WorldWideScience

Sample records for external information sources

  1. Networks and external sources of information, section 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, P. F.; Wynne, H. G.; Martin, W. A.; Bodini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The basic functional aspects of telecommunications, text searching, and networking are reviewed. Some of the information services, both commercial and noncommercial, which are operational in the United States and Europe are described. The ARPANET, TELENET, TYMET, and EURONET packet networks are described. External online bibliographic data bases and factual data banks are reviewed. Details of services offered, specific topics available, and contact points are given for: (in the United States) the NASA/RECON, DOE/RECON, Defense RDT and E, Lockheed Information System (DIALOG), SDC ORBIT, and the bibliograhic Retrieval systems; and (in Europe), ESA/IRS, the International Atomic Energy Agency, TELESYSTEMS, SPIDEL, INKA DIMDI DATA-STAR, BLAISE, and PERGAMON-INFOLINE systems.

  2. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  3. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  4. Constrained Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Model Calibration Using Summary-level Information from External Big Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Yi-Hau; Maas, Paige; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-03-01

    Information from various public and private data sources of extremely large sample sizes are now increasingly available for research purposes. Statistical methods are needed for utilizing information from such big data sources while analyzing data from individual studies that may collect more detailed information required for addressing specific hypotheses of interest. In this article, we consider the problem of building regression models based on individual-level data from an "internal" study while utilizing summary-level information, such as information on parameters for reduced models, from an "external" big data source. We identify a set of very general constraints that link internal and external models. These constraints are used to develop a framework for semiparametric maximum likelihood inference that allows the distribution of covariates to be estimated using either the internal sample or an external reference sample. We develop extensions for handling complex stratified sampling designs, such as case-control sampling, for the internal study. Asymptotic theory and variance estimators are developed for each case. We use simulation studies and a real data application to assess the performance of the proposed methods in contrast to the generalized regression (GR) calibration methodology that is popular in the sample survey literature.

  5. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  6. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  7. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    own specific set of mechanisms and conditions. Integrating innovations has been mostly studied from an absorptive capacity perspective, with less attention given to the impact of competencies and culture (including “not invented here”). Commercializing innovations puts the most emphasis on how......” in a way inconsistent with earlier definitions in innovation management. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research that include examining the end-to-end innovation commercialization process, and studying the moderators and limits of leveraging external sources of innovation....

  8. HOW DO FIRMS SOURCE EXTERNAL KNOWLEDGE FOR INNOVATION? ANALYSING EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT KNOWLEDGE SOURCING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    KI H. KANG; JINA KANG

    2009-01-01

    In the era of "open innovation", external knowledge is a very important source for technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between external knowledge and performance of technology innovation. The effect of external knowledge on the performance of technology innovation can vary with different external knowledge sourcing methods. We identify three ways of external knowledge sourcing: information transfer from informal network, R&D collaboration and technology acqui...

  9. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...

  10. Unimodular gravity with external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The only allowed source of the gravitational field in the unimodular theory, invariant under area-preserving (transverse) diffeomorphisms as well as Weyl transformations, is just the traceless piece of the energy-momentum tensor. This fact notwithstanding, the free energy produced by arbitrary sources (not only static ones) is identical to the one predicted by general relativity. This encompasses all weak field tests of gravitation. There is an important difference with general relativity though. A pure trace source, such as the one produced by a pure vacuum energy with frozen scalar field does not weigh at all. This sheds new light on the direct cosmological constant problem.

  11. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  12. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Carro

    Full Text Available We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  13. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany’s leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  14. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  15. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  16. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    When building up competences, a subsidiary of a multinational corporation (MNC) may rely onexternal knowledge sources like customers, suppliers, competitors or local science centers. Internalsourcing is also available through knowledge offered by headquarters or other affiliates. Thequestion...... is whether the two kinds of sources are mutual exclusive. A dilemma or organizationaltrade-off is foreseeable, since the more the subsidiary adapts its knowledge creation processes tohost country institutions, the less it will be able to utilize internal knowledge sources due to theinstitutional distance...... between the external and internal networks. However, newer organizationalforms, like the concept of the `differentiated MNC', imply a relatively smooth flow of knowledgeinside the MNC, indicating that we should not expect an organizational trade-off between internaland external sources. The subsidiary...

  17. The SNS External Antenna H- Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that we will meet our operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we have developed an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber [1]. This source is expected to be utilized by the SNS for neutron production starting in 2009. This report details the design of the production source which features an AlN plasma chamber, 2-layer external antenna, cooled-multicusp magnet array, Cs2CrO4 cesium system and a Molybdenum plasma ignition gun. Performance of the production source both on the SNS accelerator and SNS test stand is reported. The source has also been designed to accommodate an elemental Cs system with an external reservoir which has demonstrated unanalyzed beam currents up to ~100mA (60Hz, 1ms) on the SNS ion source test stand.

  18. Magnetospheric ULF waves driven by external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Agapitov, Oleksiy

    2015-01-01

    The multi-spacecraft missions (Cluster and THEMIS) observations allowed to collect large data base for Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves properties, their localization, and sources. Mainly here we focused on these recent results. Studying of the source and characteristics of ULF waves can help in the understanding of the interaction and energy transport from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Here we present peculiarities of ULF waves generated by different solar wind phenomenon: surface magnetopause instability, magnetosphere cavity modes and solar wind dynamic pressure sudden impulses (SI) penetration into the magnetosphere. Permanent observations of ULF waves involve existence of the permanent source and, as the previous studies showed, the contributions to Pc4-Pc5 ULF wave power from the external sources are larger than the contribution from internal magnetosphere sources. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) can generate on the magnetosphere flanks classical ULF resonant waves with spatially localized ampl...

  19. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  20. Random matrix theory with an external source

    CERN Document Server

    Brézin, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    This is a first book to show that the theory of the Gaussian random matrix is essential to understand the universal correlations with random fluctuations and to demonstrate that it is useful to evaluate topological universal quantities. We consider Gaussian random matrix models in the presence of a deterministic matrix source. In such models the correlation functions are known exactly for an arbitrary source and for any size of the matrices. The freedom given by the external source allows for various tunings to different classes of universality. The main interest is to use this freedom to compute various topological invariants for surfaces such as the intersection numbers for curves drawn on a surface of given genus with marked points, Euler characteristics, and the Gromov–Witten invariants. A remarkable duality for the average of characteristic polynomials is essential for obtaining such topological invariants. The analysis is extended to nonorientable surfaces and to surfaces with boundaries.

  1. Information sources [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L. Medina

    2012-01-01

    The main information sources for the UVR consist of several web sites with general information and bibliographies. RMRS has publications on its Air, Water, Aquatic Environments (AWAE) Program Flagstaff web site. Another RMRS and University of Arizona website on semi-arid and arid watersheds contains a large, searchable bibliography of supporting information from the...

  2. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  3. Craft Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujsak, Mary Dodge

    1994-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the craft movement and the American Craft Council. Information available from the American Craft Information Center is described, including bibliographic sources, reference tools, periodicals and indices, exhibition catalogs, craft registry and database, clipping file, education, business, funding, and appraising…

  4. III. Biological effects of radiation from external and internal sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R.S.

    1948-05-24

    This report focuses on the hemotological effects of total body irradiation from external and internal sources observed in patients treated for arthritis with radioactive phosphorus administered intravenously.

  5. Classical Noncommutative Electrodynamics with External Source

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E; Vassilevich, D V

    2011-01-01

    In a $U(1)_{\\star}$-noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory we extend the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map to include the (gauge-invariance-violating) external current and formulate - to the first order in the NC parameter - gauge-covariant classical field equations. We find solutions to these equations in the vacuum and in an external magnetic field, when the 4-current is a static electric charge of a finite size $a$, restricted from below by the elementary length. We impose extra boundary conditions, which we use to rule out all singularities, $1/r$ included, from the solutions. The selected solutions neither should nor do withstand the limiting transition $a \\rightarrow 0$. The static charge proves to be a magnetic dipole, with the magnetic moment depending on its size $a$. The external magnetic field modifies the long-range Coulomb field and some electromagnetic form-factors. We also analyze the ambiguity in the SW map and show that at least to the order studied here it is equivalent to the ambiguity of adding a ho...

  6. Architecture of Maritime Awareness System Supplied with External Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stróżyna Milena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss a software architecture, which has been developed for the needs of the System for Intelligent Maritime Monitoring (SIMMO. The system bases on the state-of-the-art information fusion and intelligence analysis techniques, which generates an enhanced Recognized Maritime Picture and thus supports situation analysis and decision- making. The SIMMO system aims to automatically fuse an up-to-date maritime data from Automatic Identification System (AIS and open Internet sources. Based on collected data, data analysis is performed to detect suspicious vessels. Functionality of the system is realized in a number of different modules (web crawlers, data fusion, anomaly detection, visualization modules that share the AIS and external data stored in the system’s database. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how external information can be leveraged in maritime awareness system and what software solutions are necessary. A working system is presented as a proof of concept.

  7. Optimal condition of memristance enhancement circuit using external voltage source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Tanaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Memristor provides nonlinear response in the current-voltage characteristic and the memristance is modulated using an external voltage source. We point out by solving nonlinear equations that an optimal condition of the external voltage source exists for maximizing the memristance in such modulation scheme. We introduce a linear function to describe the nonlinear time response and derive an important design guideline; a constant ratio of the frequency to the amplitude of the external voltage source maximizes the memristance. The analysis completely accounts for the memristance behavior.

  8. Gestão das fontes externas de informação: uma análise dos fatores que influenciam o desempenho inovador Management of external sources of information: an analysis of factors influencing the innovation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clandia Maffini Gomes

    2011-01-01

    reference for developing processes of sustainable technological innovation. Managing sources of information not only helps an organization harmonize the potential inside and outside sources of information but also helps organizations broaden their activities geared to stimulating and bringing about innovation. Companies today are setting up more and more alliances in order to make use of outside sources of information for innovation, but they still lack explicit management strategies. A survey was carried out in Brazilian industrial companies with innovative characteristics, and the aim was to provide new inferences on the relationships between the management of outside sources of technology information and the innovative performance of the companies studied. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to study the relationship between practices for managing external sources of information and the innovative performance of the enterprise. The research can be characterized as quantitative. The data were collected through questionnaires from enterprises seen as having substancial technological innovation activities. The bivariate and multivariate independent and dependent variables suggest the existence of an association between the management of outside sources of technology information and innovative performance. Especially important here is how the different types of sources of information influence the indicators related to products innovation and how the type of access to technology affects the indicators related to processes innovation. The findings of the study suggest many significant relationships between the innovation performance of the enterprise and the types of sources of technological information used and the access modalities to their external sources of technolgical information. The results indicate a trend towards increased use of external sources of information.

  9. Capturing value from external NPD collaboration — the significant role of market information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, Thomas

    sources.This study contributes to the existing knowledge of firms’ use of external sources in new product development. A model is presented that tests the effectiveness of external collaboration when multiple external sources have to be managed simultaneously. Also, firms’ ability to process information...... is included, as a central capability that allows them to identify the right collaborators for NPD projects, collect information from them, and disseminate that information throughout their organization. Finally, in the model, the level of novelty involved in new product development is included as a way...

  10. Information Sources and Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes Internet information sources divided into following three groups: bibliographic databases, citation databases and databases with full texts including electronic journals. Bibliographic databases Bibliographia Cartographica, GEOPHOKA, Scopus and Current Contents (CC are analyzed concerning cartographic content representation. Searching the Current Contents database resulted in data about cartographers with more than 10 papers in CC journals. According to the Web of Science citation database, data are given about the most cited cartographers in papers published during the period between 1955 and the end of 2008 on the condition that each paper was cited at least once between 2000 and 2008. Data are also given about two most cited cartographic papers in the last 50 years. The PERO browser (web service of the Ruđer Bošković Institute was used to make a list of cartographic and related electronic journals and electronic versions of printed journals with full text available to Croatian academic and scientific community.

  11. Markov information sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A regular Markov source is defined as the output of a deterministic, but noisy, channel driven by the state sequence of a regular finite-state Markov chain. The rate of such a source is the per letter uncertainty of its digits. The well-known result that the rate of a unifilar regular Markov source is easily calculable is demonstrated, where unifilarity means that the present state of the Markov chain and the next output of the deterministic channel uniquely determine the next state. At present, there is no known method to calculate the rate of a nonunifilar source. Two tentative approaches to this unsolved problem are given, namely source identical twins and the master-slave source, which appear to shed some light on the question of rate calculation for a nonunifilar source.

  12. Markov information sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A regular Markov source is defined as the output of a deterministic, but noisy, channel driven by the state sequence of a regular finite-state Markov chain. The rate of such a source is the per letter uncertainty of its digits. The well-known result that the rate of a unifilar regular Markov source is easily calculable is demonstrated, where unifilarity means that the present state of the Markov chain and the next output of the deterministic channel uniquely determine the next state. At present, there is no known method to calculate the rate of a nonunifilar source. Two tentative approaches to this unsolved problem are given, namely source identical twins and the master-slave source, which appear to shed some light on the question of rate calculation for a nonunifilar source.

  13. Influence of external source location in the reactivity calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adilson Costa da; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Martinez, Aquilino Senra, E-mail: asilva@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: Aquilino@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    We used the neutron diffusion equation with external neutron sources, in cartesian geometry and the two groups of energy, to verify the influence of external neutron source locations in the reactivity calculation. For this, a coarse mesh finite difference method was developed for the adjoint flux calculation and simplifies reactivity calculation in PWR type reactor, which uses the output of the nodal expansion method. The results were obtained for different locations on the two-dimensional plane, as well as for different types of fuel elements in the reactor core. (author)

  14. UCN Source at an External Beam of Thermal Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lychagin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for production of ultracold neutrons (UCNs in superfluid helium. The principal idea consists in installing a helium UCN source into an external beam of thermal or cold neutrons and in surrounding this source with a solid methane moderator/reflector cooled down to ~4 K. The moderator plays the role of an external source of cold neutrons needed to produce UCNs. The flux of accumulated neutrons could exceed the flux of incident neutrons due to their numerous reflections from methane; also the source size could be significantly larger than the incident beam diameter. We provide preliminary calculations of cooling of neutrons. These calculations show that such a source being installed at an intense source of thermal or cold neutrons like the ILL or PIK reactor or the ESS spallation source could provide the UCN density 105 cm−3, the production rate 107 UCN/s−1. Main advantages of such an UCN source include its low radiative and thermal load, relatively low cost, and convenient accessibility for any maintenance. We have carried out an experiment on cooling of thermal neutrons in a methane cavity. The data confirm the results of our calculations of the spectrum and flux of neutrons in the methane cavity.

  15. Online Information Source & Access Method

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Online resources play important role in research and development of the country. So, LIS professional are interested in accessing and guiding users and readers to all available information sources. This article highlighted and described the availability of online information sources, open access e-journals and its access method.

