoltages on transmission lines; and the attenuation and distortion of lightning surges. Also covered in the book are topics such as the switching surge designs of transmission lines, as well as the insulation coordination of high-voltage stations. The text is recommended for electrical en

  4. Radon Sub-slab Suctioning System Integrated in Insulating Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    of prefabricated lightweight elements were introduced and demonstrated. The principle was demonstrated on a concrete ground slab floor with a concrete slab on top of a thermal insulation layer above a capillary-breaking layer mounted on stable ground. The thermal insulation and the capillary-breaking layer...... consisted of a rigid insulation material. The new solution integrates the capillary-breaking layer and a pressure reduction zone,denoted the radon–suctioning layer, in one element. The new solution introduces the radonsuctioning layer as a horizontal grid of air ducts with low pressure to catch air...

  5. Photo-doped carrier dynamics in Mott insulatoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, Eiki; Ishihara, Sumio

    2013-03-01

    Electron/hole doping in Mott insulators, for example two-dimensional cuprates, has been well investigated in relation to high-Tc superconductivity. Especially related to photo-doping, many experiments on photo-induced phase transition in strongly correlated systems have been made. In the usual photo-doping setup, the system is excited with fs-laser pulse and generated electron-hole pairs affect properties of materials. Recently, another type of photo-doped experiment with heterostructure has been made, and hole or electron carriers are dynamically injected through the heterostructure. In this theoretical study, we examine photo-doped carrier dynamics in the t-J model with dynamically doped holes. We formulate dynamics of the carriers by non-equilibrium Green functions. We take an initial state of holes and decompose the non-equilibrium Green's function into a series of equilibrium Green's functions by using Wick's theorem. The effect of the initial distribution appears from the higher terms in the series. We treat magnons with the self-consistent Born approximation. The non-equilibrium Green function derived in this way shows double time dependence. We will present physical quantities in transient process, for example, one-particle excitation spectra for holes.

  6. Experimental Study on Thermal Performance of Externally Insulated Walls of Intermittent Air-Conditioned Rooms in Summer in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Now requirements for the thermal performance of building walls are based on the assumption that heat flux transfers in one direction through the wall. However, in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region of China, the direction of heat flow in the wall not only changes with the seasons, but also changes in the same period of using. In this paper, dynamic thermal process of externally insulated walls in different air-conditioner’s running state in summer in Chongqing, China, was tested. The distribution characteristics of the outdoor and indoor air temperature and the surface and inner temperatures of the wall were analyzed and demonstrated. Based on the unsteady-state heat transfer theory, the study calculated and analyzed the distribution characteristics of the direction of the heat flux in the thermal process. Also the characteristics of insulation and heat preservation for walls under different air-conditioner’s running state were analyzed. It is shown that, in any air-conditioner’s running state, the direction of the heat flux through the wall is obviously dynamically changing. There is obvious difference in the thermal performance needs of the wall; that is, it has strong demand for thermal insulation in daytime and strong demand for heat dissipation during night time in summer.

  7. Impact of Rustication Joints on Lightweight Insulation in Ventilated Facade Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrichenko Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems of ventilated facades systems is the emission of heat-insulating layer. Emission is a process of separation or removal of material’s particles from insulation by virtue of different factors. In this article research of emission of contemporary light weight insulation in system of hinged ventilated façade (VF with various design is carried out. Impact of design and hydraulic factors on insulation destruction is estimated. Quantitative characteristic of blast air through rustication joints in a vertical channel is given and, consequently, it is possible to determine control point of recirculation zone formation – the beginning of turbulent air flow. Particle’s removal in insulation and decline of its properties are most probable in case of tangential stress, that conform to turbulent air flow.

  8. Thermal Insulation System for Non-Vacuum Applications Including a Multilayer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the present invention is for non-vacuum applications and is specifically tailored to the ambient pressure environment with any level of humidity or moisture. The thermal insulation system includes a multilayered composite including i) at least one thermal insulation layer and at least one compressible barrier layer provided as alternating, successive layers, and ii) at least one reflective film provided on at least one surface of the thermal insulation layer and/or said compressible barrier layer. The different layers and materials and their combinations are designed to provide low effective thermal conductivity for the system by managing all modes of heat transfer. The thermal insulation system includes an optional outer casing surrounding the multilayered composite. The thermal insulation system is particularly suited for use in any sub-ambient temperature environment where moisture or its adverse effects are a concern. The thermal insulation system provides physical resilience against damaging mechanical effects including compression, flexure, impact, vibration, and thermal expansion/contraction.

  9. Study on the Principle Mechanisms of Heat Transfer for Cryogenic Insulations: Especially Accounting for the Temperature-Dependent Deposition-Evacuation of the Filling Gas (Self-Evacuating Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Matthias; Vidi, Stephan; Ebert, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    This study concentrates on the principles of heat transfer within cryogenic insulation systems, especially accounting for self-evacuating systems (deposition-evacuation of the filling gas). These principles allow the extrapolation to other temperatures, gases and other materials with the input of only a few experimentally derived or carefully estimated material properties. The type of gas (e.g. air or CO2) within the porous insulation material dominates the behaviour of the effective thermal conductivity during the cooldown of the cryogenic application. This is due to the specific temperature-dependent saturation gas pressure which determines the contribution of the gas conductivity. The selected material classes include powders, fibrous insulations, foams, aerogels and multilayer insulations in the temperature range of 20 K to 300 K. Novel within this study is an analytical function for the total and the mean thermal conductivity with respect to the temperature, type of gas, external pressure and material class of the insulation. Furthermore, the integral mean value of the thermal conductivity, the so-called mean thermal conductivity, is calculated for a mechanically evacuated insulation material and an insulation material evacuated by deposition-evacuation of the filling gas, respectively. This enables a comparison of the total thermal conductivity of cryogenic insulation materials and their applicability for a self-evacuating cryogenic insulation system.

  10. Externalizing Behaviour for Analysing System Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Kammüller, Florian

    Systems models have recently been introduced to model organisationsandevaluate their vulnerability to threats and especially insiderthreats. Especially for the latter these models are very suitable, since insiders can be assumed to have more knowledge about the attacked organisation than outside

  11. Using Expert Systems in Evaluation of the State of High Voltage Machine Insulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Záliš

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are used for evaluating the actual state and future behavior of insulating systems of high voltage electrical machines and equipment. Several rule-based expert systems have been developed in cooperation with top diagnostic workplaces in the Czech Republic for this purpose. The IZOLEX expert system evaluates diagnostic measurement data from commonly used offline diagnostic methods for the diagnostic of high voltage insulation of rotating machines, non-rotating machines and insulating oils. The CVEX expert system evaluates the discharge activity on high voltage electrical machines and equipment by means of an off-line measurement. The CVEXON expert system is for evaluating the discharge activity by on-line measurement, and the ALTONEX expert system is the expert system for on-line monitoring of rotating machines. These developed expert systems are also used for educating students (in bachelor, master and post-graduate studies and in courses which are organized for practicing engineers and technicians and for specialists in the electrical power engineering branch. A complex project has recently been set up to evaluate the measurement of partial discharges. Two parallel expert systems for evaluating partial dischatge activity on high voltage electrical machines will work at the same time in this complex evaluating system.

  12. 雨虹外墙防水保温一体化外墙外保温系统%Exterior insulation and waterproof integration system of oriental Yuhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明宇; 刘晓斌

    2014-01-01

    北京东方雨虹防水技术股份有限公司结合多年建筑防水及外保温施工经验,在总结EPS板薄抹灰外墙保温做法的基础上研发出防水保温一体化的雨虹外墙防水保温一体化外墙外保温系统,本文介绍该系统的构造性能及施工方法。%Beijing Oriental Yuhong Waterproof Technology Co.,combined with years of building waterproofing and insulation construction experience,on the basis of EPS thin plaster external wall insulation practices,developed the exterior insulation and waterproof integration system,this article describes the structure of the system performance and construction methods.

  13. Technical Status of Foam Insulation Material of External Wall and its Preparation with Sandstone Coal Gangue%外墙泡沫保温材料的技术现状及用砂岩质煤矸石试制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢军; 李小庆; 孙晓刚; 邱景平

    2015-01-01

    砂岩质煤矸石和抛光砖泥都是工业固体废弃物,在国家提倡外墙保温材料革新升级和煤矸石资源化利用的背景下,开发煤矸石基外墙泡沫保温材料,既可以实现建筑节能和外墙的安全防火,又可以改善矿区生态环境,减少对宝贵土地资源的占用。在介绍了我国外墙保温材料产业现状和国内关于煤矸石基外墙泡沫保温材料研究现状的基础上,重点分析了试验原料的增塑性和发泡性,并进行了煤矸石基外墙泡沫保温材料的试制。结果表明,以辽宁朝阳矸石山砂岩质煤矸石和辽宁法库某陶瓷厂的抛光砖泥为主要原料,碳化硅和氧化镁为复合造孔剂,硼砂为助熔剂,经陈化—成型—烧结工序,试制出了具有一定外观和性能的煤矸石基外墙泡沫保温材料,说明本试验技术路线是可行的。但要制备满足建筑业要求的、低成本的外墙泡沫保温材料,还需后续进行系统的原料配比和烧结制度优化试验。%Under the background of external wall thermal insulation materials innovation upgrading and coal gangue re-source utilization,as industrial solid wastes,sandstone coal gangue and polishing tile waste are used to develop the external wall insulation foam material,which can achieve construction energy-efficient and fire safety,improve the ecological environment of mining area,and reduce the waste of valuable land resources. Based on the introduction of China's status of external wall insu-lation materials industry and research on coal gangue external wall foam insulation material,the plasticity and foaming of the tested material were analyzed,and the coal gangue exterior wall foam insulation material was prepared. The results show that, coal gangue exterior wall foam insulation material with a certain appearance and property can be produced through the aging, molding,and sintering process, with sandstone coal gangue in Chaoyang City and

  14. Externalizing Behaviour for Analysing System Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2013-01-01

    attackers. Therefore, many attacks are considerably easier to be performed for insiders than for outsiders. However, current models do not support explicit specification of different behaviours. Instead, behaviour is deeply embedded in the analyses supported by the models, meaning that it is a complex......, if not impossible task to change behaviours. Especially when considering social engineering or the human factor in general, the ability to use different kinds of behaviours is essential. In this work we present an approach to make the behaviour a separate component in system models, and explore how to integrate......System models have recently been introduced to model organisations and evaluate their vulnerability to threats and especially insider threats. Especially for the latter these models are very suitable, since insiders can be assumed to have more knowledge about the attacked organisation than outside...

  15. Recursive Inversion Of Externally Defined Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram

    1992-01-01

    Technical memorandum discusses mathematical technique described in "Recursive Inversion by Finite-Impulse-Response Filters" (ARC-12247). Technique is recursive algorithm yielding finite-impulse-response approximation of unknown single-input/single-output, causal, time-invariant, linear, real system, response of which is sequence of impulses. Useful in such diverse applications as medical diagnoses, identification of military targets, geophysical exploration, and nondestructive testing.

  16. Better and cheaper extra insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1998-01-01

    of buildings. The thermal performance of the systems is compared to an ideal situation, showing that there is still a potential of further savings by improving the design of the insulation systems.To improve the thermal performance of the systems a number of product developments are proposed.......In the current energy plan, focus in placed on further savings of heat in buildings. If the target of the energy plan should be achieved, there is a need for saving heat both in new and existing buildings.The article investigate and compare the properties of several systems for external insulation...

  17. Better and cheaper extra insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1998-01-01

    In the current energy plan, focus in placed on further savings of heat in buildings. If the target of the energy plan should be achieved, there is a need for saving heat both in new and existing buildings.The article investigate and compare the properties of several systems for external insulation...... of buildings. The thermal performance of the systems is compared to an ideal situation, showing that there is still a potential of further savings by improving the design of the insulation systems.To improve the thermal performance of the systems a number of product developments are proposed....

  18. Tests of Insulation Systems for Nb3SN Wind and React Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.

    2008-03-01

    Tests were performed to assess the viability of several cable insulation systems for use in Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. Insulated stacks of cables were subjected to reaction cycles commonly used for Nb3Sn coils. After reaction and epoxy impregnation, current leakage between turns was measured at pressures up to 180 MPa and turn-to-turn potentials up to 500 V. Systems consisting of S-2 glass, ceramic fiber, and E-glass were tested. Several methods of applying the insulation were incorporated, including sleeves and various spiral wrapped configurations. Methods of sample preparation and testing are described and results are reported.

  19. Compact gas-insulated transformer. Fourteenth quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Objective is to develop a compact, more efficient, quieter transformer which does not rely on mineral oil insulation. Compressed SF/sub 6/ is used as the external insulation and polymer film as the insulation between turns. A separate liquid cooling system is also provided. This document reports progress made in design, mechanical, dielectric, short circuit, thermal, materials, prototype, accessories, commercialization, and system studies. (DLC)

  20. HiPTI - High Performance Thermal Insulation, Annex 39 to IEA/ECBCS-Implementing Agreement. Vacuum insulation in the building sector. Systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Moosmann, A.; Steinke, G.; Schonhardt, U.; Fregnan, F. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Simmler, H.; Brunner, S.; Ghazi, K.; Bundi, R. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [ZAE Bayern, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cauberg, H.; Tenpierik, M. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Johannesson, G.; Thorsell, T. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Erb, M.; Nussbaumer, B. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Basel and Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report on vacuum insulation panels (VIP) presents and discusses the work done under IEA/Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 39, subtask B on the basis of a wide selection of reports from practice. The report shows how the building trade deals with this new material today, the experience gained and the conclusions drawn from this work. As well as presenting recommendations for the practical use of VIP, the report also addresses questions regarding the effective insulation values to be expected with current VIP, whose insulation performance is stated as being a factor of five to eight times better than conventional insulation. The introduction of this novel material in the building trade is discussed. Open questions and risks are examined. The fundamentals of vacuum insulation panels are discussed and the prerequisites, risks and optimal application of these materials in the building trade are examined.

  1. External-stimuli responsive systems for cancer theranostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Yao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The upsurge of novel nanomaterials and nanotechnologies has inspired the researchers who are striving for designing safer and more efficient drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Stimuli responsive nanomaterial offered an alternative to design controllable drug delivery system on account of its spatiotemporally controllable properties. Additionally, external stimuli (light, magnetic field and ultrasound could develop into theranostic applications for personalized medicine use because of their unique characteristics. In this review, we give a brief overview about the significant progresses and challenges of certain external-stimuli responsive systems that have been extensively investigated in drug delivery and theranostics within the last few years.

  2. Design of a Typical Offshore Transportation System for External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu, A. A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The external corrosion assessment of a typical offshore transportation system has been presented. Cathodic protection design was carried out for the pipeline and it was found that a bracelet square weld on anode of L = 195, G =101.6 , Thickness = 70, M = 149.75 , ∅ = 1.2235, N = 128 and s = 300was found to be satisfactory in providing secondary/ backup protection for the 48inchespipeline in the external environment provided. The external anticorrosion coating selected is the Three layer polyethylene (3LPE coating based on the dimensions of the pipeline and the design temperature of 80℃. The 3LPE external corrosioncoating will comprise of an inner layer fusion bond epoxy, a middle layer: adhesive and an outer layer: High density polyethylene (HDPE base with additives.

  3. 夏热冬冷地区公共建筑外墙保温方案探索%External Wall Insulation Plan Exploration of Public Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其恒

    2012-01-01

    外墙保温是建筑保温的重要组成部分,外墙保温主要由墙身结构层和保温层来实现.结构层和保温层材料种类繁多,构造做法也不尽相同.通过分析各种外墙保温做法,总结各种做法的优缺点,并进行了深入的分析计算,最终确定了每种保温做法的合理适用范围.%External wall insulation is an important part of building insulation.Wall insulation mainly rely on wall body structure layer and the insulation layer to achieve.Structure layer and the insulation layer are composed of a wide variety of materials,construction practices are not the same.Through the analysis of all kinds of external wall insulation method,summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various methods,and conducted in-depth analysis,and ultimately determine the every kind of insulation for the reasonable application range.

  4. On problems in external wall thermal insulation of existing buildings and solutions%既有建筑外墙保温存在的问题及解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温少瑜

    2015-01-01

    介绍了建筑外墙内保温与外保温的技术特点,对既有建筑外墙保温存在的材料不合格、施工质量不合格、住户使用不合理等问题进行了研究,给出了相应的解决措施,使外墙保温的效果符合国家和地方的节能要求。%The paper introduces the technical features for the internal and external thermal insulation of exterior walls of buildings, researches some problems including unqualified materials, construction quality and unreasonable residents’ usages in the external wall thermal insulation of existing buildings, and provides respective solutions, so as to ensure the external wall thermal insulation adheres to the national and regional ener-gy-saving requirements.

  5. Insulation measurement and supervision in live AC and DC unearthed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olszowiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Low voltage unearthed (IT) AC and DC systems are commonly applied for supply of power and control circuits in industry, transportation, medical objects etc. The main reasons for their use are high reliability and numerous advantages offered by isolating them against ground. Insulation level is a decisive factor for networks operational reliability and safety. Insufficient insulation-to-ground resistance can cause various disturbances. Though ground faults in IT systems do not make networks operation impossible, they may cause severe problems with their safe functioning. In this book the most important issues concerning normal operation and ground fault phenomena are described in concise form. Numerous methods of insulation resistance and capacitance measurement in live circuits are presented. Important other procedures of  these parameters determination based on measurement and calculation are explained and reviews of selected insulation resistance measurement devices as well as earth fault locating systems ...

  6. Insulation measurement and supervision in live AC and DC unearthed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olszowiec, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Low voltage unearthed (IT) AC and DC systems are commonly applied for supply of power and control circuits in industry, transportation, medical objects etc. The main reasons for their use are high reliability and numerous advantages offered by isolating them against ground. Insulation level is a decisive factor for networks operational reliability and safety. Insufficient insulation-to-ground resistance can cause various disturbances. Though ground faults in IT systems do not make networks operation impossible, they may cause severe problems with their safe functioning. In this book the most important issues concerning normal operation and ground fault phenomena are described in concise form. Numerous methods of insulation resistance and capacitance measurement in live circuits are presented. Important other procedures of  these parameters determination based on measurement and calculation are explained and reviews of selected insulation resistance measurement devices as well as earth fault locating systems ...

  7. Superconductor-Insulator Transition in Random Two-Dimensional System

    OpenAIRE

    Kasuga, Masahiko; Kurihara, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    Effect of disorder in metallic thin film is examined as a possible mechanism of the Superconductor-Insulator (S-I) transition. The critical value of disorder corresponding to the transition point is found analytically by using Matsubara-Matsuda model and Green's function method.

  8. Radon Sub-slab Suctioning System Integrated in Insulating Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    consisted of a rigid insulation material. The new solution integrates the capillary-breaking layer and a pressure reduction zone,denoted the radon–suctioning layer, in one element. The new solution introduces the radonsuctioning layer as a horizontal grid of air ducts with low pressure to catch air...

  9. Health Externalities and Heat savings in Energy System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    from the rest of the energy system. This PhD study contributes to the development in energy system modelling, by including heat saving options – insulation of walls, roofs and floors, replacing of windows and installing ventilation system with heat recovery – in the Danish heat and power sector...... and included in an energy system optimisation model. The performed analysis of the Danish heat and power sector concludes that accounting for spatial variation of health damage costs in heat and power system optimisation model has an effect on the optimal technology mix and distribution of energy plants among...... and are popular as secondary heating technologies in Denmark, can cause indoor and outdoor air pollution locally. Hence, consumers can be exposed to their own air pollution, which can cause damage to their health. Such damage costs should be internalised in consumer decision making. The PhD study demonstrates...

  10. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  11. Study of Dewar multishield insulation systems at 4.2-293 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydenkov, I. A.; Milman, S. B.; Velikanova, M. G.; Kotov, L. E.; Perestoronin, A. G.

    We have experimentally investigated the nature of heat leaks in Dewar vessels with multishield insulation systems which utilize the 'cold' of the stored cryogenic liquid's vapour. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity was determined for diagonal layer type insulation. This insulation uses aluminium foil and synthetic paper consisting of a mixture of polyethylene terephthalate and cellulose fibres. The temperature ranges investigated were 77-293 K and 4.2-293 K, using nitrogen or helium vapour, respectively, for cooling. The influence of the design parameters of vessels on helium evaporation has been studied analytically.

  12. [External contour acquisition system for radiotherapy: an original solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, D; Brochet, F; Bohémier, R; Gagnon, J

    2000-01-01

    A contour acquisition system has been designed in radiotherapy at the Sagamie Hospital complex (Chicoutimi, Québec) to measure the external contours of the patients who do not need a CT exam. This measuring system can produce transversal, sagittal or coronal patient contours in the treatment position. The absolute accuracy of the system is +/- 1 mm. The contours produced by this equipment can be transferred electronically or on paper to the planning system.

  13. Impulsive Flocking of Dynamical Multiagent Systems with External Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flocking motion of multiagent systems is influenced by various external disturbances in complex environment. By applying disturbance observer, flocking of multiagent systems with exogenous disturbances is studied. Based on the robust features of impulsive control, a distributed impulsive control protocol is presented with disturbance observer, and flocking motion of multiagent systems is analyzed. Moreover, a sufficient condition is obtained to ensure the flocking motion of multiagent systems following a leader. Finally, simulation results show the validity of the theoretical conclusion.

  14. Architecture of Maritime Awareness System Supplied with External Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stróżyna Milena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss a software architecture, which has been developed for the needs of the System for Intelligent Maritime Monitoring (SIMMO. The system bases on the state-of-the-art information fusion and intelligence analysis techniques, which generates an enhanced Recognized Maritime Picture and thus supports situation analysis and decision- making. The SIMMO system aims to automatically fuse an up-to-date maritime data from Automatic Identification System (AIS and open Internet sources. Based on collected data, data analysis is performed to detect suspicious vessels. Functionality of the system is realized in a number of different modules (web crawlers, data fusion, anomaly detection, visualization modules that share the AIS and external data stored in the system’s database. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how external information can be leveraged in maritime awareness system and what software solutions are necessary. A working system is presented as a proof of concept.

  15. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  16. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  17. Dressed topological insulators. Rashba impurity, Kondo effect, magnetic impurities, proximity-induced superconductivity, hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posske, Thore Hagen

    2016-02-26

    Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.

  18. Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System-Based Pollution Severity Prediction of Polymeric Insulators in Power Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    C. Muniraj; Chandrasekar, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the prediction of pollution severity of the polymeric insulators used in power transmission lines using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model. In this work, laboratory-based pollution performance tests were carried out on 11 kV silicone rubber polymeric insulator under AC voltage at different pollution levels with sodium chloride as a contaminant. Leakage current was measured during the laboratory tests. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of leak...

  19. Economical Thermal Insulation Thickness on External Wall of Teaching Building in a University in Tianjin%天津地区某高校教学楼外墙保温层经济性厚度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑玲; 高辉

    2014-01-01

    以天津地区某高校教学楼为例,用Designbuilder7.2模拟分析其建筑外墙采用XPS挤塑聚苯板为保温层时的制冷及采暖的耗能量,分析保温层厚度与建筑能耗之间的变化关系;再基于生命周期成本分析法原理,建立材料费用、能耗费用以及保温层厚度之间的数学模型,得出该高校教学楼外墙保温层的经济性厚度,对保温层厚度计算方法的研究及寒冷地区外墙保温层的经济性厚度的选择均具有一定的意义。%Taking a university in Tianjin as an example, the cooling and heating energy consumption of building with external wall taking XPS as insulation layer is simulated with Designbuilder7.2 to study the relationship between thermal insulation thickness and energy consumption, to conclude the economical thickness of thermal insulation on external wall. The economical thermal insulation thickness on external wall is concluded by establishing mathematical model of material cost, energy cost and insulation thickness. The calculation for thermal insulation thickness and the selection of economical thermal insulation thick-ness on external wall in cold area are expounded.

  20. Environmental assessment of insulation methods. Environmental data for insulation products and eco-profiles for light external walls; Miljoevurdering af isoleringsmetoder. Miljoedata for isoleringsprodukter og miljoeprofiler for lette ydervaegge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogh, K.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Nielsen, P.A.

    2001-07-01

    The project included selected insulation products like products made of cellulose fibres, flax fibres and perlite, which could all be used in external walls, internal walls, cavity walls and lofts. Up till now only products of mineral fibres were used. The aim of the project was to collect environmental data for selected products for the whole lifetime and to assess environmental impacts caused by the products. The total environmental impacts of a building element, e.g. external walla, were calculated from environmental data of the products. The impacts could be shown in a diagram, eco-profiles, which also showed contributions of the materials to the total impacts. The calculations used the principles of life cycle assessment (LCA), but today LCA does not include health aspects in the indoor climate or environmental health aspects caused by disposal processes. Therefore, this project included qualitative assessments for these two life cycle phases. The project did not treat impacts in the working environment as these health aspects are covered by other projects (COWI, 2000 and Engelund et al., 1999). (au)

  1. Application of Value Engineering ill the Selection of Insulation Material of External Wall%价值工程在外墙保温材料选择中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦毅

    2011-01-01

    The principle of value engineering is applied in the selection of insulation material of external wall. The system functional diagram is constructed by functional analysis, and then evaluation method of value engineering is used for analysis and calculation. At last, the scheme with the highest value coefficient is determined to maximize the value.%本文将价值工程原理引入到外墙保温材料的选择中,通过功能分析,构建功能系统图,运用价值工程中的评价方法进行分析计算,确定价值系数最高的方案,实现价值最大化.

  2. Comparison of reusable insulation systems for cryogenically-tanked earth-based space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, I. E.; Barber, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Three reusable insulation systems concepts have been developed for use with cryogenic tanks of earth-based space vehicles. Two concepts utilized double-goldized Kapton (DGK) or double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) multilayer insulation (MLI), while the third utilized a hollow-glass-microsphere, load-bearing insulation (LBI). All three insulation systems have recently undergone experimental testing and evaluation under NASA-sponsored programs. Thermal performance measurements were made under space-hold (vacuum) conditions for insulation warm boundary temperatures of approximately 291 K. The resulting effective thermal conductivity was approximately .00008 W/m-K for the MLI systems (liquid hydrogen test results) and .00054 W/m-K for the LBI system (liquid nitrogen test results corrected to liquid hydrogen temperature). The DGK MLI system experienced a maximum thermal degradation of 38 percent, the DAM MLI system 14 percent, and the LBI system 6.7 percent due to repeated thermal cycling representing typical space flight conditions. Repeated exposure of the DAM MLI system to a high humidity environment for periods as long as 8 weeks provided a maximum degradation of only 24 percent.

  3. Quality electricity lines of external power systems electric traction DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies that compare and analyze the numerical values of some key indicators quality electricity in the lines of the external power supply system the electric traction DC. As a supplement are additional and fundamental values of energy losses in them.

  4. A study of the electromagnetic characteristics of no-insulation GdBCO racetrack coils under an external magnetic ripple field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y. H.; Yang, D. G.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, S. G.; Song, J. B.; Lee, H. G.

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the effect of an external magnetic ripple field on the electromagnetic characteristics of GdBCO racetrack coils being operated with a constant DC current. Two types of GdBCO racetrack coils, one wound without turn-to-turn insulation (NI) and the other wound with Kapton tape (INS), were examined under external ripple fields generated by a permanent magnet mounted on a rotor, which was driven by a separate AC motor. The voltage fluctuations and magnetic field variations were measured with respect to the external ripple field intensity (B ERF), rotating speed, and the operating condition. When the INS and NI coils were exposed to an external ripple field (herein, I op = 80 A, B ERF = 2 mT, and 5 rpm), a voltage fluctuation occurred because a time-varying magnetic field interacted with an electric circuit creating an electromotive force. The peak-to-peak voltage (V pp = 0.29 mV) of the NI coil was ∼1.86 times lower than that (0.54 mV) of the INS coil, because the voltage response of the NI coil lagged behind dB/dt due to the existence of turn-to-turn contact. Furthermore, the V pp of the INS coil increased with increasing B ERF and rotating speed, while those of the NI coil were barely affected due to the delay of electromagnetic induction. In excessive current and ripple field conditions (I op = 1.125 I c, B ERF = 8 mT, and 50 rpm) the INS coil eventually quenched while the NI coil did not, implying that the electromagnetic stability of the NI coil in excessive time-varying field conditions was superior to that of the INS coil.

  5. Optimum Scheme for Insulation System in HV Generator Based on Electromagnetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical insulations are one of the basic parts of electrical machinery in any sizes and characteristics. Focusing on insulating, studies on the operation of industrial-electrical machinery came to the fact that the most important part of a machine is the Stator. This fact reveals the requirement for inspection of the electrical machine insulation along with the electromagnetic tensions. Therefore with respect to insulation system improvement of stator, the HV generator can be optimized. Dielectric parameters such as insulation thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are major design consideration. A very powerful method available to analyze electromagnetic performance is Finite Element Method (FEM which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system to reduce electrical stresses in order to increase the power of generator in the same volume of core. These processes of optimization have been done according the proposed algorithm. In this algorithm the technical constraints have been considered. This paper describes the process used to perform classical design and improvement analysis of stator slot’s insulation with respect to objective function and constraints.

  6. Dynamic optimization for multi-agent systems with external disturbances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghu WANG; Peng YI; Yiguang HONG

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamic optimization problem for multi-agent systems in the presence of external disturbances. Different from the existing distributed optimization results, we formulate an optimization problem of continuous-time multi-agent systems with time-varying disturbance generated by an exosystem. Based on internal model and Lyapunov-based method, a distributed design is proposed to achieve the optimization. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the proposed optimization design.

  7. External Description for Multivariable Systems Sampled in an Aperiodic Way

    CERN Document Server

    Fúster-Sabater, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    An external description for nonperiodically sampled multivariable linear systems has been developed. Emphasis is on the sampling period sequence, included among the variables to be handled. The computational procedure is simple and no use of polynomial matrix theory is required. This input/output description is believed to be a basic formulation for its later application to the problem of optimal control and/or identification of linear dynamical systems.

  8. Overview of a test facility designed to guide innovations in the development of advanced thermal insulation materials and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Jessica L.; Boroski, William N.; Hart, Frank R.

    To aid in the development of advanced thermal insulating materials and systems, Lydall, Inc. Manning Nonwovens Division has acquired acalorimeter. The calorimeter is specially-designed to measure the thermal conductivity of high-efficiency insulating materials and multilayer insulation systems under various operating conditions. A description of the apparatus is included. The calorimeter has the capabilities of measuring thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 10K to 300K and under insulating vacuum levels ranging from 10 -2 torr (1.33 Pa) through 10 -8 torr (1.33×10 -6 Pa). The calorimeter has been calibrated over its operating range and measurements have been made on several insulation systems to quantify thermal performance. Details of the calibration process will be presented. Preliminary measurements results demonstrate that the capabilities of this system will enhance the development of advanced thermal insulation materials and systems.

  9. Thermodynamic Branch in the Chemical System Response to External Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives an account of a detailed investigation of the thermodynamic branch as a path of the chemical system deviation from its isolated thermodynamic equilibrium under an external impact. For a combination of direct and reverse reactions in the same chemical system, full thermodynamic branch is presented by an S-shaped curve, whose ends asymptotically achieve appropriate initial states, which, in turn, are logistic ends of the opposite reactions. The slope tangents of the steepest parts of the curves, the areas of the maximum rate of the shift growth vs. the external thermodynamic force, occurred to be directly proportional to the force and, simultaneously, linearly proportional to the thermodynamic equivalent of chemical reaction, which is the ratio between the amount in moles of any reaction participant, transformed in an isolated system, along the reaction way from its initial state to thermodynamic equilibrium, to its stoichiometric coefficient. The found linearity is valid for arbitrary combinati...

  10. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  11. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  12. Mott insulator to high Tc superconductor via pressure: resonating valence bond theory and prediction of new systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, G

    2003-05-16

    Mott insulator superconductor transition, via pressure and no external doping, is studied in orbitally nondegenerate spin-1 / 2 systems. It is presented as another resonating valence bond route to high T(c) superconductivity. We propose a "strong coupling" hypothesis that views long range Coulomb force driven first order Mott transition as a self-doping process that also preserves superexchange on the metal side. We present a two-species t-J model where conserved N0 doubly occupied (e(-)) sites and N0 empty sites (e(+)) hop in the background of N-2N(0) singly occupied (neutral) sites in a lattice of N sites. An equivalence to the regular t-J model is made. Some old and new systems are predicted to be candidates for pressure-induced high T(c) superconductivity.

  13. Choice of insulation standard for pipe networks in 4th generation district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mohammadi, Soma

    2016-01-01

    and smart gas grids. Improving DH pipes by improving the insulation standard results in decreasing the heat and temperature losses from the pipe networks. When reducing heat losses from DH pipes, there is a trade-off between the increasing cost of pipe insulation and the associated savings in the heat......Reducing heat losses from the pipe networks in district heating (DH) systems is one of the main challenges when developing DH in the future. Fourth generation DH is a concept that defines the role of DH in future smart energy systems as an integrated part together with smart electricity grids...... by implementing different pipe insulation standards. In the second step, the specific grid losses found in the first step are analysed in an integrated energy systems model where all main energy sectors and their interrelations are included. The outcome of the study can provide decision support when planning...

  14. Vision System Measures Motions of Robot and External Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A prototype of an advanced robotic vision system both (1) measures its own motion with respect to a stationary background and (2) detects other moving objects and estimates their motions, all by use of visual cues. Like some prior robotic and other optoelectronic vision systems, this system is based partly on concepts of optical flow and visual odometry. Whereas prior optoelectronic visual-odometry systems have been limited to frame rates of no more than 1 Hz, a visual-odometry subsystem that is part of this system operates at a frame rate of 60 to 200 Hz, given optical-flow estimates. The overall system operates at an effective frame rate of 12 Hz. Moreover, unlike prior machine-vision systems for detecting motions of external objects, this system need not remain stationary: it can detect such motions while it is moving (even vibrating). The system includes a stereoscopic pair of cameras mounted on a moving robot. The outputs of the cameras are digitized, then processed to extract positions and velocities. The initial image-data-processing functions of this system are the same as those of some prior systems: Stereoscopy is used to compute three-dimensional (3D) positions for all pixels in the camera images. For each pixel of each image, optical flow between successive image frames is used to compute the two-dimensional (2D) apparent relative translational motion of the point transverse to the line of sight of the camera. The challenge in designing this system was to provide for utilization of the 3D information from stereoscopy in conjunction with the 2D information from optical flow to distinguish between motion of the camera pair and motions of external objects, compute the motion of the camera pair in all six degrees of translational and rotational freedom, and robustly estimate the motions of external objects, all in real time. To meet this challenge, the system is designed to perform the following image-data-processing functions: The visual-odometry subsystem

  15. Bio-susceptibility of materials and thermal insulation systems used for historical buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Ettenauer, Joerg; Pinar, Guadalupe

    2013-04-01

    In historical buildings of Northern countries high levels of energy are necessary to reach comfortable temperatures especially during the cold season. For this reason historical buildings are now also included in country specific regulations and ordinances to enhance the "energy - efficiency". Since an exterior insulation - as it is commonly used for modern architecture - is incompatible with monument protection, several indoor insulation systems based on historical and ecological materials, are on the market that should improve the thermic performance of a historical building. However, using organic materials as cellulose, loam, weed or wood, bears the risk of fungal growth and thus may lead to health problems in indoor environments. For this reason 5 different ecological indoor insulations systems were tested for their bio-susceptibility against various fungi both under natural conditions - after 2 years of installation in an historical building - and under laboratory conditions with high levels of relative humidity. Fungal growth was evaluated by classical isolation and cultivation as well as by molecular methods. The materials turned out to have a quite different susceptibility towards fungal contamination. Whereas insulations made of bloated Perlite (plaster and board) did not show any fungal growth after 2 years of exposition, the historical insulation made of loam and weed had high cell counts of various fungi. In laboratory experiments wooden softboard represented the best environment for fungal growth. As a result from this study, plaster and board made of bloated Perlite are presented as being the most appropriate materials for thermal insulation at least from the microbiological and hygienic point of view. For future investigations and for the monitoring of fungi in insulation and other building materials we suggest a molecular biology approach with a common protocol for quantitative DNA-extraction and amplification.

  16. Insulator and Clerance Requirements in Overhead Line Transmission Systems without Shield Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    This paper theoretically examines the required insulation lengths and clearances in 400 kV overhead line systems when not making use of ground wires as lightning protection. The influence of lightning strikes to the system is investigated based on dynamic transmission line simulations of a 400 kV...

  17. Insulator and Clerance Requirements in Overhead Line Transmission Systems without Shield Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    This paper theoretically examines the required insulation lengths and clearances in 400 kV overhead line systems when not making use of ground wires as lightning protection. The influence of lightning strikes to the system is investigated based on dynamic transmission line simulations of a 400 k...