  16. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  17. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  18. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  19. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  20. Information Source Characteristics and Environmental Scanning by Academic Library Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalhavaeji, Fahimeh; Farhadpoor, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines characteristics of the external environment of library and information centres of Islamic Azad University in Iran, focusing on perceived environmental uncertainty and perceived source accessibility and quality, and their impacts on the amount of scanning and the frequency of information source use. Methods: This…

  1. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min

    2013-01-01

    Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who…

  2. Consumer Trust in Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Love

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trust is essential to understanding public reaction to innovative issues. This research focuses on trust in information sources by explicating the construct of trust and testing a comprehensive model on several information sources about genetically modified foods. Results from a survey of 369 participants reveal the significance of projecting competence and the role of the environment in which a target public receives information. Perceptions of regulatory, social, business, and technical environments affect how likely individuals are to follow advice from institutions like the Food and Drug Administration and the news media. Future research should incorporate knowledge levels and personal relevance as variables likely to influence trusting relationships.

  3. External Source Method for Kubo-Transformed Quantum Correlation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Horikoshi, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the external source method for Kubo-transformed quantum correlation functions recently proposed by Krishna and Voth. We derive an exact formula and show that the Krishna-Voth formula can be derived as an approximation of our formula. Some properties of this approximation are clarified through a model calculation of the position autocorrelation function for a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. A key observation is that the Krishna-Voth correlation function has a term which behaves as the secular term in perturbation theory.

  4. TEM Pump With External Heat Source And Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectric/electromagnetic (TEM) pump driven by external source of heat and by two or more heat pipe radiator heat sink(s). Thermoelectrics generate electrical current to circulate liquid metal in secondary loop of two-fluid-loop system. Intended for use with space and terrestrial dual loop liquid metal nuclear reactors. Applications include spacecraft on long missions or terrestrial beacons or scientific instruments having to operate in remote areas for long times. Design modified to include multiple radiators, converters, and ducts, as dictated by particular application.

  5. Improvements to the internal and external antenna H(-) ion sources at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Pillar, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

    2014-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a large scale neutron production facility, routinely operates with 30-40 mA peak current in the linac. Recent measurements have shown that our RF-driven internal antenna, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion sources injects ∼55 mA of H(-) beam current (∼1 ms, 60 Hz) at 65-kV into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator through a closely coupled electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport system. Over the last several years a decrease in RFQ transmission and issues with internal antennas has stimulated source development at the SNS both for the internal and external antenna ion sources. This report discusses progress in improving internal antenna reliability, H(-) yield improvements which resulted from modifications to the outlet aperture assembly (applicable to both internal and external antenna sources) and studies made of the long standing problem of beam persistence with the external antenna source. The current status of the external antenna ion source will also be presented.

  6. Locally covariant quantum field theory with external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fewster, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    We provide a detailed analysis of the classical and quantized theory of a multiplet of inhomogeneous Klein-Gordon fields, which couple to the spacetime metric and also to an external source term; thus the solutions form an affine space. Following the formulation of affine field theories in terms of presymplectic vector spaces as proposed in [Annales Henri Poincare 15, 171 (2014)], we determine the relative Cauchy evolution induced by metric as well as source term perturbations and compute the automorphism group of natural isomorphisms of the presymplectic vector space functor. Two pathological features of this formulation are revealed: the automorphism group contains elements that cannot be interpreted as global gauge transformations of the theory; moreover, the presymplectic formulation does not respect a natural requirement on composition of subsystems. We therefore propose a systematic strategy to improve the original description of affine field theories at the classical and quantized level, first passing ...

  7. Sources of information and assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickton, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    The best sources of information on energy activities, including conservation and education, are the officials of the state and federal energy departments and offices, the editors of the trade and professional journals in the various branches of the energy field, and the directors of the organizations working on energy issues. A selected list of information sources includes the title and address rather than individual names in order to remain current. The directory begins with state energy offices, followed by DOE and other officials, and an alphabetical listing of schools, organizations, and institutions. The directory is the final chapter of New Approaches to Energy Conservation, a sourcebook published by New Directions for Higher Education.

  8. Measuring External Sources of Background (R&D) at Homestake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dongming; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Elliott, Steve; Gray, Frederick; Keller, Christina; Sun, Yongchen

    2008-04-01

    Measuring external sources of radioactivity at the DUSEL site is the key to success in low-energy neutrino and dark matter (WIMP searches) experiments. Natural radioactivity can be measured using germanium and NaI detectors. Muon-induced neutrons and (a,n) neutrons will be measured utilizing liquid scintillators and germanium detectors through the 72Ge(n,nxe) reaction. External sources of background, particularly fast neutrons and cosmogenic radioactivity from muon-induced processes, are background matter that must be eliminated for underground experiments in pursuit of double beta decay, WIMPs, and oscillations of low-energy neutrinos. However, muon-induced neutron production rates with heavy elements, such as lead and copper, are not well understood. The discrepancy between the measurements and FLUKA simulations is as large as about a factor of 3. This discrepancy needs be understood for the muon- induced fast neutron production rate in lead and copper, which are the most popular materials for shielding underground experiments. We propose an experiment at 300-ft level to measure the muon-induced fast neutron production rate in different targets.

  9. Constraining the effective action by a method of external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, Bjorn

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method of evaluating the effective action, wherein the physical one- and two-point functions are obtained in the limit of non-vanishing external sources. We illustrate the self-consistency of this method by recovering the usual 2PI effective action due to Cornwall, Jackiw and Tomboulis, differing only by the fact that the saddle-point evaluation of the path integral is performed along the extremal quantum, rather than classical, path. As such, this approach is of particular relevance to situations where the dominant quantum and classical paths are non-perturbatively far away from one-another. A pertinent example is the decay of false vacua in radiatively-generated potentials, as may occur for the electroweak vacuum of the Standard Model. In addition, we describe how the external sources may instead be chosen so as to yield the two-particle-point-irreducible (2PPI) effective action of Coppens and Verschelde. Finally, in the spirit of the symmetry-improved effective action of Pilaftsis and Te...

  10. Methods for evaluating information sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    The article briefly presents and discusses 12 different approaches to the evaluation of information sources (for example a Wikipedia entry or a journal article): (1) the checklist approach; (2) classical peer review; (3) modified peer review; (4) evaluation based on examining the coverage...

  11. Simultaneous classification and multidimensional scaling with external information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, HAL; Vicari, D; Vichi, M

    2005-01-01

    For the exploratory analysis of a matrix of proximities or (dis)similarities between objects, one often uses cluster analysis ( CA) or multidimensional scaling (MDS). Solutions resulting from such analyses are sometimes interpreted using external information on the objects. Usually the procedures of

  12. EXTERNAL SOURCES OF URBAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tao-fang; GU Chao-lin; CHEN Xiu-ying

    2005-01-01

    Urban competition refers to capacities of cities for attracting, capturing, controlling, dominating and transforming certain resources during urban development, and capacities for wealth creating, life-standard improving and sustainable development maintenance. This paper first analyzes the external sources of urban competitive advantages: the global network-based advantages and the location-based ones. Then with the aid of method of principal component analysis in SPSS 10.0 for Windows, the Chinese urban global and local competitive advantages are explored. The finding is that the global network-and location-based advantages are remarkable for the cities in the eastern China. While for those in the western and the middle regions, affected by much lower regional competitive advantages and lower degrees of urban-regional integration, the urban competitive advantages are deeply influenced and weakened.

  13. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium.

  14. Computer simulations for rf design of a Spallation Neutron Source external antenna H ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Shin, Ki [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic modeling of the multicusp external antenna H ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source SNS has been performed in order to optimize high-power performance. During development of the SNS external antenna ion source, antenna failures due to high voltage and multicusp magnet holder rf heating concerns under stressful operating conditions led to rf characteristics analysis. In rf simulations, the plasma was modeled as an equivalent lossy metal by defining conductivity as . Insulation designs along with material selections such as ferrite and Teflon could be included in the computer simulations to compare antenna gap potentials, surface power dissipations, and input impedance at the operating frequencies, 2 and 13.56 MHz. Further modeling and design improvements are outlined in the conclusion.

  15. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms, propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/erosion; hazard mitigation; land use planning; zoning; siting, design, construction and maintenance of structures and infrastructure; public awareness and education; distant and local sources; tsunami warning and evacuation programs; tsunami probability and risk criteria. A few references are on "sedimentary signatures" useful in the study of historic and prehistoric tsunamis (paleo-tsunamis. In addition to references specifically on tsunamis, there are references on long water wave and solitary wave theory; wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection; shelf and basin free and forced oscillations (bay and harbor response; seiches; edge waves; Mach- reflection of long water waves ("stem waves"; wave run-up on shore; energy dissipation. All are important in understanding tsunamis, and in hazard mitigation. References are given on subaerial and submarine landslide (and rockfall generated waves in reservoirs, fjords, bays, and ocean; volcano explosive eruptions/collapse; underwater and surface explosions; asteroid impact. This report is in two parts: 1 Bibliographies, books and pamphlets, catalogs, collections, journals and newsletters, maps, organizations, proceedings, videos and photos; 2 Articles, papers, reports listed alphabetically by author.Many papers on the Indian Ocean (Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004, were given at the 22nd IUGG International Tsunami Symposium, Chania, Crete, 27-29 June 2005, but had not been published at the date of this report. For

  16. Informal Information Sources and Information Seeking Behavior: Investigating the Causes and Factors Affecting Users’ Inclination towards Informal Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mokhtarpour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Research within Library and Information Sciences bespeaks of the significant tendency of (expert and non-expert users towards informal information sources. Nevertheless, it seems that the literature have not dealt adequately with causes and factors affecting such tendency. The present paper provides a retrospect on some of the researches conducted with respect to the typology of information resources used by searchers. It further attempts to enunciate the most important reasons for users preference toward informal information sources. The author maintains that the very social nature of man, the principle of least effort, human sense of credulity, economic considerations as well as information overloads are among the most important reasons for using informal resources. Author maintains that the increasing tendency of users towards informal sources would in not too distant future result in user apathy towards such traditional information sources as book and library.

  17. Liquid metal ion source assembly for external ion injection into an electron string ion source (ESIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, M. J., E-mail: mattiti@gmail.com [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Bark, R. A.; Thomae, R. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Donets, E. E.; Donets, E. D.; Boytsov, A.; Ponkin, D.; Ramsdorf, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joloit-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    An assembly for a commercial Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source in combination with an ion transportation and focusing system, a pulse high-voltage quadrupole deflector, and a beam diagnostics system has been constructed in the framework of the iThemba LABS (Cape Town, South Africa)—JINR (Dubna, Russia) collaboration. First, results on Ga{sup +} ion beam commissioning will be presented. Outlook of further experiments for measurements of charge breeding efficiency in the electron string ion source with the use of external injection of Ga{sup +} and Au{sup +} ion beams will be reported as well.

  18. Investigation of noise sources and propagation in external gear pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperwall, Timothy J.

    Oil hydraulics is widely accepted as the best technology for transmitting power in many engineering applications due to its advantages in power density, control, layout flexibility, and efficiency. Due to these advantages, hydraulic systems are present in many different applications including construction, agriculture, aerospace, automotive, forestry, medical, and manufacturing, just to identify a few. Many of these applications involve the systems in close proximity to human operators and passengers where noise is one of the main constraints to the acceptance and spread of this technology. As a key component in power transfer, displacement machines can be major sources of noise in hydraulic systems. Thus, investigation into the sources of noise and discovering strategies to reduce noise is a key part of applying fluid power systems to a wider range of applications, as well as improving the performance of current hydraulic systems. The present research aims to leverage previous efforts and develop new models and experimental techniques in the topic of noise generation caused by hydrostatic units. This requires challenging and surpassing current accepted methods in the understanding of noise in fluid power systems. This research seeks to expand on the previous experimental and modeling efforts by directly considering the effect that system and component design changes apply on the total sound power and the sound frequency components emitted from displacement machines and the attached lines. The case of external gear pumps is taken as reference for a new model to understand the generation and transmission of noise from the sources out to the environment. The lumped parameter model HYGESim (HYdraulic GEar machine Simulator) was expanded to investigate the dynamic forces on the solid bodies caused by the pump operation and to predict interactions with the attached system. Vibration and sound radiation were then predicted using a combined finite element and boundary

  19. A comparative perspective on external technology sourcing modalities : The role of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabidussi, A.; Lokshin, B.; de Leeuw, T.; Duijsters, G.M.; Bremmers, H.; Omta, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on innovative performance of alternative external sourcing strategies. In particular, the study under discussion compared external sourcing strategies based on specialization to those based on integrating various sourcing modalities (e.g., alliances and M&As). Survey

  20. A comparative perspective on external technology sourcing modalities: The role of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabidussi, A.; Lokshin, B.; Leeuw, de T.; Duysters, G.M.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on innovative performance of alternative external sourcing strategies. In particular, the study under discussion compared external sourcing strategies based on specialization to those based on integrating various sourcing modalities (e.g., alliances and M&As).

  1. Frequency of damage by external hazards based on geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Camarinopoulos, A.; Karali, T. [ERRA, Athens (Greece); Camarinopoulos, L. [Piraeus Univ. (Greece); Schubert, B. [VENE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighborhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. In all cases, some accident is a necessary condition for a hazard. Another probabilistic element is the probability of ignition. If transport causes the explosion, the location of the accident will influence the consequences. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. In order to avoid unnecessarily pessimistic approaches, geographical information can be used in addition to local weather statistics. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. This information can be used to find frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. A probabilistic model has been developed. It is based on: - A joint probability density function for wind direction and wind speed, which has been estimated from local weather statistics, - Frequency of hazards for neighboring plants and various types of traffic, - Statistics on the amounts and types of explosive materials, - The model has been implemented using one numerical integrations method and two variants of Monte Carlo method. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Northern Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. In its present form, it makes use of design criteria specific for nuclear power plants, but these could be replaced by different criteria. (orig.)

  2. Does External Knowledge Sourcing Enhance Market Performance? Evidence from the Korean Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibaek; Yoo, Jaeheung; Choi, Munkee; Zo, Hangjung; Ciganek, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Firms continuously search for external knowledge that can contribute to product innovation, which may ultimately increase market performance. The relationship between external knowledge sourcing and market performance is not well-documented. The extant literature primarily examines the causal relationship between external knowledge sources and product innovation performance or to identify factors which moderates the relationship between external knowledge sourcing and product innovation. Non-technological innovations, such as organization and marketing innovations, intervene in the process of external knowledge sourcing to product innovation to market performance but has not been extensively examined. This study addresses two research questions: does external knowledge sourcing lead to market performance and how does external knowledge sourcing interact with a firm's different innovation activities to enhance market performance. This study proposes a comprehensive model to capture the causal mechanism from external knowledge sourcing to market performance. The research model was tested using survey data from manufacturing firms in South Korea and the results demonstrate a strong statistical relationship in the path of external knowledge sourcing (EKS) to product innovation performance (PIP) to market performance (MP). Organizational innovation is an antecedent to EKS while marketing innovation is a consequence of EKS, which significantly influences PIP and MP. The results imply that any potential EKS effort should also consider organizational innovations which may ultimately enhance market performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well as concluding remarks.

  3. Changing Sources of Published Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1995-04-01

    We looked at the types of references in papers published during the first month of 1972, 1982, and 1992 in the Astrophysical Journal and Astronomy & Astrophysics; also those published in the former journal during the first half-years of 1952 and 1962. Some of the results are qualitatively predictable, such as the decrease (from 12% to 1%) in references to observatory publications and inhouse technical reports, and the increase (from 1% to 10%) in references to conference papers. But what are surprising are (1) the low (less than 3%) reference rate to preprints, showing that they are not replacing journal papers (78%) as the primary source for reliable information, (2) the low (1%) reference rate to theses, showing that they are not cited more frequently than average research papers, (3) the low (1%) reference rate to review papers, showing that contrary to popular belief, very few people cite review papers instead of the original research papers, and (4) the slightly decreasing reference rate (from 6% to 4%) to monographs, showing that despite their greatly increased publication rate, they are gradually being quoted less for research use (as contrasted to tutorial use). (SECTION: Astronomical Sociology)

  4. The dual role of external technology sourcing in technological exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Li-Ying, Jason; van de Vrande, Vareska

    2013-01-01

    We refine the concept of boundary-spanning exploration, by making a distinction between explorative learning from partners and from non-partners (Partners are organizations with whom a focal firm has some kind of external venturing relations, i.e. technological alliances, corporate venturing capi...

  5. How to tap Mexican Business Information Sources

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Publication of business information sources in Mexico is growing fast. This growth is probably faster than the one of traditional academic-oriented sources. However, despite this growth, Mexican companies and international corporations demand greater and better information sources to monitor their environments due to the free trade agreement with The US and Canada. An evaluation of the most important sources and organizations devoted to the publication of business information are included...

  6. Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...

  7. Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. We also discuss state of the art tools along with the shortcomings and present the results of an analysis carried out over different heterogeneous formats along...

  8. Perturbative neutrino pair creation by an external source

    CERN Document Server

    Koers, H

    2004-01-01

    We consider the rate of fermion-antifermion pair creation by an external field. We derive a rate formula that is valid for a coupling with arbitrary vector and axial vector components to first order in perturbation theory. This is then applied to study the creation of neutrinos by nuclear matter, a problem with astrophysical relevance. We present an estimate for the creation rate per unit volume, compare this to previous results and comment on the role of the neutrino mass.

  9. Denitrification potential enhancement by addition of external carbon sources in a pre-denitrification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yong-zhen; MA Yong; WANG Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the denitrification potential enhancement by addition of external carbon sources and to estimate the denitrification potential for the predenitrification system using nitrate utilization rate(NUR)batch tests.It is shown that the denitrification potential Can be substantially increased with the addition of three external carbon sources,i.e.methanol,ethanol,and acetate.and the denitrification rates of ethanol,acetate,and methanol reached up to 9.6,12,and 3.2 mgN/(gVSS·h),respectively,while mat of starch wastewater was only 0.74 mgN/(gVSS·h).By comparison,ethanol was found to be the best extemal carbon source.NUR batch tests with starch wastewater and waste ethanol were carried out.The denitrification potential increased from 5.6 to 16.5 mg NO.-N/L owing to waste ethanol addition.By means of NUR tests,the wastewater characteristics and kinetic parameters can be estimated.which are used to determine the denitrification potential of wastewater,to calculate the denitrification potential of the plant and to predict the nitrate effluent quality,as well as provide information for developing carbon dosage conlxol strategy.

  10. Corporate risk and external sourcing: A study of Scandinavian multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Sørensen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    External sourcing from foreign suppliers is an important aspect of the firm’s internationalization. However, data on such sourcing is available from neither databases nor annual reports. Thus, the corporate risk implications of such sourcing have not been studied previously. We obtain the necessa...... to offsetting cash flows). Our results are statistically significant, are economically meaningful, and have important policy implications.......External sourcing from foreign suppliers is an important aspect of the firm’s internationalization. However, data on such sourcing is available from neither databases nor annual reports. Thus, the corporate risk implications of such sourcing have not been studied previously. We obtain the necessary...

  11. MD 400: LHC emittance growth in presence of an external source of noise during collision

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia; Trad, Georges; Valuch, Daniel; Betz, Michael; Wendt, Manfred; Pojer, Mirko; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Albert, Markus; Qiang, Ji; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between head-on beam-beam interaction and external sources of noise can be a significant source of emittance growth, especially when considering large beam-beam tune shifts as for the HL-LHC upgrade project. In this experiment the emittance growth of colliding bunches with different brightness and therefore different beam-beam parameters in the presence of an external white noise source with different amplitudes is measured for different gains of the transverse feedback.

  12. Specific factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potančok, Martin; Voříšek, Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare facilities use a number of information system/information and communication technologies. Each healthcare facility faces a need to choose sourcing strategies most suitable to ensure provision of information system/information and communication technology services, processes and resources. Currently, it is possible to observe an expansion of sourcing possibilities in healthcare informatics, which creates new requirements for sourcing strategies. Thus, the aim of this article is to identify factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities. The identification was based on qualitative research, namely, a case study. This study provides a set of internal and external factors with their impact levels. The findings also show that not enough attention is paid to these factors during decision-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; Zahra, Shaker A.

    2013-01-01

    Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm's interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...... involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  14. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; A. Zahra, Shaker

    Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities, but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm’s interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...... involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  15. External knowledge sourcing in the Spanish archaeological sector: Mapping the emergent stage of a business activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Parga-Dans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of innovation highlight the importance of external knowledge sourcing. Existing empirical works are based on national surveys and specific industries. The present study contributes to the analysis of strategies for sourcing external knowledge, based on a specific case study and moment in time: the Spanish archaeological sector and its emergence as a new business activity. Our results show that external knowledge sourcing involves diverse mechanisms, agents and two main strategies: cooperation and knowledge acquisition. In an expanding knowledge-based sector emerging in an uncertain context and whose sources of knowledge are scattered, innovation strategy should focus on the search for external knowledge –cooperation and acquisition strategies-, rather than on internal sources.

  16. The Efficient Utilization of Open Source Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Intelligence and Systems Analysis

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the efficient utilization of open source information. Open source information consists of a vast set of information from a variety of sources. Not only does the quantity of open source information pose a problem, the quality of such information can hinder efforts. To show this, two case studies are mentioned: Iran and North Korea, in order to see how open source information can be utilized. The huge breadth and depth of open source information can complicate an analysis, especially because open information has no guarantee of accuracy. Open source information can provide key insights either directly or indirectly: looking at supporting factors (flow of scientists, products and waste from mines, government budgets, etc.); direct factors (statements, tests, deployments). Fundamentally, it is the independent verification of information that allows for a more complete picture to be formed. Overlapping sources allow for more precise bounds on times, weights, temperatures, yields or other issues of interest in order to determine capability. Ultimately, a "good" answer almost never comes from an individual, but rather requires the utilization of a wide range of skill sets held by a team of people.

  17. Information sources and constraints under national agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    sharing amongst PSPs and with public extension staff, and translating the information. Key words: ... deterioration in service quality as a result of contracted services is ... technical information used for farmer training and to rate each source in ...

  18. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; A. Zahra, Shaker

    involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  19. 10 CFR 34.21 - Limits on external radiation levels from storage containers and source changers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on external radiation levels from storage... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.21 Limits on external radiation levels from storage containers and source changers. The...

  20. Corporate risk and external sourcing: A study of Scandinavian multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Sørensen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    External sourcing from foreign suppliers is an important aspect of the firm’s internationalization. However, data on such sourcing is available from neither databases nor annual reports. Thus, the corporate risk implications of such sourcing have not been studied previously. We obtain the necessary...... to offsetting cash flows). Our results are statistically significant, are economically meaningful, and have important policy implications....

  1. Sources of Drug Information among Adolescent Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Elaheh; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Assessed amount of information eighth and tenth grade students (n=1,023) received from 10 sources about 6 categories of drugs. Found television was the primary source of drug information for all drugs except inhalants; parents and printed media were of secondary importance, followed by friends and teachers. (Author/ABL)

  2. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  3. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  4. ADAPTIVE CONTENT BASED TEXTUAL INFORMATION SOURCE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Mitra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide-web offers a posse of textual information sources which are ready to be utilized for several applications. In fact, given the rapidly evolving nature of online data, there is a real risk of information overload unless we continue to develop and refine techniques to meaningfully segregate these information sources. Specifically, there is a dearth of content-oriented and intelligent techniques which can learn from past search experiences and also adapt to a user’s specific requirements during her current search. In this paper, we tackle the core issue of prioritizing textual information sources on the basis of the relevance of their content to the central theme that a user is currently exploring. We propose a new Source Prioritization Algorithm that adopts an iterative learning approach to assess the proclivity of given information sources towards a set of user-defined seed words in order to prioritise them. The final priorities obtained serve as initial priorities for the next search request. This serves a dual purpose. Firstly, the system learns incrementally from several users’ cumulative search experiences and re-adjusts the source priorities to reflect the acquired knowledge. Secondly, the refreshed source priorities are utilized to direct a user’s current search towards more relevant sources while adapting also to the new set of keywords acquired from that user. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm progressively improves the system’s ability to discern between different sources, even in the presence of several random sources. Further, it is able to scale well to identify the augmented information source when a new enriched information source is generated by clubbing existing ones.

  5. Improvements to the internal and external antenna H{sup −} ion sources at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, R. F., E-mail: welton@ornl.gov; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Pillar, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-6471 (United States); Dudnikov, V. G. [Muons, Inc., 552 N. Batavia Avenue, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Turvey, M. W. [Villanova University, 800E. Lancaster Ave, Villanova, Pennsylvania 19085 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a large scale neutron production facility, routinely operates with 30–40 mA peak current in the linac. Recent measurements have shown that our RF-driven internal antenna, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion sources injects ∼55 mA of H{sup −} beam current (∼1 ms, 60 Hz) at 65-kV into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator through a closely coupled electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport system. Over the last several years a decrease in RFQ transmission and issues with internal antennas has stimulated source development at the SNS both for the internal and external antenna ion sources. This report discusses progress in improving internal antenna reliability, H{sup −} yield improvements which resulted from modifications to the outlet aperture assembly (applicable to both internal and external antenna sources) and studies made of the long standing problem of beam persistence with the external antenna source. The current status of the external antenna ion source will also be presented.

  6. External and internal sources which inhibit the nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinkjær, O.; Bøgebjerg, P.; Grüttner, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    monitoring the influent to the Lynetten WWTP and the Damhusaen WWTP and the catchment areas have revealed that discharges from industries are to be considered the most important external sources of inhibition. The load from the external sources has decreased during the investigation period, and since 1993...... the nitrification capacity monitored at the pilot plants has been in agreement with the design basis. The recycling of the scrubber water from the cleaning of sludge incineration flue gas was found to be an important internal source of inhibition at the Lynetten WWTP. Investigations show that it is possible...

  7. Adolescent sources of information on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, H D

    1981-04-01

    The sources, age and accuracy of sex information which adolescents learn was investigated. The underlying assumption was that peers are the primary contributors of such information. Thus, the accuracy of information becomes a primary research interest. All students in a large midwestern high school (n = 1152) were included. Peers were the single most-often-cited source of sex information (37.1%). Other sources in frequency were literature, mother, schools, experience, fathers, physicians, and ministers. Petting, homosexuality, and intercourse were subjects where peers contributed considerable information. They seemed to provide much infromation in behaviors that can be experienced immediately. Literature contributed much information in the areas of abortion, prostitution and seminal emissions. Mothers provided virtually all sex information from within the home. Their primary contributions weir in the areas of conception and menstruation, accounting for 1/2 of the total information provided. Schools accounted for only about 15% of the information. Females were more dependent on their mothers for information (22.3%) than were males (6.9%) who were more dependent on their peers (49.1%) than females (33.4%). Ages 12 and 13 were peak times when sexual concepts were being learned. The overall accuracy percentage was 78.7%. The 2 most reliable areas of information were conception and menstruation, and in both cases mothers were the primary contributors.

  8. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardstaff Joanne L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles. The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to

  9. Physical therapists in private practice: information sources and information needs.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, E F

    1995-01-01

    Increasing numbers of physical therapists are providing evaluation and therapy in their own private-practice clinics. Their move out of the hospital setting has reduced their access to the sources of information designed to support clinical and practice-management decision making. The author designed a survey to determine how often physical therapists in private practice in Vermont use seven sources of information for clinical and practice-management decision making. Survey respondents also w...

  10. Supplemental Information Source Document Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.

  11. Informed Source Separation: A Bayesian Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    Source separation problems are ubiquitous in the physical sciences; any situation where signals are superimposed calls for source separation to estimate the original signals. In h s tutorial I will discuss the Bayesian approach to the source separation problem. This approach has a specific advantage in that it requires the designer to explicitly describe the signal model in addition to any other information or assumptions that go into the problem description. This leads naturally to the idea of informed source separation, where the algorithm design incorporates relevant information about the specific problem. This approach promises to enable researchers to design their own high-quality algorithms that are specifically tailored to the problem at hand.

  12. Resident physicians as human information systems: sources yet seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Ellen J; DeVoge, Justin Michael; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda A; Borowitz, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize question types that residents received on overnight shifts and what information sources were used to answer them. Materials and Methods Across 30 overnight shifts, questions asked of on-call senior residents, question askers’ roles, and residents’ responses were documented. External sources were noted. Results 158 of 397 questions (39.8%) related to the plan of care, 53 (13.4%) to medical knowledge, 48 (12.1%) to taskwork knowledge, and 44 (11.1%) to the current condition of patients. For 351 (88.4%) questions residents provided specific, direct answers or visited the patient. For 16 of these, residents modeled or completed the task. For 216 questions, residents used previous knowledge or their own clinical judgment. Residents solicited external information sources for 118 questions and only a single source for 77 (65.3%) of them. For the 118, most questions concerned either the plan of care or the patient's current condition and were asked by interns and nurses (those with direct patient care responsibilities). Discussion Resident physicians serve as an information system and they often specifically answer the question using previous knowledge or their own clinical judgment, suggesting that askers are contacting an appropriately knowledgeable person. However, they do need to access patient information such as the plan of care. They also serve an educator role and answer many knowledge-related questions. Conclusions As synchronous verbal communications continue to be important pathways for information flow, informaticians need to consider the relationship between such communications and workflow in the development of healthcare support tools. PMID:23268485

  13. A geography of moral hazard: sources and sinks of motor-vehicle commuting externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Bland, Widmer; Scott, Darren M

    2014-09-01

    Motor-vehicles are responsible for harms to health that are not directly experienced by individual drivers - such as air pollution and risk of injury to pedestrians. In addition to their direct effects on health, these harms also represent a moral hazard since drivers are not required to consider their effects as part of their decision to drive. We describe an approach for estimating sources of motor-vehicle commuter externalities as a means of understanding the geography of moral hazard, and in particular, the spatial displacement of negative health externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuting. This approach models motor-vehicle commuter traffic flow by trip origin for small geographic areas within the City of Toronto, Ontario. We find that most health-related externalities associated with motor-vehicle commuters are not locally generated, with a large share coming from outside Toronto. Low income is associated with externalities originating outside the municipal boundary, but not with locally sourced externalities. We discuss the impact of geographical moral hazard on the agency of citizens as well as policy options aimed at addressing motor-vehicle externalities.

  14. Multicusp ion source with external RF antenna for production of H- ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T.; Hahto, S. K.; Vainionpää, J. H.; Leung, K. N.; Wilde, S. B.; Mandrillon, P.