  18. Impact of steep-front short-duration impulse on electric power system insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, L M; Veverka, E F; Shaw, J H [Cooper Industries, Inc., Franksville, WI (USA). Cooper Power Systems; McConnell, B W [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1991-04-01

    This research effort required the performance evaluation of three specific insulation systems in common usage by electric power transmission and distribution utilities under stresses imposed by: three characteristic impulse waveforms (two waves representative of steep-front short duration (SFSD) impulses and one representative of lightning), the cumulative effect of multiple shots'' of each pulse, 60 Hz voltage, and, where appropriate, and mechanical load. The insulation systems evaluated are the cellulose-paper/oil combination typical of power transformer and condenser bushing usage, the cellulose-paper/enamel/oil combination used in distribution transformer construction, and the porcelain/air combination representing transmission and distribution line structural insulation. 4 refs., 94 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. 外墙保温材料数值模拟研究%Study on numerical simulation of the vertical combustion characters for external wall thermal insulation materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢云飞; 朱国庆; 张磊; 王金争

    2012-01-01

    FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) was applied to simulate the vertical combustion of external wall thermal insulation material in this article. Firstly the parameters of EPS, XPS and PU were designated according to engineering preference and the fire source was provided by the window fire. After the simulating, those data were sorted. It was found that the height of flame changed in the form of nonlinear change: y = at2 + bt + c. The shape of trend line was a parabolic. The height of flame changed quickly in the earlier stage of simulating wih the later stage changing slowly. The velocity of flame front changed in the form of linear change:vp=αt + β. The velocity of flame front reduced stably in the simulating. XPS had the best thermal conductivity, so the temperature in each test point rised the most slowly. The EPS' temperature variation curve was the most stable in all with the best coefficient of thermal storage. The conclusion can provide certain prediction for the vertical combustion of actual external wall insulation material on the constructions and improve the efficiency of fire fighting and rescue for the fire department.%根据外墙保温材料具体的工程参数为依据,对挤塑型聚苯乙烯(XPS)、膨胀型聚苯乙烯(EPS)和聚氨酯(PU)三种材料的燃烧参数进行设定,设定火源为从窗口喷射而出的火焰,运用FDS软件进行数值模拟与分析.经过模拟发现:外墙保温材料在竖向燃烧中,火焰前锋高度呈现抛物线式增长,y=at2+bt+c,前期增长迅速,后期逐渐平稳.火焰前锋速度按照线性变化,vp=αt+β.在整个燃烧过程中,火焰前锋速度平稳的降低.XPS板导热系数最好,各测点的温度上升最慢,EPS板蓄热系数最好,所以其温度曲线最为平稳.

  20. Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-Effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costeux, Stephane [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Bunker, Shanon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The objective of this project was to explore and potentially develop high performing insulation with increased R/inch and low impact on climate change that would help design highly insulating building envelope systems with more durable performance and lower overall system cost than envelopes with equivalent performance made with materials available today. The proposed technical approach relied on insulation foams with nanoscale pores (about 100 nm in size) in which heat transfer will be decreased. Through the development of new foaming methods, of new polymer formulations and new analytical techniques, and by advancing the understanding of how cells nucleate, expand and stabilize at the nanoscale, Dow successfully invented and developed methods to produce foams with 100 nm cells and 80% porosity by batch foaming at the laboratory scale. Measurements of the gas conductivity on small nanofoam specimen confirmed quantitatively the benefit of nanoscale cells (Knudsen effect) to increase insulation value, which was the key technical hypotheses of the program. In order to bring this technology closer to a viable semi-continuous/continuous process, the project team modified an existing continuous extrusion foaming process as well as designed and built a custom system to produce 6" x 6" foam panels. Dow demonstrated for the first time that nanofoams can be produced in a both processes. However, due to technical delays, foam characteristics achieved so far fall short of the 100 nm target set for optimal insulation foams. In parallel with the technology development, effort was directed to the determination of most promising applications for nanocellular insulation foam. Voice of Customer (VOC) exercise confirmed that demand for high-R value product will rise due to building code increased requirements in the near future, but that acceptance for novel products by building industry may be slow. Partnerships with green builders, initial launches in smaller markets (e.g. EIFS

  1. Markerless monocular tracking system for guided external eye surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, C; Rupérez, M J; Alcañiz, M; Mataix, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel markerless monocular tracking system aimed at guiding ophthalmologists during external eye surgery. This new tracking system performs a very accurate tracking of the eye by detecting invariant points using only textures that are present in the sclera, i.e., without using traditional features like the pupil and/or cornea reflections, which remain partially or totally occluded in most surgeries. Two known algorithms that compute invariant points and correspondences between pairs of images were implemented in our system: Scalable Invariant Feature Transforms (SIFT) and Speed Up Robust Features (SURF). The results of experiments performed on phantom eyes show that, with either algorithm, the developed system tracks a sphere at a 360° rotation angle with an error that is lower than 0.5%. Some experiments have also been carried out on images of real eyes showing promising behavior of the system in the presence of blood or surgical instruments during real eye surgery.

  2. Discussion of External Fasteners Selection of Outdoor Gas Insulated Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Gas Chamber%户外GIS气室外用紧固件的选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伯荣; 俞慧忠; 周庆清; 黄志强

    2014-01-01

    针对户外气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备气室外用紧固件的生锈问题,分析了现阶段碳钢紧固件常用的三种表面防锈防腐处理措施热浸镀锌和达克罗特性及不锈钢材质紧固件的特性,讨论了紧固件设计安装时应注意的事项,并比较了这三类紧固件的防锈防腐特性,综合考虑成本等因素后,给出了户外气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备气室外用紧固件比较经济合理的选用方案。%Aiming at the rust problems of external fasteners of outdoor gas insulated metal-enclosed switchgear (GIS) gas chamber, this paper analyzed hot dip galvanizing, the surface rust and corrosion prevention measure commonly used for the existing carbon steel fasteners and the characteristics of Dacromet and stainless steel fasteners. This paper discussed the caution items of fastener design and installation and compared the rust and corrosion prevention characteristics of three kinds of fasteners. Combined with con-sideration of cost etc factors, this paper gives the economic and reasonable selection plan of external fasteners of GIS gas chamber.

  3. Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System-Based Pollution Severity Prediction of Polymeric Insulators in Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Muniraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the prediction of pollution severity of the polymeric insulators used in power transmission lines using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS model. In this work, laboratory-based pollution performance tests were carried out on 11 kV silicone rubber polymeric insulator under AC voltage at different pollution levels with sodium chloride as a contaminant. Leakage current was measured during the laboratory tests. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of leakage current, such as mean value, maximum value, standard deviation, and total harmonics distortion (THD, have been extracted, which jointly describe the pollution severity of the polymeric insulator surface. Leakage current characteristics are used as the inputs of ANFIS model. The pollution severity index “equivalent salt deposit density” (ESDD is used as the output of the proposed model. Results of the research can give sufficient prewarning time before pollution flashover and help in the condition based maintenance (CBM chart preparation.

  4. THE ORGANIZATION OF EFFICIENT SYSTEM OF HOLDING INSULATION OF TRACTION ENGINES AND DC LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model for determination of remaining resource of insulation of the locomotive hauling electric machines, taking into account its initial electric durability and minimum expenses on implementation of restoration works with the purpose of construction of the rational system of its maintenance, is offered.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF INTEGRATED THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM WITH VARIOUS INSULATING CORE OPTIONS (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Old Main HL, Logan UT 84322-4130 2 Purdue University 610 Purdue Mall West Lafayette, IN 47907-2045 (continued on page 2) 9. SPONSORING...Research Center as an improvement to the LI-900 tile. The system is composed of an 8× 8 in2 insulation tiles mounted on a felt Strain Isolation Pad (SIP

  6. [Design of a high-voltage insulation testing system of X-ray high frequency generators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Mo, Guo-Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hong-Zhi; Yu, Jie-Ying; Dai, Shu-Guang

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the transformer of X-ray high-voltage high-frequency generators and, have designed and implemented a high-voltage insulation testing system for its oil tank using full-bridge series resonant soft switching PFM DC-DC converter.

  7. External synchronization of two dynamical systems with uncertain parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    External synchronization is addressed as two or more dynamical systems with synchronous motions,which is also regarded as master-slave system.In this paper,two dynamical systems,one employs a hysteretic term to model the friction phenomenon,the other involves a hardening stiffness component with the third order of displacement due to flexible deformation,are controlled to converge to the same trajectory.The control strategy is extended from feedback control for all parameters known to adaptive control for linear parameters unknown and all parameters unknown.The slave system can keep synchronous motions with the movements of master via the designed control strategy even all the parameters are not known.The stability of synchronization error,the transient process into synchronization and the effects of parameters on the designed controller using different control strategies are investigated.The simulation results unfold the feasibility and effectiveness of this synchronization method.

  8. Development of Central Monitoring System for Insulation Diagnosis of High-Voltage Generator/Motor Stator Windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byoung Chol; Yoon, Dae Hee; Hwang, Don Ha; Kim, Yong Joo [Mechatronics Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Ju, Young Ho [Korea Electric Power Corporation (Korea); Kim, Jeong Woo [Advanced Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The central monitoring system with on-line diagnosis of high-voltage generator/motor stator insulation is developed. The system is capable of remote diagnosis and monitoring partial discharges of high-voltage generator/motor stator insulation. GOMS(Generator On-line Monitoring System) with maximum of 9 input channels can measure stator insulation by on-line. The measured and analysis data are borough to the central monitoring system via modem to build database. The central monitoring system can diagnose and monitor the insulation status of several high-voltage generator/motor at any time. The insulation status of those machines can be enhanced by the database on partial discharges. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Hydraulic external pre-isolator system for LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, S.; Mittleman, R.; Mason, K.; Giaime, J.; Abbott, R.; Kern, J; O'Reilly, B.; Bork, R.; Hammond, M.; Hardham, C.; Lantz, B.; W. Hua; Coyne, D.; Traylor, G.; Overmier, H.

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic external pre-isolator (HEPI) is the first six degrees of freedom active seismic isolation system implemented at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). Implementation was first completed at the LIGO Livingston Observatory (LLO) prior to LIGOʼs fifth science run, successfully cutting down the disturbance seen by LLOʼs suspended optics in the two most prominent seismic disturbance bands, the microseism (0.1–0.3 Hz) and the anthropogenic (1–3 Hz) bands, by a...

  10. Modeling dynamic behavior of superconducting maglev systems under external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Xue, Cun; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2017-08-01

    For a maglev system, vertical and lateral displacements of the levitation body may simultaneously occur under external disturbances, which often results in changes in the levitation and guidance forces and even causes some serious malfunctions. To fully understand the effect of external disturbances on the levitation performance, in this work, we build a two-dimensional numerical model on the basis of Newton's second law of motion and a mathematical formulation derived from magnetoquasistatic Maxwell's equations together with a nonlinear constitutive relation between the electric field and the current density. By using this model, we present an analysis of dynamic behavior for two typical maglev systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. The results show that during the vertical movement, the levitation force is closely associated with the flux motion and the moving velocity of the superconductor. After being disturbed at the working position, the superconductor has a disturbance-induced initial velocity and then starts to periodically vibrate in both lateral and vertical directions. Meanwhile, the lateral and vertical vibration centers gradually drift along their vibration directions. The larger the initial velocity, the faster their vibration centers drift. However, the vertical drift of the vertical vibration center seems to be independent of the direction of the initial velocity. In addition, due to the lateral and vertical drifts, the equilibrium position of the superconductor in the maglev systems is not a space point but a continuous range.

  11. On the MOND External Field Effect in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the internal dynamics of a gravitating system s embedded in a larger one S is affected by the external background field E of S even if it is constant and uniform, thus implying a violation of the Strong Equivalence Principle: it is the so-called External Field Effect (EFE). In the case of the solar system, E would be A_cen\\approx 10^-10 m s^-2 because of its motion through the Milky Way: it is orders of magnitude smaller than the main Newtonian monopole terms for the planets. We address here the following questions in a purely phenomenological manner: are the Sun's planets affected by an EFE as large as 10^-10 m s^-2? Can it be assumed that its effect is negligible for them because of its relatively small size? Does $\\bds E$ induce vanishing net orbital effects because of its constancy over typical solar system's planetary orbital periods? It turns out that a constant and uniform acceleration, treated perturbatively, does induce non-vanishing long-pe...

  12. Introduction to the adhesive bonding session. [foam system for attaching thermal insulation on space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Space shuttle unique requirements call for the development of a specific adhesive system to reliable attach reusable surface insulation. A low density foam system has been developed that provides strain isolation from the support structure and remains structurally stable in space shuttle thermal environment. Surface preparation and its stabilization by an adhesive primer system are the most important factors in preventing corrosion from reducing the reliability and durability of the adhesive bonding component.

  13. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system, Phase 2. Topical report, January--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report explored the regulatory impact and cost-benefit of a robotic thermal asbestos pipe-insulation removal system over the current manual abatement work practice. The authors are currently in the second phase of a two-phase program to develop a robotic asbestos abatement system, comprised of a ground-based support system (including vacuum, fluid delivery, computing/electronics/power, and other subsystems) and several on-pipe removal units, each sized to handle pipes within a given diameter range. The intent of this study was to (i) aid in developing design and operational criteria for the overall system to maximize cost-efficiency, and (ii) to determine the commercial potential of a robotic pipe-insulation abatement system.

  14. The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: Hansang80@korea.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dong-Hee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Ryul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Naeson-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-080 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeong-Mo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► It is necessary to study lightning response of the HTS cable. ► The analytic model has been developed for the HTS cable in the Icheon substation. ► Well-designed surge arrester has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

  15. ONE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT THERMAL RESPONSE OF MULTILAYER INSULATIVE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    This program performs a one-dimensional numerical analysis of the transient thermal response of multi-layer insulative systems. The analysis can determine the temperature distribution through a system consisting of from one to four layers, one of which can be an air gap. Concentrated heat sinks at any interface can be included. The computer program based on the analysis will determine the thickness of a specified layer that will satisfy a temperature limit criterion at any point in the insulative system. The program will also automatically calculate the thickness at several points on a system and determine the total system mass. This program was developed as a tool for designing thermal protection systems for high-speed aerospace vehicles but could be adapted to many areas of industry involved in thermal insulation systems. In this package, the equations describing the transient thermal response of a system are developed. The governing differential equation for each layer and boundary condition are put in finite-difference form using a Taylor's series expansion. These equations yield an essentially tridiagonal matrix of unknown temperatures. A procedure based on Gauss' elimination method is used to solve the matrix. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for the CDC RUN compiler and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series machine operating under SCOPE 3.0. This program requires a minimum of 44K (octal) of 60 bit words of memory.

  16. Non-Achievability of Metal-Insulator Transition in Two-Dimensional Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. John Peter

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present a simple demonstration of the non feasibility of metal-insulator transition in an exactly two-dimensional (2D) system. The Hartree-Fock potential in the 3D system is suitably modified and presented for the 2D case.The many body effects are included in the screening function, and binding energies of a donor are obtained as a function of impurity concentration so as to find out the possible way leading metal-insulator transition in the 2D system. While solving for the binding energy for a shallow donor in an isolated well of a GaAs/Ga1-x Als As superlattice system within the effective mass approximation, it leads to unphysical results for higher concentrations.

  17. Development tendency of exterior building wall greening and insulation system%建筑外墙绿化隔热系统之发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华立; 李光范

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing and comparing advantages and disadvantages of exterior building wall greening and insulation system at home and abroad, the essay explores the aspects needing improving of wall greening and insulation system with attached-type, external frame and separa- ted-type, climbing-type and planting desktop-type and the developing tendency. Based on existing two-dimensional exterior wall greening system, it puts forward prior covering-type multilevel vertical greening and insulation system.%通过对国内外建筑外墙绿化隔热系统优缺点的分析及比较,探讨了墙体附着式、外框架与墙体分离式、攀爬式和种植台式的墙体绿化隔热系统急需改进的方面和发展趋势,并在现有二维外墙绿化隔热系统上提出更为优越的覆盖式下的多层次垂直绿化隔热系统。

  18. The electrostatic interaction of an external charged system with a metal surface: a simplified density functional theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scivetti, Iván; Persson, Mats

    2013-09-01

    As a first step to meet the challenge to calculate the electronic structure and total energy of charged states of atoms and molecules adsorbed on ultrathin insulating films supported by a metallic substrate using density functional theory (DFT), we have developed a simplified new DFT scheme that only describes the electrostatic interaction of an external charged system with a metal surface. This purely electrostatic interaction is obtained from the assumption that the electron densities of the two fragments (charged system and metal surface) are non-overlapping and by neglecting non-local exchange-correlation effects such as the van der Waals interactions between the two fragments. In addition, the response of the metal surface to the electrostatic potential from the charged system is treated to linear order, whereas the charged system is treated fully within DFT. In particular, we consider the classical perfect conductor model for the metal response, although our formalism is not limited to this approximation. To test the computational implementation of this new scheme, we have considered the case of a Na+ cation interacting with a perfect conductor. The application of this new methodology to realistic problems involving charged systems adsorbed on insulating films supported by a metal surface are deferred to a separate following publication.

  19. Handbook of retrofit insulation systems. EFP - knowledge dissemination program; Haandbog om efterisoleringssystemer. EFP - Videnformidlingsprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    The handbook presents definitions and methods of calculations connected with calculations of heat losses from buildings. Methods of evaluating, moisture conditions and risk of condensation in construction are also presented. Retrofit insulation not only influences the energy consumption of a building, but also in the thermal condition in the building, which is why the terms thermal comfort and over temperature problematic are shortly described. There has been continuous attempts to illustrate the different subjects with examples. Subsequently the most used retrofit insulation methods, stating superior constructions, thermal conditions, moisture conditions, possibilities for energy conservation, and the advantages and disadvantages are described. The descriptions are intended to give an insight into the conditions, which are important in connection with retrofit insulation of buildings, but in the concrete case some more detailed analyses have to be presented. The handbook also describes fitted calculation programmes for calculation of detail solutions and calculation of resulted indoor climate and energy consumption, a view of measurement methods for thermal characterisation of construction, a view of relevant Danish and international standards and a view of research projects in the North relating to retrofit insulation systems. (EHS)

  20. Hydraulic External Pre-Isolator System for LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, S; Mason, K; Giaime, J; Abbott, R; Kern, J; O'Reilly, B; Bork, R; Hammond, M; Hardham, C; Lantz, B; Hua, W; Coyne, D; Traylor, G; Overmier, H; Evans, T; Hanson, J; Spjeld, O; Macinnis, M; Mailand, K; Sellers, D; Carter, K; Sarin, P

    2013-01-01

    The Hydraulic External Pre-Isolator (HEPI) is the first 6 degrees of freedom active seismic isolation system implemented at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). Implementation was first completed at the LIGO Livingston Observatory (LLO) prior to LIGO's 5th science run, successfully cutting down the disturbance seen by LLO's suspended optics in the two most prominent seismic disturbance bands, the microseism (0.1-0.3Hz) and the anthropogenic (1-3Hz) bands, by a factor of a few to tens. The improvement in seismic isolation contributed directly to LLO's much improved duty cycle of 66.7% and LIGO's triple coincident duty cycle of 53%. We report the design, control scheme, and isolation performance of HEPI at LLO in this paper. Aided with this success, funding for incorporating HEPI into the LIGO Hanford Observatory was approved and installation is currently underway.

  1. Hydraulic external pre-isolator system for LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, S.; Mittleman, R.; Mason, K.; Giaime, J.; Abbott, R.; Kern, J.; O'Reilly, B.; Bork, R.; Hammond, M.; Hardham, C.; Lantz, B.; Hua, W.; Coyne, D.; Traylor, G.; Overmier, H.; Evans, T.; Hanson, J.; Spjeld, O.; Macinnis, M.; Mailand, K.; Ottaway, D.; Sellers, D.; Carter, K.; Sarin, P.

    2014-12-01

    The hydraulic external pre-isolator (HEPI) is the first six degrees of freedom active seismic isolation system implemented at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). Implementation was first completed at the LIGO Livingston Observatory (LLO) prior to LIGO's fifth science run7, successfully cutting down the disturbance seen by LLO's suspended optics in the two most prominent seismic disturbance bands, the microseism (0.1-0.3 Hz) and the anthropogenic (1-3 Hz) bands, by a factor of a few to tens. The improvement in seismic isolation contributed directly to LLO's much improved duty cycle of 66.7% and LIGO's triple coincident duty cycle of 53%. We report the design, control scheme, and isolation performance of HEPI at LLO in this paper. Aided by this success, funding for incorporating HEPI into the LIGO Hanford Observatory was approved and installation is currently underway.

  2. A water blown urethane insulation for use in cryogenic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon

    1995-01-01

    Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) of NASA's Space Shuttle External Tank include polyurethane and polyisocyanurate modified polyurethane foam insulations. These insulations, currently foamed with CFC 11 blowing agent, serve to maintain cryogenic propellant quality, maintain the external tank structural temperature limits, and minimize the formation of ice and frost that could potentially damage the ceramic insulation on the space shuttle orbiter. During flight the external tank insulations are exposed to mechanical, thermal and acoustical stresses. TPS must pass cryogenic flexure and substrate adhesion tests at -253 C, aerothermal and radiant heating tests at fluxes up to approximately 14 kilowatts per square meter, and thermal conductivity tests at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. Due to environmental concerns, the polyurethane insulation industry and the External Tank Project are tasked with replacing CFC 11. The flight qualification of foam insulations employing HCFC 141b as a foaming agent is currently in progress; HCFC 141b blown insulations are scheduled for production implementation in 1995. Realizing that the second generation HCFC blowing agents are an interim solution, the evaluation of third generation blowing agents with zero ozone depletion potential is underway. NASA's TPS Materials Research Laboratory is evaluating third generation blowing agents in cryogenic insulations for the External Tank; one option being investigated is the use of water as a foaming agent. A dimensionally stable insulation with low friability, good adhesion to cryogenic substrates, and acceptable thermal conductivity has been developed with low viscosity materials that are easily processed in molding applications. The development criteria, statistical experimental approach, and resulting foam properties will be presented.

  3. Description of Fracture Systems for External Criticality Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Philippe Nicot

    2001-09-21

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe probabilistically the main features of the geometry of the fracture system in the vicinity of the repository. They will be used to determine the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in the fractured rock underneath a waste package as it degrades. This AMR is to feed the geochemical calculations for external criticality reports. This AMR is done in accordance with the technical work plan (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001 b). The scope of this AMR is restricted to the relevant parameters of the fracture system. The main parameters of interest are fracture aperture and fracture spacing distribution parameters. The relative orientation of the different fracture sets is also important because of its impact on criticality, but they will be set deterministically. The maximum accumulation of material depends primarily on the fracture porosity, combination of the fracture aperture, and fracture intensity. However, the fracture porosity itself is not sufficient to characterize the potential for accumulation of a fracture system. The fracture aperture is also important because it controls both the flow through the fracture and the potential plugging of the system. Other features contributing to the void space such as lithophysae are also investigated. On the other hand, no analysis of the matrix porosity is done. The parameters will be used in sensitivity analyses of geochemical calculations providing actinide accumulations and in the subsequent Monte Carlo criticality analyses.

  4. Sensitivity of forced air distribution system efficiency to climate, duct location, air leakage and insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain

    2001-09-01

    This study was performed in order to find suitable efficiency and leakage specifications for Energy Star duct systems and provide recommendations on duct insulation specifications. This analysis looks at a typical house, with a selection of duct locations, climates, duct insulation (R-value), and duct leakage. A set of calculations were performed with reduced capacity and airflow to look at the effect of variable capacity systems. This was done to address concerns regarding the increased efficiency of multi-capacity equipment due to good part load performance and how these efficiency gains may be offset by increased duct losses. The duct system efficiencies were calculated using the procedures in proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P ''Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems'' (ASHRAE 1999). This proposed ASHRAE Standard can be used to calculate duct efficiency for both design and seasonal weather conditions. In this report, the seasonal efficiencies are used for most of the analysis because they are the most appropriate for estimating energy consumption in buildings. The effects at peak conditions are examined for changing duct insulation in order to provide preliminary estimates of the potential responses to time of use pricing. The study was performed in two parts. The first part focused on duct leakage and the second part on duct insulation. The HVAC systems in the two parts share many attributes, however, they differ in detail and so are treated separately here. All the calculation results are summarized in tables in the Appendix, and specific results are given in the text.

  5. Detection and localization of building insulation faults using optical-fiber DTS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Koudelka, Petr; Siska, Petr; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Jaros, Jakub; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays the trends in the construction industry are changing at an incredible speed. The new technologies are still emerging on the market. Sphere of building insulation is not an exception as well. One of the major problems in building insulation is usually its failure, whether caused by unwanted mechanical intervention or improper installation. The localization of these faults is quite difficult, often impossible without large intervention into the construction. As a proper solution for this problem might be utilization of Optical-Fiber DTS system based on stimulated Raman scattering. Used DTS system is primary designed for continuous measurement of the temperature along the optical fiber. This system is using standard optical fiber as a sensor, which brings several advantages in its application. First, the optical fiber is relatively inexpensive, which allows to cover a quite large area for a small cost. The other main advantages of the optical fiber are electromagnetic resistance, small size, safety operation in inflammable or explosive area, easy installation, etc. This article is dealing with the detection and localization of building insulation faults using mentioned system.

  6. Development of a system for detecting and locating damaged insulator strings with signals collected at substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Capelini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel technique for remotely identifying and locating of damaged insulator strings based on an analysis of noise signals recorded on the ground connection of current transformers installed on transmission line substations. Damaged insulators usually present electrical surface activity. Surface and corona discharges may result in the generation of high frequency signals that can travel through the transmission line conductors, which are recorded by a data acquisition system. Each signal generated by the surface or corona discharge has a unique signature. This signature changes according to the position of the source, i.e., the damaged string along the line, which enables the association between the signal signature and the location of the string along the line. A method proposed to achieve this association is discussed in this paper as well as the tools and tests carried out during its development. An innovative way for capacitive coupling, which reduce detection system implementation costs is presented

  7. Systems and methods for the magnetic insulation of accelerator electrodes in electrostatic accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Larry R

    2013-12-17

    The present invention provides systems and methods for the magnetic insulation of accelerator electrodes in electrostatic accelerators. Advantageously, the systems and methods of the present invention improve the practically obtainable performance of these electrostatic accelerators by addressing, among other things, voltage holding problems and conditioning issues. The problems and issues are addressed by flowing electric currents along these accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields that envelope the accelerator electrodes and their support structures, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of the accelerator electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the surrounding electric field. In various applications, this magnetic insulation must only produce modest gains in voltage holding capability to represent a significant achievement.

  8. Influence of reactor irradiation on the mechanical behavior of ITER TF coil candidate insulation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner-Rohrhofer, K. E-mail: kbittner@ati.ac.at; Humer, K.; Fillunger, H.; Maix, R.K.; Wang, Z.D.; Weber, H.W

    2003-09-01

    Extensive material tests have to be performed in order to obtain information on the radiation induced change in the mechanical behavior of insulating materials for the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coil. The investigated insulation systems are R-glass fiber reinforced tapes, vacuum impregnated with a DGEBA epoxy resin and interleafed with Kapton H-foils. According to the actual operating conditions of ITER-FEAT, the systems were irradiated in the TRIGA reactor (Vienna, Austria) to neutron fluences of 5x10{sup 21} and 1x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} (E>0.1 MeV). Static tensile, short-beam-shear (SBS) as well as double-lap-shear (DLS) tests were carried out at 77 K prior to and after irradiation. Furthermore, results on swelling and weight loss as well as on the material properties under tension-tension fatigue loading conditions are presented.

  9. Ferromagnetic Resonance and Spin Hall Torque for Nanometric Thick Magnetic Insulator |Normal Metal Bilayers System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In bilayer system, consists of ferromagnetic insulator, high spin orbit coupling normal metal (FM|NM), a new ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) damping that depends on varying the thickness of the normal metal observed. This new enhancement in the damping attributed to magnetic proximity effect (MPE) at the interface, which is verified by the increases in the real part of spin mixing conductance. Spin pumping phenomena occurs when pure spin current can flow into the normal metal when the ferromagn...

  10. Propylene based systems for high voltage cable insulation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosier, I L; Vaughan, A S; Swingler, S G [ECS, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cozzarini, L, E-mail: ILH@ecs.soton.ac.u [DMRN, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 6A, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) remains the material of choice for extruded high voltage cables, possessing excellent thermo-mechanical and electrical properties. However, it is not easily recyclable posing questions as to its long term sustainability. Whilst both polyethylene and polypropylene are widely recycled and provide excellent dielectric properties, polypropylene has significantly better mechanical integrity at high temperatures than polyethylene. However, while isotactic polypropylene is too stiff at room temperature for incorporation into a cable system, previous studies by the authors have indicated that this limitation can be overcome by using a propylene-ethylene copolymer. Whilst these previous studies considered unrelated systems, the current study aims to quantify the usefulness of a series of related random propylene-ethylene co-polymers and assesses their potential for replacing XLPE.

  11. Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-05-17

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

  12. Colourface - coloured facades for solar heating systems and building insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, T.; Wagner, W.; Hausner, R. [AEE INTEC, Gleisdorf (Austria); Koehl, M.; Herkel, S. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Orel, B. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hoefler, K. [TB fuer Bauphysik, Graz (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Coloured absorbers are a major demand of architects for the design of facade integrated solar thermal collectors. But coloured absorbers have shown an inferior thermal performance compared to selective coatings of state-of-the-art collectors so far. Within the project Colourface selective colour coatings have been developed and ageing tests of the coatings have been performed. Four colours have been chosen as absorber coatings for test collectors. The colours were blue, green, auburn and grey. The efficiency of these test collectors was measured using the dynamic collector test method according to EN 12975-2. The blue and green coloured absorbers have shown thermal performances comparable to black solar varnish coated absorbers. The auburn coating showed less absorptivity but also less emissivity than blue and green resulting in a slightly lower efficiency curve. The efficiency of the grey coated absorber was the lowest of all tested collectors as it was expected. Seven wall constructions that are commonly used in Austria and Germany have been investigated to find out whether the direct integration of collectors into the wall is possible without harming the building materials or. Finally, two pilot systems - a newly constructed two-family house and a retrofit building - have been realised with facade collectors. Temperatures and relative humidities in the collector and inside the wall construction have been monitored and analysed. The results of the project are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  13. The accident analysis and processing of Thin plastering exterior insulation system%薄抹灰外墙外保温系统事故分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒六元; 丁艳梅

    2014-01-01

    外墙外保温系统是目前国内建筑外墙保温的主要形式,本文以有效性、耐久性、安全性和施工性为主要内容,对外墙外保温系统结构面临的问题、施工质量控制等几个关键方面进行探讨,并提出相关意见,以达到正确设计与选用外墙外保温系统的目的。%Exterior insulation system is the main form of the domestic building external wall thermal insulation,the problem of the external wall thermal insulation system structure and a few key aspects such as construction quality control are discussed by using eff ectiveness,durability,safety,and construction as the main content in this text,and puts forward related Suggestions,in order to achieve the correct design and selection of exterior insulation system.

  14. Evaluation of sloshing resistance performance for LNG carrier insulation system based on fluid-structure interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Seung; Cho, Jin-Rae; Kim, Wha-Soo; Noh, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, the sloshing resistance performance of a huge-size LNG carrier's insulation system is evaluated by the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. To do this, the global-local analysis which is based on the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is adopted to accurately calculate the structural behavior induced by internal LNG sloshing of a KC-1 type LNG carrier insulation system. During the global analysis, the sloshing flow and hydrodynamic pressure of internal LNG are analyzed by postulating the flexible insulation system as a rigid body. In addition, during the local analysis, the local hydroelastic response of the LNG carrier insulation system is computed by solving the local hydroelastic model where the entire and flexible insulation system is adopted and the numerical analysis results of the global analysis such as initial and boundary conditions are implemented into the local finite element model. The proposed novel analysis techniques can potentially be used to evaluate the structural integrity of LNG carrier insulation systems.

  15. Polyisocyanurate systems for insulating and sandwich elements; Polyisocyanurat-Systeme fuer Daemm- und Sandwichelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malotki, P. von [Elastogran GmbH, Lemfoerde (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    PUR rigid foam plates are laminated with flexible Al films, paper or glass non-wovens, or may be processed into sandwich elements with metallic top-layers via coil-coating. Dependence of heat insulation efficiency, dimensional stability and fire behavior of the foam on chemical composition and the blowing agents is considered and compared with polyisocyanurate foams. Recipes for the production of PIR heat insulation elements and sandwich elements are given.

  16. Optimal insulation of pipes and tanks for solar heating systems. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G F; Lior, N

    1979-02-01

    A compact and time effective insulation design procedure for solar heating system piping and water-filled thermal storage tanks was developed. Recognizing the particular sensitivity of solar systems to cost, the economic aspect of the problem is treated by a comprehensive present-value life-cycle cost analysis. In the development of the method, a numerical sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the relative effects of all relevant independent variables (within their pertinent ranges) on piping and tank heat transfer coefficient values.

  17. Application of External Wall Thermal Insulation Material in Building Energy-efficient%外墙保温材料在建筑节能中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何学敏

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous development of building en-ergy-efficient technology, exterior wal thermal insulation technology has been developing. In the exterior wal thermal insulation technology, exterior wal thermal insulation material is very important. This article mainly expounds several kinds of exterior wal thermal insulation material used in exterior energy-efficient technology, and discusses the concrete app-lication of exterior wal thermal insulation in construction en-gineering.%随着建筑节能技术的发展,外墙保温技术也在不断发展中。在外墙保温技术中,外墙保温材料是非常重要的。本文主要阐述了建筑外墙节能技术中常用的几种外墙保温材料,并且探讨了外墙保温材料在建筑工程中的具体运用。

  18. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  19. RELEVANT OBJECTIVES OF ASSURANCE OF RELIABILITY OF FACADE SYSTEMS SERVING THERMAL INSULATION AND FINISHING PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorskiy Andrey Andreevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider up-to-date methods of implementation of requirements stipulated by Federal Law no. 261-FZ that encompasses reduction of heat losses through installation of progressive heat-insulation systems, cement plaster system (CPS, and ventilated facades (VF. Unresolved problems of their efficient application caused by the absence of the all-Russian regulatory documents capable of controlling the processes of their installation and maintenance, as well as the projection of their behaviour, are also considered in the article. The authors argue that professional skills of designers and construction workers responsible for the design and installation of façade systems influence the quality and reliability of design and construction works. Unavailability of unified solutions or regulations serves as the objective reason for the unavailability of the respective database; therefore, there is an urgent need to perform a set of researches to have the unified database compiled. The authors use the example of thermal insulation cement plaster systems designated for facades as results of researches into the quantitative analysis of safety systems. Collected and systematized data that cover defects that have proven to be reasons for failures, as well as potential methods of their prevention are also studied. Data on pilot studies of major factors of influence onto reliability of glutinous adhesion of CPS to the base of a wall are provided.

  20. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  1. Computing with dynamical systems based on insulator-metal-transition oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Abhinav; Shukla, Nikhil; Jerry, Matthew; Datta, Suman; Raychowdhury, Arijit

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we review recent work on novel computing paradigms using coupled oscillatory dynamical systems. We explore systems of relaxation oscillators based on linear state transitioning devices, which switch between two discrete states with hysteresis. By harnessing the dynamics of complex, connected systems, we embrace the philosophy of "let physics do the computing" and demonstrate how complex phase and frequency dynamics of such systems can be controlled, programmed, and observed to solve computationally hard problems. Although our discussion in this paper is limited to insulator-to-metallic state transition devices, the general philosophy of such computing paradigms can be translated to other mediums including optical systems. We present the necessary mathematical treatments necessary to understand the time evolution of these systems and demonstrate through recent experimental results the potential of such computational primitives.

  2. Three dimensional simulation of the arc inside an insulator-arrester with a multichamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiwei; Long, Xinping; Qian, Zhongdong; Qiu, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Based on the thermo-physical properties of plasma air, the temperature and flow fields of an insulator-arrester with a multi-chamber system are investigated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. The plasma flow is assumed to be steady incompressible laminar flow and in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The results obtained show that the arc inside the chamber bends downwards, indicating that the Lorentz force induced is directed away from the exit and pushes plasma air down. The outlet also provides passage for plasma flow both in and out of the chamber.