    2007-08-01

    A multicusp ion source with modular design was developed at LBNL for production of H- ions. The source consists of a front plate, two multicusp front chambers, a quartz flange with external 3-loop RF antenna and a rear multicusp chamber. The source has LaB6 sputtering target at the rear chamber to lower the work function of the surfaces by coating them with LaB6 and an external cesium oven on the front plate. The front plate also has an integrated collar and filter magnets to cool plasma near the extraction. The collar also enables the use of cesium and LaB6 surface effects. The rear chamber is equipped with three vacuum feed-throughs for operation with two gases and a pressure measurement. Current density of over 10 mA/cm2 of H- has been measured with e/I- ratio being ˜100 when the source was operated with only 1000 W of cw RF power. Negative ion production was enhanced using cesium, Xe gas mixing and LaB6 deposition to the source surfaces. When the front plate with filter magnets is removed, the source produces large amounts of H+. Current density of 110 mA/cm2 with 1800 W RF power at 2.3 Pa source pressure was measured with over 90 % atomic species. A long operation lifetime is excepted as the external RF antenna is not exposed to plasma.

  15. On the addition of heat to solar pond from external sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Jain, Ravi; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    This brief note addresses the method of adding heat to a solar pond from an external source which is used to enhance the performance of a solar pond. Heat energy collected by Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors (ETSC) is transferred by circulating fluid from the Lower Convective Zone (LCZ) of a solar po

  16. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  17. On the addition of heat to solar pond from external sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Jain, Ravi; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    This brief note addresses the method of adding heat to a solar pond from an external source which is used to enhance the performance of a solar pond. Heat energy collected by Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors (ETSC) is transferred by circulating fluid from the Lower Convective Zone (LCZ) of a solar

  18. The design of high power, external antennas for radio frequency multicusp ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Roseberry, R. T.; Kang, Y.; Keller, R.

    2004-05-01

    The ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a radio-frequency, multicusp source designed to deliver H- beam pulses of 45 mA to the SNS accelerator, with a pulse length of 1 ms and a repetition rate of 60 Hz. In order to achieve this performance the source must operate with both high peak rf power, ˜45 kW, and high average rf power, ˜3 kW, over an operational run period of 3 weeks. The most critical source component in this respect is the plasma-immersed, porcelain coated rf antenna which can be susceptible to damage during high power operation. The DESY group has developed an external antenna configuration utilizing an Al2O3 plasma chamber which has demonstrated a very long operational period exceeding 25 000 h. Their source operates with peak rf powers comparable to the SNS source but with greatly reduced average rf powers, ˜50 W. In order to explore the applicability of this external antenna concept to high average power ion sources like the SNS source, we have performed thermal, mechanical, and electromagnetic analyses of the Al2O3 plasma chamber. This article discusses the final design which has resulted from these studies as well as estimates of the power limitations of such devices.

  19. China Experimental Fast Reactor(CEFR)——Criterion of Criticality for Reactor With External Neutron Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOYu-sen

    2003-01-01

    There is a neutron source with 109 s-1 neutrons in core of CEFR during start up test and operation of CEFR. For judging the criticality of reactor with external neutron source and near criticality, it is important that the neutron level changes in core with time must be understood after introducing positive reactivity to core with external neutron source.

  20. 75 FR 70160 - Affordable Care Act; Federal External Review Process; Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Administration 29 CFR Part 2590 Affordable Care Act; Federal External Review Process; Request for Information... Act, as amended by the Affordable Care Act, and its implementing regulations. DATES: Submit written or... and external review processes under the Affordable Care Act; those comments are being collected...

  1. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  2. DKIE: Open Source Information Extraction for Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Field, Camilla Vilhelmsen; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2014-01-01

    Danish is a major Scandinavian language spoken daily by around six million people. However, it lacks a unified, open set of NLP tools. This demonstration will introduce DKIE, an extensible open-source toolkit for processing Danish text. We implement an information extraction architecture for Danish...

  3. Crime analysis using open source information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...

  4. Supplemental Information Source Document Balance of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document presents information relevant to the development of a Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico that is not captured in other Source Documents. Specifically, it covers Research and Development activities, Environmental Programs, Infrastructure and Utilities, Maintenance, Materials Management, and Decontamination and Demolition.

  5. Comic Books: A Guide to Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Reviews materials on comic books meriting inclusion in a core collection for academic and public libraries. Included are encyclopedias and guidebooks, general histories, collections and anthologies, and books about comic book collecting. Sources of further information on the subject are also briefly discussed. (Author/MES)

  6. DKIE: Open Source Information Extraction for Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Field, Camilla Vilhelmsen; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2014-01-01

    Danish is a major Scandinavian language spoken daily by around six million people. However, it lacks a unified, open set of NLP tools. This demonstration will introduce DKIE, an extensible open-source toolkit for processing Danish text. We implement an information extraction architecture for Danish...... independently or with the Stanford NLP toolkit....

  7. Information Value and Externalities in Reputation Building - An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E. Bolton; Axel Ockenfels

    2007-01-01

    In sequential equilibrium theory, reputation building is independent of whether the reputation builder is matched with one long-run player or a series of short run players. We observe, however, that reputation builders are significantly more challenged by long-run players in both laboratory chain store and buyer-seller games. Reputation builder behavior is not as unpredictable as required by the mixed equilibrium strategies and so information about the reputation builder’s past behavior has m...

  8. Information Value and Externalities in Reputation Building - An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E Bolton; Axel Ockenfels

    2007-01-01

    In sequential equilibrium theory, reputation building is independent of whether the reputation builder is matched with one long-run player or a series of short run players. We observe, however, that reputation builders are significantly more challenged by long-run players in both laboratory chain store and buyer-seller games. Reputation builder behavior is not as unpredictable as required by the mixed equilibrium strategies and so information about the reputation builder’s past behavior has m...

  9. Generalization of the analytical solution of neutron point kinetics equations with time-dependent external source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, M.; Behnia, S.; Khodabakhsh, R.

    2014-09-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations with one group of delayed neutrons in the presence of the time-dependent external neutron source are solved analytically during the start-up of a nuclear reactor. Our model incorporates the random nature of the source and linear reactivity variation. We establish a general relationship between the expectation values of source intensity and the expectation values of neutron density of the sub-critical reactor by ignoring the term of the second derivative for neutron density in neutron point kinetics equations. The results of the analytical solution are in good agreement with the results obtained with numerical solution.

  10. How is sentence processing affected by external semantic and syntactic information? Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin Schacht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A crucial question for understanding sentence comprehension is the openness of syntactic and semantic processes for other sources of information. Using event-related potentials in a dual task paradigm, we had previously found that sentence processing takes into consideration task relevant sentence-external semantic but not syntactic information. In that study, internal and external information both varied within the same linguistic domain-either semantic or syntactic. Here we investigated whether across-domain sentence-external information would impact within-sentence processing. METHODOLOGY: In one condition, adjectives within visually presented sentences of the structure [Det]-[Noun]-[Adjective]-[Verb] were semantically correct or incorrect. Simultaneously with the noun, auditory adjectives were presented that morphosyntactically matched or mismatched the visual adjectives with respect to gender. FINDINGS: As expected, semantic violations within the sentence elicited N400 and P600 components in the ERP. However, these components were not modulated by syntactic matching of the sentence-external auditory adjective. In a second condition, syntactic within-sentence correctness-variations were combined with semantic matching variations between the auditory and the visual adjective. Here, syntactic within-sentence violations elicited a LAN and a P600 that did not interact with semantic matching of the auditory adjective. However, semantic mismatching of the latter elicited a frontocentral positivity, presumably related to an increase in discourse level complexity. CONCLUSION: The current findings underscore the open versus algorithmic nature of semantic and syntactic processing, respectively, during sentence comprehension.

  11. Side-information Scalable Source Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Chao

    2007-01-01

    The problem of side-information scalable (SI-scalable) source coding is considered in this work, where the encoder constructs a progressive description, such that the receiver with high quality side information will be able to truncate the bitstream and reconstruct in the rate distortion sense, while the receiver with low quality side information will have to receive further data in order to decode. We provide inner and outer bounds for general discrete memoryless sources. The achievable region is shown to be tight for the case that either of the decoders requires a lossless reconstruction, as well as the case with degraded deterministic distortion measures. Furthermore we show that the gap between the achievable region and the outer bounds can be bounded by a constant when square error distortion measure is used. The notion of perfectly scalable coding is introduced as both the stages operate on the Wyner-Ziv bound, and necessary and sufficient conditions are given for sources satisfying a mild support condi...

  12. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  13. Online sources of herbal product information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions.

  14. Multicusp ion source with external rf antenna for production of protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Ji, Q.; Leung, K. N.; Wilde, S.; Foley, E. L.; Grisham, L. R.; Levinton, F. M.

    2004-02-01

    Proton beams are needed in neutral-beam injection for diagnostic development of an internal magnetic field measurement. High proton fraction, low axial energy spread, current density in excess of 30 mA/cm2, and a parallel ion beam with cw operation are the requirements for the ion source/extraction system. A multicusp-type ion source with an external rf antenna was constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A proton fraction of 85% and proton current density of 32 mA/cm2 were achieved at 1.8 kW of rf power. Plasma parameters were measured with a rf compensated Langmuir probe.

  15. DESIGNS MATTER: Delivering Information Sources for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie A. Nolasco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has benefits not just for travelers, but also to the local economy. Since, Bicol Region has natural and cultural attractions; it is a potential travel destination in the country. Technology in delivering information sources played vital role for the success of the tourism industry in the Region. This allows travel enthusiasts to get more information about various tourist attractions. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of delivering information sources such as web advertisement and desktop publishing for tourist promotion in the Bicol Region. Specifically, it determined the status of tourism, and identified common forms of promotions for tourism development. The study adopted mixed method of research. This method was utilized to confirm and validate findings. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to gather data from the respondents of the selected Local Government Units, Department of Tourism, Travel Agencies and Hotel Agents in the Region. Based on the findings, of the total foreign visitors in the country, only 9.14% visited Bicol Region in 2014. That is why, domestic tourist showed high percentage against foreign visitors with 25.7%. Brochures with EZ maps as most commonly used desktop publishing materials and websites and social media for web advertisement. Thus, there is a need to reevaluate promotional activities by the DOT and other agencies. Adoption suggestive features for creative desktop publishing materials and web services should be considered to increase tourist visitors in the Region.

  16. Spectra of random Hermitian matrices with a small-rank external source: supercritical and subcritical regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bertola, Marco; Lee, Seung-Yeop; Pierce, Virgil U

    2010-01-01

    Random Hermitian matrices with a source term arise, for instance, in the study of non-intersecting Brownian walkers \\cite{Adler:2009a, Daems:2007} and sample covariance matrices \\cite{Baik:2005}. We consider the case when the $n\\times n$ external source matrix has two distinct real eigenvalues: $a$ with multiplicity $r$ and zero with multiplicity $n-r$. The source is small in the sense that $r$ is finite or $r=\\mathcal O(n^\\gamma)$, for $0< \\gamma<1$. For a Gaussian potential, P\\'ech\\'e \\cite{Peche:2006} showed that for $|a|$ sufficiently small (the subcritical regime) the external source has no leading-order effect on the eigenvalues, while for $|a|$ sufficiently large (the supercritical regime) $r$ eigenvalues exit the bulk of the spectrum and behave as the eigenvalues of $r\\times r$ Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE). We establish the universality of these results for a general class of analytic potentials in the supercritical and subcritical regimes.

  17. The status of the SNS external antenna ion source and spare RFQ test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, R. F., E-mail: welton@ornl.gov; Aleksandrov, A. V.; Han, B. X.; Kang, Y.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-6471 (United States); Dudnikov, V. G. [Muons, Inc., 552 N. Batavia Avenue, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory operates the Spallation Neutron Source, consisting of a H{sup −} ion source, a 1 GeV linac and an accumulator ring. The accumulated <1 μs-long, ∼35 A beam pulses are extracted from the ring at 60 Hz and directed onto a liquid Hg target. Spalled neutrons are directed to ∼20 world class instruments. Currently, the facility operates routinely with ∼1.2 MW of average beam power, which soon will be raised to 1.4 MW. A future upgrade with a second target station calls for raising the power to 2.8 MW. This paper describes the status of two accelerator components expected to play important roles in achieving these goals: a recently acquired RFQ accelerator and the external antenna ion source. Currently, the RFQ is being conditioned in a newly constructed 2.5 MeV Integrated Test Facility (ITF) and the external antenna source is also being tested on a separate test stand. This paper presents the results of experiments and the testing of these systems.

  18. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  19. [The external evaluation of study quality: the role in maintaining the reliability of laboratory information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-08-01

    The external evaluation of quality of clinical laboratory examinations was gradually introduced in USSR medical laboratories since 1970s. In Russia, in the middle of 1990 a unified all-national system of external evaluation quality was organized known as the Federal center of external evaluation of quality at the basis of laboratory of the state research center of preventive medicine. The main positions of policy in this area were neatly formulated in the guidance documents of ministry of Health. Nowadays, the center of external evaluation of quality proposes 100 and more types of control studies and permanently extends their specter starting from interests of different disciplines of clinical medicine. The consistent participation of laboratories in the cycles of external evaluation of quality intrinsically promotes improvement of indicators of properness and precision of analysis results and increases reliability of laboratory information. However, a significant percentage of laboratories does not participate at all in external evaluation of quality or takes part in control process irregularly and in limited number of tests. The managers of a number of medical organizations disregard the application of the proposed possibilities to increase reliability of laboratory information and limit financing of studies in the field of quality control. The article proposes to adopt the national standard on the basis of ISO 17043 "Evaluation of compliance. The common requirements of professional competence testing".

  20. Cluster-based query expansion using external collections in medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Seon; Jung, Yuchul

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing external collections to improve retrieval performance is challenging research because various test collections are created for different purposes. Improving medical information retrieval has also gained much attention as various types of medical documents have become available to researchers ever since they started storing them in machine processable formats. In this paper, we propose an effective method of utilizing external collections based on the pseudo relevance feedback approach. Our method incorporates the structure of external collections in estimating individual components in the final feedback model. Extensive experiments on three medical collections (TREC CDS, CLEF eHealth, and OHSUMED) were performed, and the results were compared with a representative expansion approach utilizing the external collections to show the superiority of our method.

  1. Sharing information among existing data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    share crucial investigative information across jurisdictional bounds by establishing a communications infrastructure for all of its law enforcement jurisdictions. The Criminal Justice Network (CJ-Net) is a statewide TCP/IP network, dedicated to the sharing of law enforcement information. CJ-Net is managed and maintained by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) and provides open access and privileges to any criminal justice agency, including the state court and penitentiary systems. In addition to Florida, other states, such as North Carolina, are also beginning to implement common protocol communication infrastructures and architectures in order to link local jurisdictions together throughout the state. The law enforcement domain in an optimum situation for information-sharing technologies. Communication infrastructures are continually established, and as such, action is required to effectively use these networks to their full potential. Information technologies that are best suited for the law enforcement domain, must be evaluated and implemented in a cost-effective manner. Unlike the Defense Department and other large federal agencies, individual jurisdictions at both the local and state level cannot afford to expend limited resources on research and development of prototype systems. Therefore, we must identify enabling technologies that have matured in related domains and transition them into law enforcement at a minimum cost. Crucial to this measure, is the selection of the appropriate levels of information-sharing technologies to be inserted. Information-sharing technologies that are unproven or have extensive recurring costs are not suitable for this domain. Information-sharing technologies traditionally exist between two distinct polar bounds: the data warehousing approach and mediation across distributed heterogeneous data sources. These two ends of the spectrum represent extremely different philosophies in accomplishing the same goal. In the

  2. 29 CFR 779.326 - Sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sources of information. 779.326 Section 779.326 Labor... Retail âin the Particular Industryâ § 779.326 Sources of information. In determining whether a sale or... Secretary a number of sources of information to aid him in arriving at a conclusion. These sources include...

  3. Residential magnetic field: Accounting for external sources and residential grounding circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D.A.

    1989-06-14

    A project to characterize the sources of magnetic fields in residential locations was established as part of Ontario Hydro's program to assess the risks, if any, posed by fields due to the electric power system. In this report, a simple model for the strength of the magnetic field at 60 Hz found inside houses is developed to account for the house wiring, and for sources external to the house. In the model the house wiring is reduced to a single circuit carrying the net current on the service drop to the house and the service grounding current. All sources external to the house are combined and represented as a single ambient field assumed to be spatially uniform throughout the volume of the house. This model and a measurmement procedure were tested on 5 houses in locations inside the houses remote from appliances, which were not included in the model. In the main, good agreement was found between actual measured field strengths and those predicted by the model. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Information flows and social externalities in a Tanzanian banana growing village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the role of social networks as facilitators of information flows and banana output increase. Based on a village census, full information is available on the socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmers' kinship group members, neighbours and informal insurance group members. The census data enable us to use individual specific reference groups and include exogenous group controls to tackle standard difficulties related to identification and omitted variables bias when analysing social effects. For the survey village of Nyakatoke in Tanzania the results suggest that information flows exist within all types of groups analysed but output externalities are limited to kinship groups. Using networks may offer scope for effective information flows on agricultural techniques, but our evidence suggests that not just any local network will have a social externality impact, requiring a clear understanding of local social networks for maximum impact.

  5. 1 CFR 20.5 - Sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of information. 20.5 Section 20.5... information. Pertinent sources of information useful to the public, in areas of public interest such as... should be provided with each agency statement. These sources of information shall plainly identify the...

  6. Background electromagnetic noise characterization: the role of external and internal Earth sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Meloni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is surrounded by the ionosphere and magnetosphere that can roughly be seen schematically as two concentric shells. These two composed and inhomogeneous structured shells around the Earth selectively affect electromagnetic (EM waves propagation. Both ionosphere and magnetosphere interact also with particles and waves coming from external sources, generating electromagnetic phenomena that in turn might become sources of EM waves. Conversely, EM waves generated inside the ionosphere remain confined at various altitudes in this region, up to a so-called critical frequency limit, depending on frequency, EM waves can escape out of the ionosphere and magnetosphere or get through. The EM waves generated inside the magnetospheric cavity mainly originate as a result of the electrical activity in the atmosphere. It is well known that also man-made sources, now widely spread on Earth, are a fundamental source of EM waves; however, excluding certain frequencies employed in power distribution and communication, man-made noise can be dominant only at local scale, near their source. According to recent studies, EM waves are also generated in the Earth’s lithosphere; these waves were sometimes associated with earthquake activity showing, on the Earth’s surface, intensities that are generally orders of magnitude below the background EM noise. In this review paper, we illustrate EM waves of natural origin and discuss their characterization in order to try discriminate those of lithospheric origin detectable at or near the Earth’s surface.

  7. Distillery wastes as external carbon sources for denitrification in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwionka, K; Makinia, J; Kaszubowska, M; Majtacz, J; Angowski, M

    2012-01-01

    In this study, by-products from alcohol production were examined in terms of their potential application as external carbon sources for enhancing denitrification in biological nutrient removal systems. Three types of batch tests were used to compare the effects of the distillery by-products, such as fusel oil, syrup and reject water, on the non-acclimated activated sludge. Much higher nitrate utilization rates (NURs) were observed for the latter two carbon sources. In the conventional NUR measurements (one-phase experiments), the observed NURs with syrup and reject water were 3.2-3.3 g N/(kg VSS h) compared with 1.0 g N/(kg VSS h) obtained for fusel oils from two different distilleries. When the carbon sources were added at the beginning of the anoxic phase preceded by an anaerobic phase (two-phase experiments), the NURs were 4.2 g N/(kg VSS h) (syrup and reject water) and 2.4-2.7 g N/(kg VSS h) (fusel oils). The heterotrophic yield coefficient, determined based on the conventional OUR measurements, varied in a relatively narrow range (0.72-0.79 g COD/g COD) for all the examined carbon sources. Due to advantageous composition (much higher COD concentrations and COD/N ratios), fusel is a preferred carbon source for practical handling in full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

  8. External and internal sources which inhibit the nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinkjær, O.; Bøgebjerg, P.; Grüttner, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    In connection with the upgrading of the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the Copenhagen area to nutrient removal special attention has been paid to the nitrification process regarding inhibition effects. Inhibitory substances in the wastewater could be identified by simple batch tests......, and the long-term effects on the nitrification process were tested in pilot plants or at full-scale. A distinction could be made between effects produced by wastewater from external sources in the catchment area and internally circulated flows in the wastewater treatment plant. Results from programmes...... the nitrification capacity monitored at the pilot plants has been in agreement with the design basis. The recycling of the scrubber water from the cleaning of sludge incineration flue gas was found to be an important internal source of inhibition at the Lynetten WWTP. Investigations show that it is possible...

  9. Direct growth and patterning of multilayer graphene onto a targeted substrate without an external carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongseok; Kim, Won-Jun; Lim, Jung Ah; Song, Yong-Won

    2012-07-25

    Using only a simple tube furnace, we demonstrate the synthesis of patterned graphene directly on a designed substrate without the need for an external carbon source. Carbon atoms are absorbed onto Ni evaporator sources as impurities, and incorporated into catalyst layers during the deposition. Heat treatment conditions were optimized so that the atoms diffused out along the grain boundaries to form nanocrystals at the catalyst-substrate interfaces. Graphene patterns were obtained under patterned catalysts, which restricted graphene formation to within patterned areas. The resultant multilayer graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to verify the high crystallinity and two-dimensional nanomorphology. Finally, a metal-semiconductor diode with a catalyst-graphene contact structure were fabricated and characterized to assess the semiconducting properties of the graphene sheets with respect to the display of asymmetric current-voltage behavior.

  10. Certain Properties of a Quantum Information Network Driven by External Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Qiao; FANG Jin-Qing; ZOU Qin

    2006-01-01

    @@ A quantum information network with the structure of the Gaussian channel is proposed. The network topological property and information characteristic is studied. Under the catastrophic and exponential external field driving,the degree distribution has the spatial and temporal characteristics, and the positive or negative power index appears, which can influence the assortativity coefficient. This is possibly helpful to open a way to using the different type of driving to introduce the expected properties for the network.

  11. 32 CFR 154.70 - Foreign source information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign source information. 154.70 Section 154....70 Foreign source information. Information that is classified by a foreign government is exempt from public disclosure under the Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts. Further, information provided by...

  12. How events determine spreading patterns: information transmission via internal and external influences on social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Sun, Gui-Quan; Hui, Pak Ming

    2015-11-01

    Recently, information transmission models motivated by the classical epidemic propagation, have been applied to a wide-range of social systems, generally assume that information mainly transmits among individuals via peer-to-peer interactions on social networks. In this paper, we consider one more approach for users to get information: the out-of-social-network influence. Empirical analyzes of eight typical events’ diffusion on a very large micro-blogging system, Sina Weibo, show that the external influence has significant impact on information spreading along with social activities. In addition, we propose a theoretical model to interpret the spreading process via both internal and external channels, considering three essential properties: (i) memory effect; (ii) role of spreaders; and (iii) non-redundancy of contacts. Experimental and mathematical results indicate that the information indeed spreads much quicker and broader with mutual effects of the internal and external influences. More importantly, the present model reveals that the event characteristic would highly determine the essential spreading patterns once the network structure is established. The results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the underlying dynamics of information transmission on real social networks.

  13. Statistical Sources of Information on Canadian Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokich, George J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses difficulties involved in locating sources of statistical information on public libraries in Canada and describes a study conducted to identify and evaluate various sources of such information. An 18-item bibliography is provided. (CHC)

  14. Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E

    2013-06-07

    The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.

  15. Information-Constrained Optima with Retrading: An Externality and Its Market-Based Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilenthong, Weerachart T; Townsend, Robert M

    2011-05-01

    This paper studies the efficiency of competitive equilibria in environments with a moral hazard problem and unobserved states, both with retrading in ex post spot markets. The interaction between private information problems and the possibility of retrade creates an externality, unless preferences have special, restrictive properties. The externality is internalized by allowing agents to contract ex ante on market fundamentals determining the spot price or interest rate, over and above contracting on actions and outputs. Then competitive equilibria are equivalent with the appropriate notion of constrained Pareto optimality. Examples show that it is possible to have multiple market fundamentals or price-islands, created endogenously in equilibrium.

  16. Selecting and Using Information Sources: Source Preferences and Information Pathways of Israeli Library and Information Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The study investigated the source preference criteria of library and information science students for their academic and personal information needs. Method: The empirical study was based on two methods of data collection. Eighteen participants wrote a personal diary for four months in which they recorded search episodes and answered…

  17. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A survey study of pediatric nurses' use of information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, M Loretta; Woodgate, Roberta L; Hodgson, Andrea; Kowalski, Sandi; Plouffe, Jannelle; Rothney, Patricia R; Sawatzky-Dickson, Doris; Suderman, Eleanor

    2006-01-01

    This survey study explored use of different information sources among a convenience sample of 113 bedside pediatric nurses. The study was guided by three interrelated concepts: types of information sources, levels of evidence, and computer skill. The Nursing Information Use Survey measured use of information sources, impact of information sources on nursing care, barriers to information, and expectations that a computerized clinical desktop or patient information management system would improve patient care. Significant correlations between use of interpersonal and non-computer-based information and non-computer- and computer-based information supported the conceptual model. Use of traditional, non-computer information sources such as textbooks and print-based journals was higher among baccalaureate, compared with diploma, prepared nurses. Nurses with greater computer and online searching skill used more computer-based information. Findings suggested that strategies to improve nurses' computer and information searching skills may promote use of higher-level evidence in planning nursing care.

  19. 10 CFR 4.33 - Access to sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to sources of information. 4.33 Section 4.33 Energy... sources of information. Each recipient shall permit access by the responsible NRC official during normal business hours to such of its books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and its...

  20. Smooth Rényi Entropy of Ergodic Quantum Information Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Berry; Tjoelker, Jilles; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the recently introduced notion of smooth Rényi entropy for the case of ergodic information sources, thereby generalizing previous work which concentrated mainly on i.i.d. information sources. We will actually consider ergodic quantum information sources, of which ergodic classical

  1. 10 CFR 430.4 - Sources for information and guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources for information and guidance. 430.4 Section 430.4... Provisions § 430.4 Sources for information and guidance. (a) General. The standards listed in this paragraph... reference. These sources are given here for information and guidance. (b) IESNA. Illuminating Engineering...

  2. Smooth Rényi Entropy of Ergodic Quantum Information Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Berry; Tjoelker, Jilles; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the recently introduced notion of smooth Rényi entropy for the case of ergodic information sources, thereby generalizing previous work which concentrated mainly on i.i.d. information sources. We will actually consider ergodic quantum information sources, of which ergodic classical inf

  3. Unified method to integrate and blend several, potentially related, sources of information for genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Colinet, Frederic G; Gengler, Nicolas

    2014-09-30

    A condition to predict unbiased estimated breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction is to use simultaneously all available data. However, this condition is not often fully met. For example, in dairy cattle, internal (i.e. local) populations lead to evaluations based only on internal records while widely used foreign sires have been selected using internally unavailable external records. In such cases, internal genetic evaluations may be less accurate and biased. Because external records are unavailable, methods were developed to combine external information that summarizes these records, i.e. external estimated breeding values and associated reliabilities, with internal records to improve accuracy of internal genetic evaluations. Two issues of these methods concern double-counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records. These issues could be worse if external information came from several evaluations, at least partially based on the same records, and combined into a single internal evaluation. Based on a Bayesian approach, the aim of this research was to develop a unified method to integrate and blend simultaneously several sources of information into an internal genetic evaluation by avoiding double-counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records. This research resulted in equations that integrate and blend simultaneously several sources of information and avoid double-counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records. The performance of the developed equations was evaluated using simulated and real datasets. The results showed that the developed equations integrated and blended several sources of information well into a genetic evaluation. The developed equations also avoided double-counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records. Furthermore, because all available external sources of information were correctly propagated, relatives of external animals benefited from the integrated

  4. Gender and Information Literacy: Evaluation of Gender Differences in a Student Survey of Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Arthur; Dalal, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Information literacy studies have shown that college students use a variety of information sources to perform research and commonly choose Internet sources over traditional library sources. Studies have also shown that students do not appear to understand the information quality issues concerning Internet information sources and may lack the…

  5. Gender and Information Literacy: Evaluation of Gender Differences in a Student Survey of Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Arthur; Dalal, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Information literacy studies have shown that college students use a variety of information sources to perform research and commonly choose Internet sources over traditional library sources. Studies have also shown that students do not appear to understand the information quality issues concerning Internet information sources and may lack the…

  6. Frequency of damage by external explosion hazards based on geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Guenter [Risa Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin-Charlottenburg (Germany); Camarinopoulos, Alexis; Theodora, Karali [Environment Reliability and Risk Analysis (ERRA), Athens (Greece); Camarinopoulos, Leonidas [Piraeus Univ. (Greece); Schubert, B. [VENE, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    External explosions can significantly contribute to risk of damage for industrial plants. External explosions may origin from other plants in the neighbourhood, which store and operate with explosive substances, or from transport of such substances on road, rail, or water. If deflagration is involved, ignition will not necessarily occur at the place of the accident, but a cloud of a combustible gas-air mixture may develop, which will ignite at some distance depending on wind velocity. A probabilistic model has been developed to calculate frequencies of damage based on numerical integration or on Monte Carlo simulation. Geographical information systems provide map material for sites, roads, rail and rivers on a computer. Data has been collected and applied for a nuclear power plant in Germany as an example. The method, however, can be used for any type of plant subject to external explosion hazards. (orig.)

  7. The Influence Of Different Information Sources On Innovation Performance: Evidence From France, The Netherlands And Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Mirjana Pejić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information sources are considered a catalyst for innovation improvement, and because of this it is particularly important to learn more regarding their impact on innovation performance. Therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate to what extent the usage of different information sources influences internal and external R&D activities in three countries, Croatia, France and the Netherlands, by employing CIS data, which covers the period from 2006 to 2008. These countries were chosen because of the different levels of their country competitiveness (measured by the Global Competitiveness Index, which permits us to investigate if the usage of information sources has varying impact on their innovation performance. Our results reveal that internal sources, customers, suppliers and universities are important information sources for both internal and external R&D activities in all three countries. However, significant differences are also found. Firms from the Netherlands (which has the highest country competitiveness use information sources differently, relying on competitors as one of their most important sources of innovation. On the other hand, the government did not have any impact on firms in Croatia (which has the lowest country competitiveness, indicating that this may be the reason for similar countries lagging behind.