  3. Development of a Leave-in-Place Slab Edge Insulating Form System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Hoeschele; Eric Lee

    2009-08-31

    Concrete slabs represent the primary foundation type in residential buildings in the fast-growing markets throughout the southern and southwestern United States. Nearly 75% of the 2005 U.S. population growth occurred in these southern tier states. Virtually all of these homes have uninsulated slab perimeters that transfer a small, but steady, flow of heat from conditioned space to outdoors during the heating season. It is estimated that new home foundations constructed each year add 0.016 quads annually to U.S. national energy consumption; we project that roughly one quarter of this amount can be attributed to heat loss through the slab edge and the remaining three quarters to deep ground transfers, depending upon climate. With rising concern over national energy use and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions, it is becoming increasingly imperative that all cost-effective efforts to improve building energy efficiency be implemented. Unlike other building envelope components that have experienced efficiency improvements over the years, slab edge heat loss has largely been overlooked. From our vantage point, a marketable slab edge insulation system would offer significant benefits to homeowners, builders, and the society as a whole. Conventional slab forming involves the process of digging foundation trenches and setting forms prior to the concrete pour. Conventional wood form boards (usually 2 x 10's) are supported by vertical stakes on the outer form board surface, and by supporting 'kickers' driven diagonally from the top of the form board into soil outside the trench. Typically, 2 x 10's can be used only twice before they become waste material, contributing to an additional 400 pounds of construction waste per house. Removal of the form boards and stakes also requires a follow-up trip to the jobsite by the concrete subcontractor and handling (storage/disposal) of the used boards. In the rare cases where the slab is insulated (typically custom

  4. Research on flammability of two typical external insulation materials%两种典型外保温材料燃烧性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马哲

    2013-01-01

    采用锥形量热仪对岩棉板和挤塑式聚苯乙烯隔热保温板的燃烧性能进行实验研究,实验结果表明,岩棉板的阻燃性能远优于聚苯乙烯隔热保温板,抹面砂浆能够较明显提升聚苯乙烯隔热保温板的阻燃性能,但对岩棉板的阻燃性能影响较小,同时抹面砂浆会增加保温材料烟气及有毒气体释放量.%Experimental study was carried out on the flammability of rock wool board ( RWB) and extruded polystyrene insulation board ( XPSB) by means of Cone Calorimeter. Experimental results show that the flame-retardant properties of the rock wool board are far better than that of polystyrene insulation board. The mortar of surface can obviously enhances the flame-retardant properties of polystyrene insulation board, but it has small effect on the rock wool board. At the same time the mortar will increase the smoke and toxic gases of thermal insulation materials.

  5. 外墙保温材料研究现状与进展%Research advances in thermal insulation materials used for external wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱清玮; 武发德; 赵金平

    2012-01-01

    Thermal insulation in huilding is one of the effective means which achieves not only energy-saving but also environmental protection. Exterior insulation is sorely recommended in building at present. Exterior insulation material can be divided into organic and inorganic materials with different advantages and disadvantages. In this paper.the research and application ad vance of various exterior insulation materials were introduced. The inorganic insulation materials will be developed more rapidly in the near future in the area of building materials due to the fact they are more environment-friendly and nonflammable compared to the organic ones. But the moisture resistance and strength need to be further improved.%建筑保温作为建筑节能的有效手段之一,将实现能源与环保“双赢”.外墙外保温是目前大力推广的一种建筑保温节能技术.外墙外保温材料可分为有机与无机保温材料2种,不同的保温材料具有不同优势与缺陷.对不同外墙外保温材料的研究与应用现状进行了阐述.与有机保温材料相比较而言,无机不燃保温材料将是未来环保型防火保温建材的一个重要发展方向,但其耐水性和强度还有待进一步改善.

  6. Discharge status evaluation on external insulation of insulator based on results of ultra-violet radiation measurement and fuzzy reasoning%采用模糊推理对绝缘子放电紫外检测结果进行外绝缘放电状况评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪金刚; 张作鹏; 龙震泽; 任昌智; 邓旭东; 何为; 杨帆

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on the fuzzy theory and ultra-violet (UV) radiation measurement to ac cess the discharge status of external insulation of the insulator is presented. In this method, the amount of UV pul ses generated by corona discharge of insulator is measured firstly, while collecting temperature of environment and humidity information, and then the relationship between the inputs is confirmed by analyzing online monitoring da ta, a series of fuzzy sets for fuzzy reasoning is set up, and the membership function is derived, fuzzy inference rules are established. Then the fuzzy reasoning is carried out to estimate the discharge status of external insulation. Final ly, the validity of this method is verified by simulating and analyzing the data detected from the tests of connecting to grid in Simulink.%根据紫外测量法[5]获得的绝缘子放电强度,提出了采用模糊推理对绝缘子外绝缘放电状况进行评估的方法.该方法首先测量绝缘子电晕放电产生的紫外光脉冲数量,同时采集环境温度、湿度信息,根据在线监测的数据分析确定各输入量之同的关系,建立了一系列可用于模糊推理的模糊子集,并对其隶属度函数进行了推导,建立详尽的模糊推理规则,进行模糊推理,判断其外绝缘放电状况.最后,针对现场挂网试验数据,采用simulink进行仿真分析,验证了该方法的有效性.

  7. Phonon-Plasmon Interaction in Metal-Insulator-Metal Localized Surface Plasmon Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mrabti, Abdelali; Nicolas, Rana; Maurer, Thomas; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Akjouj, Abdellatif; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and numerically the coupling between elastic and localized surface plasmon modes in a system of gold nanocylinders separated from a thin gold film by a dielectric spacer of few nanometers thickness. That system supports plasmon modes confined in between the bottom of the nanocylinder and the top of the gold film, which arise from the formation of interference patterns by short-wavelength metal-insulator-metal propagating plasmon. First we present the plasmonic properties of the system though computer-simulated extinction spectra and field maps associated to the different optical modes. Next a simple analytical model is introduced, which allows to correctly reproduce the shape and wavelengths of the plasmon modes. This model is used to investigate the efficiency of the coupling between an elastic deformation and the plasmonic modes. In the last part of the paper, we present the full numerical simulations of the phononic properties of the system, and then compute the acousto-plasmon...

  8. Manifold Insulation for Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Results of computer analysis of effects of various manifold insulation detailed in 23-page report show that if fluid is distributed to and gathered from array of solar collectors by external rather than internal manifold, effectiveness of manifold insulation has major influence on efficiency. Report describes required input data and presents equations that govern computer model. Provides graphs comparing collector efficiencies for representative manifold sizes and insulations.

  9. Operation of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) Gyroscopic Sensor as a Two-Axis Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WS-12-02 OPERATION OF SILICON-ON-INSULATOR (SOI) MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS ( MEMS ) GYROSCOPIC SENSOR...DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operation of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems ( MEMS ) Gyroscopic Sensor as a...existing Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Micro- ElectroMechanical Systems ( MEMS ) gyroscopic sensor previously developed in the early-2000s under MEMS

  10. 牵引电机有机硅绝缘系统和环氧酸酐绝缘系统的性能对比%Performance Comparison of Silicone Insulation System and Epoxy Anhydride Insulation System for Traction Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁西川; 曹燕飞; 陈红生; 李鸿岩; 唐畅

    2013-01-01

    The structure design features of silicone and heat-resistant epoxy anhydride insulation system for traction motor were stated, and their conventional electrical properties and thermal aging properties were compared. The results show that both of the insulation systems have good electrical properties and heat resistance; and the silicone insulation system performs much better in thermal stability.%  介绍了牵引电机有机硅和耐热环氧酸酐两种绝缘系统的结构设计特点,对比了两种绝缘系统的常规电气性能和热老化性能。结果表明:两种绝缘系统都具有良好的电气性能和耐热性能,有机硅绝缘系统的热稳定性表现更突出。

  11. Key Technology of the Prefabricated External Integrated Wall-panels with Decoration and Insulation%结构装饰保温一体化预制外墙板制造关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思忠; 任成传; 齐博磊; 武卫平

    2015-01-01

    Based on the realistic need of construction project of public housing in Beijing, the structure characteristics of external integrated wall⁃panels with decoration and insulation are fully considered. Quality problems easily occurring in the construction including the precise positioning of filling sleeve, the choice of the connected components of internal and external wall, the choice of insulation layer, the construction of outer wall with decorative surface and hoisting embedded parts and so on are analyzed in detail. The corresponding solutions have been proposed, and the good results have been achieved.%结合北京市公租房工程建设,从结构装饰保温一体化外墙板的结构特点出发,对灌浆套筒精确定位、内外叶墙拉接件选用、保温层选用、装饰面外叶墙施工以及吊装预埋件等施工中容易出现的质量问题进行了详细分析,提出了针对性解决措施,取得了良好成效。

  12. Control performances of a piezoactuator direct drive valve system at high temperatures with thermal insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yung-Min; Han, Chulhee; Kim, Wan Ho; Seong, Ho Yong; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-09-01

    This technical note presents control performances of a piezoactuator direct drive valve (PDDV) operated at high temperature environment. After briefly discussing operating principle and mechanical dimensions of the proposed PDDV, an appropriate size of the PDDV is manufactured. As a first step, the temperature effect on the valve performance is experimentally investigated by measuring the spool displacement at various temperatures. Subsequently, the PDDV is thermally insulated using aerogel and installed in a large-size heat chamber in which the pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders and sensors are equipped. A proportional-integral-derivative feedback controller is then designed and implemented to control the spool displacement of the valve system. In this work, the spool displacement is chosen as a control variable since it is directly related to the flow rate of the valve system. Three different sinusoidal displacements with different frequencies of 1, 10 and 50 Hz are used as reference spool displacement and tracking controls are undertaken up to 150 °C. It is shown that the proposed PDDV with the thermal insulation can provide favorable control responses without significant tracking errors at high temperatures.

  13. Linear response of a pre- and post-selected system to an external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Masashi, E-mail: ban.masashi@ocha.ac.jp

    2015-02-06

    Linear response to an external field is studied for a quantum system with pre- and post-selection. Effects of an external field on strong and weak values of a system observable are found. The external field applied after the measurement of the observable influences the linear response of the system through post-selection. A time-symmetric property in the linear response is found. - Highlights: • The linear response theory is applied to a quantum system with pre-selection and post-selection. • It is found how an external field affects strong and weak values of a measured system observable • Not only an external field before measurement but also one after measurement influences the linear response due to the post-selection.

  14. Application of polymeric solid materials for electrical insulation system in superconducting apparatuses; Chodendo kiki no denki zetsuen kosei ni okeru kobunshi kotai zetsuen no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M. [Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., Aichi (Japan); Minoda, A. [Matsue National College of Tech., Shimane (Japan); Kosaki, M. [Gifu National College of Tech., Gifu (Japan)

    1999-06-07

    We send the electric insulation to one of the technological problem to be solved in order to realize high reliability of the superconductive electric power equipment. This paper must also sufficiently consider not only dielectric characteristic and insulation characteristic but also material mechanical property in which they are excellent at very low temperature in the selection of insulating material. The representative insulating material of XLPE, LDPE mainly used in the region over room temperature the crack may arise by causing mechanical stress by cooling contracture of giant molecule, and the problem occurs as cryogenic insulating material in mechanical property. We propose the ethylene propylene rubber as cryogenic insulating material, and we carry out research and development of superconducting cable of the solid insulation system. We examined dielectric breakdown property and mechanical property of EPR at very low temperature this time. (NEDO)

  15. Laser spectroscopic probing of coexisting superfluid and insulating states of an atomic Bose-Hubbard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Inaba, Kensuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2016-04-01

    A system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice has been regarded as an ideal quantum simulator for a Hubbard model with extremely high controllability of the system parameters. While making use of the controllability, a comprehensive measurement across the weakly to strongly interacting regimes in the Hubbard model to discuss the quantum many-body state is still limited. Here we observe a great change in the excitation energy spectra across the two regimes in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system by using a spectroscopic technique, which can resolve the site occupancy in the lattice. By quantitatively comparing the observed spectra and numerical simulations based on sum rule relations and a binary fluid treatment under a finite temperature Gutzwiller approximation, we show that the spectra reflect the coexistence of a delocalized superfluid state and a localized insulating state across the two regimes.

  16. Research Status and Application of External Wall Thermal Insulation Materials%建筑外墙外保温材料的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡验君; 苏振国; 杨金龙

    2012-01-01

    概述了建筑外墙目前常用保温材料的使用性能、应用状况和存在问题,包括有机类的EPS、XPS、PU、PF和无机类的岩棉、泡沫玻璃(陶瓷)、泡沫混凝土.有机保温材料具有低的导热系数,保温性能好,但是易燃、防火等级低,安全性差,需要进行阻燃处理;无机保温材料不燃,防火等级高,安全性能好,但是保温性能不如有机保温材料,需要开发低导热系数的无机保温材料.最后指出,导热系数低、综合性能优异的无机保温材料将成为未来建筑保温材料的首选.%The functional performance, application situation, and problems of commonly used building exterior insulation materials are summarized, which includes organic kind (EPS, XPS, PU, PF) and inorganic kind (rock wool, foam glass, foam concrete). The advantages of organic heat preservation materials are low coefficient of thermal conductivity and good heat preservation performance. However, these materials have flammability, low fire rating, bad safety performance, and the need for flame retardant treatment. While, inorganic heat preservation materials have nonflammability, high fire rating, and good safety performance. Nonetheless, their thermal insulation properties are not as superior as organic heat preservation materials. Therefore, researchers need to develop low coefficient of thermal conductivity of inorganic heat preservation materials. As a result, relying on its low coefficient of thermal conductivity and outstanding comprehensive performance, inorganic thermal insulation materials will become the best choice of building insulation materials in the future.

  17. Influences of Fog-Haze on External Insulation of Transmission and Distribution Equipments%雾霾天气对输变电设备外绝缘的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿志一

    2013-01-01

      从输变电设备防污闪角度讲,雾霾与传统的湿沉降、污(脏)雾是同一概念。雾霾对输变电设备外绝缘影响的研究,主要包括雾霾的理化特征、雾霾对绝缘子表面污秽度的影响、雾霾的模拟及其对绝缘子污闪电压的影响等内容。文章重点介绍了20世纪90年代以来北京、上海两地开展的试验研究工作:大气污染易演变成霾与雾霾天气,导致输变电设备外绝缘表面湿沉降的增加。雾霾脏污程度可用雾水电导率表征,雾霾的持续作用可使绝缘子表面污秽度有限增大,绝缘子污闪电压有所降低。近年来,国网公司系统坚持“绝缘到位,留有裕度”的防污闪方针,成功地抵御了雾霾天气对输变电设备的侵袭,遏制了大面积污闪事故的发生,线路污闪跳闸率降至历史最低水平。%In the viewpoint of preventing pollution flashover occurred on transmission and distribution equipments, the fog-haze is of the same concept as the traditional concept for wet deposition and dust fog. The research on the influences of fog-haze on external insulation of transmission and distribution equipments mainly includes the physical and chemical features of the fog-haze, the influence of the fog-haze on contamination level of insulator surface, the simulation of the fog-haze and its influence on pollution flashover voltage of insulators. The achievements of experimental research on the fog-haze performed in Shanghai and Beijing since 1990s are emphatically presented: atmospheric pollution easily evolves into the haze or the fog-haze weather, and it makes the increase of wet deposition on external insulation surfaces of transmission and distribution equipments; the smudgy degree caused by fog-haze can be characterized by fog conductivity;the sustained action of fog-haze makes the degree of contamination on insulator surfaces limitedly increased, so the pollution flashover voltage of

  18. Thermal Insulation System Analysis Tool (TISTool) User's Manual. Version 1.0.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley; Fesmire, James; Leucht, Kurt; Demko, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The Thermal Insulation System Analysis Tool (TISTool) was developed starting in 2004 by Jonathan Demko and James Fesmire. The first edition was written in Excel and Visual BasIc as macros. It included the basic shapes such as a flat plate, cylinder, dished head, and sphere. The data was from several KSC tests that were already in the public literature realm as well as data from NIST and other highly respectable sources. More recently, the tool has been updated with more test data from the Cryogenics Test Laboratory and the tank shape was added. Additionally, the tool was converted to FORTRAN 95 to allow for easier distribution of the material and tool. This document reviews the user instructions for the operation of this system.

  19. Metal-insulator transition in disordered systems from the one-body density matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Resta, Raffaele; Souza, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    systems. In particular, for noninteracting systems the geometrical marker can be obtained from the configurational average of the norm-squared one-body density matrix, which can be calculated within open as well as periodic boundary conditions. This is in sharp contrast to a classification based...... on the static conductivity, which is only sensible within periodic boundary conditions. We exemplify the method by considering a simple lattice model, known to have a metal-insulator transition as a function of the disorder strength, and demonstrate that the transition point can be obtained accurately from...... the one-body density matrix. The approach has a general ab initio formulation and could in principle be applied to realistic disordered materials by standard electronic structure methods....

  20. Insulated ECG electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, W. M.; David, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Insulated, capacitively coupled electrode does not require electrolyte paste for attachment. Other features of electrode include wide range of nontoxic material that may be employed for dielectric because of sputtering technique used. Also, electrode size is reduced because there is no need for external compensating networks with FET operational amplifier.

  1. Design and Construction of a Live Insulator Washing System for Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizama-Cámara Y.A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Through the electrical industry history there have been developments of different cleaning methods to avoid the insulators flashovers due to pollution. This paper describes the principal cleaning methods applicable to transformers insulators, emphasizing the high pressure fixed-type live insulator washing method, which was applied for cleaning the insulators of 900 MVA transformer bank of the “Laguna Verde” power plant localized at the state of Veracruz in Mexico. We propose a transformer insulator cleaning methodology, which identifies the main variables to take into account (the voltage level of the transformers, the pollution level of the insulators, determination of the optimal wash time, the amount of water, the optimal pressure of water jet, the maximum conductivity of the water and the wind velocity, reference values are given for these variables. In addition, we present an economic cost analysis when applying a method of this kind in an electric substation.

  2. Simulation of the aging process of insulating systems variable frequency drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganeev, A.; Leonov, A.; Merkulov, V.; Charkov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the intensity of the model in the electrical insulation variable frequency drive controlled at different temperatures and electric fields. It is shown that aging of insulation mechanism associated with the development of corona discharges caused by transients when the frequency adjustment. Laws aging of insulation can be described from the point of view of the theory of thermal destruction of dielectrics vibrations.

  3. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system. Phase I. Topical report, November 1993--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Based on several key design criteria and site visits, we developed a Robot design and built a system which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure. Experimental results indicated that the current robotic abatement process is sound yet needs to be further expanded and modified. One of the main discoveries was that a longitudinal cut to fully allow the paddles to dig in and compress the insulation off the pipe is essential. Furthermore, a different cutting method might be explored to alleviate the need for a deeper cut and to enable a combination of certain functions such as compression and cutting. Unfortunately due to a damaged mechanism caused by extensive testing, we were unable to perform vertical piping abatement experiments, but foresee no trouble in implementing them in the next proposed Phase. Other encouraging results have BOA removing asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. However, we feel confident that we can double the asbestos removal rate by improving cutting speed, and increasing the length of the BOA robot. The containment and vacuum system on BOA is able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/8-hr. shift. Currently, BOA weighs about 117 pounds which is more than a human is permitted to lift overhead under OSHA requirements (i.e., 25 pounds). We are considering designing the robot into two components (i.e., locomotor section and cutter/removal section) to aid human installation as well as incorporating composite materials. A more detailed list of all the technical modifications is given in this topical report.

  4. Integrated human-clothing system model for estimating the effect of walking on clothing insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, Nesreen [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, P.O. Box 11-236, Riad ElSolh, 1107 2020, Beirut (Lebanon); Ghali, Kamel [Beirut Arab University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut (Lebanon); Jones, Byron [Kansas State University, College of Engineering, 148 Rathbone Hall, 66506-5202, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a 1-D transient heat and mass transfer model of a walking clothed human to predict the dynamic clothing dry heat insulation values and vapor resistances. Developing an integrated model of human and clothing system under periodic ventilation requires estimation of the heat and mass transfer film coefficients at the skin to the air layer subject to oscillating normal flow. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions of 25 C and 50% relative humidity to measure the mass transfer coefficient at the skin to the air layer separating the wet skin and the fabric. A 1-D mathematical model is developed to simulate the dynamic thermal behavior of clothing and its interaction with the human thermoregulation system under walking conditions. A modification of Gagge's two-node model is used to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The human model is coupled to a clothing three-node model of the fabric that takes into consideration the adsorption of water vapor in the fibers during the periodic ventilation of the fabric by the air motion in from ambient environment and out from the air layer adjacent to the moist skin. When physical activity and ambient conditions are specified, the integrated model of human-clothing can predict the thermo-regulatory responses of the body together with the temperature and insulation values of the fabric. The developed model is used to predict the periodic ventilation flow rate in and out of the fabric, the periodic fabric regain, the fabric temperature, the air layer temperature, the heat loss or gain from the skin, and dry and vapor resistances of the clothing. The heat loss from the skin increases with the increase of the frequency of ventilation and with the increased metabolic rate of the body. In addition, the dry resistance of the clothing fabrics, predicted by the current model, IS compared with published experimental data. The current

  5. Application of EDA methodology for assessment of the rotating machines insulation system condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Denis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulation system of rotating machines of high importance has always been the object of thorough screening with certified test methods that are getting constantly improved. Low-power machines and 'less important' machines like high voltage motors, are rarely subjected to detailed electrical tests because of low resources allocated for their maintenance. The introduction of the EDA methodology in practice creates the conditions for reliable and complete diagnostics of stator windings of big machines, as well as the fast, easy and inexpensive screening for low-power machines (i.e. HV motors. The aim of the paper is to present the EDA methodology and its possibilities, including the solutions within the hardware and software.

  6. Recursive inversion of externally defined linear systems by FIR filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram

    1989-01-01

    The approximate inversion of an internally unknown linear system, given by its impulse response sequence, by an inverse system having a finite impulse response, is considered. The recursive least-squares procedure is shown to have an exact initialization, based on the triangular Toeplitz structure of the matrix involved. The proposed approach also suggests solutions to the problem of system identification and compensation.

  7. Discharge Onset Voltage Prediction for a Gas-Insulated System Via the Figure-of-Merit Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Vibholm, Svend

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of discharge onset prediction via thefigur figure-of-merit concept for a strongly electronegative gas is examined. A coaxial system is employed, for which the inner electrode possesses a surface roughness of Ra=35 ¿m. With SF6 as the insulating medium a reference discharge-onset cha...

  8. On the New Technology of Using Perlite for Insulation Layer of External Wall%谈外墙保温层利用珍珠岩的新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾笳

    2013-01-01

      建筑行业中资源消耗减量化、污染排放量最小化、废物再生资源化和无害化是今后发展的必然趋势。文章介绍了外墙保温技术的优点,探讨利用珍珠岩作为外墙保温层的新工艺的施工流程和施工要点,为该行业提供参考。%Resource consumption reduction, pollution emissions minimization, material regeneration and harmless, all of them in the construction industry are a certain trend in the future. The paper introduces the advantages of thermal insulation tech-nology in exterior wall, explores construction process and construction points of the new technology that use the perlite as the thermal insulation layer of external wall, providing some references for the field.

  9. Selection of the external insulation distance for electric equipment as function of the environmental pollution level; Seleccion de la distancia de aislamiento externo de equipo electrico en funcion del nivel de contaminacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa Velazquez Santillanes, Francisco [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    Geographic, environmental and meteorological conditions, are considered as decisive factors in the basic engineering and design of electric substations. These conditions are considered through the use of environmental and meteorological parameters, such as: pollution type, creepage distance, pollution level, maximum wind rate, maximum temperature, seismic coefficient and maximum pluvial precipitation. In some cases, the pollution level determines the external insulation distance. The pollution level factor is quantified as the equivalent salt accumulation in milligrams per square centimeter of the insulation surface (DESD), occurring during certain time, that produces an electric effect similar to that of the real pollutant. [Espanol] Los aspectos geograficos, ambientales y meteorologicos son factores que se deben considerar en la ingenieria basica de las subestaciones electricas. En el diseno de estas se utilizan parametros asociados con las condiciones ambientales y meteorologicas, como son: tipo de contaminacion, distancia de fuga, nivel de contaminacion, velocidad maxima del viento, temperatura ambiental maxima, temperatura ambiental minima, coeficiente sismico y maxima precipitacion pluvial. La contaminacion se produce por la depositacion de polvo y otras sustencias quimicas sobre los aisladores. Para cuantificar la contaminacion se recurre al concepto de Densidad Equivalente de Sal Depositada (DESD), que consiste en medir la contaminacion en funcion de la cantidad de sal (NaC1) depositada en cierto tiempo, por centimetro cuadrado del aislador, tal que su comportamiento electrico es equivalente al de los contaminantes reales.

  10. Mechanical and Thermal Characteristics of Insulation Materials for the KSTAR Magnet System at Cryogenic Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wooho; Lim, Bungsu; Kim, Myungkyu; Park, Hyunki; Kim, Keeman; Chu, Yong; Lee, Sangil

    2004-06-01

    The KSTAR(Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) superconducting magnet is electrically insulated by the composite material of epoxy resin and glass fiber (2.5 kV/mm) and Kapton (8 kV/mm). The insulation composite material of epoxy resin and glass fiber is prepared using a VPI (Vacuum Pressure Impregnation) process. The superconducting magnet is under mechanical stress caused by the large temperature difference between the operation temperature of the magnet and room temperature. The large electro-magnetic force during the operation of the magnet is also exerted on the magnet. Therefore, the characteristics of the insulation material at cryogenic temperatures are very important and the tensile stress and thermal expansion coefficient for the insulation materials of the KSTAR superconducting magnet are measured. This paper presents results on mechanical properties of the insulation material for KSTAR magnets, such as density, ultimate tensile stress and thermal contraction between room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  11. Internal and external stabilisation of linear systems with constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    2012-01-01

    Linear systems with constraints on inputs and states are ubiquitous. Control of such systems has been a long-time challenge to control engineers and will continue to remain so. Indeed, the challenge of constraints is intense and dauntingly formidable and familiar. This book focuses on the very funda

  12. Chiral Hyperbolic Metamaterial as A Robust Photonic Topological Insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wenlong; Yang, Biao; Liu, Fu; Fang, Fengzhou; Li, Jensen; Zhang, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Topological insulators represent a new phase of matter which remain insulating for bulk electron transport while supporting protected one-way edge states. Recently it has been shown that the concept of topological order can also be transferred to photonic systems. Thus far however, photonic topological insulators have been realized almost exclusively in periodic structures where the specific connection between lattice symmetry and the band structure plays a critical role. Here we demonstrate robust photonic topological order in a homogenous medium described by only a few effective electromagnetic parameters, and not requiring the presence of an external magnetic field. By combining hyperbolicity and chirality, we show that a topologically nontrivial gap appears between the equi-frequency surfaces which support one-way edge states. The effective medium approach towards topological insulation paves the way for highly compact one-way transportation of electromagnetic waves in integrated photonic circuits.

  13. Location of external state financial control in national control system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vygovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates the theoretical basis of the external state financial control in Ukraine in the context of defining its place in the formation of the functional areas of internal and external controls in order to eliminate duplication of a single national control system. The authors have investigated the scientific approaches to the interpretation of the concept of «external state financial control», «internal financial control», «public audit» in order to eliminate terminological confusion. It were found the differences between the external and internal financial control on the basis of comparative characteristics of such features as the entity controlling entities, controlled objects, object methods, and direction control. The concept of internal and external controls are considered to expedient to communicate with the system in which this control is identified. «Internal» in this case is identical intra-control, that is located within the executive branch, while an external control is not included in it and is external to the executive bodies of the controlled institution, and is not related to them and, as a consequence, independent. The authors suggest to form a unified system of state financial control, a clear distinction between internal and external powers of species. The authors consider that appropriate in this context will be the adoption of a single legislative act «About State Financial Control», the proposed structure is introduced in the article. Implementation of this law will contribute to the clear division of functional areas of the state control (internal and external, the elimination of departmental conflicts, and promote the formation of a single integrated control system in Ukraine, able to counteract abuses and prevent the possible loss of budgetary funds.

  14. Internal and external auditing in health systems: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersel, Elie P; Mor-Yosef, Shlomo; Shapira, Shmuel C

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, auditors are apprehensive when it comes to auditing clinical decisions. A novel model might lead to better integration of auditors into the core activities of health system medical care, while creating common interests among all participants in the process.

  15. Framing: Supporting Change for a System as an External Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    something else" (Audi 1995 , p381). This notion of intents is illustrated by comparing the descriptions of the purpose of two logistic organisations...Hutchins 1995 ) focus on understanding the holistic nature of a cognitive system. A cognitive system is a distributed collection of interacting people and...result of interacting with members of other social worlds. 20 DSTO-RR-0127 2.3.6 Activity Theory Activity Theory (Leontev 1978; Nardi 1996; Vygotsky

  16. Internal Versus External Acquisition for Small Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    early 1800s. Other examples of repeating history include Lowering the Cost of Federal System Acquisition ( Kasser , 1996), Spare Parts Horror Stories...Spare Parts”, 1997), and Back to Basics (Dornheim, 2006). Kasser recommends moving system testing and inspection to an earlier phase of the...Katobe, M. “Hollowing –Out of US Multinationals and Their Global Competitiveness,” Journal of International Business Studies. 1989, Vol 19:1-15. Kasser

  17. Industrial thermal insulation: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, R.G.; Tennery, V.J.; McElroy, D.L.; Godfrey, T.G.; Kolb, J.O.

    1976-03-01

    A large variety of thermal insulation materials is manufactured for application in various temperature ranges and environments. Additional and improved thermal insulation for steam systems is a key area with immediate energy conservation potential in several of the larger energy-consuming industries. Industrial thermal insulation technology was assessed by obtaining input from a variety of sources including insulation manufacturers, system designers, installers, users, consultants, measurement laboratories, open literature, and in-house knowledge. The assessment identified a number of factors relevant to insulation materials and usage that could contribute significantly to improved energy conservation.

  18. External Verification of SCADA System Embedded Controller Firmware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    2 HMI human machine interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 RTU remote terminal unit... ISA International Society for Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 DOE Department of Energy...interface (HMI). Field devices, such as are either PLCs or remote terminal units ( RTUs ), automate physical system operation by implementing digital control

  19. Thermal properties of a sandwich construction insulated with Polyurethane (DC-System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Dreau, Jerome Le

    Rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) is a good thermal insulation product for buildings, mainly due to its low thermal conductivity (λ ≈ 20 mW/m.K), low permeability to water and stability over time. The other types of insulation products available on the market have a significantly higher thermal...... conductivity: + 50% for expanded polystyrene (λ ≈ 30 mW/m.K), + 75% for mineral wools (λ ≈ 35 mW/m.K), etc. Despite its low thermal conductivity, polyurethane foam (PUR) is not much used as insulation material for walls because of its low resistance to fire. The most common PUR boards are classified C-s2-d0...

  20. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    from the LCAs of full waste management systems revealed that capital goods should be included in future LCAs. The impact share of capital goods was highest for resource depletion and the impacts of toxicity on humans and ecosystems. To evaluate the quality and consistency of available data...... for the primary and secondary production of materials, 366 datasets were gathered. The materials in focus were: paper, newsprint, cardboard, corrugated board, glass, aluminium, steel and plastics (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PET, PS, PVC). Only one quarter of these data concerned secondary production, thus underlining...... a severe lack of data for these production processes. The results showed large variations in CO2 emissions from the production of each of the evaluated materials. An evaluation of the data revealed that energy systems are central to impacts and are thereby important to specify as background information...

  1. Dynamics of two coupled chaotic systems driven by external signals

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, H.L. (Héctor Luis); Vidal, G.

    2011-01-01

    Setting-up a controlled or synchronized state in a space-time chaotic structure targeting an unstable periodic orbit is a key feature of many problems in high dimensional physical, electronics, biological and ecological systems (among others). Formerly, we have shown numerically and experimentally that phase synchronization [M.G. Rosenblum, A.S. Pikovsky, J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4193 (1997)] can be achieved in time dependent hydrodynamic flows [D. Maza, A. Vallone, H.L. Mancini, S....

  2. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation on nano-system under external pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI; Min; SUN; Deyan; GONG; Xingao

    2004-01-01

    A new constant-pressure molecular dynamics (MD) method is developed to simulate the dynamic behavior and structure transition of finite system under external pressure. In this method, no artificial parameter is introduced and the computation overheads are very small. As an application, a hard-soft transition of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) under external pressure is found, which is in agreement with the experiments.

  3. Construction technology of external wall of inorganic thermal insulation mortar%外墙无机保温砂浆的施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓芳

    2013-01-01

    The heat preservation sand syrup means to be strached a material mixture by the separated heat preservation material and the sand but becomes of and used for a kind of building material that constructs to construct a surface heat preservation layer.The outside wall has no machine heat preservation sand syrup to have to economize on energy benefit to discard, the heat preservation heat insulation, fire prevention defend a jelly and bear characteristicses, such as aging excellent function and cheap price...etc. and have extensive market demands.There is also the technique measure to close first in constructing the craft of construction.%  保温砂浆是指由阻隔型保温材料和砂浆材料混合而成的,用于构筑建筑表面保温层的一种建筑材料。外墙无机保温砂浆具有节能利废、保温隔热、防火防冻、耐老化的优异性能以及低廉的价格等特点,有着广泛的市场需求。在建筑施工的工艺上也有先关的技术措施。

  4. Magnetic orderings and phase separations in a simple model of insulating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy; Murawski, Szymon; Kłobus, Waldemar; Robaszkiewicz, Stanisław

    2015-11-01

    A simple effective model for a description of magnetically ordered narrow-band insulators is studied. The Hamiltonian considered consists of the effective on-site interaction (U) and intersite magnetic exchange interactions (Jz, Jxy) between nearest-neighbours. The phase diagrams and properties of this model for arbitrary chemical potential μ and arbitrary electron density n have been determined within several approaches: (i) the variational method (which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the intersite interactions within the mean-field approximation) for any Jz,Jxy ≠ 0 (exact in the limit of infinite dimensions), (ii) the Monte Carlo simulations on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions for Jxy = 0, and (iii) other approximate methods (inter alia: random phase approximation and spin-wave approximation) as well as (iv) rigorous treatment to obtain results concerning the ground state phase diagrams (the two last also for Jz,Jxy ≠ 0). The investigations of the general case show that, depending on the values of interaction parameters and electron concentration n, the system can exhibit not only homogeneous phases: (anti-)ferromagnetic (Fα, α = z, xy) and nonordered (NO), but also phase separated states (PSα: Fα/NO). For a fixed n one finds the following phase transitions (both continuous and discontinuous ones) and their sequences, which can occur with increasing temperature: Fα → NO, PSα → NO, PSα →Fα → NO, PSα →Fα →PSα → NO. The system analysed exhibits also tricritical behaviour.

  5. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  6. Cellulose Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  7. Modular externally-powered system for limb prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seamone, W.; Hoshall, C.H.; Schmeisser, G.

    Many upper limb amputees especially those who have sustained high level amputations of injury to remaining portions of the body, are unable to use conventional prosthetic devices effectively. In an effort to help the more severely handicapped amputees and those who may for other reasons require capabilities that standard prostheses cannot provide, the Applied Physics Laboratory, in conjunction with the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, has developed a prosthetic system which is powered by rechargeable batteries. The amputee need supply only a control signal. This article describes the concept which is now being evaluated with the aid of amputee subjects, and discusses results obtained to data in field tests.

  8. Damage to thermal insulation foams in low-slope roof systems caused by simulated foot traffic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Karen K; Booth, R. J

    1999-01-01

    The results indicated that common.ly used foam plastic roof insulations will be damaged if exposed to foot traffic, and that their protection with fibrous overlay boards as recommended by roofing contractor associations continues...

  9. Development of test systems for characterizing emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...

  10. Development of test systems for characterizing emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...

  11. Chemically gated electronic structure of a superconducting doped topological insulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, L. A.; Xu, S.; Neupane, M.; Fedorov, A. V.; Hor, Y. S.; Cava, R. J.; Hasan, M. Z.

    2013-07-01

    Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy is used to observe changes in the electronic structure of bulk-doped topological insulator CuxBi2Se3 as additional copper atoms are deposited onto the cleaved crystal surface. Carrier density and surface-normal electrical field strength near the crystal surface are estimated to consider the effect of chemical surface gating on atypical superconducting properties associated with topological insulator order, such as the dynamics of theoretically predicted Majorana Fermion vortices.

  12. DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR THERMAL INSULATION OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN CENTRAL REGIONS OF СHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bantserova Ol'ga Leonidovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of the overall heat loss is due to the heat loss through the building envelope. According to the opinions of experts, the surface area of exterior walls has the insulation of about 65 % of the total envelope of apartment buildings; therefore, thermal protection of external walls of buildings is a key issue in ensuring the thermal performance of envelopes of apartment buildings. The author has developed design solutions that assure the thermal protection of exterior walls and that are aimed at identifying the optimal solution in terms of the location of insulation materials, their thermal performance and insulation of exterior walls of apartment buildings in central regions of China. The author presents a comparative analysis of the main methodologies of thermal insulation designated for the exterior walls of multi-storey residential buildings: internal and external insulation, as well as the insulation in-between the wall layers. The analyses of wall designs are based on the insulation performance, thermal insulation performance, methods of mounting different systems of insulation, and cost of work. As a result, practical recommendations originate from the statement that the most optimal designs of exterior walls of monolithic high-rise apartment buildings of central regions of China are those that have insulation on the outside of the building. They include layers of insulation made of extruded polystyrene, which is currently planned for use in the construction of high-rise monolithic residential buildings in central China.

  13. Reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Topological Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-12-01

    Using full 3D finite-element simulation and underlining Hamiltonian models, we demonstrate reconfigurable photonic analogues of topological insulators on a regular lattice of tunable posts in a reentrant 3D lumped element-type system. The tunability allows a dynamical in situ change of media chirality and other properties via the alteration of the same parameter for all posts, and as a result, great flexibility in the choice of bulk-edge configurations. Additionally, one-way photon transport without an external magnetic field is demonstrated. The ideas are illustrated by using both full finite-element simulation as well as simplified harmonic oscillator models. Dynamical reconfigurability of the proposed systems paves the way to a class of systems that can be employed for random access, topological signal processing, and sensing.