  8. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Almanza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kg s−1. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 41.7%, at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23% and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb and rural T2 (5 ppb supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence in SO2 levels

  9. Complex approach to the organization of external information flows of tourism enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ivanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to provide the basis of the complex approach to the organization of external information flows at tourism enterprises in order to improve the management of these information flows. The results of the analysis. The complex approach of improvement of the information flows management at tourism enterprises basing on the complex of information signals and organization of feedback between consumers and tourism enterprises is proposed. Application of the theory of market signals (signaling for implementation of the complex approach is substantiated by the fact that an enterprise should generate and extend external outgoing information flows that would contribute to the provision of additional opportunities for the increase tourism products and services output, establishment of partnership and customers attraction. Informational signals as external information flows and activation of informational signaling ensure the informational connection between customers and tourism enterprises in order to stimulate the demand on the services of tourism enterprises and accordingly, their stable competitive position in the market; consideration and formation of demand, as the customers, which are maximum informed on the opportunities of tourism enterprises and the components of an tourism product, may describe their needs in the most accurate way. However, the usage of particular informational signals does not give such opportunities to a tourism enterprise. The necessity to use the complex of informational signals by tourism enterprises was demonstrated through the game theory. If a tourism enterprise does not perform informational signaling, then the sales of tourism products become complicated. The probability of attraction of loyal customers (in accordance to the given goal is not significant, as the choice of a tourism enterprise by a customer has a random character. Therefore, a customer attends another

  10. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conflicting medication information: prevalence, sources, and relationship to medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Elstad, Emily A; Blalock, Susan J; DeVellis, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting medication information has been defined as contradictory information about a medication topic from two or more sources. The objective of this study was to determine whether arthritis patients are exposed to conflicting medication information, to document sources of conflicting information, and to explore whether conflicting information is associated with sociodemographic factors, clinical characteristics, and medication adherence. Using an online survey, arthritis patients (N = 328) reported how often they received conflicting information about 12 medication topics as well as sources of conflicting information, demographic/clinical characteristics, and medication adherence. A linear regression model, which controlled for various demographic/clinical factors, determined whether conflicting information was associated with medication adherence. The majority of patients (80.1%) received conflicting information and were most likely to receive conflicting information about medication risks. Physicians, media sources, and the Internet were the most common sources of conflicting information. Less conflicting information (B =-0.13, p information source use (B = 0.22, p information is pervasive, comes from a variety of sources, and may negatively affect patient health outcomes. To potentially decrease exposure to conflicting information, providers should direct patients to high-quality medication information sources.

  12. Analysis of Nonlinear Dispersion of a Pollutant Ejected by an External Source into a Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinyoka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the transient analysis of nonlinear dispersion of a pollutant ejected by an external source into a laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a channel. The influence of density variation with pollutant concentration is approximated according to the Boussinesq approximation, and the nonlinear governing equations of momentum and pollutant concentration are obtained. The problem is solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, pollutant concentration, skin friction, and wall mass transfer rate for various parametric values. The model can be a useful tool for understanding the polluting situations of an improper discharge incident and evaluating the effects of decontaminating measures for the water body.

  13. Allothermal gasification of biomass using micron size biomass as external heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Li, Qian; Qi, Fangjie; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; He, Piwen

    2012-03-01

    An allothermal biomass gasification system using biomass micron fuel (BMF) as external heat source was developed. In this system, heat supplied to gasifier was generated from combustion of BMF. Biomass feedstock was gasified with steam and then tar in the produced gas was decomposed in a catalytic bed with NiO/γ-Al(2)O(3) catalyst. Finally the production gas was employed as a substitute for civil fuel gas. An overall energy analysis of the system was also investigated. The results showed that the lower heating value of the product gas reached more than 12 MJ/Nm(3). The combusted BMF accounted for 26.8% of the total energy input. Allothermal gasification based on the substituted BMF for conventional energy was an efficient and economical technology to obtain bioenergy.

  14. The effect of competition from open source software on the quality of proprietary software in the presence of network externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqing Xing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A growing number of open source software emerges in many segments of the software market. In addition, software products usually exhibit network externalities. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of open source software on the quality choices of proprietary software vendors when the market presents positive network externalities. Design/methodology: To analyze how open source software affects the optimal quality of proprietary software, this paper constructs two vertical differentiation models: the basic model considers proprietary software monopolizing the market, and its extended one considers proprietary software competing with open source substitute. Findings: This paper mainly finds that the presence of open source software does not necessarily lead to the quality of proprietary software decreases (or increases. The network externalities and compatibility between open source and proprietary software may change the impact of open source software on the quality of proprietary software and may affect the quality choices of proprietary software vendors. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to examine the effect of open source software on the quality choices for proprietary software vendors in software markets exhibiting positive network externalities.

  15. Algorithms for biomagnetic source imaging with prior anatomical and physiological information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughett, Paul William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

    1995-12-01

    This dissertation derives a new method for estimating current source amplitudes in the brain and heart from external magnetic field measurements and prior knowledge about the probable source positions and amplitudes. The minimum mean square error estimator for the linear inverse problem with statistical prior information was derived and is called the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM). OCLIM includes as special cases the Shim-Cho weighted pseudoinverse and Wiener estimators but allows more general priors and thus reduces the reconstruction error. Efficient algorithms were developed to compute the OCLIM estimate for instantaneous or time series data. The method was tested in a simulated neuromagnetic imaging problem with five simultaneously active sources on a grid of 387 possible source locations; all five sources were resolved, even though the true sources were not exactly at the modeled source positions and the true source statistics differed from the assumed statistics.

  16. The Influence of External Information on Collective Bargaining: Survey Evidence of Union and Firm Negotiators in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehr, Alex; Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer two questions: 1- To what extent are negotiators in collective bargaining influenced by different types of external information? 2- How can differences in the influence of external information between negotiators be explained by the characteristics of the negotiators and

  17. Information Source Preferences of Education Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Vanessa J.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades the literature dealing with graduate students and library use, including bibliographic instruction, information-seeking behavior, and information literacy has grown. However, there still appears to be a lack of research and resources available on the information-seeking behavior skills of graduate education students, which can…

  18. Sources of Information for Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Ann L., Comp.

    This booklet is designed to help instructional technologists, students of instructional technology, faculty, and researchers in the field locate information quickly and easily. Information services described are libraries, the ERIC system, online information services, state education departments, regional education centers, and information…

  19. Information Source Preferences of Education Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Vanessa J.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades the literature dealing with graduate students and library use, including bibliographic instruction, information-seeking behavior, and information literacy has grown. However, there still appears to be a lack of research and resources available on the information-seeking behavior skills of graduate education students, which can…

  20. Information Source Selection and Management Framework in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    information source selection and management framework and presents an algorithm which selects the information source based on the information mismatch probability [1]. The sampling rate for every access is decided as per the maximum allowable power consumption limit. Index Terms-wireless sensor network...... applications. Different properties and characteristics like sensitivity, response time etc., of these different sensors will result in generating information at difl'erent rates. When these different types of sensors are deployed to collect same information, the users have choice to select from different...... information sources based on their preferences and requirement. In addition, the user can also switch from one information source to another when the current information source either becomes unavailable or the users requirement changes. In this paper, based on above argument, we develop a reliable...

  1. Information Source Selection and Management Framework in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    information source selection and management framework and presents an algorithm which selects the information source based on the information mismatch probability [1]. The sampling rate for every access is decided as per the maximum allowable power consumption limit. Index Terms-wireless sensor network...... applications. Different properties and characteristics like sensitivity, response time etc., of these different sensors will result in generating information at difl'erent rates. When these different types of sensors are deployed to collect same information, the users have choice to select from different...... information sources based on their preferences and requirement. In addition, the user can also switch from one information source to another when the current information source either becomes unavailable or the users requirement changes. In this paper, based on above argument, we develop a reliable...

  2. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of additional information. 1.3 Section 1.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources of additional information. (a) A statement of the NRC's organization, policies, procedures...

  3. 49 CFR 601.10 - Sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of information. 601.10 Section 601.10..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Public Availability of Information § 601.10 Sources of information. (a) FTA guidance documents. (1) Circulars and other guidance/policy...

  4. 49 CFR 7.46 - Alternative sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative sources of information. 7.46 Section 7.46 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Fees § 7.46 Alternative sources of information. In the interest of making documents of general interest...

  5. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  6. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  7. Informal Learning with Technology: The Effects of Self-Constructing Externalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnik, Gregor; Proske, Antje; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Especially in the context of technology-enhanced informal learning, it is crucial to understand how to design information sources in such a way that learners are not overwhelmed by the demands of the learning process, but at the same time are engaged in higher order thinking processes. Guidance aids learners in dealing with the demands of a…

  8. Use of online sources of information by dental practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funkhouser, Ellen; Agee, Bonita S; Gordan, Valeria V

    2014-01-01

    other and to offline users. CONCLUSION: A relatively small proportion of dental practitioners use information from online sources for practice guidance. Variation exists regarding practitioners' use of online source resources and how they rate the value of offline information sources for practice......OBJECTIVE: Estimate the proportion of dental practitioners who use online sources of information for practice guidance. METHODS: From a survey of 657 dental practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, four indicators of online use for practice guidance were calculated: read...... journals online, obtained continuing education (CDE) through online sources, rated an online source as most influential, and reported frequently using an online source for guidance. Demographics, journals read, and use of various sources of information for practice guidance in terms of frequency...

  9. The Information Sources in Building Cladding Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Du

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of the cladding procurement and fragmentation of the supply chain bring challenges for information management. The purpose of this research was to identify the issues concerning the information sources. A questionnaire survey was the key method of this research, while industry meetings and informal interviews were employed to provide in-depth understanding of the communication related issues in the industry. It was found that the participants of the cladding supply chain were experiencing difficulties of identifying information sources and accessing information, and that an industry level third party acting as an independent information source could be accepted by the cladding industry.

  10. Sources of health information among rural women in Western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh Ann; Wu, Qishan; Yang, Nancy; Bush, Heather M; Crofford, Leslie J

    2015-01-01

    To identify sources of general and mental health information for rural women to inform the development of public health nursing interventions that consider preferences for obtaining information. One thousand women (mean age = 57 years; 96.9% White) living in primarily nonmetropolitan areas of Western Kentucky participated via a random-digit-dial survey. Data were collected on demographics, sources of health information, depression, and stigma. Most participants preferred anonymous versus interpersonal sources for both general (68.1%) and mental health (69.4%) information. All participants reported at least one source of general health information, but 20.8% indicated not seeking or not knowing where to seek mental health information. The Internet was the most preferred anonymous source. Few women cited health professionals as the primary information source for general (11.4%) or mental (9.9%) health. Public stigma was associated with preferring anonymous sources and not seeking information. Public health nurses should understand the high utilization of anonymous sources, particularly for mental health information, and focus efforts on helping individuals to navigate resources to ensure they obtain accurate information about symptoms, effective treatments, and obtaining care. Reducing stigma should remain a central focus of prevention and education in rural areas. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. THE USEFULNESS AND INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION SOURCES ON COMMERCIAL FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gloy, Brent A.; Akridge, Jay T.; Whipker, Linda D.

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of several information sources is examined for U.S. farms with sales in excess of $100,000. The results indicate that crop/livestock-specific magazines and general farm magazines are the most useful information sources. Analyses indicate that the types and number of different commodities that the farm produced, as well as Internet use, are the most consistent predictors of attitudes toward various information sources. However, characteristics that explain attitudes toward diffe...

  12. Compacton-like solutions for modified KdV and nonlinear Schrödinger equation with external sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thokala Soloman Raju; C Nagaraja Kumar; Prasanta K Panigrahi

    2014-08-01

    We present new types of compacton-like solutions for modified KdV and nonlinear Schrödinger equation with external sources, using a recently developed fractional transformation. In particular, we explicate these novel compactons for the trigonometric case, and compare their properties with those of the compactons and solitons in the case of modified KdV equation. Keeping in mind the significance of nonlinear Schrödinger equation with external source, for pulse propagation through asymmetric twin-core fibres, we hope that the newly found compacton may be launched in a long-haul telecommunication network utilizing asymmetric twin-core fibres.

  13. ASTM Data Banks and Chemical Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batik, Albert; Hale, Eleanor

    1972-01-01

    Among the data described are infrared indexes, mass spectral data, chromatographic data, X-ray emmission data, odor and taste threshold data, and thermodynamics data. This paper provides the chemical documentarian a complete reference source to a wide variety of analytical data. (Author/NH)

  14. Antenatal information sources for maternal and infant diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

    2015-07-01

    This report describes information sources accessed by pregnant women around antenatal and early infant diet. Australian women in their first pregnancy (n = 277) responded to questionnaires online and on paper between June 2010 and March 2011 as part of the Feeding Queensland Babies Study. Antenatal information sources are reported for maternal diet, breastfeeding and formula-feeding. Pregnant women sought and encountered information for their own and their infants' diet from many sources. Health care professionals provided antenatal dietary information for 80% of respondents and infant feeding advice for 69%. Relatives or friends were the respondents' largest reported information source for infant feeding, reported by 78%. Information on artificial baby milk was accessed on television by 77% and on the internet by 52% of respondents. Health care professionals should proactively support clients' informational needs and address encountered nutrition misinformation. Further research is necessary to establish the nature and accuracy of dietary information in the mass media.

  15. Information sources for decision making by senior managers in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information sources for decision making by senior managers in two Federal ... Information is widely believed as the raw materials upon which decisions are ... Simple random sampling technique was used to select the population for the study.

  16. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  17. Semantic Information Retrieval from Distributed Heterogeneous Data Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Munir, K; McClatchey, R; Khan, S; Habib, I

    2007-01-01

    Information retrieval from distributed heterogeneous data sources remains a challenging issue. As the number of data sources increases more intelligent retrieval techniques, focusing on information content and semantics, are required. Currently ontologies are being widely used for managing semantic knowledge, especially in the field of bioinformatics. In this paper we describe an ontology assisted system that allows users to query distributed heterogeneous data sources by hiding details like location, information structure, access pattern and semantic structure of the data. Our goal is to provide an integrated view on biomedical information sources for the Health-e-Child project with the aim to overcome the lack of sufficient semantic-based reformulation techniques for querying distributed data sources. In particular, this paper examines the problem of query reformulation across biomedical data sources, based on merged ontologies and the underlying heterogeneous descriptions of the respective data sources.

  18. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Victor; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui; Fast, Jerome; Sosa, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both regional and global scales. At the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the northern region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event coming from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 hours. The estimated emission rate is high, about 2 kg s-1. This finding suggests the possibility of 'overlooked' emission sources in Tizayuca region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and the State of Mexico. We found that they can also contribute SO2 in the NE region of the basin, at the suburban supersite and that at some monitoring stations; their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex (TIC). The contribution of TIC to regional ozone levels is also estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA and slightly higher contribution at the suburban and rural supersites. However, the contribution could be high in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of the State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Results suggest that part of the total regional ozone from TIC-generated precursors could be related to flaring activities.

  19. Nurses' evaluations of sources of information about HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, K L; Ferguson, E; Cox, T; Farnsworth, W J

    1997-10-01

    Reviews of the literature indicate that nurses feel ill-informed about HIV/AIDS and that poor knowledge is associated with anxiety and negative attitudes towards infected patients and their care. Although some studies have sought to identify the sources of HIV/AIDS information available to nurses, few have attempted to understand how nurses evaluate such sources. In this study in 1992, 15 sources of HIV/AIDS information were identified during group discussions with nursing staff and nurse tutors. 277 nursing staff evaluated each of the sources in terms of perceived frequency (how often the source is used) and six items chosen to assess the usability and usefulness of each source (e.g. how informative the source is, how easy it is to understand). The results indicate that in-service training, basic training and professional colleagues are the sources evaluated most highly while posters and advertisements, television and radio and popular newspapers are the most frequently used sources of information. Trades unions' journals and pamphlets are the least frequently used sources of information and receive only modest evaluations. 20% of respondents report never having received any training regarding HIV and AIDS. Implications for the future provision of HIV/AIDS information and directions for further research are discussed.