  14. Reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Topological Insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Goryachev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate reconfigurable photonic analogues of topological insulators on a regular lattice of tunable posts in a re-entrant 3D lumped element type system. The tunability allows dynamical {\\it in-situ} change of media chirality and other properties via change of a single post parameter, and as a result, great flexibility in choice of bulk/edge configurations. Additionally, one way photon transport without external magnetic field is demonstrated. The ideas are illustrated by using both full finite element simulation as well as simplified harmonic oscillator models. Reconfigurability of the proposed systems paves the wave to a new class of systems that can be employed for random access, topological signal processing and sensing.

  15. Technical considerations in the use of external condom catheter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deHoll, J D; Williams, L A; Steers, W D; Rodeheaver, G T; Clark, M M; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    Since the advent of rehabilitation engineering new advances have been made that have revolutionized condom catheter drainage systems (CCDS). An innovative CCDS has been designed that ensures unobstructed urine flow. Its condom catheter has several unique design features. It has a double row of convolutions near the catheter tip that prevent kinking and twisting so that the pathway remains open. The condom catheter features a unique inner flap that fits snugly on the glans to prevent backflow of urine on the shaft. This condom catheter is connected to a vented leg bag that eliminates the development of a partial vacuum in the connecting tube. This vacuum can create siphoning, which in turn interferes with urine flow into the leg bag. In addition, a new rechargeable battery-operated clipper has been developed that makes nick-free hair removal from the genitals exceptionally easy. This atraumatic hair removal eliminates the pubic hair that becomes trapped under the condom catheter. The clinical impact of these new advances in CCDS requires further investigation.

  16. Field Evaluation of the System Identification Approach for Tension Estimation of External Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of external tendons are considered to verify the applicability of tension estimation method based on the finite element model with system identification technique. The proposed method is applied to estimate the tension of benchmark numerical example, model structure, and field structure. The numerical and experimental results show that the existing methods such as taut string theory and linear regression method show large error in the estimated tension when the condition of external tendon is different with the basic assumption used during the derivation of relationship between tension and natural frequency. However, the proposed method gives reasonable results for all of the considered external tendons in this study. Furthermore, the proposed method can evaluate the accuracy of estimated tension indirectly by comparing the measured and calculated natural frequencies. Therefore, the proposed method can be effectively used for field application of various types of external tendons.

  17. Spatiotemporal complexity of a predator-prey system with the effect of noise and external forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Feng [Institute of Nonlinear Analysis, College of Mathematics and Information Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Wang Weiming [Institute of Nonlinear Analysis, College of Mathematics and Information Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)], E-mail: weimingwang2003@163.com; Li Zhenqing [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, we present a spatial version of the Ivlev-type predator-prey model which contains some important factors, such as noise on predator, external periodic forcing and diffusion processes on both predator and prey. From the numerical results, we know that noise or external periodic forcing can induce instability and enhance the oscillation of the species density, and the cooperation between noise and external periodic forcing inherent to the deterministic dynamics of periodically driven models gives rise to the appearance of a rich transport phenomenology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spatially extended system exhibits a resonant patterns and frequency-locking phenomena. Our results show that noise and external periodic forcing play a prominent role in the predator-prey model.

  18. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  19. Microsphere Insulation Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohling, R.; Allen, M.; Baumgartner, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microsphere insulation panels (MIPs) have been developed as lightweight, longlasting replacements for the foam and vacuum-jacketed systems heretofore used for thermally insulating cryogenic vessels and transfer ducts. The microsphere core material of a typical MIP consists of hollow glass bubbles, which have a combination of advantageous mechanical, chemical, and thermal-insulation properties heretofore available only separately in different materials. In particular, a core filling of glass microspheres has high crush strength and low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum.

  20. Symmetries, conservation laws, and time reversibility for Hamiltonian systems with external forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    A system theoretic framework is given for the description of Hamiltonian systems with external forces and partial observations of the state. It is shown how symmetries and conservation laws can be defined within this framework. A generalization of Noether's theorem is obtained. Finally a precise def

  1. Moisture Migration in an Oil-Paper Insulation System in Relation to Online Partial Discharge Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sikorski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most power transformers operating in a power system possess oil-paper insulation. A serious defect of this type of insulation, which is associated with long operation time, is an increase in the moisture content. Moisture introduces a number of threats to proper operation of the transformer, e.g., ignition of partial discharges (PDs. Due to the varying temperature of the insulation system during the unit’s normal operation, a dynamic change (migration of water takes place, precipitating the oil-paper system from a state of hydrodynamic equilibrium. This causes the PDs to be variable in time, and they may intensify or extinguish. Studies on model objects have been conducted to determine the conditions (temperature, humidity, time that will have an impact on the ignition and intensity of the observed phenomenon of PDs. The conclusions of this study will have a practical application in the evaluation of measurements conducted in the field, especially in relation to the registration of an online PD monitoring system.

  2. Edge excitations in fractional Chern insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Wei; Chen, Wen-Chao; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2013-10-01

    Recent theoretical papers have demonstrated the realization of fractional quantum anomalous Hall states (also called fractional Chern insulators) in topological flat band lattice models without an external magnetic field. Such newly proposed lattice systems play a vital role in obtaining a large class of fractional topological phases. Here we report the exact numerical studies of edge excitations for such systems in a disk geometry loaded with hard-core bosons, which will serve as a more viable experimental probe for such topologically ordered states. We find convincing numerical evidence of a series of edge excitations characterized by the chiral Luttinger liquid theory for the bosonic fractional Chern insulators in both the honeycomb disk Haldane model and the kagome-lattice disk model. We further verify these current-carrying chiral edge states by inserting a central flux to test their compressibility.

  3. 岩棉钢网架板外墙外保温技术性能及应用分析%Analysis on technical properties and application of outer-wall external thermal insulation based on rock wool board with steel network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜书廷

    2012-01-01

    对岩棉钢网架板外墙外保温技术的原理、特点、构造及性能要求做了系统的介绍,并对该技术的施工过程和未来应用进行了分析.岩棉钢网架板外墙外保温具有较好的防火性能、墙体的平均传热系数在0.35~0.50 W/(m2·K),绝热效果良好,采用把岩棉板固定于钢网架内,解决了岩棉板下坠的问题,系统的抗拉强度高、整体性和耐久性良好,使用年限可达25年以上.该技术在以后的工程实践中应需注意岩棉板的市场供应、面砖缝隙开裂、岩棉板吸水问题及岩棉板加工和施工中对人的影响等问题.%Technology principle, characteristics, technical structure, performance requirements of outer-wall external thermal insulation based on rock wool board with steel network are introduced, the construction process and application in the future of this technology was analyzed. Outer-wall external thermal insulation based on rock wool board has good fire performance, the average heat transfer coefficient of the wall is 0.35 to 0.50 W/(m2 *K) ,and the insulation effect is good. Fixing the rock wool board in the steel network can address the fall of the rock wool board. The tensile strength, integrity and durability of the system are good, and the service life can be up to 25 years. During the engineering practice in future, special attention should be paid to the market supply of rock wool board, tile gap cracking, rock wool board water absorption problems and the impact of rock wool processing and construction on the people.

  4. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  5. Sensor Fault and Delay Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems Subject to External Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yue-Hui; Tang, Gong-You

    2017-03-28

    In this paper, the problem of sensor fault and delay tolerant control problem for a class of networked control systems under external disturbances is investigated. More precisely, the dynamic characteristics of the external disturbance and sensor fault are described as the output of exogenous systems first. The original sensor fault and delay tolerant control problem is reformulated as an equivalence problem with designed available system output and reformed performance index. The feedforward and feedback sensor fault tolerant controller (FFSFTC) can be obtained by utilizing the solutions of Riccati matrix equation and Stein matrix equation. Based on the designed fault diagnoser, the proposed FFSFTC is further reconstructed to compensate for the sensor fault and delayed measurement effects. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed FFSFTC with different cases with various types of sensor faults, measurement delays and external disturbances.

  6. Adaptive projective synchronization between different chaotic systems with parametric uncertainties and external disturbances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mayank Srivastava; Saurabh K Agrawal; Subir Das

    2013-09-01

    The article deals with adaptive projective synchronization between two different chaotic systems with parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the projective synchronization between a pair of different chaotic systems with fully unknown parameters are derived. An adaptive control law and a parameter update rule for uncertain parameters are designed such that the chaotic response system controls the chaotic drive system. Numerical simulation results are performed to explain the effectiveness and feasibility of the techniques.

  7. Antisynchronization of a novel hyperchaotic system with parameter mismatch and external disturbances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fei Yu; Chun Hua Wang; Yan Hu; Jin Wen Yin

    2012-07-01

    A novel hyperchaotic system is proposed. It is particularly interesting that the hyperchaotic system has a nonlinear term in the form of an exponential function and has onle one equilibrium. Basic dynamical properties of the hyperchaotic system are investigated. Moreover, antisynchronization of the new hyperchaotic system with parameter mismatch and external disturbances is also studied in this paper by using adaptive control. Numerical simulation results further demonstrate that the proposed methods are effective and robust.

  8. Electric field measurement on time domain generated by corona on insulators on distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frota Mattos, M.A. da; Biagioni, P.H.; Bassi, W. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Electrotecnica e Energia

    1996-12-31

    Radio interference and TV interference are being a problem in urban and rural areas. This interference is generated by high voltage transmission lines as well as distribution lines. The radio noise can be produced by polluted or damaged insulators, and by metal parts of the distribution lines. The corona effect on the surface of the dielectric material produces high frequency electromagnetic fields during the ionization and during the recombination period. Fields of different intensity are produced by positive voltage and negative voltage. The insulator flashover (leaking current) also produces electromagnetic fields. A new technique to measure these fields was developed. This technique measures the radiated fields on time domain and on frequency domain. This permits us to characterize the radiated field and thus identify the type of the source. Several measurements were done varying the type of the RF generator, i.e., new insulator and broken insulator. A digitizing oscilloscope was used to observe the electric field on a monopole antenna and the ac voltage applied to the insulator.

  9. PD-type iterative learning control for nonlinear time-delay system with external disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Baolin; Tang Gongyou; Zheng Shi

    2006-01-01

    The PD-type iterative learning control design of a class of affine nonlinear time-delay systems with external disturbances is considered. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the n-norm of the tracking error are derived. It is shown that the system outputs can be guaranteed to converge to desired trajectories in the absence of external disturbances and output measurement noises. And in the presence of state disturbances and measurement noises, the tracking error will be bounded uniformly. A numerical simulation example is presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Hiding Planets Behind a Big Friend: Mutual Inclinations of Multi-Planet Systems with External Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The {\\it Kepler} mission has detected thousands of planetary systems with 1-7 transiting planets packed within 0.7~au from their host stars. There is an apparent excess of single-transit planet systems that cannot be explained by transit geometries alone, when a single planetary mutual inclination dispersion is assumed. This suggests that the observed compact planetary systems have at least two different architectures. We present a scenario where the "Kepler dichotomy" can be explained by the action of an external giant planet (or stellar) companion misaligned with the inner multi-planet system. The external companion excites mutual inclinations of the inner planets, causing such systems to appear as "Kepler singles" in transit surveys. We derive approximate analytic expressions (in various limiting regimes), calibrated with numerical calculations, for the mutual inclination excitations for various planetary systems and perturber properties (mass $m_p$, semi-major axis $a_p$ and inclination $\\theta_p$). In ge...

  11. Using NV centers to probe magnetization dynamics in normal metal/magnetic insulator hybrid system at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiliang; Ku, Mark J. H.; Han, Minyong; Casola, Francesco; van der Sar, Toeno; Yacoby, Amir; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding magnetization dynamics induced by electric current is of great interest for both fundamental and practical reasons. Great endeavor has been dedicated to spin-orbit torques (SOT) in metallic structures, while quantitative study of analogous phenomena in magnetic insulators remains challenging where transport measurements are not feasible. Recently we have developed techniques using nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to probe few-nanometre-scale correlated-electron magnetic excitations (i.e., spin waves). Here we demonstrate how this powerful tool can be implemented to study magnetization dynamics inside ferromagnetic insulator, Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with spin injection from electrical current through normal metal (Platinum in our case). Particularly our work will focus on NV magnetic detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of coherent auto-oscillations in Pt/YIG microdisc. Magnetic fluctuations and local temperature measurements, both with nearby NV centers, will also be interesting topics relevant to SOT physics in Pt/YIG hybrid system.

  12. Fuzzy structure theory modeling of sound-insulation layers in complex vibroacoustic uncertain systems: theory and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Charles; Soize, Christian; Gagliardini, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The fuzzy structure theory was introduced 20 years ago in order to model the effects of complex subsystems imprecisely known on a master structure. This theory was only aimed at structural dynamics. In this paper, an extension of that theory is proposed in developing an elastoacoustic element useful to model sound-insulation layers for computational vibroacoustics of complex systems. The simplified model constructed enhances computation time and memory allocation because the number of physical and generalized degrees of freedom in the computational vibroacoustic model is not increased. However, these simplifications introduce model uncertainties. In order to take into account these uncertainties, the nonparametric probabilistic approach recently introduced is used. A robust simplified model for sound-insulation layers is then obtained. This model is controlled by a small number of physical and dispersion parameters. First, the extension of the fuzzy structure theory to elastoacoustic element is presented. Second, the computational vibroacoustic model including such an elastoacoustic element to model sound-insulation layer is given. Then, a design methodology to identify the model parameters with experiments is proposed and is experimentally validated. Finally, the theory is applied to an uncertain vibroacoustic system.

  13. Wideband Analog Transmission System Based on the External Intensity Electro-Optic Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Svarny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with design and integration of an analog electro-optic transmission system suitable for some specialized tasks of diagnostics and measurements. The system is based on principle of external intensity modulation of fiber guided laser radiation. Besides wideband and almost lossless transmission the system tolerates extreme length of the transmitting medium and ensures ultimate galvanic barrier between the input and output.

  14. Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Nonlinear Fractional-Order Uncertain Systems with Unknown Uncertainties and External Disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of robust control of nonlinear fractional-order systems in the presence of uncertainties and external disturbance is investigated. Fuzzy logic systems are used for estimating the unknown nonlinear functions. Based on the fractional Lyapunov direct method and some proposed Lemmas, an adaptive fuzzy controller is designed. The proposed method can guarantee all the signals in the closed-loop systems remain bounded and the tracking errors converge to an arbitrary small ...

  15. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  16. Locally Bounded Function Spaces as the External Environment for Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery G. Fetisov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper we consider locally bounded function spaces that act as the external environment for nonlinear dynamic systems. We give non-traditional examples of above spaces in which the basis of the selected function Orlicz space

  17. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  18. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  19. Design and Analysis of CH-47 External Cargo Handling System (Snubbed Load).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    induced oscillation (potential for " vertical - bounce ") 48 QUANTITATIVE CONFIGURATION COMPARISON 7 CONFIGURATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 EVALUATION WT FAC CRITERIA ACFT...they were in early CH-47 aircraft because of incorporation of the ECP-41OR3 thrust control system which alleviates external load vertical bounce . The CH

  20. External validation of a clinical scoring system for the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Opmeer, B. C.; Zweers, E. J. K.; van Ballegooie, E.; ter Brugge, H. G.; de Valk, H. W.; Visser, G. H. A.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: A prediction rule for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could be helpful in early detection and increased efficiency of screening. A prediction rule by means of a clinical scoring system is available, but has never been validated externally. The aim of this study was to validate the scoring s

  1. Magnetic correlations and quantum criticality in the insulating antiferromagnetic, insulating spin liquid, renormalized Fermi liquid, and metallic antiferromagnetic phases of the Mott system V2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Broholm, C.; Aeppli, G.; Carter, S. A.; Dai, P.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Honig, J. M.; Metcalf, P.; Trevino, S. F.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic correlations in all four phases of pure and doped vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) have been examined by magnetic thermal-neutron scattering. Specifically, we have studied the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of metallic V2-yO3, the antiferromagnetic insulating and paramagnetic metallic phases of stoichiometric V2O3, and the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of insulating V1.944Cr0.056O3. While the antiferromagnetic insulator can be accounted for by a localized Heisenberg spin model, the long-range order in the antiferromagnetic metal is an incommensurate spin-density wave, resulting from a Fermi surface nesting instability. Spin dynamics in the strongly correlated metal are dominated by spin fluctuations with a ``single lobe'' spectrum in the Stoner electron-hole continuum. Furthermore, our results in metallic V2O3 represent an unprecedentedly complete characterization of the spin fluctuations near a metallic quantum critical point, and provide quantitative support for the self-consistent renormalization theory for itinerant antiferromagnets in the small moment limit. Dynamic magnetic correlations for ħωinsulator carry substantial magnetic spectral weight. However, they are extremely short-ranged, extending only to the nearest neighbors. The phase transition to the antiferromagnetic insulator, from the paramagnetic metal and the paramagnetic insulator, introduces a sudden switching of magnetic correlations to a different spatial periodicity which indicates a sudden change in the underlying spin Hamiltonian. To describe this phase transition and also the unusual short-range order in the paramagnetic state, it seems necessary to take into account the orbital degrees of freedom associated with the degenerate d orbitals at the Fermi level in V2O3.

  2. Phase diagram of electron systems near the superconductor-insulator transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, V L; Falco, G M; Nattermann, T

    2010-12-31

    The zero temperature phase diagram of Cooper pairs exposed to disorder and a magnetic field is determined theoretically from a variational approach. Four distinct phases are found: a Bose and a Fermi insulating, a metallic, and a superconducting phase, respectively. The results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance found experimentally in In-O, TiN, Be and high-T(c) materials.

  3. Development and characterization of carbon-bonded carbon fiber insulation for radioisotope space power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Robbins, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), an improved radioisotope heat source, employs a unique thermal insulation material, carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF), to protect the fuel capsule and to help achieve the highest possible specific power. The CBCF insulation is made from chopped rayon fiber about 10 ..mu..m in diameter and 250 ..mu..m long, which is carbonized and bonded with phenolic resin particles. The CBCF shapes, both tubes and plates, are formed in a multiple molding facility by vacuum molding a water slurry of the carbonized chopped-rayon fiber (54 wt %) and phenolic resin (46 wt %). The molded shapes are subsequently dried and cured. Final carbonization of the resin is at 1600/sup 0/C. Machining to close tolerances (+-0.08 mm) is accomplished by conventional tooling and fixturing. The resulting material is an excellent lightweight insulation with a nominal density of 0.2 Mg/m/sup 3/ and a thermal conductivity of 0.24 W(m.K) in vacuum at 2000/sup 0/C. Several attributes that make CBCF superior to other known high-temperature insulation materials for the GPHS application have been identified. It has the excellent attributes of light weight, low thermal conductivity, chemical compatibility, and high-temperature capabilities. The mechanical strength of CBCF insulation is satisfactory for the GPHS application; it has passed vibration tests simulating launch conditions. The basic fabrication technique was refined to eliminate undesirable large pores and cracks often present in materials fabricated by earlier techniques. Also, processing was scaled up to incease the fabrication rate by a factor of 10. The specific properties of the CBCF were tailored by adjusting material and processing variables to obtain the desired results. We report here how work on CBCF characterization and development conducted at ORNL from 1978 through 1980 has contributed to the GPHS program to meet the requirements of both the Galileo and Ulysees Missions.

  4. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE IN THE EU’S INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN VATAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European External Action Service (EEAS is a new institution of the European Union, whose foundation was laid by the Treaty of Lisbon with the role to support the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in fulfilling his mandate and, also to assist the President of the European Council, European Commission, President and other Commissioners to exercise their powers in international relations. Since the establishment of the European External Action Service (EEAS is relatively recent, this article tries to highlight the crucial role of the European External Action Service (EEAS in the European Union's institutional system and its contribution to strengthening the coherence and increasing impact and visibility of European Union action at international level and thus the one of the Member States.

  5. Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, P. F., II; Ferguson, A. F.

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 1 of the project, Conceptual Design of an accelerated test method and apparatus, was successfully completed in June 1993. The culmination of that effort was the concept of the Simulated Stator Unit (SSU) test. The objective of the Phase 2 limited proof-of-concept demonstration was to: answer specific engineering/design questions; design and construct an analog control sequencer and supporting apparatus; and conduct limited tests to determine the viability of the SSU test concept. This report reviews the SSU test concept, and describes the results through the conclusion of the proof-of-concept prototype tests in March 1995. The technical design issues inherent in transforming any conceptual design to working equipment have been resolved, and two test systems and controllers have been constructed. Pilot tests and three prototype tests have been completed, concluding the current phase of work. One prototype unit was tested without thermal stress loads. Twice daily insulation property measurements (IPM's) on this unit demonstrated that the insulation property measurements themselves did not degrade the SSU.

  6. Decoloration of Azo Dye Sunset Yellow by a Coaxial Insulated-Rod-to-Cylinder Underwater Streamer Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温小琼; 王明; 丁振峰; 刘贵师

    2012-01-01

    A coaxial insulated-rod-to-cylinder underwater streamer discharge system capable of injecting plasma into a large volume of water was developed and employed to decolorize azo dye sunset yellow. The rod type anode was covered by an insulator tube with a wall thickness of 0.4 mm. A series of slits with a width of 20 μm to 80 μm and a length of about 4 mm were cut onto the wall of the insulator tube. Depending on the solution conductivity, a cylindrical discharge region with a length of 60 mm and a wall thickness of 5 mm to 11 mm forms in the reactor. The influence of the solution conductivity, pH and pulse frequency on the decoloration of sunset yellow was investigated. The results show that the solution conductivity has little effect, while the solution pH and the pulse frequency have significant influence on the decoloration rate of sunset yellow. The decoloration rate of sunset yellow is increased with the increase in pulse frequency. A lower pH in solution promotes the decoloration of sunset yellow while a higher pH inhibits it.

  7. Optimization technique of wavefront coding system based on ZEMAX externally compiled programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Libo; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-10-01

    Wavefront coding technique as a means of athermalization applied to infrared imaging system, the design of phase plate is the key to system performance. This paper apply the externally compiled programs of ZEMAX to the optimization of phase mask in the normal optical design process, namely defining the evaluation function of wavefront coding system based on the consistency of modulation transfer function (MTF) and improving the speed of optimization by means of the introduction of the mathematical software. User write an external program which computes the evaluation function on account of the powerful computing feature of the mathematical software in order to find the optimal parameters of phase mask, and accelerate convergence through generic algorithm (GA), then use dynamic data exchange (DDE) interface between ZEMAX and mathematical software to realize high-speed data exchanging. The optimization of the rotational symmetric phase mask and the cubic phase mask have been completed by this method, the depth of focus increases nearly 3 times by inserting the rotational symmetric phase mask, while the other system with cubic phase mask can be increased to 10 times, the consistency of MTF decrease obviously, the maximum operating temperature of optimized system range between -40°-60°. Results show that this optimization method can be more convenient to define some unconventional optimization goals and fleetly to optimize optical system with special properties due to its externally compiled function and DDE, there will be greater significance for the optimization of unconventional optical system.

  8. Hiding Planets behind a Big Friend: Mutual Inclinations of Multi-planet Systems with External Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Pu, Bonan

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected thousands of planetary systems with one to seven transiting planets packed within 0.7 au from their host stars. There is an apparent excess of single-transit planet systems that cannot be explained by transit geometries alone, when a single planetary mutual inclination dispersion is assumed. This suggests that the observed compact planetary systems have at least two different architectures. We present a scenario where the “Kepler dichotomy” may be explained by the action of an external giant planet or stellar companion misaligned with the inner multi-planet system. The external companion excites mutual inclinations of the inner planets, causing such systems to appear as “Kepler singles” in transit surveys. We derive approximate analytic expressions (in various limiting regimes), calibrated with numerical calculations, for the mutual inclination excitations for various planetary systems and perturber properties (mass mp, semimajor axis ap, and inclination {θ }p). In general, the excited mutual inclination increases with {m}p/{a}p3 and {θ }p, though secular resonances may lead to large mutual inclinations even for small {θ }p. We discuss the implications of our results for understanding the dynamical history of transiting planet systems with known external perturbers.

  9. PID Based on Attractive Ellipsoid Method for Dynamic Uncertain and External Disturbances Rejection in Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Patricio Ordaz Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stability analysis for LNDS (Lagrangian nonlinear dynamical systems with dynamic uncertain using a PID controller with external disturbances rejection based on attractive ellipsoid methods, since the PID-CT (proportional integral derivative computed torque compensator has been used for the nonlinear trajectory tracking of an LNDS, when there are external perturbations and system uncertainties. The global system convergence of the trivial solution has not been proved. In this sense, we propose an approach to find the gains of the nonlinear PID-CT controller to guarantee the boundedness of the trivial solution by means of the concept of the UUB (uniform-ultimately bounded stability. In order to show the effectiveness of the methodology proposed, we applied it in a real 2-DoF robot system.

  10. Disruption of planetary orbits through evection resonance with an external companion: circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenrui; Lai, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This `evection resonance' occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited parameter space of planet and binary semimajor axes, and requires the planetary migration to be sufficiently slow.

  11. External Periodic Force Control of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Vibroimpact System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyue Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-degree-of-freedom mechanical model of vibro-impact system is established. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are revealed with the time history diagram, phase trajectory map, and Poincaré map. According to the bifurcation and chaos of the actual vibro-impact system, the paper puts forward external periodic force control strategy. The method of controlling chaos by external periodic force feedback controller is developed to guide chaotic motions towards regular motions. The stability of the control system is also analyzed especially by theory. By selecting appropriate feedback coefficients, the unstable periodic orbits of the original chaotic orbit can be stabilized to the stable periodic orbits. The effectiveness of this control method is verified by numerical simulation.

  12. Disruption of Planetary Orbits Through Evection Resonance with an External Companion: Circumbinary Planets and Multiplanet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wenrui

    2016-01-01

    Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This "evection resonance" occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited paramete...

  13. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Margolis, R.M.; Aabakken, J.

    2008-01-01

    The utility-accessible alternating current (AC) external disconnect switch (EDS) for distributed generators, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, is a hardware feature that allows a utility?s employees to manually disconnect a customer-owned generator from the electricity grid. This paper examines the utility-accessible EDS debate in the context of utility-interactive PV systems for residential and small commercial installations. It also evaluates the rationale for EDS requirements.

  14. Calculation of Settings for the Control Systems of Insulation in Power Distribution Grids with Voltage of 6 or 10 kV in Conditions of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Aleksandr I.; Medvedeva, Yulia V.; Khanzhina, Olga A.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the calculation of setpoints for control systems insulation installed in all power distribution networks with voltage of 6 or 10 kV. It is shown that on the basis of fuzzy sets, the calculation of setpoints may be carried out even in the face of uncertainty. The efficiency of the system insulation monitoring based on measuring parameters of the electric network is largely determined by proper selection of the setpoint, i.e. the value of the insulation resistance of the network relative to the earth, in which it is necessary to disable a particular part of the network where a further reduction of the insulation resistance is unacceptable.

  15. A case study for influence of building thermal insulation on cooling load and air-conditioning system in the hot and humid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktacir, Mehmet Azmi [Harran University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Bueyuekalaca, Orhan; Yilmaz, Tuncay [Cukurova University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Adana (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    Ensuring the effective thermal insulation in regions, where the cooling requirement of building with respect to heating requirement is dominant, is very important from the aspect of energy economy. In this study, the influence of thermal insulation on the building cooling load and the cooling system in case of air-conditioning by an all-air central air-conditioning system was evaluated for a sample building located in Adana, based on the results of three different types of insulation (A, B and C-type buildings) according to the energy efficiency index defined in the Thermal Insulation Regulation used in Turkey. The operating costs of the air-conditioning system were calculated using cooling bin numbers. Life-cycle cost analysis was carried out utilizing the present-worth cost method. Results showed that both the initial and the operating costs of the air-conditioning system were reduced considerably for all three insulation thicknesses. However, the optimum results in view of economic measurements were obtained for a C-type building. The thickness of thermal insulation for the buildings in the southern Turkey should be determined according to the guidelines for a C-type building. (author)

  16. Detecting and Attributing External Influences on the Climate System: A Review of Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, T; Zwiers, F; Hegerl, G; Allen, M; Crowley, T; Gillett, N; Hasselmann, K; Jones, P; Santer, B; Schnur, R; Stott, P; Taylor, K; Tett, S

    2005-01-26

    We review recent research that assesses evidence for the detection of anthropogenic and natural external influences on the climate. Externally driven climate change has been detected by a number of investigators in independent data covering many parts of the climate system, including surface temperature on global and large regional scales, ocean-heat content, atmospheric circulation, and variables of the free atmosphere, such as atmospheric temperature and tropopause height. The influence of external forcing is also clearly discernible in reconstructions of hemispheric scale temperature of the last millennium. These observed climate changes are very unlikely to be due only to natural internal climate variability, and they are consistent with the responses to anthropogenic and natural external forcing of the climate system that are simulated with climate models. The evidence indicates that natural drivers such as solar variability and volcanic activity are at most partially responsible for the large-scale temperature changes observed over the past century, and that a large fraction of the warming over the last 50 years can be attributed to greenhouse gas increases. Thus the recent research supports and strengthens the IPCC Third Assessment Report conclusion that ''most of the global warming over the past 50 years is likely due to the anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gases''.

  17. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human health-related externalities in energy system modelling the case of the Danish heat and power sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses methodology of energy system modelling when reduction of local externalities, such as damage to the human health from energy production-related air pollution, is in focus. Ideally, the local energy externalities should be analysed by adopting the impact pathway approach...... of ExternE study, and following the pollutants from their release to the personal uptake and resulting health effects. This would require inclusion of air pollution modelling and monetary valuation of the impacts into an energy system optimisation process. However, this approach involves a complex study...... and power sector verifies that it is cheaper for the society to include externalities in the planning of an energy system than to pay for the resulting damages later. Total health costs decrease by around 18% and total system costs decrease by nearly 4% when health externalities are included...

  19. Discussion on the Heat Insulation Technology of Rigid Polyurethane Foam External Wall%聚氨酯硬泡外墙隔热保温技术的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董飞翔

    2014-01-01

    目前,聚氨酯硬泡外墙隔热保温技术是一种主要应用的保温技术。本文重点对聚氨酯硬泡外墙隔热保温技术进行了探讨。%At present, the polyurethane rigid foam exterior wal insulation technology is a major thermal insulation tech- nology. This paper focuses on the rigid polyurethane foam wal insulation technology.

  20. Thermal Performance Comparison of Glass Microsphere and Perlite Insulation Systems for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; Fesmire, J. E.; Nagy, Z. F.; Sojourner, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    A technology demonstration test project was conducted by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide comparative thermal performance data for glass microspheres, referred to as bubbles, and perlite insulation for liquid hydrogen tank applications. Two identical 1/15th scale versions of the 3,200,000 liter spherical liquid hydrogen tanks at Launch Complex 39 at KSC were custom designed and built to serve as test articles for this test project. Evaporative (boil-off) calorimeter test protocols, including liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, were established to provide tank test conditions characteristic of the large storage tanks that support the Space Shuttle launch operations. This paper provides comparative thermal performance test results for bubbles and perlite for a wide range of conditions. Thermal performance as a function of cryogenic commodity (nitrogen and hydrogen), vacuum pressure, insulation fill level, tank liquid level, and thermal cycles will be presented.

  1. Integral evaluation of the external corrosion control system for buried pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.R. [Asesoria Adiestramiento y Construccion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    The External Corrosion Control System of a 16 inch diameter (406 mm), 70 miles long (113 km) pipeline, was evaluated using the Direct Current Voltage Gradient DCVG, Close Interval Potential Survey CIPS and Continuous Soil Resistivity Evaluation CSRE techniques. Sixteen thousand five hundred meters (16,500 meters) of the pipeline were evaluated using the three techniques simultaneously and the rest was inspected separately in previous years. The results from the survey were taken as parameters to classify all defects found on the protective coating. A Defect Severity Classification (DSC) was established and used as an input for a maintenance program for the rehabilitation of the pipeline integrity. The parameters taken to establish the DSC were: (a) Instant Off Potential, (b) %IR, (c) Soil Resistivity, (d) defect shape, (e) Geographic location, (f) Distance from drain point. A Maintenance Program for the Pipeline External Corrosion Control System was designed by implementing the Integral Evaluation of the Corrosion Control System for Buried Pipelines (IEECCSBP). The priority was to achieve pipeline integrity and then, gradually improve the protection level of the system. The implementation of IEECCSBP will help to reduce the frequency of Electromagnetic Metal Loss Inspections, which in the future will serve only as an audit of the External Corrosion Control System performance.

  2. Response of a quantum system to a time-dependent external field and dynamical symmetry of the system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S J; Weiguny, A; Wiese, H

    1998-01-01

    The response of a quantum system to a time-dependent periodic external field is investigated in connection with the dynamical symmetry breaking and level dynamics of the adiabatic states of the system. The main results are as follows. (A) When the periodic external field preserves the dynamical symmetry of the system, its response is like that of elastic matter. (B) When the periodic external field breaks the dynamical symmetry, several cases may occur: (a) in the adiabatic limit, the system still responds elastically; (b) if the initial state is an eigenstate of the evolution operator U(T) for one period T of the external field, the system evolves in time cyclically and responds quasi-elastically; (c) if the initial state is not an eigenstate of the evolution operator U(T), the system evolves in time non-cyclically and responds non-elastically. The detailed non-elastic behaviour depends on the statistical nature of the adiabatic eigenstates of the system. If the adiabatic spectrum is chaotic, the non-elastic...

  3. A Stability Criterion for Time-Delay Tension Leg Platform Systems Subjected to External Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Yuan CHEN; Chien-wen SHEN; Cheng-Wu CHEN; Kevin Fong-Rey LIU; Ming-Jen CHENG

    2009-01-01

    Stability analysis plays a central role in nonlinear system theory and engineering application.Over the past few yeats,the stability analysis of fuzzy systems has been proposed and there are many successful applications in practical engineering.Therefore,in this paper firstly proposed is the stability analysis on oceanic structure by fuzzy models.In the present study,Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is proposed for a time delay tension leg platform (TLP) system subjected to an external wave force.In terms of stability analysis,linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions are derived via Lyapunov theory to guarantee the stability of the TLP system.

  4. Discontinuous Observers Design for Finite-Time Consensus of Multiagent Systems With External Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Ho, Daniel W C; Cao, Jinde; Xu, Wenying

    2016-08-24

    This brief investigates the problem of finite-time robust consensus (FTRC) for second-order nonlinear multiagent systems with external disturbances. Based on the global finite-time stability theory of discontinuous homogeneous systems, a novel finite-time convergent discontinuous disturbed observer (DDO) is proposed for the leader-following multiagent systems. The states of the designed DDO are then used to design the control inputs to achieve the FTRC of nonlinear multiagent systems in the presence of bounded disturbances. The simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness of these theoretical results.

  5. Responses of a Noisy Excitable System to External Signals with Different Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xun; ZHOU Lu-Qun; OUYANG Qi

    2004-01-01

    @@ The behaviour of an excitable system under Gaussian white noise and external periodic forcing is systematically studied. In a large range of noise intensity, the n:1 phase locking patterns are obtained for certain ranges of the input periods, where n input periods give one spike. In the phase locking regimes, the system presents low noise-to-signal ratios and shows better regularities. Out of the regimes the system behavesless regularly and the relations between the noise-to-signal ratio and the noise intensity exhibit typical stochastic resonance phenomena.At a higher noise level, the system shows the characteristic behaviour of the noise.

  6. Classical spin glass system in external field with taking into account relaxation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Abajyan, H. G.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistical properties of disordered spin systems under the influence of an external field with taking into account relaxation effects. For description of system the spatial 1D Heisenberg spin-glass Hamiltonian is used. In addition, we suppose that interactions occur between nearest-neighboring spins and they are random. Exact solutions which define angular configuration of the spin in nodes were obtained from the equations of stationary points of Hamiltonian and the corresponding conditions for the energy local minimum. On the basis of these recurrent solutions an effective parallel algorithm is developed for simulation of stabile spin-chains of an arbitrary length. It is shown that by way of an independent order of N 2 numerical simulations (where N is number of spin in each chain) it is possible to generate ensemble of spin-chains, which is completely ergodic which is equivalent to full self-averaging of spin-chains' vector polarization. Distributions of different parameters (energy, average polarization by coordinates, and spin-spin interaction constant) of unperturbed system are calculated. In particular, analytically is proved and numerically is shown, that for the Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, the distribution of spin-spin interaction constants as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution satisfies Levy alpha-stable distribution law. This distribution is nonanalytic function and does not have variance. In the work we have in detail studied critical properties of an ensemble depending on value of external field parameters (from amplitude and frequency) and have shown that even at weak external fields the spin-glass systemis strongly frustrated. It is shown that frustrations have fractal behavior, they are selfsimilar and do not disappear at scale decreasing of area. By the numerical computation is shown that the average polarization of spin-glass on a different coordinates can have values which can lead to

  7. Photonic Floquet Topological Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Rechtsman, Mikael C; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The topological insulator is a fundamentally new phase of matter, with the striking property that the conduction of electrons occurs only on its surface, not within the bulk, and that conduction is topologically protected. Topological protection, the total lack of scattering of electron waves by disorder, is perhaps the most fascinating and technologically important aspect of this material: it provides robustness that is otherwise known only for superconductors. However, unlike superconductivity and the quantum Hall effect, which necessitate low temperatures or magnetic fields, the immunity to disorder of topological insulators occurs at room temperature and without any external magnetic field. For this reason, topological protection is predicted to have wide-ranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, a large theoretical effort has been directed towards bringing the concept into the domain of photonics: achieving topological protection of light at optical frequencies. ...

  8. External Corrosion of Pipes in District Heating Systems; Utvaendig korrosion paa fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, Goeran [Det Norske Veritas, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Corrosion damages of pipes in district heating systems can occur both external and internal. The aim with this work has been to clarify external corrosion damages of pipes, and try to correlate the damages to the corrosivity of different soils and waters. For the analysis the Swedish District Heating Association's district heating system statistics has been used. The district heating system statistics shows that the cost for corrosion damages is high, and pipes older than 20 years have increased risk for corrosion. The knowledge about corrosion concerning steel poles and water pipes in soils can not be applied to external corrosion of steel pipes in district heating systems. The corrosion rate of steel poles in soils is low. The corrosion of steel pipes in district heating systems can locally give high rates, up to 0,5 mm/year. The mechanism for this type of corrosion is different compared to the corrosion mechanism of poles in soils. The temperature is higher and aggressive water, with road-salt and chloride content, falls in drops on the steel pipe, and impurities evaporate on the steel surface. These factors increase the corrosion rate. If the material thickness is 5 mm, fracture can occur in the pipe within ten years. The number of copper pipe corrosion damage is limited. The most determining corrosion factors of copper pipes are pH-value and impurities as chloride and sulphate in the water. Stainless steel pipes of type 304 can not be used in soils due to the risk of local corrosion. Higher alloyed stainless steels, with molybdenum and higher chromium content should be used. It is concluded that failures can occur due to external corrosion of steel pipes. This failure is expensive and can lead to human damage. One way to eliminate failures of steel pipes is to carry out risk analysis.

  9. Wool insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shea, Angus

    1995-05-01

    Wool insulation usually comes in two forms, as loose fill or batts. The reliability of loose fill as an insulator, the thickness of batts and the wool`s vulnerability to insect and moth attack are considered to be problems. The purpose of this research was to create a commercial wool insulation product to overcome these limitations, at the same time withstanding the Australian and international standards for fire resistance. The project also considered the market potential of such a product with a view to commercialization. The loft or thickness problem was resolved by covering the wool with an oven baked adhesive. A fire retardant and anti-insect treatment was incorporated into the spray process to produce a viable product.

  10. Radiation Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Apollo and subsequent spacecraft have had highly effective radiation barriers; made of aluminized polymer film, they bar or let in heat to maintain consistent temperatures inside. Tech 2000, formerly Quantum International Corporation used the NASA technology in its insulating materials, Super "Q" Radiant Barrier, for home, industry and mobile applications. The insulation combines industrial aluminum foil overlaid around a core of another material, usually propylene or mylar. The outer layer reflects up to 97 percent of heat; the central layer creates a thermal break in the structure and thus allows low radiant energy emission. The Quantum Cool Wall, used in cars and trucks, takes up little space while providing superior insulation, thus reducing spoilage and costs. The panels can also dampen sound and engine, exhaust and solar heat.

  11. Metal-enclosed air-insulated switchgear for the use in railway power supply systems; Metallgekapselte, luftisolierte Bahnstromschaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany); Blecher, U. [Ritter Starkstromtechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Geschaeftsbereich Anlagen und Werk fuer Schaltanlagen, Olfen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The medium-voltage switchgear of type TracFeed TAC has been designed for the use in standard, booster (1AC) and autotransformer (2AC) 25 kV 50/60 Hz railway power supply systems. This railway switchgear is of metal-enclosed air-insulated design and has been type tested according to EN 62271-200. It meets the special requirements described in the paper entitled ''Requirements on medium-voltage switchgear for railway power supply'' published in No. 10/2003. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    " and "externality costs". Budget costs include market goods and services (economic impact), whereas externality costs include effects outside the economic system (e.g., environmental impact). This study demonstrates the applicability of S-LCC to SWM life-cycle optimization through a case study based on an average...... suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy...... development encourages the use of a mixed waste material recovery facility with residues going to incineration, and separated organics to anaerobic digestion. Results are sensitive to waste composition, energy mix and recycling rates. Most of the externality costs stem from SO2, NOx, PM2.5, CH4, fossil CO2...

  13. Liquid fueled external heating system for STM4-120 Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.; Godett, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    The STM4-120 Stirling engine, currently under development at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., is a 40 kW variable stroke engine with indirect heating using a sodium heat pipe. The engine is functionally separated into an application independent Energy Conversion Unit (ECU) consisting of the Stirling cycle and drive heated by condensing sodium and the application dependent External Heating System (EHS), designed to supply the ECU with sodium vapor heated by the particular energy source, connected by tubes with mechanical couplings. This paper describes an External Heating System for the STM4-120 ECU designed for the combustion of liquid fuel, comprised of a recuperative preheater, a combustion chamber, and a heat exchanger/evaporator where heat is transferred from the flue gas to the sodium causing it to evaporate. The design concept and projected performance are described and discussed.

  14. Diffusion dynamics in external noise-activated non-equilibrium open system-reservoir coupling environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chun-Yang

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion process in an extemal noise-activated non-equilibrium open system-reservoir coupling environment is studied by analytically solving the generalized Langevin equation.The dynamical property of the system near the barrier top is investigated in detail by numerically calculating the quantities such as mean diffusion path,invariance,barrier passing probability,and so on.It is found that,comparing with the unfavorable effect of internal fluctuations,the external noise activation is sometimes beneficial to the diffusion process.An optimal strength of external activation or correlation time of the internal fluctuation is expected for the diffusing particle to have a maximal probability to escape from the potential well.

  15. Topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Topological Insulators, volume six in the Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Series, describes the recent revolution in condensed matter physics that occurred in our understanding of crystalline solids. The book chronicles the work done worldwide that led to these discoveries and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field. Starting in 2004, theorists began to explore the effect of topology on the physics of band insulators, a field previously considered well understood. However, the inclusion of topology brings key new elements into this old field. Whereas it was

  16. DYNAMICS MODEL OF MOISTURE IN PAPER INSULATION-TRANSFORMER OIL SYSTEM IN NON-STATIONARY THERMAL MODES OF THE POWER TRANSFORMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Vasilevskij

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An important problem in power transformers resource prognosis is the formation of moisture dynamics trends of transformer insulation. Purpose. Increasing the accuracy of power transformer insulation resource assessment based on accounting of moisture dynamics in interrelation with temperature dynamics. Working out of moisture dynamics model in paper insulation-transformer oil system in conjunction with thermodynamic model, load model and technical maintenance model. Methodology. The mathematical models used for describe the moisture dynamics are grounded on nonlinear differential equations. Interrelation moisture dynamics model with thermodynamic, load and technical maintenance models described by UML model. For confirming the adequacy of model used computer simulation. Results. We have implemented the model of moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation in interrelation with other models, which describe the state of power transformer in operation. The proposed model allows us to form detailed trends of moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation basing on monitoring data or power transformers operational factors simulation results. We have performed computer simulation of moisture exchange processes and calculation of transformer insulation resource for different moisture trends. Originality. The offered model takes into account moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation under the influence of changes of the power transformers thermal mode and operational factors. Practical value. The offered model can be used in power transformers monitoring systems for automation of resource assessment of oil-immersed power transformers paper insulation at different phase of lifecycle. Model also can be used for assessment of projected economic efficiency of power transformers exploitation in projected operating conditions.

  17. Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) External Stakeholders Workshop: Workshop Proceedings, 9 October 2008, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komomua, C.; Kroposki, B.; Mooney, D.; Stoffel, T.; Parsons, B.; Hammond, S.; Kutscher, C.; Remick, R.; Sverdrup, G.; Hawsey, R.; Pacheco, M.

    2009-01-01

    On October 9, 2008, NREL hosted a workshop to provide an opportunity for external stakeholders to offer insights and recommendations on the design and functionality of DOE's planned Energy Systems Infrastructure Facility (ESIF). The goal was to ensure that the planning for the ESIF effectively addresses the most critical barriers to large-scale energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) deployment. This technical report documents the ESIF workshop proceedings.

  18. A digital frequency stabilization system of external cavity diode laser based on LabVIEW FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuohuan; Hu, Zhaohui; Qi, Lu; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Frequency stabilization for external cavity diode laser has played an important role in physics research. Many laser frequency locking solutions have been proposed by researchers. Traditionally, the locking process was accomplished by analog system, which has fast feedback control response speed. However, analog system is susceptible to the effects of environment. In order to improve the automation level and reliability of the frequency stabilization system, we take a grating-feedback external cavity diode laser as the laser source and set up a digital frequency stabilization system based on National Instrument's FPGA (NI FPGA). The system consists of a saturated absorption frequency stabilization of beam path, a differential photoelectric detector, a NI FPGA board and a host computer. Many functions, such as piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sweeping, atomic saturation absorption signal acquisition, signal peak identification, error signal obtaining and laser PZT voltage feedback controlling, are totally completed by LabVIEW FPGA program. Compared with the analog system, the system built by the logic gate circuits, performs stable and reliable. User interface programmed by LabVIEW is friendly. Besides, benefited from the characteristics of reconfiguration, the LabVIEW program is good at transplanting in other NI FPGA boards. Most of all, the system periodically checks the error signal. Once the abnormal error signal is detected, FPGA will restart frequency stabilization process without manual control. Through detecting the fluctuation of error signal of the atomic saturation absorption spectrum line in the frequency locking state, we can infer that the laser frequency stability can reach 1MHz.

  19. A novel tetracycline-controlled transactivator-transrepressor system enables external control of oncolytic adenovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, H; Wang, X; Srour, M; Siemetzki, U; Seltmann, H; Sutter, A P; Scherübl, H; Zouboulis, C C; Schwaab, R; Hillen, W; Schultheiss, H-P; Poller, W

    2003-09-01

    The use of restricted replication-competent adenoviruses (RRCAs) inducing tumor cell-specific lysis is a promising approach in cancer gene therapy. However, the use of RRCAs in humans carries considerable risk, since after injection into the patient, further regulation or inhibition of virus replication from the outside is impossible. Therefore, we have developed a novel system allowing external pharmacological control of RRCA replication. We show here that a tumor-selective E1B-deleted RRCA can be tightly regulated by use of doxycycline (dox)-controlled adenoviral E1A gene expression, which in turn determines vector replication. RRCA replication is switched on by addition and switched off by withdrawal of dox. The system results in efficient tumor cell killing after induction by dox, whereas cells are unaffected by the uninduced system. It was also employed for efficient external control of transgene expression from cotransfected replication-deficient adenovectors. Furthermore, the use of a liver cell-specific human alpha1-antitrypsin (hAAT)-promoter driving a tetracycline-controlled transcriptional silencer allowed specific protection of cells with hAAT-promoter activity in the absence of dox in vitro and in vivo, delineating a new principle of 'tissue protective' gene therapy. The concept of external control of RRCAs may help to improve the safety of cancer gene therapy.

  20. Characterization and Moment Stability Analysis of Quasilinear Quantum Stochastic Systems with Quadratic Coupling to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Igor G

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned with open quantum systems whose Heisenberg dynamics are described by quantum stochastic differential equations driven by external boson fields. The system-field coupling operators are assumed to be quadratic polynomials of the system observables, with the latter satisfying canonical commutation relations. In combination with a cubic system Hamiltonian, this leads to a class of quasilinear quantum stochastic systems which retain algebraic closedness in the evolution of mixed moments of the observables. Although such a system is nonlinear and its quantum state is no longer Gaussian, the dynamics of the moments of any order are amenable to exact analysis, including the computation of their steady-state values. In particular, a generalized criterion is developed for quadratic stability of the quasilinear systems. The results of the paper are applicable to the generation of non-Gaussian quantum states with manageable moments and an optimal design of linear quantum controllers for quasilinear...

  1. Electrified magnetic catalysis in three-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.

    2016-09-01

    The gap equations for the surface quasiparticle propagators in a slab of three-dimensional topological insulator in external electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the slab surfaces are analyzed and solved. A different type of magnetic catalysis is revealed with the dynamical generation of both Haldane and Dirac gaps. Its characteristic feature manifests itself in the crucial role that the electric field plays in dynamical symmetry breaking and the generation of a Dirac gap in the slab. It is argued that, for a sufficiently large external electric field, the ground state of the system is a phase with a homogeneous surface charge density.

  2. Electrified magnetic catalysis in 3D topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbar, E V; Shovkovy, I A; Sukhachov, P O

    2016-01-01

    The gap equations for the surface quasiparticle propagators in a slab of three-dimensional topological insulator in external electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the slab surfaces are analyzed and solved. A new type of magnetic catalysis is revealed with the dynamical generation of both Haldane and Dirac gaps. Its characteristic feature manifests itself in the crucial role that the electric field plays in dynamical symmetry breaking and the generation of a Dirac gap in the slab. It is argued that, for a sufficiently large external electric field, the ground state of the system is a phase with a homogeneous surface charge density.

  3. Translucent Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1998-01-01

    Two new types of translucent materials are presented. One is translucent fiber insulation and the other type is a new type of hony-comb made of Celulose-acetat. Data for the materials and calculations of energy savings when using the materials in building envelopes are presented....

  4. Numerical simulations of heavy fermion systems. From He-3 bilayers to topological Kondo insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Jan

    2015-03-27

    In this thesis the results of model calculations based on an extended Periodic Anderson Model are presented. The three particle ring exchange, which is the dominant magnetic exchange process in layered He-3, is included in the model. In addition, the model incorporates the constraint of no double occupancy by taking the limit of large local Coulomb repulsion. By means of Cellular DMFT, the model is investigated for a range of values of the chemical potential μ and inverse temperature β=1/T. The method is a cluster extension to the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT), and allows to systematically include non-local correlations beyond the DMFT. The auxiliary cluster model is solved by a hybridization expansion CTQMC cluster solver, which provides unbiased, numerically exact results for the Green's function and other observables of interest. As a first step, the onset of Fermi liquid coherence is studied. At low enough temperature, the self-energy is found to exhibit a linear dependence on Matsubara frequency. Meanwhile, the spin susceptibility crossed over from a Curie-Weiss law to a Pauli law. The heavy fermion state appears at a characteristic coherence scale T{sub coh}. While the density is rather high for small filling, for larger filling T{sub coh} is increasingly suppressed. This involves a decreasing quasiparticle residue Z∝T{sub coh} and an enhanced mass renormalization m{sup *}/m∝T{sub coh}{sup -1}. Extrapolation leads to a critical filling, where the coherence scale is expected to vanish at a quantum critical point. At the same time, the effective mass diverges. This corresponds to a breakdown of the Kondo effect, which is responsible for the formation of quasiparticles, due to a vanishing of the effective hybridization between the layers. Cellular DMFT simulations are conducted for small clusters of size N{sub c}=2 and 3. Furthermore a simple two-band model for two-dimensional topological Kondo insulators is devised, which is based on a single

  5. The influence of insulation materials on corrosion under insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.; Evans, O. [Aspen Aerogels Inc., Northborough, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the ways in which insulation materials influence corrosion under insulation (CUI) behaviour. Laboratory and field tests of 7 industrial insulation materials and 1 composite system were conducted to identify metrics for improving insulation system designs and determine insulation degradation mechanisms. The tested materials included calcium silicate; expanded perlite; cellular glass; mineral wool; and 2 types of aerogel blanket material. Twelve-week accelerated corrosion tests were conducted to gauge the level of corrosion that occurred beneath the materials on uncoated carbon steel pipe. Drying rate curves for porous materials were also established. A series of aqueous extraction studies was conducted to characterize the durability of various inhibitors on the pipe samples. Results of the study showed that the use of corrosion inhibitors and ensuring the thermal stability of hydrophobing agents will help to prevent CUI. 16 refs., 7 tabs., 17 figs.

  6. Long-term frequency stabilization system for external cavity diode laser based on mode boundary detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhouxiang; Huang, Kaikai; Jiang, Yunfeng; Lu, Xuanhui

    2011-12-01

    We have realized a long-term frequency stabilization system for external cavity diode laser (ECDL) based on mode boundary detection method. In this system, the saturated absorption spectroscopy was used. The current and the grating of the ECDL were controlled by a computer-based feedback control system. By checking if there are mode boundaries in the spectrum, the control system determined how to adjust current to avoid mode hopping. This procedure was executed periodically to ensure the long-term stabilization of ECDL in the absence of mode hops. This diode laser system with non-antireflection coating had operated in the condition of long-term mode-hop-free stabilization for almost 400 h, which is a significant improvement of ECDL frequency stabilization system.

  7. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple method for reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in multi-generation system optimization models. The method, called the Characteristic Operating Pattern (CHOP) method, is a visually-based aggregation method that clusters reference data based...... on parameter values rather than time of occurrence, thereby preserving important information on short-term relations between the relevant operating parameters. This is opposed to commonly used methods where data are averaged over chronological periods (months or years), and extreme conditions are hidden...... in the averaged values. The CHOP method is tested in a case study where the operation of a fictive Danish combined heat and power plant is optimized over a historical 5-year period. The optimization model is solved using the full external operating condition dataset, a reduced dataset obtained using the CHOP...

  8. Functionality of Ventilated Facades: Protection of Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrichenko Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about methods of construction of the ventilated facades. The ventilated facade is not only the element of facing, it is the supporting structure. Their main objective - creation of air ventilating space between a facade and an external wall of the building. Moving of air in this gap protects a heater from destruction, interfering with a moisture congestion. In addition, the ventilated facade protect the building from aggressive influence of external environment, have a sound and thermal insulation properties. There are several problems of systems of the ventilated facades connected with an application of a heater. For more effective using it is necessary to minimize contact of a heater with environment.

  9. Distributed Coordination Control of First- and Second-Order Multiagent Systems with External Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipo Mo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the coordination control problem of heterogeneous first- and second-order multiagent systems with external disturbances. First, by applying the theory of eigenvalue and the method of model transformation, the consensus state of heterogeneous multiagent systems is obtained. Then, based on the consensus state, the control output is defined, and sufficient conditions are derived to make all agents reach consensus with H∞ performance. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented results.

  10. Noise-spectroscopy of multiqubit systems: Determining all their parameters by applying an external classical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savel' ev, S., E-mail: S.Saveliev@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Zagoskin, A.M. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Omelyanchouk, A.N. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2010-10-05

    Imagine that you have several sets of two coupled qubits, but you do not know the parameters of their Hamitonians. How to determine these without resorting to the usual spectroscopy approach to the problem? Based on numerical modeling, we show that all the parameters of a system of two coupled qubits can be determined by applying to it an external classical noise and analyzing the Fourier spectrum of the elements of the system's density matrix. In particular, the interlevel spacings as well as the strength and sign of the qubit-qubit coupling can be determined this way.

  11. Integrated optical phased array based large angle beam steering system fabricated on silicon-on-insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, David N.; Zhang, Yang; Hosseini, Amir; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a highly compact silicon nano-membrane based optical phased array fabricated using conventional CMOS processing on silicon-on-insulator that provides for over 10 degrees of beam steering in a silicon slab at λ=1.55μm using transverse-electrical polarized light. A low loss 1-to-12 multi-mode interference (MMI) optical beam splitter with high uniformity is used to provide inputs to the optical phased array. Using an unequally spaced waveguide array permits us to relax the half-wavelength spacing requirement for large angle beam steering, thereby avoiding the optical coupling between adjacent waveguides and reducing the side-lobe-level of the array radiation pattern. S-bend waveguides convert the equally spaced MMI output to the unequally spaced wave guide array, while passively equalizing the phases of each array element to compensate for the MMI output phase profile. Independently controllable thin film metal heaters are used to achieve phase shifting using the strong thermo-optic response of silicon. Heat-insulating air grooves minimize thermal crosstalk, while also achieving and low power consumption.

  12. Simulation of external contamination into water distribution systems through defects in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P. A.; Mora, J. J.; García, F. J.; López, G.

    2009-04-01

    Water quality can be defined as a set of properties (physical, biological and chemical) that determine its suitability for human use or for its role in the biosphere. In this contribution we focus on the possible impact on water distribution systems quality of external contaminant fluids entering through defects in pipes. The physical integrity of the distribution system is a primary barrier against the entry of external contaminants and the loss in quality of the treated drinking water, but this integrity can be broken. Deficiencies in physical and hydraulic integrity can lead into water losses, but also into the influx of contaminants through pipes walls, either through breaks coming from external subsoil waters, or via cross connections coming from sewerage or other facilities. These external contamination events (the so called pathogen intrusion phenomenon) can act as a source of income by introducing nutrients and sediments as well as decreasing disinfectant concentrations within the distribution system, thus resulting in a degradation of the distribution water quality. The objective of this contribution is to represent this pathogen intrusion phenomenon. The combination of presence of defects in the infrastructures (equipment failure), suppression and back-siphonage and lack of disinfection is the cause of propagation of contamination in the clean current of water. Intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms has been studied and registered even in well maintained services. Therefore, this situation can happen when negative pressure conditions are achieved in the systems combined with the presence of defects in pipes nearby the suppression. A simulation of the process by which the external fluids can come inside pipes across their defects in a steady-state situation will be considered, by using different techniques to get such a successful modeling, combining numerical and experimental simulations. The proposed modeling process is based on experimental and

  13. A Simple, Reliable, and Inexpensive Intraoperative External Expansion System for Enhanced Autologous Structural Fat Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranges, Carlo M.; Tremp, Mathias; Ling, Barbara; Wettstein, Reto; Largo, René D.

    2016-01-01

    External volume expansion of the recipient site by suction has been proposed as a way of improving fat graft survival. The objective of this study was to present an innovative and simple intraoperative external expansion system to enhance small-volume autologous fat grafting (40–80 mL) and to discuss its background and its mechanism of action. In this system, expansion is performed using a complete vacuum delivery system known as the Kiwi VAC-6000M with a PalmPump (Clinical Innovations). The recipient site is rapidly expanded intraoperatively 10 times for 30 seconds each with a negative pressure of up to 550 mm Hg before autologous fat injection. During this repetitive stimulation, the tissues become grossly expanded, developing macroscopic swelling that regresses slowly over the course of hours following the cessation of the stimulus. The system sets various mechanisms in motion, including scar release, mechanical stimulation, edema, ischemia, and inflammation, which provide an environment conducive for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. In order to maintain the graft construct in its expansive state, all patients are encouraged postoperatively to use the Kiwi three times daily for one minute per session over the course of three days. The handling of this system is simple for both the patients and the surgeon. Satisfactory clinical outcomes have been achieved without significant complications. PMID:27689056

  14. H Infinity Control of Magnetic Bearings to Ensure Both System and External Periodic Disturbance Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong; Zmood, R. B.

    1996-01-01

    Both self-excited and forced disturbances often lead to severe rotor vibrations in a magnetic bearing systems with long slender shafts. This problem has been studied using the H-infinity method, and stability with good robustness can be achieved for the linearized model of a magnetic bearing when small transient disturbances are applied. In this paper, the H-infinity control method for self-excited and forced disturbances is first reviewed. It is then applied to the control of a magnetic bearing rotor system. In modelling the system, the shaft is first discretized into 18 finite elements and then three levels of condensation are applied. This leads to a system with three masses and three compliant elements which can be described by six state variable coordinates. Simulation of the resultant system design has been performed at speeds up to 10,000 rpm. Disturbances in terms of different initial displacements, initial impulses, and external periodic inputs have been imposed. The simulation results show that good stability can be achieved under these different transient disturbances using the proposed controller while at the same time reducing the sensitivity to external periodic disturbances.

  15. Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bojić, Milorad; Miletić, Marko; Malešević, Jovan; Boyer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

  16. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and nonemotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e., focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e., focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources.

  17. 3D FE Analysis of RC Beams Externally Strengthened with SRG/SRP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bencardino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate, through a nonlinear Finite Element (FE analysis, the structural behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams externally strengthened by using Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG and Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP systems. The parameters taken into account were the external strengthening configuration, with or without U-wrap end anchorages, as well as the strengthening materials. The numerical simulations were carried out by using a three-dimensional (3D FE model. The linear and nonlinear behavior of all materials was modeled by appropriate constitutive laws and the connection between concrete substrate and external reinforcing layer was simulated by means of cohesive surfaces with appropriate bond-slip laws. In order to overcome convergence difficulties, to simulate the quasi-static response of the strengthened RC beams, a dynamic approach was adopted. The numerical results in terms of load-displacement curves, failure modes, and load and strain values at critical stages were validated against some experimental data. As a result, the proposed 3D FE model can be used to predict the structural behavior up to ultimate stage of similar strengthened beams without carrying out experimental tests.

  18. EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF A THERMAL INSULATION SYSTEM: IN-SITU COMPARISSON OF SEASONAL AND DAILY CLIMATIC FLUCTUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fořt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current outdated state of many institutional and administrative buildings in the EU region poses a significant burden from the energy sustainability point of view. According to the contemporary EU requirements on the energy efficiency of buildings maintenance, an evaluation of performed improvements is essential for the assessment of expended investments. This paper describes the effect of building envelope reconstruction works consisting in the installation of a thermal insulation system. Here, a long-term continuous monitoring is used for the extensive assessment of the seasonal and daily temperature and relative humidity fluctuations. The obtained results include temperature and relative humidity profiles in the wall cross-section as a response to the changing exterior climatic conditions. The analysis of measured data reveals substantial improvements in thermal stability of the analyzed wall during temperature peaks. While the indoor temperatures exceeding 28 °C are recorded during summer before application of the thermal insulation layer, the thermal stability of the indoor environment is distinctly upgraded after performed improvements. Based on the complex long-term monitoring, a relevant experience is gained for the future work on energy sustainability and fulfilment of the EU directives.

  19. Thermo-optic Imbert-Fedorov effect in a prism-waveguide coupling system with silicon-on-insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tingting; Li, Chaoyang; Luo, Li; Zhang, Yanfen; Yuan, Quan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a prism-waveguide coupling system based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is revisited. We find that thermo-optic Imbert-Fedorov (TOIF) effect displays in this four-layer optical system which has not been proposed before. Furthermore, we discuss the TOIF shifts in prism/SiO2/Si/SiO2 and prism/Au/Si/SiO2 waveguides with different parameters and study the observed phenomena from physical point of view. It is shown that the maximum IF shift can achieve 140 μm in a prism/Au/Si/SiO2 waveguide which is large enough to be directly measured by the calculation results. Accordingly, TOIF shift provides a temperature control method for the enhancement and modulation of IF shift.

  20. Bifurcation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Externally Pressurized Double Air Films Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the chaotic and nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a rigid rotor supported by externally pressurized double air films (EPDAF bearing system. A hybrid numerical method combining the differential transformation method and the finite difference method is used to calculate pressure distribution of EPDAF bearing system and bifurcation phenomenon of rotor center orbits. The results obtained for the orbits of the rotor center are in good agreement with those obtained using the traditional finite difference approach. The results presented summarize the changes which take place in the dynamic behavior of the EPDAF bearing system as the rotor mass and bearing number are increased and therefore provide a useful guideline for the bearing system.

  1. Quantifying elasticity analysis: how external effectors cause changes to metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D

    1999-02-01

    The sites of action of external effectors, such as inhibitors or hormones, on metabolic systems can be described qualitatively by elasticity analysis, or quantitatively by regulation analysis. The use of the latter approach has been limited, due to its practical complexity. In this study, we report mathematical relationships that relate the finite changes in system variables (fluxes and metabolite concentrations) to changes in activity of metabolic processes brought about by a single step addition of an effector. The activation or inhibition of a process by an effector is measured from changes in flux and intermediate levels. The changes in activity of each process can be used to describe, semi-quantitatively, which activations or inhibitions of the system processes are important in bringing about the observed levels of system variables.

  2. Magnetic and metal-insulator transitions in coupled spin-fermion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaini, R.; Paiva, T.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2014-10-01

    We use quantum Monte Carlo method to determine the magnetic and transport properties of coupled square lattice spin and fermionic planes as a model for a metal-insulator interface. Specifically, layers of Ising spins with an intralayer exchange constant J interact with the electronic spins of several adjoining metallic sheets via a coupling JH. When the chemical potential cuts across the band center, that is, at half-filling, the Néel temperature of antiferromagnetic (J >0) Ising spins is enhanced by the coupling to the metal, while in the ferromagnetic case (J interface increases, and also exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on JH. For doped lattices, an interesting charge disproportionation occurs where electrons move to the interface layer to maintain half-filling there.

  3. Surface and step dynamics of a semi-infinite insulating antiferromagnet system

    CERN Document Server

    Tamine, M

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a theoretical study of the localized spin-wave modes near the surface step of the insulating Heisenberg antiferromagnet. In this work, we study the full magnetic problem arising from the absence of translational symmetry due to the presence of a magnetic surface and step. The calculation concerns in particular the spin fluctuation dynamics and employs the matching procedure in the random-phase approximation. Only the nearest neighbours exchange interactions are considered between the spins in the model. The analytical formalism presented here determines the bulk and evanescent spin fluctuation fields in the two-dimensional plane normal to the surface and step regions. The results are used to calculate the localized modes of magnons associated with the step and surface terraces. The present model may be generalized to treat the spin fluctuations dynamics of other extended surface imperfections or nanostructures, provided they preserve the translation symmetry of the ordered spins along a di...

  4. Advanced Reactor Passive System Reliability Demonstration Analysis for an External Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew D.; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grelle, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended due to deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Centering on an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive reactor cavity cooling system following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. While this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability for the reactor cavity cooling system (and the reactor system in general) to the postulated transient event.

  5. Advanced Reactor Passive System Reliability Demonstration Analysis for an External Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bucknor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general for the postulated transient event.

  6. Advanced reactor passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grelle, Austin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general) for the postulated transient event.

  7. Electric Insulation Detection Method for High-voltage Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiajun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle of partial discharge detection is that through partial bridged discharge under high voltage electric field, it detects the inner air-filled cavity of high-voltage insulators. And it is a nondestructive detection method based on discharge magnitude to judge the insulation quality. The detecting system that adopts the partial discharge detection is more rigorous than testing system for electricity products, which must have small discharge capacity and higher sensitivity. This paper describes the principles of partial discharge detection and analysis insulation detection.

  8. Development of Mortar Simulator with Shell-In-Shell System – Problem of External Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedaravicius

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The shell-in-shell system used in the mortar simulator raises a number of non-standard technical and computational problems starting from the requirement to distribute the propelling blast energy between the warhead and the ballistic barrel, finishing with the requirement that the length of warhead's flight path must be scaled to combat shell firing tables. The design problem of the simulator is split into two parts – the problem of external ballistics where the initial velocities of the warhead must be determined, and the problem of internal ballistics – where the design of the cartridge and the ballistic barrel must be performed.

  9. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

  10. Temperature gradients in equilibrium: Small microcanonical systems in an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alberto; Larralde, Hernán; Leyvraz, François

    2014-11-01

    We consider the statistical mechanics of a small gaseous system subject to a constant external field. As is well known, in the canonical ensemble, that the system (i) obeys a barometric formula for the density profile, and (ii) the kinetic temperature is independent of height, even when the system is small. We show here that in the microcanonical ensemble the kinetic temperature of the particles affected by the field is not constant with height, but that rather, generally speaking, it decreases with a gradient of order 1/N. Even more, if we have a mixture of two species, one which is influenced by the field and the other which is not, we find that the two species' kinetic temperatures are generally different, even at the same height. These facts are shown in detail by studying a simple mechanical model: a Lorentz Gas where particles and spinning disks interact and the particles are subjected to a constant external force. In the microcanonical ensemble, the kinetic temperature of the particles is indeed found to vary with height; the disks' kinetic temperature, on the other hand, is height-independent, and thus, differs from that of the particles with which they interact.

  11. The trigger system for the external target experiment in the HIRFL cooling storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Jin-Xin; Lu, Yi-Ming; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-08-01

    A trigger system was designed for the external target experiment in the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Considering that different detectors are scattered over a large area, the trigger system is designed based on a master-slave structure and fiber-based serial data transmission technique. The trigger logic is organized in hierarchies, and flexible reconfiguration of the trigger function is achieved based on command register access or overall field-programmable gate array (FPGA) logic on-line reconfiguration controlled by remote computers. We also conducted tests to confirm the function of the trigger electronics, and the results indicate that this trigger system works well. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11079003), the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-YW-N27), and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP).

  12. The Trigger System for the External Target Experiment in CSR of HIRFL

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Min; Liu, Jin Xin; Lu, Yi Ming; Liu, Shu Bin; An, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A trigger system was designed for the external target experiment in the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Considering that different detectors are scattered in a large area, the trigger system is designed based on a master-slave structure and fiber-based serial data transmission technique. The trigger logic is organized in hierarchies, and flexible reconfiguration of the trigger function is achieved based on command register access or overall field-programmable gate array (FPGA) logic on-line reconfiguration controlled by remote computers. We also conducted tests to confirm the function of the trigger electronics, and the results indicate that this trigger system works well.

  13. Consideration and research of high voltage insulation strategy for ITER Feeder busbar joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiongyi [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zheng, Jinxing; Yu, Xiaowu; Xiao, Weiwu; Gao, Daming; Tao, Yuming; Wang, Chunyu [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Gung, Chen-yu; Clayton, Nicholas [ITER IO, Tokamak Department, Magnet Division, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Niu, Erwu [China International Nuclear Fusion Energy Program Execution, Beijing 100086 (China); Chen, Yonghua; Mitcell, Neil [ITER IO, Tokamak Department, Magnet Division, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Several rounds insulation trials for ITER Feeder joint were carried out in ASIPP. • Wet-winding, VPI were practiced and attempt for the best impregnation strategy. • Improvement of wet-winding technology with vacuum assistance was realized. • To supplement the electrical test, DR technology was explored for insulation quality inspection. -- Abstract: The ITER Feeder busbar joint is an important component which connects different sections of busbar which run from the high temperature superconducting current leads to the magnet terminals. High voltage insulated bus bar sections will be assembled onto the feeder support structure (called the containment duct), and the joints between sections will be made in situ. The high voltage insulation over the joint is the final step to complete the insulation of the whole bus bar system, and its quality is key to achieving the required electrical performance of the system. The final joint has a complex external configuration with an irregular structure in places, which makes it difficult for the application of the insulation. The limited access in the Feeder and the complex joint external structure make the implementation of the joint insulation hard to solve. The Feeder group at ASIPP has carried out significant R and D for the joint insulation, involving research on the selection of materials, the design of the insulation structure, the curing technology and the quality inspection method. After many rounds of manufacturing and testing, the insulation strategy for the Feeder joint will focus on the so-called “wet-winding” technology. Despite the fact that this process has some intrinsic disadvantages, it is more appropriate for the joint structure compared to other methods. The sub-suppliers to ASIPP have chosen this impregnation method for the feeder qualification activities based on guidance from ASIPP. This paper describes the research procedure of the ITER Feeder busbar joint insulation

  14. The D3-probe-D7 brane holographic fractional topological insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kristjansen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The D3-probe-D7 brane system, oriented so as to have 2+1-dimensional Poincare symmetry, is argued to be the holographic representation of a strongly correlated fractional topological insulator which exhibits a zero-field quantized Hall effect with half-units of Hall conductivity. The phase diagram of the system with charge density and external magnetic field is found and, as well as charge gapped quantum Hall states, it exhibits metallic and semi-metallic phases with interesting behaviours. The relationship of this to other models of fractional topological insulators is discussed.

  15. Global Multivariable Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Mechanical Elastic Energy Storage System under Multiclass Nonharmonic External Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the technology of mechanical elastic energy storage utilizing spiral torsion springs as the energy storage media presented previously, a global multivariable control algorithm based on nonlinear internal model principle under multiclass external disturbances is proposed. The nonlinear external disturbances with nonharmonic periodic characteristics are generated by multiclass nonlinear external systems. New equations of nonlinear internal model are designed to estimate the multiclass external disturbances. On the basis of constructing the control law of nominal system, a state feedback controller is designed to guarantee the closed-loop system globally uniformly bounded, and a Lyapunov function is constructed to theoretically prove the global uniform boundedness of the multivariable closed-loop system signals. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the presented algorithm.

  16. Performance Analysis of a Coal-Fired External Combustion Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is one of the large-scale energy storage technologies utilized to provide effective power peak load shaving. In this paper, a coal-fired external combustion CAES, which only uses coal as fuel, is proposed. Unlike the traditional CAES, the combustion chamber is substituted with an external combustion heater in which high-pressure air is heated before entering turbines to expand in the proposed system. A thermodynamic analysis of the proposed CAES is conducted on the basis of the process simulation. The overall efficiency and the efficiency of electricity storage are 48.37% and 81.50%, respectively. Furthermore, the exergy analysis is then derived and forecasted, and the exergy efficiency of the proposed system is 47.22%. The results show that the proposed CAES has more performance advantages than Huntorf CAES (the first CAES plant in the world. Techno-economic analysis of the coal-fired CAES shows that the cost of electricity (COE is $106.33/MWh, which is relatively high in the rapidly developing power market. However, CAES will be more likely to be competitive if the power grid is improved and suitable geographical conditions for storage caverns are satisfied. This research provides a new approach for developing CAES in China.