  20. Risk-Informed External Hazards Analysis for Seismic and Flooding Phenomena for a Generic PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ma, Zhegang [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spears, Bob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kosbab, Ben [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This report describes the activities performed during the FY2017 for the US-DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (LWRS-RISMC), Industry Application #2. The scope of Industry Application #2 is to deliver a risk-informed external hazards safety analysis for a representative nuclear power plant. Following the advancements occurred during the previous FYs (toolkits identification, models development), FY2017 focused on: increasing the level of realism of the analysis; improving the tools and the coupling methodologies. In particular the following objectives were achieved: calculation of buildings pounding and their effects on components seismic fragility; development of a SAPHIRE code PRA models for 3-loops Westinghouse PWR; set-up of a methodology for performing static-dynamic PRA coupling between SAPHIRE and EMRALD codes; coupling RELAP5-3D/RAVEN for performing Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty analysis and automatic limit surface search; and execute sample calculations for demonstrating the capabilities of the toolkit in performing a risk-informed external hazards safety analyses.

  1. Characteristics of the internal and external sources of the Mediterranean synoptic cyclones for the period 1956-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Awad, Adel M.; Nazrul Islam, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the main sources and features of the Mediterranean synoptic cyclones affecting the basin, using the cyclone tracks. The cyclones' tracks are identified using sea level pressure (SLP) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the period 1956-2013. The identified cyclones are classified into two categories: basin affected and basin non-affected. Most of the basin-affected (non-affected) cyclones are internal (external), i.e., generated inside (outside) the Mediterranean basin. This study reveals four (five) main sources of internal (external) cyclones. These four (five) main sources generated about 63.76% (57.25%) of the internal (external) cyclones. Seasonal analysis shows that most of the basin-affected internal (external) cyclones were generated in the winter (spring) season. The lowest number of cyclones were found in the summer. Moreover, the synoptic study of the atmospheric systems accompanied the highest- and lowest-generated years demonstrates that the deepening of the north Europe cyclones and the relative positions of Azores- and Siberian-high systems represent the important factors that influence the number of internal cyclones. Essential factors influencing the external cyclones are the strength of the maximum upper wind, Azores high, Siberian high, and orientations of their ridges.

  2. Second Sourcing vs. Sole Sourcing with Capacity Investment and Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Cuihong Li; Laurens G. Debo

    2009-01-01

    We study the decision of a manufacturer (the buyer), expecting new sourcing opportunities in the future, in selecting between sole- and second-sourcing strategies for a noncommodity component. In a sole-sourcing strategy, the buyer commits to sourcing from a single supplier (the incumbent) over the entire horizon. In a second-sourcing strategy, the buyer keeps the option open to source from a new supplier (the entrant) in the future. Supplier costs are private information, and the incumbent's...

  3. Exploring the Power of Heterogeneous Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    partitional clustering (e.g., K-means), density-based clustering (e.g., DBSCAN, OPTICS ), and spectral clustering algorithms [82]. Semi-supervised...reliability indicators. Information Retrieval, 8(1):67–100, 2005. [16] D. P. Bertsekas. Non-Linear Programming. Athena Scientific, 2 edition, 1999. [17] J

  4. Drug information sources for practicing nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karb, V B

    1989-08-01

    Many printed resources about drugs are available to practicing nurses. In the near future, information will probably by readily accessible via computers. In the interim, it is necessary to rely on other printed materials. As with all purchases, nurses should choose wisely among possible references, and select those meeting the specific needs of the practice setting, as well as complementing the nurses' existing knowledge.

  5. Cancer survivors' use of numerous information sources for cancer-related information: does more matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-09-01

    A large proportion of the 14 million cancer survivors in the USA are actively seeking health information. This study builds on the informed- and shared-decision making literature, examining cancer survivors' health information seeking behaviors to (1) quantify the number of health information sources used; (2) create a demographic profile of patients who report seeking cancer information from numerous sources versus fewer sources in five areas: cancer information overall, disease/treatment, self-care/management, health services, and work/finances; and (3) examine whether seeking cancer information from numerous sources is associated with self-efficacy, fear of recurrence, perceptions of information seeking difficulty, and resultant patient-provider communication. Data came from a survey of post-treatment cancer survivors (N = 501) who responded to a mailed questionnaire about health information seeking. Participants were divided into two groups using a median split: those who sought health information from more than five sources (numerous source seekers) and those that sought information from less than five sources (fewer source seekers). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model differential information seeking behaviors and outcomes for numerous versus fewer source seekers. On average, survivors sought cancer-related information from five different sources. Numerous source seekers were more likely to be women, have higher levels of education, and report fewer problems with cancer information-seeking. Overall, numerous source seekers were no more or less likely to discuss information with their providers or bring conflicting information to their providers. Understanding the characteristics, behaviors, and experiences of survivors who seek cancer-related information from numerous sources can contribute to informed decision making and patient-centered care.

  6. 48 CFR 1509.505-70 - Information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Information sources. 1509... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interests 1509.505-70 Information sources. (a) Disclosure. Prospective EPA Contractors responding to solicitations or submitting unsolicited...

  7. Information and Funding Sources Concerning Adult Illiteracy: A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Margaret

    Intended to help users of the Laubach Literacy Center find information about adult illiteracy, this guide contains information sources describing existing literacy programs (both basic illiteracy and functional illiteracy); publications about adult illiteracy from the state, national, and international perspectives; and sources and conditions of…

  8. information source accessibility and usage as determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    1990-04-28

    Apr 28, 1990 ... managers and subordinate staff; and Internal/impersonal sources: internal ... circulars, internal reports and studies; company library and electronic information services. ... preferable and are more used in sourcing information than personal ... the International Development Centre (1993-2003) has adopted ...

  9. Evaluation of an Information Source Illustrated by a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that to evaluate an information source (e.g., a Wikipedia article), it is necessary to relate the content of that source to an interpretation of the state of knowledge at the research front (which is typically developing dynamically). In the research literature, there is a controversy...... about the effect of screening programs for breast cancer. This controversy is used to compare the value of Wikipedia with Encyclopedia Britannica and two Danish encyclopedias as information sources. It is argued that this method of examining information sources is preferable to other methods which have...

  10. Evaluation of an Information Source Illustrated by a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that to evaluate an information source (e.g., a Wikipedia article), it is necessary to relate the content of that source to an interpretation of the state of knowledge at the research front (which is typically developing dynamically). In the research literature, there is a controversy...... about the effect of screening programs for breast cancer. This controversy is used to compare the value of Wikipedia with Encyclopedia Britannica and two Danish encyclopedias as information sources. It is argued that this method of examining information sources is preferable to other methods which have...

  11. How students evaluate information and sources when searching the World Wide Web for information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them.

  12. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  13. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  14. How students evaluate information and sources when searching the World Wide Web for information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them.

  15. "Source Coding With a Side Information ""Vending Machine"""

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Tsachy; Permuter, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    We study source coding in the presence of side information, when the system can take actions that affect the availability, quality, or nature of the side information. We begin by extending the Wyner-Ziv problem of source coding with decoder side information to the case where the decoder is allowed to choose actions affecting the side information. We then consider the setting where actions are taken by the encoder, based on its observation of the source. Actions may have costs that are commens...

  16. SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR COMMERCIAL FARMS: USEFULNESS OF MEDIA AND PERSONAL SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Gloy, Brent A.; Akridge, Jay T.; Linda D. Whipker

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of several information sources is examined for U.S. farms with sales in excess of $100,000. The results indicate that crop/livestock-specific magazines and general farm magazines are the most useful information sources. Analyses indicate that the types and number of different commodities that the farm produced, as well as Internet use, are the most consistent predictors of attitudes toward various information sources. However, characteristics that explain attitudes toward diffe...

  17. SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR COMMERCIAL FARMS: USEFULNESS OF MEDIA AND PERSONAL SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Gloy, Brent A.; Akridge, Jay T.; Whipker, Linda D.

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of several information sources is examined for U.S. farms with sales in excess of $100,000. The results indicate that crop/livestock-specific magazines and general farm magazines are the most useful information sources. Analyses indicate that the types and number of different commodities that the farm produced, as well as Internet use, are the most consistent predictors of attitudes toward various information sources. However, characteristics that explain attitudes toward diffe...

  18. Information sources for medical waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, B; Battistella, M

    1993-02-01

    Although many hospital professionals now have personal access to online databases, popular communications services may not have the full range of electronic services needed for technical problem solving. Librarians are practiced at cross-disciplinary technical research and so health professionals may be best served by consulting an experienced database search analyst so that important information is not accidentally missed. Additionally, many commercially produced databases have repackaged and redistributed data developed by NIOSH and other federal agencies, data that are readily available in the public sector. The cost of accessing or purchasing commercial databases is usually higher than for federal databases, though commercial products use the federal databases to develop their products. Public agencies should always be consulted to obtain the most current information issued by those bodies and also because a variety of free and low-cost support materials may be available. Because of the expense of routinely consulting electronic databases when comparable printed materials may be available at a lower cost, a small reference collection of books, journals, and audiovisuals may be desirable. A selective print reference collection is found in Appendix A.

  19. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  20. Guidelines for the implementation of an open source information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This work was initially performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to help with the Open Source Task of the 93 + 2 Initiative; however, the information should be of interest to anyone working with open sources. The authors cover all aspects of an open source information system (OSIS) including, for example, identifying relevant sources, understanding copyright issues, and making information available to analysts. They foresee this document as a reference point that implementors of a system could augment for their particular needs. The primary organization of this document focuses on specific aspects, or components, of an OSIS; they describe each component and often make specific recommendations for its implementation. This document also contains a section discussing the process of collecting open source data and a section containing miscellaneous information. The appendix contains a listing of various providers, producers, and databases that the authors have come across in their research.

  1. What makes Chinese firms to choose international external technology sources? An inquiry on internationalization, innovation and institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2013-01-01

    our understanding of EMF competitiveness by adding a crucial link of EMFs strategic choice regarding the origin of technology sourcing from different origins and exploring the determinants for such a choice through the lens of internationalization, innovation and institutions (3 I’s) within a coherent......External technology sourcing from developed countries has been one of the most important vehicles by which emerging market firms (EMFs) sustain competiveness. Foreign advanced technologies offer EMFs opportunities to gain access to state-of-the-art technologies and upgrade their competitiveness....... However, we have also witnessed an emerging trend of external acquisition of technology by EMFs firms in both international and domestic markets. Why some EMFs are active in sourcing both domestic and international technologies instead of being significantly in favour of foreign technologies from...

  2. Scanning Health Information Sources: Applying and Extending the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Erin K

    2016-01-01

    Information scanning, or attention to information via incidental or routine exposure or browsing, is relatively less understood than information seeking. To (a) provide a more theoretical understanding of information scanning and (b) extend existing information seeking theory to information scanning, the current study used data from the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey to examine cancer information scanning using the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS). Consistent with the CMIS, health-related factors were associated with the information-carrier factor of trust, and health-related factors and trust were associated with attention to information sources. Some of these associations differed between entertainment-oriented sources, information-oriented sources, and the Internet. The current findings provide a clearer picture of information scanning and suggest future avenues of research and practice using the CMIS.

  3. Teens Reflect on Their Sources of Contraceptive Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.; Hebert, Luciana; Mellor, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Based on semistructured interviews with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 58 U.S. high school students, this study examines teens' exposure to contraceptive information from a range of sources and the extent to which they trust this information. Teens report exposure to contraceptive information from many individuals and places, most…

  4. Source-specific Informative Prior for i-Vector Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Lee, Kong Aik; Li, Haizhou

    2015-01-01

    -informative, since for homogeneous datasets there is no gain in generality in using an informative prior. This work shows that extracting i-vectors for a heterogeneous dataset, containing speech samples recorded from multiple sources, using informative priors instead is applicable, and leads to favorable results...

  5. Teens Reflect on Their Sources of Contraceptive Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.; Hebert, Luciana; Mellor, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Based on semistructured interviews with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 58 U.S. high school students, this study examines teens' exposure to contraceptive information from a range of sources and the extent to which they trust this information. Teens report exposure to contraceptive information from many individuals and places, most…

  6. Sources of Developmental Change in the Efficiency of Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Lombrozo, Tania; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Children are active learners: they learn not only from the information people offer and the evidence they happen to observe, but by actively seeking information. However, children's information search strategies are typically less efficient than those of adults. In two studies, we isolate potential sources of developmental change in how children…

  7. Butterfly effect and holographic mutual information under external field and spatial noncommutativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wung-Hong; Du, Yi-Hsien

    2017-02-01

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  8. Butterfly Effect and Holographic Mutual Information under External Field and Spatial Noncommutativity

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  9. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muusses, Linda D; van Weert, Julia C M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Jansen, Jesse

    2012-09-01

    Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving chemotherapy for the first time use and which factors (background characteristics, psychological factors, information needs and source reliability) explain the use of different mass-media information sources. Three hundred forty-five patients receiving chemotherapy in ten hospitals in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire. Use of 16 sources (mass-media and interpersonal) was measured with a five-point Likert scale. Regression analyses were conducted to test whether use of the three most frequently used mass-media sources could be explained by socio-demographic, medical and psychological factors, unfulfilled information needs and perceived reliability of the source. Treatment guide, brochures and Internet were the most frequently used mass-media sources. Medical specialists, nurses, and family and/or friends were the most common interpersonal sources. Using the treatment guide was found to be associated with treatment goal, unfulfilled information needs and source reliability. Using brochures was associated with cancer-related stress responses, coping style and source reliability. Using Internet was associated with age, education, coping style and source reliability. This study developed a model to explain the use of mass-media information sources by patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. The use of different information sources is associated with different factors, indicating that each source offers specific opportunities to tailor information to the patient's needs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muusses, L.D.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving

  11. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muusses, L.D.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Dulmen, S.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fulfilling patients’ information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well‐being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving

  12. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muusses, L.D.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Dulmen, S.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fulfilling patients’ information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well‐being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving

  13. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muusses, L.D.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving

  14. Navigating the cancer information environment: The reciprocal relationship between patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy S L; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Prior theory has argued and empirical studies have shown that cancer patients rely on information from their health care providers as well as lay sources to understand and make decisions about their disease. However, research on the dynamic and interdependent nature of cancer patients' engagement with different information sources is lacking. This study tested the hypotheses that patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources influence one another longitudinally among a representative cohort of 1,293 cancer survivors in Pennsylvania. The study hypotheses were supported in a series of lagged multiple regression analyses. Baseline seeking information from nonmedical sources positively predicted subsequent patient-clinician information engagement at 1-year follow-up. The reverse relationship was also statistically significant; baseline patient-clinician information engagement positively predicted information seeking from nonmedical sources at follow-up. These findings suggest that cancer survivors move between nonmedical and clinician sources in a dynamic way to learn about their disease.