  17. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailong, Zhang; Enrong, Wang; Fuhong, Min; Ning, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51475246, 51277098, and 51075215), the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province China (Grant No. KYLX15 0725), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20131402).

  18. High-Throughput Computational Design of Advanced Functional Materials: Topological Insulators and Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kesong

    As a rapidly growing area of materials science, high-throughput (HT) computational materials design is playing a crucial role in accelerating the discovery and development of novel functional materials. In this presentation, I will first introduce the strategy of HT computational materials design, and take the HT discovery of topological insulators (TIs) as a practical example to show the usage of such an approach. Topological insulators are one of the most studied classes of novel materials because of their great potential for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computers. Here I will show that, by defining a reliable and accessible descriptor, which represents the topological robustness or feasibility of the candidate, and by searching the quantum materials repository aflowlib.org, we have automatically discovered 28 TIs (some of them already known) in five different symmetry families. Next, I will talk about our recent research work on the HT computational design of the perovskite-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems. The 2DEG formed on the perovskite oxide heterostructure (HS) has potential applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. In order to achieve practical implementation of the 2DEG in the device design, desired physical properties such as high charge carrier density and mobility are necessary. Here I show that, using the same strategy with the HT discovery of TIs, by introducing a series of combinatorial descriptors, we have successfully identified a series of candidate 2DEG systems based on the perovskite oxides. This work provides another exemplar of applying HT computational design approach for the discovery of advanced functional materials.

  19. Direct probe of Mott-Hubbard to charge-transfer insulator transition and electronic structure evolution in transition-metal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olalde-Velasco, P; Jimenez-Mier, J; Denlinger, JD; Hussain, Z; Yang, WL

    2011-07-11

    We report the most direct experimental verification of Mott-Hubbard and charge-transfer insulators through x-ray emission spectroscopy in transition-metal (TM) fluorides. The p-d hybridization features in the spectra allow a straightforward energy alignment of the anion-2p and metal-3d valence states, which visually shows the difference between the two types of insulators. Furthermore, in parallel with the theoretical Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen diagram, a complete experimental systematics of the 3d Coulomb interaction and the 2p-3d charge-transfer energy is reported and could serve as a universal experimental trend for other TM systems including oxides.

  20. STUDY AND APPLICATION ABOUT COMPUTED SYSTEM FOR EXTERNAL CARDIAC MASSAGE,MONITOR OF HEART AND BODY TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To make and study computed system for external cardiac massage, monitor of heart and body temperature and observe its clinical effect. Method: The system was made and applied. Result: The effect of system was obvious. Conclusion: The system was an effective clinical equipment in treatment of patient with cardiac arrest.

  1. Location of external state financial control in national control system of Ukraine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N.G. Vygovska; A.Y. Slavitska

    2016-01-01

    The article estimates the theoretical basis of the external state financial control in Ukraine in the context of defining its place in the formation of the functional areas of internal and external...

  2. Output Consensus Regulation for State-Unmeasurable Discrete-Time Multiagent Systems with External Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the output consensus regulation problem for discrete-time multiagent systems with state-unmeasurable agents and external disturbances under directed communication network topologies. Firstly, the mathematical model for the output consensus problem of discrete-time multiagent systems is deduced and formulated via making matrix transformation. Then, based on state observers, a novel output consensus protocol with dynamic compensator which is used as observer for the exosystem is proposed to solve this problem. Some knowledge of matrix theory and graph theory is introduced to design protocol parameters and the convergence of output consensus errors is proved. Finally, a numerical simulation example is shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed protocol design.

  3. Quantum modeling of semiconductor gain materials and vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueckers, Christina; Kuehn, Eckhard; Schlichenmaier, Christoph; Koch, Stephan W. [Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-University Marburg (Germany); Imhof, Sebastian; Thraenhardt, Angela [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Hader, Joerg; Moloney, Jerome V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States); College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rubel, Oleg [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada); Department of Physics, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada); Zhang, Wei [Centre for Biophotonics, SIPBS, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ackemann, Thorsten [SUPA and Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    This article gives an overview of the microscopic theory used to quantitatively model a wide range of semiconductor laser gain materials. As a snapshot of the current state of research, applications to a variety of actual quantum-well systems are presented. Detailed theory-experiment comparisons are shown and it is analyzed how the theory can be used to extract poorly known material parameters. The intrinsic laser loss processes due to radiative and nonradiative Auger recombination are evaluated microscopically. The results are used for realistic simulations of vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser systems. To account for nonequilibrium effects, a simplified model is presented using pre-computed microscopic scattering and dephasing rates. Prominent deviations from quasi-equilibrium carrier distributions are obtained under strong in-well pumping conditions. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  5. Specifics of system of external influences on the life cycle of a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksanin Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very important issue today which includes the harmonious and effective development of the system ‘man –environment’. Construction is a branch of material production, which has a significant negative impact on the world around us. It is necessary to plan and operate processes of construction at all stages of the life cycle of a building without exception, to prevent of ecological threats. The article describes the concept of ‘life cycle’ as applied to various fields of knowledge, analyzes existing in the scientific literature division of the life cycle of buildings in the periods, proposes own approach to the division of periods of the life cycle on the basis of resource-saving. The article proposes the creation of a unified organizational system for the effective management of all periods with the constituent phases and formulates the main external influences on the building life cycle.

  6. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie Miles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs--such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control--to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  7. Semi-global output consensus of discrete-time multi-agent systems with input saturation and external disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Housheng; Qiu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the problem of leader-following output consensus of a linear discrete-time multi-agent system with input saturation and external disturbances. Low-gain state feedback technique and output regulation theory are used to deal with the output consensus of multi-agent systems with input saturation and external disturbances. Both the cases with identical and non-identical disturbances are discussed in the multi-agent systems. For the case of identical external disturbance, the output consensus can be attained when the directed graph has no loop and there exists at least one directed path from the leader to every follower agent. For the case of non-identical external disturbances, the output consensus can be achieved if the directed graph is strongly connected and detailed balanced, and at least one follower can have access to the information of the leader. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validation of the proposed design.

  8. Operating experience with factory-made air-insulated 1AC/2AC switchgear systems; Erste Betriebserfahrungen mit fabrikgefertigten, luftisolierten 1AC-/2AC-Schaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Loenard, D. [Bombardier Transportation GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Today, factory-made air-insulated switchgear systems of the type TracFeed {sup registered} are available for all supply versions of 16.7 Hz and 50 Hz a.c. railways. These are supported by auxiliary equipment to ensure reliable railway operation through specific protective functions and a simplified line test. (orig.)

  9. Phase separation and isotope effect in the ferromagnetic insulating state of the Pr1-xCaxMnO3 system (0.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, LM; Kalinov, AV; Voloshin, IF; Babushkina, NA; Kugel, KI; Khomskii, DI

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of the Pr1-xCaxMnO3 system were studied at the characteristic points of the phase diagram corresponding to the ferromagnetic insulating and charge-ordered antiferromagnetic states. The magnetization M and resistivity rho of the ceramic samples with x=0.2, 0.25,

  10. Determination of External Forces in Alpine Skiing Using a Differential Global Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Müller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In alpine ski racing the relationships between skier kinetics and kinematics and their effect on performance and injury-related aspects are not well understood. There is currently no validated system to determine all external forces simultaneously acting on skiers, particularly under race conditions and throughout entire races. To address the problem, this study proposes and assesses a method for determining skier kinetics with a single lightweight differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS. The dGNSS kinetic method was compared to a reference system for six skiers and two turns each. The pattern differences obtained between the measurement systems (offset ± SD were −26 ± 152 N for the ground reaction force, 1 ± 96 N for ski friction and −6 ± 6 N for the air drag force. The differences between turn means were small. The error pattern within the dGNSS kinetic method was highly repeatable and precision was therefore good (SD within system: 63 N ground reaction force, 42 N friction force and 7 N air drag force allowing instantaneous relative comparisons and identification of discriminative meaningful changes. The method is therefore highly valid in assessing relative differences between skiers in the same turn, as well as turn means between different turns. The system is suitable to measure large capture volumes under race conditions.

  11. Modulated systems in external fields: Conditions for the presence of reentrant phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Coto, Alejandro; Billoni, Orlando V.; Cannas, Sergio A.; Stariolo, Daniel A.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a coarse-grained model capable of describing the phase behavior of two-dimensional ferromagnetic systems with competing exchange and dipolar interactions, as well as an external magnetic field. An improved expression for the mean-field entropic contribution allows us to compute the phase diagram in the whole temperature versus external field plane. We find that the topology of the phase diagram may be qualitatively different depending on the ratio between the strength of the competing interactions. In the regime relevant for ultrathin ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy we confirm the presence of inverse-symmetry breaking from a modulated phase to a homogeneous one as the temperature is lowered at constant magnetic field, as reported in experiments. For other values of the competing interactions we show that reentrance may be absent. Comparing thermodynamic quantities in both cases, as well as the evolution of magnetization profiles in the modulated phases, we conclude that the reentrant behavior is a consequence of the suppression of domain wall degrees of freedom at low temperatures at constant fields.

  12. Giant enhancement of fluctuation in small biological systems under external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Shin; Tsunoda, Satoshi P.

    2016-05-01

    The giant enhancement (GE) of fluctuation under an external field is a universal phenomenon predicted by the theoretical analysis given in (Reimann et al 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett.). Here, we propose the application of the theory of the GE of fluctuation to estimate the energy barrier of a biomolecule that exhibits its function subject to thermal noise. The rotary motor protein F1 was used as a model, which is a component of FoF1 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-synthase. In the single-molecule experiment on F1, the diffusion coefficients of a rotary probe attached to F1, which characterised the fluctuation of the system, were measured under the influence of an electro-rotary field. These diffusion coefficients were then used to estimate a high-energy barrier of the rotary potential of F1 based on the theory of the GE of fluctuation. Furthermore, the ion channel protein channelrhodopsin (ChR) was used as another research model. The current fluctuations of ions moving through ChR were numerically investigated using a simulation model of the protein in the presence of an external voltage. The energy barrier for ion conduction is discussed based on the current fluctuations.

  13. Evolutionary transition from biological to social systems via generation of reflexive models of externality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2017-06-24

    Evolutionary transition from biological to social systems corresponds to the emergence of the structure of subject that incorporates the internal image of external world. This structure, established on the basis of referral of the subject (self) to its symbolic image, acquires a potential to rationally describe the external world through the semiotic structure of human language. It has been modelled in reflexive psychology using the algebra of simple relations (Lefebvre, V.A., J. Soc. Biol. Struct. 10, 129-175, 1987). The model introduces a substantial opposition of the two basic complementary types of reflexion defined as Western (W) and Eastern (E). These types generate opposite models of behavior and opposite organizations of societies. Development of human societies involves the interactions of W and E types not only between the societies but also within one society underlying its homeostasis and dynamics. Invention of new ideas and implementation of new technologies shift the probability pattern of reflexive choices, appearing as internal assessments of the individual agents within a society, and direct changes in the preference of reflexive types. The dynamics of societies and of interactions between societies is based on the interference of opposite reflexive structures and on the establishment of different patterns during such interference. At different times of the history of human civilization these changing patterns resulted in the formation and splitting of large empires, the development and spreading of new technologies, the consecutive periods of wellness and decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility of Integrated Insulation in Rammed Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, C.; Balintova, M.; Holub, M.

    2015-11-01

    Building Codes in Europe stipulate strict thermal performance criteria which any traditional rammed earth recipe cannot meet. This does not infer that the material itself is inferior; it has many other face saving attributes such as low embodied energy, high workability, sound insulation, fire resistance, aesthetics, high diffusivity and thermal accumulation properties. Integrated insulation is experimented with, to try achieve a 0.22 [W/(m2.K)] overall coefficient of heat transfer for walls required by 2015 Slovak standards, without using external insulation or using technologically complex interstitial insulation. This has the added aesthetic benefit of leaving the earth wall exposed to the external environment. Results evaluate the feasibility of this traditional approach.

  15. Experimental investigation of the external nitrification biological nutrient removal activated sludge (ENBNRAS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Rong; Sötemann, S; Moodley, R; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A

    2003-08-01

    A systematic lab-scale experimental investigation is reported for the external nitrification (EN) biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (ENBNRAS) system, which is a combined fixed and suspended medium system. The ENBNRAS system was proposed to intensify the treatment capacity of BNR-activated sludge (BNRAS) systems by addressing two difficulties often encountered in practice: (a) the long sludge age for nitrification requirement; and (b) sludge bulking. In the ENBNRAS system, nitrification is transferred from the aerobic reactor in the suspended medium activated sludge system to a fixed medium nitrification system. Thus, the sludge age of the suspended medium activated sludge system can be reduced from 20 to 25 days to 8 to 10 days, resulting in a decrease in reactor volume per ML wastewater treated of about 30%. Furthermore, the aerobic mass fraction can also be reduced from 50% to 60% to 55% (if the anaerobic mass fraction is 15%), and thus complete denitrification in the anoxic reactors becomes possible. Research indicates that both the short sludge age and complete denitrification could ameliorate anoxic aerobic (AA) or low food/microorganism (F/M) ratio filamentous bulking, and hence reduce the surface area of secondary settling tanks or increase the treatment capacity of existing systems. The lab-scale experimental investigations indicate that the ENBNRAS system can obtain: (i) very good chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, even with an aerobic mass fraction as low as 20%; (ii) high nitrogen removal, even for a wastewater with a high total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)/COD ratio, up to 0.14; (iii) adequate settling sludge (diluted sludge volume index [DSVI] <100 mL/g); and (iv) a significant reduction in oxygen demand.

  16. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function.Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available.Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt.Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically Autoclaved

  17. Verification of Relational Data-Centric Dynamic Systems with External Services

    CERN Document Server

    Hariri, Babak Bagheri; De Giacomo, Giuseppe; Deutsch, Alin; Montali, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Data-centric dynamic systems are systems where both the process controlling the dynamics and the manipulation of data are equally central. In this paper we study verification of (first-order) mu-calculus variants over relational data-centric dynamic systems, where data are represented by a full-fledged relational database, and the process is described in terms of atomic actions that evolve the database. The execution of such actions may involve calls to external services, providing fresh data inserted into the system. As a result such systems are typically infinite-state. We show that verification is undecidable in general, and we isolate notable cases, where decidability is achieved. Specifically we start by considering service calls that return values deterministically (depending only on passed parameters). We show that in a mu-calculus variant that preserves knowledge of objects appeared along a run we get decidability under the assumption that the fresh data introduced along a run are bounded, though they...

  18. A power-efficient communication system between brain-implantable devices and external computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ning; Lee, Heung-No; Chang, Cheng-Chun; Sclabassi, Robert J; Sun, Mingui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a power efficient communication system for linking a brain-implantable device to an external system. For battery powered implantable devices, the processor and the transmitter power should be reduced in order to both conserve battery power and reduce the health risks associated with transmission. To accomplish this, a joint source-channel coding/decoding system is devised. Low-density generator matrix (LDGM) codes are used in our system due to their low encoding complexity. The power cost for signal processing within the implantable device is greatly reduced by avoiding explicit source encoding. Raw data which is highly correlated is transmitted. At the receiver, a Markov chain source correlation model is utilized to approximate and capture the correlation of raw data. A turbo iterative receiver algorithm is designed which connects the Markov chain source model to the LDGM decoder in a turbo-iterative way. Simulation results show that the proposed system can save up to 1 to 2.5 dB on transmission power.

  19. A renormalization scheme for calculating the spectrum of a vibronic system occurring in molecules or impurities in insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baher, S. [Department of Physics, Lorestan University, Khoramabad 71899-65187 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: bahersalar@yahoo.com; Mehrjoo, S. [Department of Physics, Lorestan University, Khoramabad 71899-65187 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mehrjoo_ph84@yahoo.com

    2008-09-01

    An iteration scheme which makes use of a numerical renormalization group approach is used to calculate the spectrum of vibronic levels. This spectrum resulted from dynamic effects occurring in certain molecules or impurities in insulators. The Hamiltonian of these systems is expressed in the matrix form, using products of suitable electron-phonon states as a basis. In applying this method to multimode electron-phonon systems, phonon modes are coupled in a chain-like fashion. Then a finite chain calculation in terms of Hubbard X-operators is explored by setting up the vibronic Hamiltonian. Calculations are based on Lanczos algorithm, in which only the nearest neighbor matrix elements along the chain need to be taken into account. The iterative scheme is then applied to a two-level electronic system coupled to phonons. A single-particle Green's function corresponding to a two-level system is applied to calculate the spectral density of states, which, coupled to single mode is carried out. The strength of lines in density of states is affected by the coupling constant as well as the temperature dependence of some measurable quantities.

  20. Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-07-14

    The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modification of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. In particular, the field-controlled ferromagnetism in a magnetic topological insulator can be used for voltage based writing of magnetic random access memories in magnetic tunnel junctions. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such devices may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators.

  1. Accounting for External Turbulence of Logistics Organizations via Performance Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of upper management in designing performance measurement systems (PMS) that account for external turbulence of the organization and to show how this PMS design for turbulence impacts organizational resilience and distribution service performance...... distribution service performance. Originality/value: This paper is the first to introduce the concept of PMS design for turbulence to the literature and to show that it is relevant for supply chain risk management by fostering the capabilities and the performance of logistics organizations. Further....... Design/methodology/approach: Hypotheses are developed by integrating management accounting and strategic management perspectives into supply chain management and subsequently tested based on data from 431 logistics organizations (i.e. both logistics companies and internal logistics departments...

  2. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  3. The Czech External Quality Control system in medical microbiology and parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Kríz, B

    2000-11-01

    The External Quality Control (EQC) system in activities of laboratories engaged in medical microbiology and parasitology was established in the Czech Republic in 1993 when to the first laboratories which applied coded serum samples were sent for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification. In the course of years the number of control areas increased and in 2000 there were 31 and the number of those interested in participation in EQC increased from 79 in 1993 to 434 in 2000. This year a total of 13,239 samples will be sent to laboratories. Gradually thus almost all microbiological and parasitological laboratories concerned with examination of clinical material became involved. Seven-year experience with EQC in the Czech Republic revealed that gradually the results of various examinations became more accurate, that methods became standardized and the most suitable examination sets are used.

  4. Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xinyu; Yin, Longfei; Zhuang, Wei; Luo, Bin; Dang, Anhong; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate an external-cavity laser system using an anti-reflection coated laser diode as gain medium with about 60 nm fluorescence spectrum, and a Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as frequency-selecting element with a transmission bandwidth of 1.3 GHz. With 6.4% optical feedback, a single stable longitudinal mode is obtained with a linewidth of 69 kHz. The wavelength of this laser is operating within the center of the highest transmission peak of FADOF over a diode current range from 55 mA to 142 mA and a diode temperature range from 15 °C to 35 °C, thus it is immune to the fluctuations of current and temperature.

  5. Observer-based approximate optimal tracking control for time-delay systems with external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Tang, Gong-You

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a successive approximation design approach of observer-based optimal tracking controllers for time-delay systems with external disturbances. To solve a two-point boundary value problem with time-delay and time-advance terms and obtain the optimal tracking control law, two sequences of vector differential equations are constructed first. Second, the convergence of the sequences of the vector differential equations is proved to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the control law. Third, a design algorithm of the optimal tracking control law is presented and the physically realisable problem is addressed by designing a disturbance state observer and a reference input state observer. An example of an industrial electric heater is given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  6. The sensory system: More than just a window to the external world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Christi M; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    While the traditional importance of the sensory system lies in its ability to perceive external information about the world, emerging discoveries suggest that sensory perception has a greater impact on health and longevity than was previously appreciated. These effects are conserved across species. In this mini-review, we discuss the specific sensory cues that have been identified to significantly impact organismal physiology and lifespan. Ongoing work in the aging field has begun to identify the downstream molecules that mediate the broad effects of sensory signals. Candidates include FOXO, neuropeptide F (NPF), adipokinetic hormone (AKH), dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. We then discuss the many implications that arise from our current understanding of the effects of sensory perception on health and longevity.

  7. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.; Rundsten, Carsten Friis

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess...... the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled...... the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying...

  8. The External Quality Assurance System of the WHO Global Salm-Surv Year 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Jensen, Arne Bent

    To support laboratories participating in WHO GSS an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) was established in 2000. The EQAS supports the assessment of the quality of serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella in participating laboratories. In 2003, the program was extended...... to include other foodborne pathogens as well, and the number of participants has increased from 44 laboratories in 2000, to 187 laboratories in 2008. The serotyping results indicate a continuous need for improving skills in Salmonella serotyping. Future training efforts should be aimed at enhancing...... training modules on identification procedures for Campylobacter spp. Given the growing concerns over increasing macrolide resistance in Campylobacter spp., participants in the 2009 EQAS will also be offered the opportunity to perform susceptibility testing of Campylobacter spp....

  9. Assessment of the hydrogen external tank pressure decay anomaly on Space Transportation System (STS) 51-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Challenger tragedy, an evaluation of the integrated main propulsion system flight data revealed a premature decay in the hydrogen external tank ullage pressure. A reconstruction of predicted ullage pressure versus time indicated an inconsistency between predicted and measured ullage pressure starting at approximately 65.5 seconds into the flight and reaching a maximum value between 72 and 72.9 seconds. This discrepancy could have been caused by a hydrogen gas leak or by a liquied hydrogen leak that occurred either in the pressurization system or in the external tank. The corresponding leak rates over the time interval from 65.5 to 72.9 seconds were estimated to range from 0.28 kg/s (0.62 lbm/s) + or - 41 percent to between 0.43 and 0.51kg/s (0.94 and 1.12lbs/s) + or - 1 percent for a gas leak and from 72.9 kg/s (160.5 lbs/s) + or - 41 percent to between 111.6 and 133.2 kg/s (245.8 and 293.3 lbs/s) + or - 1 percent for a liquid leak. No speculation is made to ascertain whether the leak is liquid or gas, as this cannot be determined from the analysis performed. Four structural failures in the hydrogen external tank were considered to explain the leak rates. A break in the 5-cm (2 in) pressurization line, in the 13-cm (5 in) vent line, or in the 43-cm (17 in) feedline is not likely. A break in the 10-cm (4 in) recirculation line with a larger structural failure occurring in the 72 to 73-second time period, the time of the visibly identified premature pressure decay, does seem plausible and the most likely of the four modes considered. These modes are not all-inclusive and do not preclude the possibility of a leak elsewhere in the tank.

  10. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Pathway: FY 2016 External Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce Perry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes an External Review conducted by the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway to solicit feedback on the topics and results of the ongoing II&C research program. This review was held in conjunction with the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Digital I&C Working Group meeting that was held at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on August 9-10, 2016. Given the opportunity to visit INL and see the pathway research projects, NEI agreed that the Working Group would serve as the External Review panel for the purpose of obtaining expert input on the value and timing of the research projects. This consisted of demonstrations in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory followed by presentations on the II&C research program in general as well as the five technology development areas. Following the meeting, the presentations were sent to each of the attendees so they could review them in more detail and refer to them in completing the feedback form. Follow-up activities were conducted with the attendees following the meeting to obtain the completed feedback forms. A total of 13 forms were returned. The feedback forms were reviewed by the pathway to compile the data and comments received, which are documented in the report. In all, the feedback provided by the External Review participants is taken to be a strong endorsement of the types of projects being conducted by the pathway, the value they hold for the nuclear plants, and the general timing of need. The feedback aligns well with the priorities, levels of efforts allocated for the research projects, and project schedules. The feedback also represents realistic observations on the practicality of some aspects of implementing these technologies. In some cases, the participants provided thoughtful challenges to certain assumptions in the formulation of the technologies or in deployment plans. These deserve further review and revision of plans if warranted

  11. Safety-relevant internal and external data communication in a mine shaft hoisting system; Sicherheitsrelevante rechnerinterne und -externe Datenwege in der Bergbau-Schachtfoerderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowitz, W. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH - Fachstelle fuer Sicherheit - Seilpruefstelle, Bochum (Germany). DMT Car Synergies Div.

    2002-02-12

    The entire communication between assemblies takes place via buses in a computer. This statement applies not only to the important components of the computer, but also to the processors themselves with the advent of microprocessors. On the basis of the operational experience and technological advances the bus operation and structure inside computers have been successfully applied to the assemblies outside computers in recent years, so that this statement now also applies to the communication between interlinked systems. The development of binary communication or data transmission started with the use of computers has not been concluded. Starting from the internal communication of the computers external communication methods and associated equipment operating worldwide as well as international standards have been developed. The safety considerations of individual components, in particular of bus transmission systems and the complete system, is acquiring increasing importance. (orig.) [German] In einem Rechner verlaeuft die gesamte Kommunikation zwischen den Baugruppen ueber Busse. Diese Aussage gilt nicht nur fuer die wesentlichen Komponenten des Rechners, sondern mit Aufkommen der Mikroprozessoren auch fuer die Prozessoren selbst. Aufgrund der betrieblichen Erfahrungen und des technologischen Fortschritts wurden in den letzten Jahren erfolgreich die rechnerinternen Busarbeitsweisen und -strukturen auch auf rechnerexterne raeumlich entfernte Baugruppen uebertragen, so dass diese Aussage heutzutage auch fuer die Kommunikation zwischen vernetzten Systemen gilt. Diese mit dem Rechnereinsatz begonnene Entwicklung der binaeren Kommunikation beziehungsweise Datenuebertragung durch Bussysteme ist auch heutzutage noch nicht abgeschlossen. Von der internen Kommunikation der Rechner ausgehend sind weltweit arbeitende externe Kommunikationsverfahren und zugehoerige Einrichtungen sowie internationale Standards entwickelt worden. Dabei gewinnt die Sicherheitsbetrachtung einzelner

  12. Electrostatic analysis of n-doped SrTiO{sub 3} metal-insulator-semiconductor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamerbeek, A. M., E-mail: a.m.kamerbeek@rug.nl; Banerjee, T. [Physics of Nanodevices, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hueting, R. J. E. [Semiconductor Components, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-12-14

    Electron doped SrTiO{sub 3}, a complex-oxide semiconductor, possesses novel electronic properties due to its strong temperature and electric-field dependent permittivity. Due to the high permittivity, metal/n-SrTiO{sub 3} systems show reasonably strong rectification even when SrTiO{sub 3} is degenerately doped. Our experiments show that the insertion of a sub nanometer layer of AlO{sub x} in between the metal and n-SrTiO{sub 3} interface leads to a dramatic reduction of the Schottky barrier height (from around 0.90 V to 0.25 V). This reduces the interface resistivity by 4 orders of magnitude. The derived electrostatic analysis of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (n-SrTiO{sub 3}) system is consistent with this trend. When compared with a Si based MIS system, the change is much larger and mainly governed by the high permittivity of SrTiO{sub 3}. The non-linear permittivity of n-SrTiO{sub 3} leads to unconventional properties such as a temperature dependent surface potential non-existent for semiconductors with linear permittivity such as Si. This allows tuning of the interfacial band alignment, and consequently the Schottky barrier height, in a much more drastic way than in conventional semiconductors.

  13. Patient choice and mobility in the UK health system: internal and external markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusheiko, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has been the body of the health care system in the United Kingdom (UK) for over 60 years and has sought to provide the population with a high quality service free of user charges for most services. The information age has seen the NHS rapidly transformed from a socialist, centrally planned and publicly provided system to a more market based system orientated towards patients as consumers. The forces of globalization have provided patients in the UK with greater choice in their health care provision, with NHS treatment now offered from any public or approved private provider and the possibility of treatment anywhere in the European Economic Area (EEA) or possibly further. The financial crisis, a large government deficit and austerity public spending policies have imposed a tight budget constraint on the NHS at a time of increasing demand for health care and population pressure. Hence, further rationing of care could imply that patients are incentivised to seek private treatment outside the constraints of the NHS, where the possibility of much greater choice exists in an increasingly globally competitive health care market. This chapter examines the evidence on the response of patients to the possibilities of increased choice and mobility within the internal NHS and external overseas health care markets. It also considers the relationships between patient mobility, health care provision and health policy. Patients are more mobile and willing to travel further to obtain better care outcomes and value for money, but are exposed to greater risk.

  14. Internal-external stimulus competition in a system of interacting moving particles: Persuasion versus propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, N. C.; Revelli, J. A.; Sibona, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a general nonlinear analytical framework to study the effect of an external stimulus in the internal state of a population of moving particles. This novel scheme allows us to study a broad range of excitation transport phenomena. In particular, considering social systems, it gives insight of the spatial dynamics influence in the competition between propaganda (mass media) and convincement. By extending the framework presented by Terranova et al. [Europhys. Lett. 105, 30007 (2014), 10.1209/0295-5075/105/30007], we now allow changes in individual's opinions due to a reflection induced by mass media. The equations of the model could be solved numerically, and, for some special cases, it is possible to derive analytical solutions for the steady states. We implement computational simulations for different social and dynamical systems to check the accuracy of our scheme and to study a broader variety of scenarios. In particular, we compare the numerical outcome with the analytical results for two possible real cases, finding a good agreement. From the results, we observe that mass media dominates the opinion state in slow dynamics communities; whereas, for higher agent active speeds, the rate of interactions increases and the opinion state is determined by a competition between propaganda and persuasion. This difference suggests that kinetics can not be neglected in the study of transport of any excitation over a particle system.

  15. Adaptive tracking control of leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hanquan; Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Ma, Hongwen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the consensus problem for leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances is investigated. Brownian motions are used to describe exogenous disturbances. A distributed tracking controller based on Riccati inequalities with an adaptive law for adjusting coupling weights between neighbouring agents is designed for leader-following multi-agent systems under fixed and switching topologies. In traditional distributed static controllers, the coupling weights depend on the communication graph. However, coupling weights associated with the feedback gain matrix in our method are updated by state errors between neighbouring agents. We further present the stability analysis of leader-following multi-agent systems with stochastic disturbances under switching topology. Most traditional literature requires the graph to be connected all the time, while the communication graph is only assumed to be jointly connected in this paper. The design technique is based on Riccati inequalities and algebraic graph theory. Finally, simulations are given to show the validity of our method.

  16. The response of nonlinear controlled system under an external excitation via time delay state feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Elnaggar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of primary, superharmonic of order five, and subharmonic of order one-three resonances for non-linear s.d.o.f. system with two distinct time-delays under an external excitation is investigated. The method of multiple scales is used to determine two first order ordinary differential equations which describe the modulation of the amplitudes and the phases. Steady-state solutions and their stabilities in each resonance are studied. Numerical results are obtained by using the Software of Mathematica, which presented in a group of figures. The effect of the feedback gains and time-delays on the non-linear response of the system is discussed and it is found that: an appropriate feedback can enhance the control performance. A suitable choice of the feedback gains and time-delays can enlarge the critical force amplitude, and reduce the peak amplitude of the response (or peak amplitude of the free oscillation term for the case of primary resonance (superharmonic resonance. Furthermore, a proper feedback can eliminate saddle-node bifurcation, thereby eliminating jump and hysteresis phenomena taking place in the corresponding uncontrolled system. For subharmonic resonance, an adequate feedback can reduce the regions of subharmonic resonance response.

  17. Low-level multicounter {beta}/{gamma} systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsson, P. [Iceland Univ. (Iceland). Science Inst.

    1997-03-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level {beta}/{gamma} multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  18. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  19. More than only heat protection. Heat insulation composite systems; Mehr als nur Waermeschutz. Waermedaemmverbundsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Thermal energy composite systems are used in order to protect the outer walls of buildings against heat losses. The contribution under consideration reports on the advantages of such composite systems. Such a thermal energy composite system should be utilized only if it is certificated by the Centre of Competence in Civil Engineering (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). The single components of the thermal energy composite system as well as their processing are regulated in this certification.

  20. Quantum systems subjected to periodic and quasiperiodic external fields; Sistemas quanticos sujeitos a campos externos periodicos e quaseperiodicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, Heyder

    1996-12-31

    We have study three quantum systems under time dependent external fields. The first one is an harmonic oscillator and the external field is quasiperiodic. We prove that the autocorrelation spectrum is absolutely transient continuous covering the real line on the resonant case or pure point under supplementary diophantine conditions. The second one refers to the spin tunneling. We show that an external periodic field may causes a blocking of spin tunneling. The last problem concerns to the resonances of the Floquet spectrum on the non-perturbative region of parameters for the model of an atom with one bound state under an external periodic field. The problems of Quantum Chaology and Quantum Stability are the predominant points of view in this work. (author) 59 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. 夏热冬冷地区建筑外墙保温材料和保温形式的发展趋势%The Development Trend of Exterior Wall Thermal Insulation Material and Thermal Insulation Form in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冰曲; 陈晓明; 王婧

    2013-01-01

    夏热冬冷地区围护结构设计需要同时考虑冬季保温与夏季隔热的问题,这对建筑的围护结构节能设计提出了较高的要求.在介绍常用的外墙保温材料性能和保温形式基础上,针对夏热冬冷地区的气候特征和建筑特点,进行外墙保温材料和保温形式的研究,指出在保温材料方面,复合保温材料结合了有机保温材料和无机保温材料各自的优点,在一定程度上解决了无机保温材料厚度较大而有机保温材料防火性能差的不足;在保温形式方面,建筑外墙内外组合保温和墙体自保温体系相结合是夏热冬冷地区保温形式的发展趋势,这种保温形式的实质就是保温材料与砌体相结合,共同实现建筑外围护综合保温的目的.%In hot summer and cold winter zone, retaining structure design should be considered thermal insulation in winter and heat insulation in summer together, so it has a higher design requirement of energy-saving. On the basis of introducing the performance of thermal insulation material and thermal insulation form commonly used for external wall, external wall insulation materials and insulation form were studied and their development trend was discussed according to the climate characteristics and the building features in hot summer and cold winter zone. Organic insulation materials are not good at fireproof performance, and inorganic insulation materials usually have large thickness. Composite insulation materials combine the respective advantages of both and to some extent, it tackles their deficiencies. According to thermal insulation form, development trend is to combine the two measures-one is mixing the internal and external insulation of exterior wall; another is self-insulation system of exterior wall. The essence of this thermal insulation form is the combination of thermal insulation material and brickwork, so it can realize the aim of integrated insulation for building envelope.

  2. Development of High Performance Composite Foam Insulation with Vacuum Insulation Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; SmithPhD, Douglas [NanoPore, Inc.; LettsPhD, John [Firestone Building Products; YaoPhD, Jennifer [Firestone Building Products

    2016-01-01

    Development of a high performance thermal insulation (thermal resistance or R-value per inch of R-12 hr-ft2- F/Btu-in or greater), with twice the thermal resistance of state-of-the-art commercial insulation materials ( R6/inch for foam insulation), promises a transformational impact in the area of building insulation. In 2010, in the US, the building envelope-related primary energy consumption was 15.6 quads, of which 5.75 quads were due to opaque wall and roof sections; the total US consumption (building, industrial and transportation) was 98 quads. In other words, the wall and roof contribution was almost 6% of the entire US primary energy consumption. Building energy modeling analyses have shown that adding insulation to increase the R-value of the external walls of residential buildings by R10-20 (hr-ft2- F/Btu) can yield savings of 38-50% in wall-generated heating and cooling loads. Adding R20 will require substantial thicknesses of current commercial insulation materials, often requiring significant (and sometimes cost-prohibitive) alterations to existing buildings. This article describes the development of a next-generation composite insulation with a target thermal resistance of R25 for a 2 inch thick board (R12/inch or higher). The composite insulation will contain vacuum insulation cores, which are nominally R35-40/inch, encapsulated in polyisocyanurate foam. A recently-developed variant of vacuum insulation, called modified atmosphere insulation (MAI), was used in this research. Some background information on the thermal performance and distinguishing features of MAI has been provided. Technical details of the composite insulation development and manufacturing as well as laboratory evaluation of prototype insulation boards are presented.

  3. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1978 to March 31, 1979 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; and (2) cable insulation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-11

    The objective of the program is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, thus enabling it to supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors, and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications. Progress in cable conductor and cable insulation development and in the engineering facilities for fabricating and testing the superconducting cables is reported. (LCL)

  4. VARSEL: Variable Selection for Multiple-Purpose Prediction Systems in the Absence of External Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, R. Bruce; Christal, Raymond E.

    The absence of suitable external criteria is a recurrent problem for test, battery, and inventory developers in selecting items or tests for inclusion in final operational instruments. This report presents a computing algorithm developed for use when no adequate external selection criterion is available. The algorithm uses a multiple linear…

  5. Development of a multi-detector and a systematic imaging system on the AGLAE external beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, L., E-mail: laurent.pichon@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Moignard, B.; Lemasson, Q.; Pacheco, C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Walter, P. [Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS-UMR 8220, Laboratoire d’archéologie moléculaire et structurale, LAMS, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-01-01

    The New AGLAE external beamline provides analytical data for the understanding of the structure of archaeological and artistic objects, their composition, properties, and changes over time. One of the objectives of this project is to design and set up a new non-invasive acquisition system increasing the quality of the X-ray spectra and reducing the beam current on sensitive materials from work of art. To that end, the surface and the number of PIXE detectors have been increased to implement a cluster of SDD detectors. This can also provide the possibility to accomplish large and/or fast maps on artifacts with a scanning of the beam on the sample. During the mapping, a multi-parameter system saves each event from X-ray, gamma and particle detectors, simultaneously with the X and Y positions of the beam on the sample. To process the data, different softwares have been developed or updated. A first example on a decorated medieval shard highlights the perspectives of the technique.

  6. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  7. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, L.; Beck, L.; Walter, Ph.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.

    2010-06-01

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 μm diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  8. 自动化系统在绝缘件制造领域的应用%Application of automatic system in insulation parts manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鹏

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the insulation parts manufacturing production efficiency, reduce the labor intensity of workers, according to the characteristics and requirements of production process of insulating parts, Design and development of a insulating parts production automation system, including the manufacturing execution system, material control system and equipment automation systems etc., through the digital, intelligent technology to effectively enhance the insulation parts manufacturing process automation, intelligent level. The results show that the use of automated after the completion of the system: the system achieves the design target, process scheme is reasonable, stable product quality, realize the automation of transport logistics and production equipment, improve production efficiency and reduce the labor intensity of operating personnel, economic benefits obvious.%为提高绝缘件制造生产效率,降低工人劳动强度,根据绝缘件生产工艺的特点和需求,设计开发出一套包含制造执行系统、物流控制系统、自动化设备系统等部分的绝缘件生产自动化系统,通过数字化、智能化技术应用有效提升绝缘件制造工艺的自动化、智能化水平。自动化系统建成后使用结果表明:该系统达到了各项设计指标,工艺方案合理、产品质量稳定,物流转运及生产设备实现自动化,提高了生产效率,降低了操作人员劳动强度、经济效益明显。

  9. Analysis on Insulation Structure of Barrier System of Converter Transformer%换流变压器出线装置的绝缘结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蓁

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of DC barrier system is one of key points of converter transformer's R&D. DC barrier systems are imported over the years. Optimization of insulation structure of barrier system has significant influence on further speeding up localization manufacture of converter transformer in China. The operation characteristic of converter transformer was summarized, and the insulation structure of barrier system was studied. Furthermore, the calculation of electric field of insulation structure for DC barrier system was made. Converter transformer has features as high short circuit impedance, DC bias current influence, serious influence of harmonic and complicated insulation structure. Electric field analysis and calculation was carried on the basis of typical insulation structure of DC barrier system for different models under different testing condition, such as long duration AC applied voltage withstand test, DC voltage withstand test with PD measurement and polarity reversal test to summarize design concept and main points to structure of DC barrier system. Test results show that the developed insulation structure of DC barrier system is reasonable, which has been approved by the test. The same theory and method will be applied to insulation structure electric field analysis of DC barrier system of converter transformer with higher voltage level to optimize the sound insulation structure of DC barrier system.%换流变压器直流出线装置的可靠性是换流变压器研制的关键问题之一,长期以来直流出线装置依靠进口,优化出合理的直流出线装置绝缘结构对进一步促进换流变压器设备制造全面国产化具有重要的意义.笔者总结了换流变压器的运行特点,研究了直流出线装置的绝缘结构,并进行了直流出线装置绝缘结构的电场计算.换流变压器的运行特点为短路阻抗大、直流偏磁影响、谐波影响严重,绝缘结构复杂,针对典型的直流出线装置绝缘

  10. Collective nature of the insulating phase in a strongly interacting 2D electron system at zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Sarachik, M. P.; Shashkin, A. A.; Kravchenko, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements by our group in the low-disorder 2D electron system in silicon have shown that the thermopower diverges at a finite disorder-independent density, providing clear evidence for a transition to a new phase at low density which may be a precursor phase, or a direct transition to the Wigner solid. In agreement with earlier measurements, we report nonlinear I-V characteristics in the insulating phase with a threshold voltage that yields a characteristic length that is too large to be attributed to delocalization of individual electrons. The observed behavior has been attributed to a percolation transition, or to the presence of an additional conduction channel due to a sliding electron solid (Wigner crystal). Our current measurements seek to provide supporting evidence for the presence of a zero-field Wigner solid by detecting the noise generated by the sliding crystallites. Work at CCNY is provided by NSF Grant DMR-1309008 and BSF Grant 2012210; for S. K. by NSF Grant DMR-1309337 and BSF Grant 2012210; for A. A. S. by RFBR Grant 13-02-00095.

  11. Sudden death and rebirth of entanglement for different dimensional systems driven by a classical random external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, N.; Eleuch, H.; Obada, A.-S.

    2016-10-01

    The entangled behavior of different dimensional systems driven by classical external random field is investigated. The amount of the survival entanglement between the components of each system is quantified. There are different behaviors of entanglement that come into view decay, sudden death, sudden birth and long-lived entanglement. The maximum entangled states which can be generated from any of theses suggested systems are much fragile than the partially entangled ones. The systems of larger dimensions are more robust than those of smaller dimensions systems, where the entanglement decay smoothly, gradually and may vanish for a very short time. For the class of $2\\times 3$ dimensional system, the one parameter family is found to be more robust than the two parameters family. Although the entanglement of driven $ 2 \\times 3$ dimensional system is very sensitive to the classical external random field, one can use them to generate a long-lived entanglement.

  12. Insulation Consideration of the Cryo-vacuum System for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A set of tailored cryopanel cooled by a stirling cryogenerator is being developed for the vacuum system of CYCIAE-100. A 25m long transfer line is used to transport cold powder generated by stirling cryogenerator to the tailored cryopanel.

  13. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  14. Analysis of high voltage dielectric insulation materials of XLPE by THz-TDS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Yan, Zhijin; Yang, Lei; Dai, Yang; Zhang, Like; Bian, Kangkang; Hou, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) was analyzed by THz time domain spectroscopy (TDS) system at room temperature. By recording time domain signal of terahertz radiation field, frequency spectrum can be obtained by Fourier transform. Then the refractive index and dielectric constant in THz band are calculated. This proves that the THz-TDS system has a potential application for detecting the aging characteristic of XLPE.

  15. An on-line calibration algorithm for external parameters of visual system based on binocular stereo cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2014-11-01

    Stereo vision is the key in the visual measurement, robot vision, and autonomous navigation. Before performing the system of stereo vision, it needs to calibrate the intrinsic parameters for each camera and the external parameters of the system. In engineering, the intrinsic parameters remain unchanged after calibrating cameras, and the positional relationship between the cameras could be changed because of vibration, knocks and pressures in the vicinity of the railway or motor workshops. Especially for large baselines, even minute changes in translation or rotation can affect the epipolar geometry and scene triangulation to such a degree that visual system becomes disabled. A technology including both real-time examination and on-line recalibration for the external parameters of stereo system becomes particularly important. This paper presents an on-line method for checking and recalibrating the positional relationship between stereo cameras. In epipolar geometry, the external parameters of cameras can be obtained by factorization of the fundamental matrix. Thus, it offers a method to calculate the external camera parameters without any special targets. If the intrinsic camera parameters are known, the external parameters of system can be calculated via a number of random matched points. The process is: (i) estimating the fundamental matrix via the feature point correspondences; (ii) computing the essential matrix from the fundamental matrix; (iii) obtaining the external parameters by decomposition of the essential matrix. In the step of computing the fundamental matrix, the traditional methods are sensitive to noise and cannot ensure the estimation accuracy. We consider the feature distribution situation in the actual scene images and introduce a regional weighted normalization algorithm to improve accuracy of the fundamental matrix estimation. In contrast to traditional algorithms, experiments on simulated data prove that the method improves estimation

  16. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  17. The internal and external customer focused process improvement and the performance analysis studies in healthcare systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piril Tekin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main contribution of this paper is to generate an optimum solution for capacity planning and appointment scheduling issues, which are frequently encountered in clinical flows with various route and treatment periods at dental hospitals. Design/methodology/approach: It is essential to define the system well in order to ensure that the working staff and patients use their time very efficiently and that the process flows continuously. By having examined a sample healthcare system through the help of a study addressed in such context, studies on process improvement in line with the dissatisfactions of the working staff and patients have been carried out. Within the scope of the study, the operation of 7 Departments in a dental hospital undergoing a treatment process have been reviewed and examined. The problems encountered as result of the observations made are discussed in detail, and formerly and recently designed system performance analyses are conducted by having performed the respective process improvement studies. The relevant samplings of this study are modeled via the Arena Simulation Program. The data of the previous four months is used in the parameters, which are used through the modellings. The system data are entered by taking into account seasonal characteristics of the data. Findings: The analyses are made as a consequence of such study that has been addressed, it is established that the efficiency of the internal customers of the hospital increases substantially, and that the waiting durations of the dental patients decrease and in turn, the external customer satisfaction increases drastically. Research limitations/implications: Under the scope of the present study, 7 different treatment processes are analysed in a dental hospital in Cukurova Region with a significant patient potential. The treatment clinics present in the hospital are radiology, periodontology, surgery, treatment, orthodontics and prosthesis. These

  18. Assessment of an implant-skin interface scoring system for external skeletal fixation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Lynch, Mischa B; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Roe, Simon C; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Trumpatori, Brian J; Griffith, Emily H

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and in vivo versus photographic agreement of a scoring system for the implant-skin interface (ISI) of external skeletal fixation (ESF). SAMPLE 42 photographs of ISIs from 18 dogs for interobserver agreement and intraobserver repeatability and 27 photographs of ISIs from 6 dogs for in vivo versus photograph agreement. PROCEDURES An ISI inflammation scoring system was developed. It included scales for 6 metrics (erythema, drainage amount, drainage type, swelling, hair loss or lack of hair regrowth, and granulation tissue). Photographs of the ISI of ESF were obtained by use of a standard protocol and evaluated to determine intraobserver repeatability and interobserver agreement (Cronbach α; 4 raters) of the ISI score. Agreement between in vivo and photographic ISI scores (2 raters) and correlation between median scores across metrics were evaluated. RESULTS 42 photographs met the inclusion criteria. Overall intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.922 to 0.975. Interobserver overall Cronbach α ranged from 0.835 to 0.943. For in vivo versus photographic assessment, 27 ISIs in 6 dogs and their photographs were evaluated. The Cronbach α for both raters ranged from 0.614 to 0.938. Overall, the Cronbach α ranged from 0.725 to 0.932. Mean photographic scores were greater than mean in vivo scores for each metric. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.221 to 0.923. Erythema, swelling, and granulation were correlated with all other metrics. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, an ISI scoring system used in this study had high repeatability and agreement and may therefore be considered for use in clinical situations. Photographic scores were not equivalent to in vivo scores and should not be used interchangeably.

  19. Message survival and decision dynamics in a class of reactive complex systems subject to external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lucatero, C.; Schaum, A.; Alarcon Ramos, L.; Bernal-Jaquez, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the dynamics of decisions in complex networks subject to external fields are studied within a Markov process framework using nonlinear dynamical systems theory. A mathematical discrete-time model is derived using a set of basic assumptions regarding the convincement mechanisms associated with two competing opinions. The model is analyzed with respect to the multiplicity of critical points and the stability of extinction states. Sufficient conditions for extinction are derived in terms of the convincement probabilities and the maximum eigenvalues of the associated connectivity matrices. The influences of exogenous (e.g., mass media-based) effects on decision behavior are analyzed qualitatively. The current analysis predicts: (i) the presence of fixed-point multiplicity (with a maximum number of four different fixed points), multi-stability, and sensitivity with respect to the process parameters; and (ii) the bounded but significant impact of exogenous perturbations on the decision behavior. These predictions were verified using a set of numerical simulations based on a scale-free network topology.

  20. The external proton beam lines and the splitter systems of the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R; Ijspeert, Albert; de Raad, Bastiaan; Siegel, N; Weisse, E

    1977-01-01

    The exploitation of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is based on two experimental areas, the West Area and the North Area. The West Area consists of the West Experimental Hall, fed by a slow ejected proton beam of 200 GeV/c maximum momentum and a Neutrino Facility which is fed by protons of 400 GeV/c. Several important detectors are installed in the West Area, the Omega spectrometer, the Big European Bubble Chamber and the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle. The North Area has been built for physics at 400 GeV/c. At present it consists of two experimental halls, a large multipurpose hall and a smaller hall dedicated to muon physics. The protons are extracted from the SPS in two of the six long straight sections (LSS) and are transported from the underground machine through a system of tunnels to the external targets. Both the beam lines to the West and North Area contain beam splitting stations which divide the slow extracted proton beam into three branches. (0 refs).

  1. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  2. PECULIARITIES OF DESIGN OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS TO ASSURE THERMAL INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golunov Sergej Anatolevich

    2012-10-01

    The results of laboratory tests (given the adjustments for permissible tolerances may be regarded as the principal criteria in the assessment of applicability of a curtain wall system in the course of a major building repair project or a new construction to assure the required reliability and durability.

  3. Karabük İçin Dış Duvar Optimum Yalıtım Kalınlığının Enerji Tasarrufu Ve Hava Kirliliğine Etkileri / The Effect Of External Wall Optimum Insulation Thickness On Energy Saving And Air Pollution For Karabük

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Etem Gürel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bina dış duvarlarında yapılacak ısı yalıtım uygulamaları, yakıt tüketimini düşürerek ekonomik kazanç sağlamanın yanında, fosil kaynaklı yakıt kullanımından kaynaklanan ve hava kirliliğine neden olan emisyonların düşürülmesinde de son derece etkilidir. Bu çalışmada Karabük’te kömür ve doğalgaz kullanımında dış duvar optimum yalıtım kalınlığı tespitinin ekonomik ve çevresel analizi yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın ekonomik boyutu, yaşam döngüsü maliyet analizine (LCCA dayanan P1-P2 yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuçları, yakıt olarak kömür kullanıldığında optimum yalıtım kalınlığı ve enerji tasarrufunun sırasıyla 0.135 m ve 129.42 TL/m² olduğunu göstermiştir. Yakıt olarak doğalgaz kullanımında ise bu değerler sırasıyla 0.118 m ve 98.01 TL/m² olarak bulunmuştur. Optimum yalıtım kalınlığının hava kirliliğine olan etkileri incelendiğinde, yalıtımsız bina dış duvarında hesaplanan yıllık yakıt tüketimi, CO2 ve SO2 emisyonlarının yakıt tipine bağlı olarak optimum yalıtım kalınlığı noktasında %86’ya kadar azaldığı hesaplanmıştır. The Effect Of External Wall Optimum Insulation Thickness On Energy Saving And Air Pollution For Karabük Heat insulation applications carried out on external walls of building provides energy saving by decreasing fuel consumption and also quite important in decreasing emission which results from fossil-based fuel usage and causes air pollution. In this study, economic and environmental analyses were done for determination of external wall optimum thickness in using coal and natural gas usage in Karabük. Economic extent of the study was done with P1-P2 method which is based on life cycle cost analysis (LCCA. The results show that optimum insulation thickness and energy saving are 0.134 m and 117.14 TL/m² respectively when coal is used as a fuel. These values are 0.116 m and 88.39 TL

  4. Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Film Coated Silver Nanorods: An Effective Carrier System for Externally Activated Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Gokul; Sharma, Varsha; Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticle anisotropy offers unique functions and features in comparison with spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and makes anisotropic nanoparticles (ANPs) promising candidates in applications like drug delivery, imaging, biosensing and theranostics. Presence of surface active groups (e.g. amine, and carboxylate groups) on their surface provides binding sites for ligands or other biomolecules, and hence, this could be targeted for specific part or cells in our body. In the quest of such surface modification, functionalization of ANPs along Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PE) reduces cellular toxicity and promotes easy encapsulation of drugs. In this work, we report the silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesis by adsorbate directed synthetic approach using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The formed ANPs is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy revealing the shaping of AgNRs of 3-16 nm aspect ratio with some presence of triangles. These NRs were further coated with bio polymers of chitosan (CH) and dextran sulphate (DS) through LbL approach and used for encapsulation of water soluble anti-bacterial drugs like ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CFH). The encapsulation of drugs and profiles of drug release were investigated and compared to that of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The added advantages of the proposed drug delivery system (DDS) can be externally activated to release the loaded drug and used as contrast agents for biological imaging under exposure to NIR light. Such system shows unique and attractive characteristics required for drug delivery and bioimaging thus offering the scope for further development as theranostic material.

  5. Brillouin-Wigner theory for high-frequency expansion in periodically driven systems: Application to Floquet topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Takahiro; Kitamura, Sota; Yasuda, Kenji; Tsuji, Naoto; Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    We construct a systematic high-frequency expansion for periodically driven quantum systems based on the Brillouin-Wigner (BW) perturbation theory, which generates an effective Hamiltonian on the projected zero-photon subspace in the Floquet theory, reproducing the quasienergies and eigenstates of the original Floquet Hamiltonian up to desired order in 1 /ω , with ω being the frequency of the drive. The advantage of the BW method is that it is not only efficient in deriving higher-order terms, but even enables us to write down the whole infinite series expansion, as compared to the van Vleck degenerate perturbation theory. The expansion is also free from a spurious dependence on the driving phase, which has been an obstacle in the Floquet-Magnus expansion. We apply the BW expansion to various models of noninteracting electrons driven by circularly polarized light. As the amplitude of the light is increased, the system undergoes a series of Floquet topological-to-topological phase transitions, whose phase boundary in the high-frequency regime is well explained by the BW expansion. As the frequency is lowered, the high-frequency expansion breaks down at some point due to band touching with nonzero-photon sectors, where we find numerically even more intricate and richer Floquet topological phases spring out. We have then analyzed, with the Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, the effects of electron-electron interaction and energy dissipation. We have specifically revealed that phase transitions from Floquet-topological to Mott insulators emerge, where the phase boundaries can again be captured with the high-frequency expansion.

  6. Spin supercurrent and phase-tunable triplet Cooper pairs via magnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomperud, Ingvild; Linder, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that a dissipationless spin current can flow a long distance through a diffusive normal metal by using superconductors interfaced with magnetic insulators. The magnitude of this spin supercurrent is controlled via the magnetization orientation of the magnetic insulators. The spin supercurrent obtained in this way is conserved in the normal metal just like the charge current and interestingly has a term that is independent of the superconducting phase difference. The quantum state of the system can be switched between 0 and π by reversing the insulators from a parallel to antiparallel configuration with an external field. We show that the spin current is carried through the normal metal by superconducting triplet (odd-frequency) correlations and that the superconducting phase difference can be used to enhance these, leaving clear spectroscopic fingerprints in the density of states.

  7. External quality assurance system for antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin in Europe (ARBAO-II), 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fo Wong, Lo D.M.A.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Aarestrup, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Initiated in 2003 by the European Union, ARBAO-II aims to establish a monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among the veterinary laboratories in all European countries based on validated methodologies. This includes an external quality control system for the most important bacterial pathogens.

  8. A new tool fixation for external 3D head tracking using the Polaris Vicra system with the HRRT PET scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Andersen, Flemming; Holm, Søren;

    Objectives: The Polaris Vicra system (Northern Digital Inc.) is used for external 3D head registration with the Siemens HRRT brain PET. Our new tool fixation using a standard bandaid with a velcro-strap implies an improved frame repositioning. Methods: Head movements during serial PET 15O-water s...

  9. The Behaviour Style Observation System for Young Children Predicts Teacher-Reported Externalizing Behaviour in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2009-01-01

    The Behaviour Style Observation System for Young Children (BSOS) was used to predict preschool-aged children's externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems in middle childhood, 3-5 years after the initial assessment. This observational measurement tool was designed to sample and assess young children's disruptive, non-compliant, and…

  10. Assessment of Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution at the National Level using the EVA Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy David; Heile Christensen, Jesper; Skou Andersen, Mikael; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Buus Hansen, Ayoe; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Brandt Hedegaard, Gitte; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources/sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level. The EVA system integrates a regional-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model (DEHM), address-level population data, exposure-response functions and monetary values applicable for Danish/European conditions. Traditionally, systems that assess economic costs of health impacts from air pollution assume linear approximations in the source-receptor relationships. However, atmospheric chemistry is non-linear and therefore the uncertainty involved in the linear assumption can be large. The EVA system has been developed to take into account the non-linear processes by using a comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemical transport model when calculating how specific changes to emissions affect air pollution levels and the subsequent impacts on human health and cost. Furthermore, we present a new "tagging" method, developed to examine how specific emission sources influence air pollution levels without assuming linearity of the non-linear behaviour of atmospheric chemistry. This method is more precise than the traditional approach based on taking the difference between two concentration fields. Using the EVA system, we have estimated the total external costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the ten major SNAP codes. Finally, we assess the impacts and external costs of emissions from international ship traffic around Denmark, since there is a high volume of ship traffic in the region.

  11. Metal-Insulator Transition and Superconductivity in Spinel-Type System Cu 1-xZnxIr 2S 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Furubayashi, Takao; Cao, Guanghan; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Kamimura, Akira; Hirata, Kazuto; Matsumoto, Takehiko

    1999-08-01

    The thiospinel compoundCuIr2S4 exhibits the metal-insulator (M-I) transitionaccompanied by the structural transition. In this work, compounds ofCu1-xZnxIr2S4 in the composition range 0≤x≤0.5 were synthesized to examine the effects of excess electronssupplied by replacing Cu with Zn. The samples were investigated bymeasurements of X-ray diffraction, electrical resistance and magneticsusceptibility. The M-I transition temperature T MIdecreases with increasing x. Results are discussed on the basis ofthe model of charge ordering for the insulating state. It was foundthat the samples with x≥0.3 show no M-I transition and exhibitsuperconductivity. The transition temperature T C is 2.8 Kfor x= 0.3 and 2.2 K for x= 0.5. The ground state of the systemchanges from insulating to superconducting with increasing Zncontent.

  12. Three dimensional simulation of the arc inside an insulator-arrester with a multichamber system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the thermo-physical properties of plasma air, the temperature and flow fields of an insulator–arrester with a multi-chamber system are investigated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. The plasma flow is assumed to be steady incompressible laminar flow and in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The results obtained show that the arc inside the chamber bends downwards, indicating that the Lorentz force induced is directed away from the exit and pushes plasma air down. The outlet also provides passage for plasma flow both in and out of the chamber.

  13. Research of On-line Monitoring System for Transmission Line Insulator Flashover%输电线路绝缘子闪络在线监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄会贤; 陈新岗; 汪能文; 袁兴旺; 古亮; 马志鹏; 陈果

    2013-01-01

    针对电力系统输电线路绝缘子闪络现象频繁发生且监测困难等问题,建立了以STM32F系列、内核为32位ARM的微控制器为控制电路核心的输电线路绝缘子闪络在线监测系统.介绍了系统控制电路硬件设计方案及软件流程,给出了模块硬件连接网络图与软件流程图.该系统以太阳能为供电来源,将闪络的产生转换为电信号,进而进行采集与处理.通过控制器控制显示模块与GPRS模块实现显示闪络发生次数与短信报警功能.该系统可准确定位闪络绝缘子和及时报警,为寻线检修提供有利条件,为输电线路安全运行提供可靠保障.%With the influence of pollutant or thunder, it is very often that transmission line insulators flashover occurs. It is because that flashover is one of the main reason for transmission line accident, so insulator flashover should be long-term monitored. According to the damage of flashover of insulators along the transmission line, this paper introduces a kind of on-line monitoring system about the transmission line insulator flashover. This system uses 32-bit microcontroller STM32 as the core. The principle of hardware circuit and software flow chart about the system are given in this paper. The system takes solar energy as power supply. It realized signal conversion that changes the flashover to e-lectrical signals. The system can also realize the functions of monitoring flashover of insulator such as signal collection, processing, display, alarm etc. This system can provide favorable conditions for the transmission line maintenance and a reliable guarantee of transmission lines.

  14. Superconductivity from insulating elements under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Katsuya

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Even insulating molecule can become metal and superconductor by pressure with relatively high T{sub c}. • The highest T{sub c} is observed in sulfur with 17 K at 160 GPa. • Hydrogen is the best candidate of the highest T{sub c} element. - Abstract: The insulating and superconducting states would seem to have very different characteristics. Can any insulator become a superconductor? One proven method, doping an insulating material with carriers, can create itinerant states inside the gap between the conduction and valence bands. Another method is to squeeze the structure by applying pressure. Pressure can expand the bandwidth and also narrow the energy band gap. So the first step to turn an insulator into a superconductor is to make it metallic. Here we review our experimental research and results on superconductivity induced by applying pressure to insulating molecular systems such as elemental molecules.

  15. Study on VPI Insulation System of Single Generator Stator Bar in HEC%发电机单只定子线棒VPI绝缘系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春秀; 卢春莲

    2013-01-01

    Study and application of the single generator stator bar VPI insulation system in HEC are introduced in this paper. Insulation materials and manufacture process, electrical properties of the bars made by VPI technology are studied. By now the system has been successfully applied on air-cooled turbo-generator stator bar products which the rated voltage is 18kV and insulation design field is 3.15kV/mm.%  本文介绍了哈电机单只定子线棒VPI绝缘体系的开发情况.对VPI体系所使用的绝缘材料、生产工艺等进行了系统的试验研究,使得该体系成功地应用在绝缘设计场强为3.15kV/mm,额定电压为18kV的空冷汽轮发电机真机定子线棒上,并取得良好效果.

  16. Approaches for reducing the insulator-metal transition pressure in hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, A. E.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    Two possible techniques for reducing the external pressure required to induce the insulator-metal transition in solid hydrogen are described. One uses impurities to lower the energy of the metallic phase relative to that of the insulating phase. The other utilizes a negative pressure induced in the insulating phase by electron-hole pairs, created either with laser irradiation or pulsed synchrotron sources.

  17. Kinetic study on external mass transfer in high performance liquid chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, Kanji; Kawaguchi, Yuuki; Guiochon, Georges

    2010-04-30

    External mass transfer coefficients (k(f)) were measured for a column packed with fully porous C(18)-silica spherical particles (50.6 microm in diameter), eluted with a methanol/water mixture (70/30, v/v). The pulse response and the peak-parking methods were used. Profiles of elution peaks of alkylbenzene homologues were recorded at flow rates between 0.2 and 2.0 mL min(-1). Peak-parking experiments were conducted under the same conditions, to measure intraparticle and pore diffusivity, and surface diffusion coefficients. Finally, the values of k(f) for these compounds at 298 K were derived from the first and second moments of the elution peaks by subtracting the contribution of intraparticle diffusion to band broadening. As a result, the Sherwood number (Sh) was measured under such conditions that the Reynolds (Re) and the Schmidt numbers (Sc) varied from 0.004 to 0.05 and from 1.8x10(3) to 2.7x10(3), respectively. We found that Sh is proportional to Re(alpha) and Sc(beta) and that the correlation between these three nondimensional parameters is almost the same as those given by conventional literature equations. The values of alpha and beta were close to those in the literature correlations, between 0.26 and 0.41 and between 0.31 and 0.36, respectively. The use of the Wilson-Geankoplis equation to estimate k(f) values entails a relative error of ca. 15%. So, conventional literature correlations provide correct estimates of k(f) in HPLC systems, even for particle sizes of the order of a micrometer.

  18. External Vision Systems (XVS) proof-of-concept flight test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Prinzel, Lawrence; Bailey, Randall E.

    2014-06-01

    NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, High Speed Project is performing research, development, test and evaluation of flight deck and related technologies to support future low-boom, supersonic configurations (without forward-facing windows) by use of an eXternal Vision System (XVS). The challenge of XVS is to determine a combination of sensor and display technologies which can provide an equivalent level of safety and performance to that provided by forward-facing windows in today's aircraft. This flight test was conducted with the goal of obtaining performance data on see-and-avoid and see-to-follow traffic using a proof-of-concept XVS design in actual flight conditions. Six data collection flights were flown in four traffic scenarios against two different sized participating traffic aircraft. This test utilized a 3x1 array of High Definition (HD) cameras, with a fixed forward field-of-view, mounted on NASA Langley's UC-12 test aircraft. Test scenarios, with participating NASA aircraft serving as traffic, were presented to two evaluation pilots per flight - one using the proof-of-concept (POC) XVS and the other looking out the forward windows. The camera images were presented on the XVS display in the aft cabin with Head-Up Display (HUD)-like flight symbology overlaying the real-time imagery. The test generated XVS performance data, including comparisons to natural vision, and post-run subjective acceptability data were also collected. This paper discusses the flight test activities, its operational challenges, and summarizes the findings to date.

  19. External Vision Systems (XVS) Proof-of-Concept Flight Test Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Prinzel, Lawrence, III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, High Speed Project is performing research, development, test and evaluation of flight deck and related technologies to support future low-boom, supersonic configurations (without forward-facing windows) by use of an eXternal Vision System (XVS). The challenge of XVS is to determine a combination of sensor and display technologies which can provide an equivalent level of safety and performance to that provided by forward-facing windows in today's aircraft. This flight test was conducted with the goal of obtaining performance data on see-and-avoid and see-to-follow traffic using a proof-of-concept XVS design in actual flight conditions. Six data collection flights were flown in four traffic scenarios against two different sized participating traffic aircraft. This test utilized a 3x1 array of High Definition (HD) cameras, with a fixed forward field-of-view, mounted on NASA Langley's UC-12 test aircraft. Test scenarios, with participating NASA aircraft serving as traffic, were presented to two evaluation pilots per flight - one using the proof-of-concept (POC) XVS and the other looking out the forward windows. The camera images were presented on the XVS display in the aft cabin with Head-Up Display (HUD)-like flight symbology overlaying the real-time imagery. The test generated XVS performance data, including comparisons to natural vision, and post-run subjective acceptability data were also collected. This paper discusses the flight test activities, its operational challenges, and summarizes the findings to date.

  20. Optical eye tracking system for real-time noninvasive tumor localization in external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Riccardo; Fassi, Aurora; Fattori, Giovanni; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Tagaste, Barbara; Riboldi, Marco; Ciocca, Mario; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido

    2015-05-01

    External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by two calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring during ocular radiotherapy treatments. The

  1. Optical eye tracking system for real-time noninvasive tumor localization in external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Via, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.via@polimi.it; Fassi, Aurora; Fattori, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy); Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Tagaste, Barbara; Ciocca, Mario [CNAO Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133, Italy and CNAO Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [CNAO Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100, Italy and European Institute of Oncology, Milano 20141 (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Methods: Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by two calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Results: Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. Conclusions: A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring

  2. Insulating process for HT-7U central solenoid model coils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The HT-7U superconducting Tokamak is a whole superconducting magnetically confined fusion device. The insulating system of its central solenoid coils is critical to its properties. In this paper the forming of the insulating system and the vacuum-pressure-impregnating (VPI) are introduced, and the whole insulating process is verified under the superconducting experiment condition.

  3. 现代建筑外墙保温节能技术的应用分析%The Application Analysis on the Modern Building External Wall’s Heat Preservation and Insulation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁杨飞

    2014-01-01

    The traditional way of heat preservation of wal ’s energy-saving is using single material to increase wal ’s thickness, then achieving heat preservation and heat insulation. But it can’t meet the requirement of the development of energy saving and environmental protection, so the energy-saving wal is more and more becoming the mainstream. This paper offers the application analysis of modern building exterior wal ’s heat preservation and insulation technology, for col eague to refer.%墙体节能的传统保温做法即用单一材料增加墙体厚度的方式来实现保温节能,已经不能满足节能和环保的时代发展要求,所以节能墙体越来越成为墙体的主流。本文就现代建筑外墙保温节能技术的应用分析,以供同行交流。

  4. 石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆与外墙外保温系统适应性研究%The adaptive research of lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall and exterior insulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩方晖; 王栋民; 许晨阳; 刘晓斌; 刘天德

    2012-01-01

    To make lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall which successes through chemical modification technology to be widely applied in exterior insulation system, it must have good adaptability with exterior insulation system. This paper through establishing force diagram of facing external wall thermal insulation and adopting ESP external wall thermal insulation to be used in high-rise building)analyzing and calculating the earthquake effect by level, wind load and both combination effect and vertical stress gravity and bond force: meanwhile,on the basis of the calculation method to calculate the force of the 100 m-high high-rise building top exterior insulation system in the Beijing center: furthermore, calculating the force of facing external wall thermal insulation when the exterior wall facing is ceramic tile, coating and carrying on the comparison. Results indicate: it is safe when the exterior wall facing is lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall in high-rise exterior insulation system; by the size of the load is for ceramic tile > lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall > coating, in comprehensive comparison, lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall has superiority.%要使通过化学改性技术研制成功的石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆在外墙外保温系统中得到广泛应用,其必须与外墙外保温系统有很好的适应性.通过建立饰面外墙外保温系统受力图,对采用膨胀聚苯板作为高层建筑外墙外保温时,所受水平地震作用、风荷载和两者组合效应及竖直方向受力重力和压剪粘结力分析计算;同时,依据这些计算方法计算了北京市中心高为100m的高层建筑顶部外墙外保温系统受力情况;计算了外墙饰面为瓷砖、涂料时外墙外保温系统的受力情况,并对其进行比较.结果表明:外墙饰面为石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆时应用于高层外

  5. The insulation system of XRY energy-saving decorative board%XRY节能装饰板保温系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凯; 韩蕾; 程新明

    2012-01-01

    XPS, EPS and PU are organic insulation materials with the efficient insulation characteristics whose fire performance can only reach B2 level. New decorative insulation materials XRY was developed and the structure of it was introduced. The insulation core material of decorative hoard was sealed at 6 surfaces to avoid the touching of fire. The fireproof of XRY reached A level from test, and the XRY has features of energy-saving and execution convenient. The application showed that the performance of it is good.%有机质绝热材料XPS、EPS和PU等具有高效保温的特点,但其防火性能最高只能达到B2级.研制新型装饰保温材料XRY,介绍其构造及结构特点.装饰板对保温芯材进行六面全封闭,避开与火源接触的机会.经测试该材料防火性能可达A级,具有节能、防火施工便捷的特点.实际应用表明其综和性能优异.

  6. Effects of Complex System Structure and External Field in Opinion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Cai, Xu

    Around us, the society structure and external field, such as government policy, the newspaper, the internet and other mass media, play a special role in shaping the attitudes, beliefs and public opinion. For studying the role of the society structure and the external field, we propose a new opinion model based on the former models. With computer simulations of opinion dynamics, we find that the smaller the clustering coefficient and the society size, the easier the consensus phase is reached and other interesting results.

  7. PD-pulse characteristics in rotating machine insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Jensen, A;

    1994-01-01

    In this paper results are presented from investigations on partial discharges (PD) in insulation systems, resembling the stator insulation in high voltage rotating machines. A model, simulating a stator winding in a slot, has been developed, consisting of simple rotating machine insulation test...... bars with epoxy/mica insulation, mounted between steel sheets forming a dot, in order to investigate the fundamental behaviour of PD in insulation defects in epoxy/mica insulation and the characteristics of the resulting electrical pulses. Stator slot couplers (SSC) were used to detect pulses coming...

  8. Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended

  9. Insulated Fiber Brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An insulated-strand fiber brush is provided for a DC motor /generator. The brush is comprised of a plurality of fiber segments which are insulated from one another near the contact surface of a rotor bar. In one embodiment, insulating spacers are fixed to a brush assembly and wear with the fibers, and in another embodiment insulation is provided by a separate shell. (Author)

  10. Topological insulators: A romance with many dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Hari C.

    2010-07-01

    Electric charges on the boundaries of certain insulators are programmed by topology to keep moving forward when they encounter an obstacle, rather than scattering backwards and increasing the resistance of the system. This is just one reason why topological insulators are one of the hottest topics in physics right now.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Coupled Gear-Rotor-Bearing System with the Effect of Internal and External Excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shihua; SONG Guiqiu; REN Zhaohui; WEN Bangchun

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies on nonlinear dynamics of gear systems with internal excitation or external excitation respectively have been carried out. However, the nonlinear characteristics of gear systems under combined internal and external excitations are scarcely investigated. An eight-degree-of-freedom(8-DOF) nonlinear spur gear-rotor-bearing model, which contains backlash, transmission error, eccentricity, gravity and input/output torque, is established, and the coupled lateral-torsional vibration characteristics are studied. Based on the equations of motion, the coupled spur gear-rotor-bearing system(SGRBS) is investigated using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the effects of rotational speed, error fluctuation and load fluctuation on the dynamic responses are explored. The results show that a diverse range of nonlinear dynamic characteristics such as periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic behaviors and impacts exhibited in the system are strongly attributed to the interaction between internal and external excitations. Significantly, the changing rotational speed could effectively control the vibration of the system. Vibration level increases with the increasing error fluctuation. Whereas the load fluctuation has an influence on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the increasing excitation force amplitude makes the vibration amplitude increase, the chaotic motion may be restricted. The proposed model and numerical results can be used for diagnosis of faults and vibration control of practical SGRBS.

  12. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of coupled gear-rotor-bearing system with the effect of internal and external excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shihua; Song, Guiqiu; Ren, Zhaohui; Wen, Bangchun

    2016-03-01

    Extensive studies on nonlinear dynamics of gear systems with internal excitation or external excitation respectively have been carried out. However, the nonlinear characteristics of gear systems under combined internal and external excitations are scarcely investigated. An eight-degree-of-freedom(8-DOF) nonlinear spur gear-rotor-bearing model, which contains backlash, transmission error, eccentricity, gravity and input/output torque, is established, and the coupled lateral-torsional vibration characteristics are studied. Based on the equations of motion, the coupled spur gear-rotor-bearing system(SGRBS) is investigated using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the effects of rotational speed, error fluctuation and load fluctuation on the dynamic responses are explored. The results show that a diverse range of nonlinear dynamic characteristics such as periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic behaviors and impacts exhibited in the system are strongly attributed to the interaction between internal and external excitations. Significantly, the changing rotational speed could effectively control the vibration of the system. Vibration level increases with the increasing error fluctuation. Whereas the load fluctuation has an influence on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the increasing excitation force amplitude makes the vibration amplitude increase, the chaotic motion may be restricted. The proposed model and numerical results can be used for diagnosis of faults and vibration control of practical SGRBS.

  13. Modeling and simulation of physical performance of a external unilateral mechatronic orthopaedic fixator - bone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniewska, A; Choromanski, W; Deszczynski, J; Dobrzynski, G

    2006-01-01

    Restricted element study of the fracture healing by external fixation device was investigated. The analyses were performed under an axial and variable loaded boundary conditions. The effect of different fracture size and different distance between bone and the external fixator device on the stress distribution was investigated. The results show that stresses in the external fixator device are highest at the beginning of the fracture healing process, and are gradually decreasing with the time of the treatment. The analyses were carried out using the commercial package CATIA P3 V5R11. This allowed to build a three-dimensional model more similar to the geometrical architecture of the long bone as well as of the external fixator. Three-dimensional restricted element model also allowed a collection of more realistic results. However, the accuracy of the results depends not only on the quality of the model geometry but also on the material properties assigned to the model components. It also depends on the accuracy in the simulation of the finite element model and the optimized mesh generation.

  14. Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay А.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.

  15. Improvement of energy efficiency by optimized thermal insulation of cooling water pipes of air conditioning systems and refrigerant pipes of cooling systems; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz durch optimierte Daemmung der Kuehlwasserrohrleitungen von Klimaanlagen und Kaeltemittelrohrleitungen von Kuehlanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielarski, Jarema [ARMACELL SWITZERLAND AG, Pfaffnau (Switzerland)

    2011-05-31

    Higher energy efficiency is an issue also in air conditioning and refrigeration, which accounts for 14 percent of Germany's total energy consumption today (according to ASERCOM) and can be assumed to have a similar energy consumption level in other European levels. The new Energy Conservation Ordinance of October 2009 was the first that specified obligatory thermal insulation also of cooling and cold water pipes in space HVAC systems. A current study by the Armacell company showed that while this is an important first step, thicker insulation layers must be specified for the future.

  16. USAGE OF MICRO-MODULAR HEAT-INSULATION LAYER IN STRUCTURES OF WALL PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of requirements to existing heat-insulation layers in enclosure structures of wall panels has been carried out, a general principles on development of thermal insulation systems, substantiation on the necessity to develop a new wall panel design with improved thermal characteristics. The proposed design of the wall panel differs from the existing one in the fact that its external layer is made of protective sheets being perforated in their top and bottom parts with perforated aluminum foil layer placed on them. Air layer performs function of one of thermal insulation layers, and the second layer is made up in the form of several micro-modular sub-layers which are divided by perforated aluminum foil and a grid. An inner concrete layer is also separated from micro-modular layers by aluminum foil. Protective sheets and the grid can be made of aluminum or polyethylene.The arrangement of hollow micro-modular cells in the zone of negative temperatures prevents condensate accumulation. The arrangement of the perforated aluminum foil layers between micro- modular layers leads to increase in thermal resistance of the panel due to decrease of a radiant component in presence of several screens and does not interfere with a vapor permeability of thermal insulation layers from micro-modules. At the same time placement of a non-perforated foil layer on an inside panel layer interferes with penetration of water vapor from rooms in micro-modular thermal insulation layers.Technological principles lie in the arrangement of perforation slots in the top and bottom zones of protective sheets that allows to delete excess moisture from thermal insulation layers and air layer and also leads to improvement of thermo-technical characteristics, durability and reliability in construction operation as a whole. The executed calculations of heat and humidity fields in external enclosure structures confirm advantages of the presented technical

  17. Points to be noted in using radiation treatment planning system; External photon beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irifune, Toraji (Tokyo Metropolitan Coll. of Allied Medical Sciences (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The accuracy of absorbed dose calculations for external photon beam therapy depends on the computational algorithms being used: the acquisition of basic beam data, the patient's anatomical information, the spacing of the points in the matrices, the interpolation routine, inhomogeneity corrections, etc. At present, the dose calculation algorithms employed in most commercially available treatment planning systems for absorbed dose calculation are two-dimensional methods for photon fluence and do not take electronic equilibrium into account. Therefore, their use for radiation treatment planning is limited. In particular, the problem of inhomogeneity correction for lung is the most significant. The inhomogeneity correction methods most commonly used are ratio of TAR (RTAR), power law TAR (PTAR) and equivalent TAR (ETAR) methods. One Japanese society for therapeutic radiology and oncology (JASTRO) task group has compared the three correction methods mentioned above with measured values using the same JARP level dosimeter and lung model phantom. The photon energies were [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays, 4, 6, 10 and 18 MV x rays, and field sizes were 5 x 5, 10 x 10 and 20 x 20 cm[sup 2] at SSD 100 cm. RTAR lead to errors (%) of 2.5 to 12.6, 1.7 to 10.9, 2.7 to 8.5, 3.1 to 9.9, and 1.0 to 19.1; PTAR errors were -0.7 to 2.3, -2.1 to 1.6, -1.1 to 2.2, -0.3 to 3.9, and -2.0 to 6.6; and ETAR errors were 0.7 to 2.5, 0 to 3.1, -0.1 to 6.8, 3.4 to 9.2, and 1.0 to 18.6 for [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays, 4, 6, 10 and 18 MV x rays, respectively. Survey results showed that about 50% of the institutions used measured data obtained by themselves. Basic beam data acquisition should be self-contained. (author).

  18. Thermal balance of a wall with PCM-enhanced thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Kossecka, Elizabeth [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences; Williams, Teresa [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: PCM insulation mixtures function as lightweight thermal mass components. It is expected that these types of dynamic insulation systems will contribute to the objective of reducing energy use in buildings. In this paper, dynamic thermal properties of a material in which phase hange occurs are analyzed, using the temperature-dependent specific heat model. Integral formula for the total heat flow in finite time interval, across the surface of a slab of the phase change material, was derived. Simulations have been performed to analyze heat transfer through a light-weight wall assembly with PCM-enhanced insulation, in different external climate thermal conditions. Results of simulations indicate that for cyclic processes, the effect of PCM in an insulation layer results rather in time shifting of the heat flux extreme values than in reduction of the total heat flow. The heat gains maxima, resulting in high cooling loads, are shifted in time by about two hours and reduced about 15% to 30% for not very high external sol-air temperatures.

  19. Effect of heat-insulating wall on input energy of a photovoltaic/solar/air-heat system for a residence; Jutaku no kodannetsuka ni yoru taiyoko netsu/taiki netsu system no donyu energy sakugen koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A proposal was made to introduce a photovoltaic/solar/air-heat system which positively utilizes natural energy in order to curtail consumption of fossil energy, corroborating that the system has greatly reduced energy input in the primary energy level in a house. This paper examines the effect of curtailment of energy input in the case of reducing the load of air conditioning through the high heat insulation of a house. The energy input was evaluated by calculating additional equipment energy needed newly for the high heat insulation. The system performance and the energy load varied greatly depending on weather conditions. The subject system consisted of solar cells, inverter, heat concentrator, heat storage tank, heat pump and gas hot-water supply device. The thickening of the insulation sharply reduced heating load in the house, thereby decreasing fuel energy substantially. An insulation material of 100mm thick was capable of reducing energy input by 16-23% compared with that of 50mm thick. 5 refs., 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  20. Improvement in magnetic field immunity of externally-coupled transcutaneous energy transmission system for a totally implantable artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji; Homma, Akihiko; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) that uses electromagnetic induction between the external and internal coils of a transformer is the most promising method to supply driving energy to a totally implantable artificial heart without invasion. Induction-heating (IH) cookers generate magnetic flux, and if a cooker is operated near a transcutaneous transformer, the magnetic flux generated will link with the external and internal coils of the transcutaneous transformer. This will affect the performance of the TET and the artificial heart system. Hence, it is necessary to improve the magnetic field immunity of the TET system. During operation of the system, if the transcutaneous transformer is in close proximity to an IH cooker, the electric power generated by the cooker and coupled to the transformer can drive the artificial heart system. To prevent this coupling, the external coil was shielded with a conductive shield that had a slit in it. This reduces the coupling between the transformer and the magnetic field generated by the induction cooker. However, the temperature of the shield increased due to heating by eddy currents. The temperature of the shield can be reduced by separating the IH cooker and the shield.

  1. Analysis of Evaluation Technology of Insulation Systems for High Voltage Frequency Conversion Motor%高压变频电机绝缘结构评价技术解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧洁

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation technology of the insulation systems for high voltage frequency conversion motor was introduced, including thermal evaluation, acceptance test for mainwall insulation systems, and qualification tests for mainwall insulation systems, turn insulation systems, and stress control systems. It analyzed the difficulties met in electrical evaluation of the insulation systems, such as the unknown machine terminal voltages waveshape arising from converter operation, no reference systems can be used in mainwall insulation systems qualification tests, no test equipments to simulate the actual running situation of insulation systems. Methods to solve these problems were also discussed for reference.%介绍了高压变频电机绝缘结构评价技术,包括热评价、主绝缘认可试验及对主绝缘、匝间绝缘、应力控制和防晕结构的鉴别试验。讨论了目前高压变频电机绝缘结构电评价过程中遇到的电机运行时可能出现的端电压波形未知、主绝缘鉴别试验无基准结构可参考、难以获得完全模拟实际情况的电源条件等问题,并分析了解决这些问题的对策,供高压变频电机制造商和用户参考。

  2. Field experience and electrical characteristics of punctured porcelain suspension insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.H. [Institut de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The condition and electrical characteristics of porcelain insulators in service at Hydro-Quebec were investigated through a series of live-line tests. More than 2,000 insulator strings on the distribution system were checked under energized field conditions using different detection devices. About 200 faulty insulators and representative sound insulators were removed and analyzed in the laboratory in an effort to assess the efficiency of the different devices used to detect the faulty insulators. The detection of faulty insulator units is necessary to maintain system reliability. Insulator deterioration was found to be caused by inherent porosity and manufacturing defects in the porcelain shell and by expansion forces produced by insulator pin-hole cement. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F. P.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm2), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  4. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  5. Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...

  6. Test Method To Quantify The Wicking Properties Of Porous Insulation Materials Designed To Prevent Interstitial Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrea; Zirkelbach, Daniel; Künzel, Hartwig

    2010-05-01

    Applying an interior insulation often is the only option for a thermal retrofit, especially when heritage buildings are concerned. In doing so, the original construction becomes colder in winter and interstitial condensation may occur. The common way to avoid harmful condensation beneath the interior insulation of the external wall is the installation of a vapor barrier. Since such a barrier works both ways, it may adversely affect the drying potential of the wall during the warmer seasons. One way to avoid the problems described is the installation of an interior insulation system without a vapor barrier to the inside. Here, the effect of capillary transport in porous hydrophilic media is used to conduct condensing moisture away from the wall/insulation interface back to the surface in contact with the indoor air. Following an increasing demand, several water wicking insulation materials (e.g. Calcium-silicate, Autoclave Aerated Concrete based mineral foam, hydrophilic Glass fiber, Cellulose fiber) have appeared on the market. In the past, different methods have been developed to measure and describe the liquid transport properties of hydrophilic porous media. However, the evaluation of the moisture transport mechanisms and their efficiency in this special field of implementation is very complex because of the interacting vapor- and liquid moisture transfer processes. Therefore, there is no consensus yet on its determination and quantification.

  7. Effects of Dressing Poses on Clothing Thermal Insulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 刘岩; 张渭源

    2004-01-01

    With a thermal manikin, the effects of dressing poses on clothing thermal insulation are studied. It is found that the thermal insulation of still air layer over human body has not been influenced by the dressing poses, but the dressing poses have effects on the thermal insulation of clothing system.

  8. Insulation Materials of Transformer Using Chemical Mechanism of Moisture Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Hussian Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    The composite insulation system of power transformers consisting of two insulation materials (cellulose and mineral oil) are the main insulation material of power transformer, the increase of moisture will reduce their insulation strength. Moisture equilibrium curves are the basis of power transformer moisture detection, however, the service data and theory analysis both indicate the present curves are not fit for old transformer. Therefore this research work is focused the law and mechanism ...

  9. Recent Progress in Electrical Insulation Techniques for HTS Power Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hanai, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi

    This paper describes the electrical insulation techniques at cryogenic temperatures, i.e. Cryodielectrics, for HTS power apparatus, e.g. HTS power transmission cables, transformers, fault current limiters and SMES. Breakdown and partial discharge characteristics are discussed for different electrical insulation configurations of LN2, sub-cooled LN2, solid, vacuum and their composite insulation systems. Dynamic and static insulation performances with and without taking account of quench in HTS materials are also introduced.

  10. Estimation of winding insulation resistance to the corona discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, A.; Red'ko, V.; Soldatenko, E.

    2014-10-01

    This article presents test results of enameled winding wires, characterizing an insulation electrical and mechanical strength. Standard and original test methods were used. Note that existing standard test methods do not estimate enamel insulation resistance to the electrical loads under winding operation of variable-speed drive. We show that estimation of wire corona resistance can be done by high frequency electrical impulse testing. Wire insulation plays the main role of reliability of insulation system.

  11. Influence of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling systems analysed in ensemble of past millennium climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit; Yi, Xin; Emeis, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are highly productive coastal ocean areas where nutrient rich, cold water upwells by the action of favorable winds. Observations over the 20th century and ocean sediment records, which may be indicative of upwelling, display an intensification due to stronger external climate forcing, such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations or changes in solar irradiance. This intensification is compatible with the hypothesis put forward by Bakun (1990) that a stronger external radiative forcing should lead to a more intense coastal upwelling. Here, we analyze ensemble of simulations covering the past millennium with the aim of identifying and quantifying the role of external climate forcing on upwelling in the major Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. We analyse the decadal variability and centennial trends of upwelling in ensemble of simulations with the global climate model MPI-ESM covering the past millennium, the last 150 years and the next 100 years. The future simulations were driven by three IPCC scenarios of concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, RCP2.5, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5. For the past millennium and the last 150 years, coastal upwelling does not show any imprint of external forcing. This result indicates that chaotic internal variability has dominated upwelling intensity in major upwelling regions over the last thousand years and even since industrialisation up to present. For the 21st century, all ensemble members show a consistent and significant intensification of upwelling in the strongest scenario RCP8.5 for the Benguela upwelling region, consistent and significant weakening for Morocco and California, and no significant change for the Peruvian upwelling. Weaker scenarios do not produce consistent long-term trends that are replicated in all ensemble members. The results are confirmed by analysing another ensemble of past millennium simulations with the model CESM-CAM5 (Community Earth System Model

  12. EFFECTS OF CARBOXYMETHLY DEXTRAN MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES CARRIER SYSTEM ASSOCIATED WITH EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELDS ON KILLING TUMOR CELLS AND GENE TRANSFECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-guo; ZHOU Si-wei; LIU Ji-hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the preparation of the carboxymethly dextran iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (CDMN) and the effects of CDMN carrier system associated with external magnetic fields on killing tumor cells and gene transfection in vitro. Methods: Epirubicin-CDMN (EPI-CDMN) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmid-CDMN (GFP-CDMN) were prepared by the oxidation-reduction procedure and their characters were detected, respectively. The effects of EPI-CDMN associated with external pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) (10 mT) on killing human bladder cancer BIU-87 cells were studied by MTT assay and Annexin-V/PI double-labeled flow cytometry technique, respectively. And the transfection efficiency of GFP when CDMN were used as gene carrier associated with the external magnetic fields was evaluated under fluorescence microscope in vitro. Results: The diameter of EPI-CDMN and GFP-CDMN were about 8~10 nm and 5~9 nm, respectively, and saturation magnetization were 0.22 emu/g and 0.26 emu/g, respectively. EPI-CDMN associated with PEMFs could significantly inhibit the proliferation of BIU-87 cells and induce cells apoptosis, the growth inhibitory rate and apoptosis rate were (21.82(3.18)% and (16.79(3.37)%, respectively. The transfection efficiency of GFP-CDMN combined with PEMFs was significant higher than that of GFP-CDMN without PEMFs [(45.70(4.32)% vs (35.85(2.16)%, P<0.05]. Conclusion: It seemed that EPI-CDMN associated with external magnetic fields could significantly killed human bladder cancer BIU-87 cells and CDMN could effectively transfer GFP gene into tumors cells with the help of external magnetic fields which provided experimental basis for the magnetic targeting therapy of tumor.

  13. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochurov, Boris P.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA-Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. The results for two cases are as follows: Case 1Case 2CR 0.77 1.66N(LWR) 8.6 19.1Power MWt(el) 512 225 where N(LWR)-number of LWRs(3000 MWt(th)) from which yearly discharge of Tc-99 is transmuted during 30 years. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  14. The efficacy of systemic therapy for childhood and adolescent externalizing disorders: a systematic review of 47 RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sydow, Kirsten; Retzlaff, Ruediger; Beher, Stefan; Haun, Markus W; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Systemic (family) therapy is a widely used psychotherapy approach. However, most systematic efficacy reviews have focused solely on "family-based treatment" rather than on the theoretic orientation "systemic therapy." We systematically review trials on the efficacy of systemic therapy for the treatment of childhood and adolescent externalizing disorders. All randomized (or matched) controlled trials (RCT) evaluating systemic/systems-oriented therapy in various forms (family, individual, group, multi-family group therapy) with child or adolescent index patients (0-17 years) suffering from mental disorders were identified by data base searches and cross-references. Inclusion criteria were as follows: index patient diagnosed with a DSM- or ICD-listed mental disorder, and trial published in any language up to the end of 2011. The RCTs were analyzed for their research methodology, interventions applied, and results (postintervention; follow-up). A total of 47 trials from the United States, Europe, and China, published in English, German, and Mandarin, were identified. A total of 42 of them showed systemic therapy to be efficacious for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, conduct disorders, and substance use disorders. Results were stable across follow-up periods of up to 14 years. There is a sound evidence base for the efficacy of systemic therapy for children and adolescents (and their families) diagnosed with externalizing disorders.

  15. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  16. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  17. INVESTIGATION OF LOSSES IN INSULATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLES WITH XLPE INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Shchebeniuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors calculate the losses in insulation system cable with XLPE-polyethylene as a solid dielectric insulation and with semiconductor polyethylene used as a conductor screen and a insulation screen. The paper is devoted to the investigation of losses in the insulation system of high- voltage XLPE-cables. The line of XLPE-cables in group running horizontally, provided that the cables are of equal diameter and emit equal losses. It is limited to the following: the air flow around the cables may be necessary restricted by proximity to next cables. The dielectric losses are voltage depended and related to the insulation system materials being used. All current in this insulation system are complex quantities containing both real (Re(I and imaginary (Im(I parts. Values of the loss factor of the insulation system at power frequency tgd are given astgd = Re(I/Im(I. It was proposed the quantities criterion of the loss factor of the insulation system to high voltage XLPE-cables. The work is devoted to creation of a method for calculation of the current rating of high-voltage cables in conditions function.

  18. Insulation of nonlinear and random vibrations in the mining industry. [elastodynamic response of rubber insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeveleanu, C.

    1974-01-01

    The insulation of nonlinear and random vibrations is considered for some ore preparing and sorting implements: rotary crushers, resonance screens, hammer mills, etc. The appearance of subharmonic vibrations is analyzed, and the conditions for their appearance are determined. A method is given for calculating the insulation of these vibrations by means of elastic elements made of rubber. The insulation of the random vibrations produced by Symons crushers is calculated by determining the transmissability and deformation of the insulation system for a narrow band random response.

  19. Origin and development of ablator for Space Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) represents the largest element of the Space Shuttle transportation system. The ET is the fuel tank which contains cryogenic propellants, including liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The task of providing a suitable Thermal Protection System (TPS) which is mass producible for the ET represented a challenge for the aerospace industry. The difficulties were compounded by stringent insulation and ablation requirements for the materials to maintain their integrity over a wide range of operating temperatures during prelaunch and ascent. Attention is given to the configuration of the Space Shuttle system, the configuration of the external tank, the initial ET TPS concept, TPS materials and processes concepts, design rationale, TPS materials structural considerations, material and processes development, development tests, material/process verification, and flight results.

  20. Economic analysis of a variety of external wall heat preservation practices of a project%某项目外墙保温做法多种方案经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚杰; 李会芳

    2015-01-01

    Combined with the specific projects,Ciric phase change thermal insulation mortar,plastic extruded board,polystyrene board three in-sulation material combinations of a variety of external wall insulation system economic cost analysis,find the optimal economic external wall insu-lation scheme,which has saved engineering cost.%结合具体项目,对克瑞克相变保温砂浆、挤塑板、聚苯板三种保温材料组合出的外墙保温系统方案进行了经济成本分析,找出了经济最优的外墙保温方案,为工程节约了成本。

  1. Doping dependent metal to insulator transition in the (Bi,Pb)-2212 system: The evolution of structural and electronic properties with europium substitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shabna Razia; Sarun Pallian Murikoli; Vinu Surendran; Syamaprasad Upendrant

    2009-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of europium substitution on the (Bi,Pb)-2212 system in the concentration range 0.5≤χ≤ 1.0. Phase analysis and lattice parameter calculations on the powder diffraction data and the elemental analysis of EDX show that the Eu atoms are successfully substituted into the (Bi,Pb)-2212 system. Resistivity measurements (64-300 K) reveal that the system exhibits superconductivity at χ≤ 0.5 and semiconductivity at χ>0.5.With the complete suppression of superconductivity which is known to be a quasi-two dimensional phenomenon in these materials,a metal to insulator transition takes place at χ= 0.6 and the predominant conduction mechanism is found to be variable range hopping between localized states,resulting in macroscopic semiconducting behaviour. The results of electrical and structural properties of the doped (Bi,Pb)-2212 compounds suggest that the decrease of charge carrier concentration and the induced structural disorder are the more effective and dominant mechanisms in the origin of the metal to insulator transition and suppression of superconductivity due to Eu substitution at its Sr site.

  2. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated.

  3. Pacemaker System Malfunction Resulting from External Electrical Cardioversion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Nishida, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 2005 a 68-year-old woman received a VDD pacemaker implantation in the right pectoral region at our hospital for the treatment of complete atrioventricular block. In July 2008, she was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy based on histological testing. In November 2008, she developed syncope due to ventricular tachycardia while at another hospital. She underwent external electrical cardioversion with an anterior-lateral paddle position using a single shock of 100 J. This shock led to severe bradycardia resulting in a transfer to our hospital. The physician who provided the shock could not have been aware that the patient had an implanted pacemaker. The skin above the pulse generator was burned. The electrocardiogram showed no pacing spikes or ventricular escape rhythm. Investigation of the pacemaker 3 hours after cardioversion revealed reprogramming of the device and a marked rise in the lead impedance (>3,000 ohm. Removal of the generator and implantation of a biventricular cardioverter defibrillator were required. The emergency situation, the small size of the generator, the small incision made using the buried suture method, and the patient's obesity all probably contributed to the physician's not noticing the implanted pacemaker. It is important to increase awareness of the severe consequences that may follow if the physician administering external defibrillation does not know about the patient's implanted pacemaker.

  4. On-Line Monitoring System for Insulator Salt Density Based on Optical Fiber Sensing Technology and Its Application%绝缘子盐密在线监测系统及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆东松; 黄靖梅

    2013-01-01

    The optical field distribution theory of optical waveguide was introduced based on the feasibility study of the optical fiber sensor to measure the external insulation pollution degree of the transmission and transformation power equipment.The light energy parameters of quartz glass used as the optical sensor was analyzed by spectral data analysis algorithm and the corresponding relationship between luminous flux attenuation and salt density was set up.Subsequently the optical sensor Pollution Monitoring System was developed to realize the on-line monitoring of insulator salt density.The system has already been applied in Tianshui 330 kV transmission line and the results are satisfied.The test results indicate that the system can timely and accurately monitor the salt density of the transmission and distribution equipment,and guide the production department to clean the transmission and distribution equipment in order to avoid excessive or insufficient maintenance.%基于光纤传感器测量输变电设备外绝缘污秽度的可行性研究,引入了光波导中的光场分布理论.通过光谱数据分析算法,分析了石英玻璃作为光传感器的各种光能特性,建立了光通量的衰减与盐密间的数学模型,进而研制了基于光传感器的污秽在线监测系统,实现对绝缘子盐密的在线监测.该系统已在天水330 kV输电线路陇西1-2线瓷绝缘子和复合绝缘子测点挂网运行,并取得了良好的监测效果.试验结果表明,该系统能实时、准确地监测输变电设备的盐密值,掌握输变电设备的积污规律,进而指导生产部门对输变电设备的状态清扫.以避免过度检修和检修不足的状况.

  5. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 Condensed Matter, Topological Phases of Matter REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S...Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials

  6. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  7. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  8. Plasmonics in Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Lai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With strong spin-orbit coupling, topological insulators have an insulating bulk state, characterized by a band gap, and a conducting surface state, characterized by a Dirac cone. Plasmons in topological insulators show high frequency-tunability in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions with transverse spin oscillations, also called “spin-plasmons”. This paper presents a discussion and review of the developments in this field from the fundamental theory of plasmons in bulk, thin-film, and surface-magnetized topological insulators to the techniques of plasmon excitation and future applications.

  9. Experimental Realizations of Magnetic Topological Insulator and Topological Crystalline Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suyang

    2013-03-01

    Over the past few years the experimental research on three-dimensional topological insulators have emerged as one of the most rapidly developing fields in condensed matter physics. In this talk, we report on two new developments in the field: The first part is on the dynamic interplay between ferromagnetism and the Z2 topological insulator state (leading to a magnetic topological insulator). We present our spin-resolved photoemission and magnetic dichroic experiments on MBE grown films where a hedgehog-like spin texture is revealed on the magnetically ordered surface of Mn-Bi2Se3 revealing a Berry's phase gradient in energy-momentum space of the crystal. A chemically/electrically tunable Berry's phase switch is further demonstrated via the tuning of the spin groundstate in Mn-Bi2Se3 revealed in our data (Nature Physics 8, 616 (2012)). The second part of this talk describes our experimental observation of a new topological phase of matter, namely a topological crystalline insulator where space group symmetries replace the role of time-reversal symmetry in an otherwise Z2 topological insulator predicted in theory. We experimentally investigate the possibility of a mirror symmetry protected topological phase transition in the Pb1-xSnxTe alloy system, which has long been known to contain an even number of band inversions based on band theory. Our experimental results show that at a composition below the theoretically predicted band inversion, the system is fully gapped, whereas in the band-inverted regime, the surface exhibits even number of spin-polarized Dirac cone states revealing mirror-protected topological order (Nature Communications 3, 1192 (2012)) distinct from that observed in Z2 topological insulators. We discuss future experimental possibilities opened up by these new developments in topological insulators research. This work is in collaboration with M. Neupane, C. Liu, N. Alidoust, I. Belopolski, D. Qian, D.M. Zhang, A. Richardella, A. Marcinkova, Q

  10. Calculating the Insulated Car Roof Opening System Components and Strength Analysis of Car Design in Its Various Embodiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kopytov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Opening roof cars can be used in transportation of a diversity of goods that require weather protection. Their operation allows us to fulfill the tasks of the Ministry of Railways that is to ensure both the qualitative and lossless transportation of various national economy and special loads and the significant improvement in the technical and economic indexes of the industry. Thus, there are three embodiment options of the opening roofs: single-leaf roof with axial of rotation along one car side; double-leaf roof with axial of rotation of its flaps along both car sides; single-leaf roof with axial of rotation along the car end wall. The work analyses and compares the first two options of the opening systems of the car roof. Analysis of various schemes of opening the roof-insulated cars is based on kinematic and force calculations. The paper defines how the changing length of hydraulic cylinders depends on the stroke and on the arm of applied force, depending on the opening roof angle for various embodiment options. To find the forces acting on the cylinders were determined the forces acting on the roof and the total applied moment of all the forces acting on them with respect to the axial of rotation. Thus, the total applied moment was considered to comprise the weighting unbalance moments of the roof and snow on it, as well as a moment of the force of wind acting on the roof (dead wind or downwind. Upon finding how the changing total moment of the force applied to the roof depends on the rotation angle and on the change of the applied force arm of hydraulic cylinders, the work determines the forces acting on the cylinders. The maximum tensile and compression force acting on the cylinders allows us to define their geometric characteristics such as piston stroke, diameter of the rod, piston-and rod-working cavity. Using a software package SADAS (developed at the Department "Rocket Launching Complexes" in BMSTU the core models were built and

  11. Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks (STICT) is a thermal management system applied by either an automated or manual spraying process with less...

  12. Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation addressed in this proposal is Sprayable Thermal Insulation for Cryogenic Tanks, or STICT. This novel system could be applied in either an automated or...

  13. Engineering challenges of BioNEMS: the integration of microfluidics, micro- and nanodevices, models and external control for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikswo, J P; Prokop, A; Baudenbacher, F; Cliffel, D; Csukas, B; Velkovsky, M

    2006-08-01

    Systems biology, i.e. quantitative, postgenomic, postproteomic, dynamic, multiscale physiology, addresses in an integrative, quantitative manner the shockwave of genetic and proteomic information using computer models that may eventually have 10(6) dynamic variables with non-linear interactions. Historically, single biological measurements are made over minutes, suggesting the challenge of specifying 10(6) model parameters. Except for fluorescence and micro-electrode recordings, most cellular measurements have inadequate bandwidth to discern the time course of critical intracellular biochemical events. Micro-array expression profiles of thousands of genes cannot determine quantitative dynamic cellular signalling and metabolic variables. Major gaps must be bridged between the computational vision and experimental reality. The analysis of cellular signalling dynamics and control requires, first, micro- and nano-instruments that measure simultaneously multiple extracellular and intracellular variables with sufficient bandwidth; secondly, the ability to open existing internal control and signalling loops; thirdly, external BioMEMS micro-actuators that provide high bandwidth feedback and externally addressable intracellular nano-actuators; and, fourthly, real-time, closed-loop, single-cell control algorithms. The unravelling of the nested and coupled nature of cellular control loops requires simultaneous recording of multiple single-cell signatures. Externally controlled nano-actuators, needed to effect changes in the biochemical, mechanical and electrical environment both outside and inside the cell, will provide a major impetus for nanoscience.

  14. Quantum magnetotransport properties of Floquet topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M.

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical realization of the quantum magnetotransport properties for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators (FTIs) is presented. Their band structure in the presence of an external perpendicular magnetic field is derived and discussed. Further, the longitudinal and Hall conductivities are evaluated using linear response theory. A new quantum Hall state of matter has been found in FTIs under the application of a magnetic field where the n=0 Landau level undergoes a quantum phase transition from a trivial insulator state to a Hall insulator state. In the former state the Hall conductivity is zero at zero Fermi energy (EF=0) while in the latter the Hall conductivity is equal to e2 / h . The proposed effects are accessible to experiments which open new possibilities to study FTIs for the realization of (i) non trivial quantum phase transitions, (ii) exchange of surface states, and (iii) unusual quantum Hall plateaus.

  15. Stochastic resonance and nonequilibrium dynamic phase transition of Ising spin system driven by a joint external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Yuan-Zhi; Zhong Wei-Rong; Lin Guang-Ming; Li Jian-Can

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic response and stochastic resonance of a kinetic Ising spin system (ISS) subject to the joint action of an external field of weak sinusoidal modulation and stochastic white-noise are studied by solving the mean-field equation of motion based on Glauber dynamics. The periodically driven stochastic ISS shows that the characteristic stochastic resonance as well as nonequilibrium dynamic phase transition (NDPT) occurs when the frequency ω and amplitude h0 of driving field, the temperature t of the system and noise intensity D are all specifically in accordance with each other in quantity. There exist in the system two typical dynamic phases, referred to as dynamic disordered paramagnetic and ordered ferromagnetic phases respectively, corresponding to a zero- and a unit-dynamic order parameter. The NDPT boundary surface of the system which separates the dynamic paramagnetic phase from the dynamic ferromagnetic phase in the 3D parameter space of h0-t-D is also investigated. An interesting dynamical ferromagnetic phase with an intermediate order parameter of 0.66 is revealed for the first time in the ISS subject to the perturbation of a joint determinant and stochastic field. The intermediate order dynamical ferromagnetic phase is dynamically metastable in nature and owns a peculiar characteristic in its stability as well as the response to external driving field as compared with a fully order dynamic ferromagnetic phase.

  16. The Theoretical and Methodological Platform for Developing a System of Enterprise Adaptation to Changes in the External Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova Lyudmila V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the elaboration of an approach to creation of a theoretical and methodological platform for developing a system of enterprise adaptation to the rapid changes in the external environment, the modern active challenges of the markets. The attention is focused on the fact that the ability of industrial enterprises to respond flexibly to the external environment instability is realized through their adaptation system, the development of which should be based on an appropriate theoretical and methodological platform. The conducted retrospective analysis of the evolution of scientific thought on solving problems of enterprise adaptation allowed making the conclusion that still there is no agreed view of scientists on the scientific basis for the development of an adequate system for adaptation of industrial enterprises. There has been suggested an approach to developing a theoretical and methodological platform of the process of industrial enterprises’ adaptation as a targeted set of basic concepts, principles, theories, scientific methods, models, laws and categories, oriented towards the elaboration of an appropriate organizational and economic system.

  17. Monolayer MoS2 metal insulator transition based memcapacitor modeling with extension to a ternary device

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim Khan; Byoung Hun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Memcapacitor model based on its one possible physical realization is developed and simulated in order to know its limitation before making a real device. The proposed device structure consists of vertically stacked dielectric layer and MoS2 monolayer between two external metal plates. The Metal Insulator Transition (MIT) phenomenon of MoS2 monolayer is represented in terms of percolation probabilty which is used as the system state. Cluster based site percolation theory is used to mimic the M...

  18. STUDY ON FIRE RESISTANCE PERFORMANCE OF SEVERAL BUILDING' S EXTERIOR WALL INSULATION MATERIALS%几种建筑外墙保温材料的抗火性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚家伟; 侯兆铭; 姚亦舒

    2012-01-01

    在建筑节能外围护结构的保温隔热中,外墙体的保温隔热对建筑节能的影响最大.目前建筑外墙保温材料和保温技术需要具有优异的保温效果、杰出的耐燃性能、成熟的保温配套系统、便捷的施工方法、绿色环保和经济可行的材料.文中对几种传统的外墙保温材料和外墙保温新材料的性能进行了对比分析,从而推荐出保温与防火性能好的外墙保温材料,满足建筑工程需要.%In the external structure' s insulation, the outer wall insulation has the greatest impact on building energy efficiency. Currently building's exterior wall materials and insulation technology requires a superior insulation effect, outstanding fireproof performance, sophisticated insulation matching system, convenient construction methods, green and economically viable materials. In this paper, comparative a-nalysis has been carried on among several traditional insulation materials and new materials, which recommended a good thermal insulation and fireproof performance of exterior insulation materials to meet the construction needs.

  19. High-performance insulator structures for accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Sanders, D.M.; Stoddard, R.D.; Trimble, D.O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Elizondo, J.; Krogh, M.L.; Wieskamp, T.F. [Allied Signal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Federal Mfg. and Technologies

    1997-05-01

    A new, high gradient insulator technology has been developed for accelerator systems. The concept involves the use of alternating layers of conductors and insulators with periods of order 1 mm or less. These structures perform many times better (about 1.5 to 4 times higher breakdown electric field) than conventional insulators in long pulse, short pulse, and alternating polarity applications. We describe our ongoing studies investigating the degradation of the breakdown electric field resulting from alternate fabrication techniques, the effect of gas pressure, the effect of the insulator-to-electrode interface gap spacing, and the performance of the insulator structure under bi-polar stress.

  20. Vacuum Insulator Development for the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J R; Blackfield, D; Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Hawkins, S; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M; Managan, J E

    2008-03-17

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a new type of accelerator, known as a Dielectric Wall Accelerator, in which compact pulse forming lines directly apply an accelerating field to the beam through an insulating vacuum boundary. The electrical strength of this insulator may define the maximum gradient achievable in these machines. To increase the system gradient, we are using 'High Gradient Insulators' composed of alternating layers of dielectric and metal for the vacuum insulator. In this paper, we present our recent results from experiment and simulation, including the first test of a High Gradient Insulator in a functioning Dielectric Wall Accelerator cell.