  15. Consumer trust in sources of physician quality information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hearld, Larry R; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Christianson, Jon B; Martsolf, Grant R

    2011-08-01

    Trust in the source of information about physician quality is likely to be an important factor in how consumers use that information in encounters with their doctor or in decisions about choice of provider. In this article, the authors use survey data from a nationally representative sample of 8,140 individuals with chronic illness to examine variation in consumer trust in different sources of physician quality information and how market segmentation factors explain such variation. The authors find that consumers place greater trust in physicians and hospitals relative to institutional sources and personal sources. The level of trust, however, varies considerably across consumers as a function of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral/lifestyle factors but is not related to measures of context. These results suggest that the sources of public reports comparing physician quality may be a barrier to the use of quality data by consumers in the ways envisioned by supporters of greater quality transparency.

  16. How Source Information Shapes Lay Interpretations of Science Conflicts: Interplay between Sourcing, Conflict Explanation, Source Evaluation, and Claim Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomm, Eva; Bromme, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    When laypeople read controversial scientific information in order to make a personally relevant decision, information on the source is a valuable resource with which to evaluate multiple, competing claims. Due to their bounded understanding, laypeople rely on the expertise of others and need to identify whether sources are credible. The present…

  17. How Source Information Shapes Lay Interpretations of Science Conflicts: Interplay between Sourcing, Conflict Explanation, Source Evaluation, and Claim Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomm, Eva; Bromme, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    When laypeople read controversial scientific information in order to make a personally relevant decision, information on the source is a valuable resource with which to evaluate multiple, competing claims. Due to their bounded understanding, laypeople rely on the expertise of others and need to identify whether sources are credible. The present…

  18. Addressing the changing sources of health information in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Alishahi Tabriz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion : Although during 8 years of study radio and television remained as main source of health information but there is an increasing tendency to use internet especially in men. Policymakers should revise their broadcasting strategies based on people demand.

  19. Farmers' and traders' sources of market information in Lira district

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    traders are the main sources of market information for farmers. Suggestions concerning ... tools included a combination of common PRA techniques. (e.g. semi-structured ... community markets, the farm-gate, and trading centres. Local village ...

  20. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND SOCIAL RESEARCH (JASR) Vol. ... available to the respondent farmers were in this order of importance; radio, ... extension information is sourced through extension worker, the mass media (i.e. radio and.

  1. Sources Informing Undergraduate College Student Perceptions of Psychologists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Dana N; Wantz, Richard A; Firmin, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    ... psychologists from other HSPs.We surveyed 259 students enrolled in a general psychology class at a selective private comprehensive university in the Midwest in order to determine the sources that inform their perceptions...

  2. Understanding Different Sources of Information: The Acquisition of Evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koring, Loes; de Mulder, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates six- to nine-year-old children's acquisition of evidentiality. In two minimally different tasks we assess whether children can be made to use a particular source of information by presenting them with a specific evidential term. That is, we assess whether children have an explicit awareness of the source requirement of the…

  3. Understanding Different Sources of Information: The Acquisition of Evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koring, Loes; de Mulder, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates six- to nine-year-old children's acquisition of evidentiality. In two minimally different tasks we assess whether children can be made to use a particular source of information by presenting them with a specific evidential term. That is, we assess whether children have an explicit awareness of the source requirement of the…

  4. Phase 1 report: investigation of geothermal energy information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-14

    A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.

  5. Secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor with external power source and data logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2016-05-31

    A secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor system comprises a passive RFID tag having means for receiving radio signals from at least one base station and for transmitting radio signals to at least one base station, where the tag is capable of being powered exclusively by received radio energy, and an external power and data logging device having at least one battery and electronic circuitry including a digital memory configured for storing and recalling data. The external power and data logging device has a means for powering the tag, and also has a means.

  6. Preferred sources of health information in persons with multiple sclerosis: degree of trust and information sought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Salter, Amber R; Tyry, Tuula; Fox, Robert J; Cutter, Gary R

    2013-03-17

    Effective health communication is important for informed decision-making, yet little is known about the range of information sources used by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), the perceived trust in those information sources, or how this might vary according to patient characteristics. We aimed to investigate the sources of health information used by persons with MS, their preferences for the source of health information, and levels of trust in those information sources. We also aimed to evaluate how these findings varied according to participant characteristics. In 2011, participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry were asked about their sources of health information using selected questions adapted from the 2007 Health Information National Trends (HINTS) survey. Of 12,974 eligible participants, 66.18% (8586/12,974) completed the questionnaire. Mass media sources, rather than interpersonal information sources, were the first sources used by 83.22% (5953/7153) of participants for general health topics and by 68.31% (5026/7357) of participants for MS concerns. Specifically, the Internet was the first source of health information for general health issues (5332/7267, 73.40%) and MS (4369/7376, 59.23%). In a logistic regression model, younger age, less disability, and higher annual income were independently associated with increased odds of use of mass media rather than interpersonal sources of information first. The most trusted information source was a physician, with 97.94% (8318/8493) reporting that they trusted a physician some or a lot. Information sought included treatment for MS (4470/5663, 78.93%), general information about MS (3378/5405, 62.50%), paying for medical care (1096/4282, 25.59%), where to get medical care (787/4282, 18.38%), and supports for coping with MS (2775/5031, 55.16%). Nearly 40% (2998/7521) of participants had concerns about the quality of the information they gathered. Although

  7. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochurov, Boris P.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA-Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. The results for two cases are as follows: Case 1Case 2CR 0.77 1.66N(LWR) 8.6 19.1Power MWt(el) 512 225 where N(LWR)-number of LWRs(3000 MWt(th)) from which yearly discharge of Tc-99 is transmuted during 30 years. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  8. Using additional external inputs to forecast water quality with an artificial neural network for contamination event detection in source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Source water quality plays an important role for the safety of drinking water and early detection of its contamination is vital to taking appropriate countermeasures. However, compared to drinking water, it is more difficult to detect contamination events because its environment is less controlled and numerous natural causes contribute to a high variability of the background values. In this project, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a Contamination Event Detection Process (CED Process) were used to identify events in river water. The ANN models the response of basic water quality sensors obtained in laboratory experiments in an off-line learning stage and continuously forecasts future values of the time line in an on-line forecasting step. During this second stage, the CED Process compares the forecast to the measured value and classifies it as regular background or event value, which modifies the ANN's continuous learning and influences its forecasts. In addition to this basic setup, external information is fed to the CED Process: A so-called Operator Input (OI) is provided to inform about unusual water quality levels that are unrelated to the presence of contamination, for example due to cooling water discharge from a nearby power plant. This study's primary goal is to evaluate how well the OI fits into the design of the combined forecasting ANN and CED Process and to understand its effects on the online forecasting stage. To test this, data from laboratory experiments conducted previously at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, have been used to perform simulations highlighting features and drawbacks of this method. Applying the OI has been shown to have a positive influence on the ANN's ability to handle a sudden change in background values, which is unrelated to contamination. However, it might also mask the presence of an event, an issue that underlines the necessity to have several instances of the algorithm run in parallel. Other difficulties

  9. External Knowledge Sourcing and Green Innovation Growth with Environmental and Energy Regulations: Evidence from Manufacturing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the slacks-based measure-directional distance function (SBM-DDF, 2009 method for deriving the “Green Innovation Growth” rates of 28 manufacturing industries in China. The results indicate that the overall level of green innovation growth in China’s manufacturing is relatively low, with a declining trend. The tradeoffs among energy, environment and economy are rather sharp, and the “Porter Effect (1995” (environmental regulation will promote green technology innovation is not currently realized quickly in manufacturing. These evaluations imply an unsustainable development model in China, with significant differences among industries. By using a dynamic panel threshold model and employing an industry-level panel dataset for 2008–2014, we show that external knowledge sourcing has a significant negative impact on green innovation growth but with different constraints on R&D levels among industries. With the strengthening of R&D levels, gradually surpassing “critical mass”, the negative role of external knowledge sourcing in driving this mechanism becomes smaller and smaller; it has a non-linear relationship with the “threshold effect”. Consequently, we provide insights into the relationship among energy consumption, environmental pollution and technology innovation, and show how the heterogeneity of the R&D threshold affects differences in external knowledge sourcing and green innovation growth. These insights lead to a better understanding of the driving force, realizing path and policy design for green innovation growth.

  10. 9 Great Information Sources About Baby and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 9 Great Information Sources About Baby and You Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript ... array of other accessible information on pregnancy from the National Library of Medicine. ...

  11. Use of information sources by family physicians: a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.H.; Boerma, E.J.; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Analysis of the use of information sources by family physicians is important for both practical and theoretical reasons. First, analysis of the ways in which family physicians handle information may point to opportunities for improvement. Second, such efforts may lead to improvements in the

  12. Use of information sources by family physicians: a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.H.; Boerma, E.J.; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the use of information sources by family physicians is important for both practical and theoretical reasons. First, analysis of the ways in which family physicians handle information may point to opportunities for improvement. Second, such efforts may lead to improvements in the methodol

  13. JOURNALISTS AND THEIR SOURCES OF IDEAS AND INFORMATION ON MEDICINES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTRIGT, AM; DEJONGVANDENBERG, LTW; HAAIJER-RUSKAMP, FM; WILLEMS, J; TROMP, TFJ

    In this article we describe from which sources science writers who write about medicines in daily newspapers get their ideas and information. This study was undertaken because mass media, and therefore newspapers, can play an important role in the diffusion of information about medicines. Two

  14. Mom and Dad: An Untapped Source for Career Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Ronald G.

    Obtaining and evaluating career information is a beneficial activity for high school students. Although a potential source of this information is parents, students do not necessarily have meaningful career discussions with their parents. An activity, Thats My Mom / Thats My Dad was developed to encourage more parent-student career decisions. In…

  15. Nonconventional Information Sources and Services in the Library: Our Credo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Dale R.; Boyer, Calvin J.

    1975-01-01

    Libraries must provide more than the usual reference services by taping community information sources such as social agencies, religious organizations, local clubs and societies, local businesses, and residents who have special knowledge. The library must also take an active, rather than passive, role in delivering information. (LS)

  16. Sources of information for dataware of strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Savchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The paper is dedicated to problems of searching and choosing sources of information, which can be used by managers and executives in retail industry for marketing strategy development and implementation. The results of the analysis. The actuality of information and quick access to it can be supplied by using information sources which correctly answer the purpose, needs and requests of potential information users. Also it is necessary to choose sources with relevant, current data in the field of retail. In the article using of different information sources was investigated by analyzing theoretical and empirical studies of scientists and conducting questionnaire of retail enterprises executives in Ukraine. Due to results of authors’ investigation it was determined the next. Official sources of information can be used for collecting data about macro environment of retail enterprise on such stages of strategic marketing as: positioning of enterprise, segmenting of potential customers, forecasting enterprises development and changes in retail industry. Upon that, State Statistic Service of Ukraine is the source of information about changes and trends in demographical and economic situation and factors related to this, which can have negative or positive effect on retail enterprises activity, resolutions of Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers – the basis for consideration of laws and changes in business climate of country, Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce and Industry – provides data about financial positions of enterprises and their sustainability as partners in business. Publications and sites of different organizations on Internet is the most popular among unofficial sources of information. The role of the Internet approved by results of investigation, but still there are problems with finding and choosing among great quantity of data available in network essential information and authoritative sources for developing marketing

  17. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Pathway: FY 2016 External Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce Perry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes an External Review conducted by the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway to solicit feedback on the topics and results of the ongoing II&C research program. This review was held in conjunction with the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Digital I&C Working Group meeting that was held at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on August 9-10, 2016. Given the opportunity to visit INL and see the pathway research projects, NEI agreed that the Working Group would serve as the External Review panel for the purpose of obtaining expert input on the value and timing of the research projects. This consisted of demonstrations in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory followed by presentations on the II&C research program in general as well as the five technology development areas. Following the meeting, the presentations were sent to each of the attendees so they could review them in more detail and refer to them in completing the feedback form. Follow-up activities were conducted with the attendees following the meeting to obtain the completed feedback forms. A total of 13 forms were returned. The feedback forms were reviewed by the pathway to compile the data and comments received, which are documented in the report. In all, the feedback provided by the External Review participants is taken to be a strong endorsement of the types of projects being conducted by the pathway, the value they hold for the nuclear plants, and the general timing of need. The feedback aligns well with the priorities, levels of efforts allocated for the research projects, and project schedules. The feedback also represents realistic observations on the practicality of some aspects of implementing these technologies. In some cases, the participants provided thoughtful challenges to certain assumptions in the formulation of the technologies or in deployment plans. These deserve further review and revision of plans if warranted

  18. An efficient CDMA decoder for correlated information sources

    CERN Document Server

    Efraim, Hadar; Shental, Ori; Kanter, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We consider the detection of correlated information sources in the ubiquitous Code-Division Multiple-Access (CDMA) scheme. We propose a message-passing based scheme for detecting correlated sources directly, with no need for source coding. The detection is done simultaneously over a block of transmitted binary symbols (word). Simulation results are provided demonstrating a substantial improvement in bit-error-rate in comparison with the unmodified detector and the alternative of source compression. The robustness of the error-performance improvement is shown under practical model settings, including wrong estimation of the generating Markov transition matrix and finite-length spreading codes.

  19. Energy generation externalities with conventional and renewable sources; Externalidades da geracao de energia com fontes convencionais e renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayani, Rafael Amaral; Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Goncalves de [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Lab. de Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The energy generation externalities have both positive and negative sides. The conventional sources, including fossil and nuclear fuel, have environment, political, economical and social negative externalities. The environment one affects the world climate, the political one includes the wars caused by oil control, the governmental financial support is economical aspects, and black outs, that affect all citizen's job, are a social example. The photovoltaic solar energy has a negative externality when the lead-acid battery is used into stand-alone systems. This batteries need special attention because has harmful components that can pollute the water. The use of other way to storage the energy is a solution to this, like non pollute batteries, electrostatic accumulation, flywheels, compressed air, hydrogen fuel cell or thermo accumulation. The PV system can be grid-connected too; this solutions have positive externalities, because the solar collector can replace the electric shower, reducing the transmission system demand during the peak time, and saving some energy from the conventional power plant during drought season. A house's roof can support more than twice of PV system needed to supply the energy of the house, so the potential to use the solar energy without needing new places is huge. The consciousness that the Earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens, should be adopted for all mankind, because the environment pollution of a specific place affects everyone, and the negative externalities must be calculated. The PV prices is getting cheaper each year, forecasting 45% of price reduction into the next 10 years. The governmental support to use solar hot water at residences, research and nationalization of the PV production are necessary to amplify the positive externalities of the solar energy. (author)

  20. Leveraging Terminological Resources for Mapping between Rare Disease Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Bastien; Snyder, Michelle; Lewis, Janine; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Rare disease information sources are incompletely and inconsistently cross-referenced to one another, making it difficult for information seekers to navigate across them. The development of such cross-references established manually by experts is generally labor intensive and costly. Objectives To develop an automatic mapping between two of the major rare diseases information sources, GARD and Orphanet, by leveraging terminological resources, especially the UMLS. Methods We map the rare disease terms from Orphanet and ORDR to the UMLS. We use the UMLS as a pivot to bridge between the rare disease terminologies. We compare our results to a mapping obtained through manually established cross-references to OMIM. Results Our mapping has a precision of 94%, a recall of 63% and an F1-score of 76%. Our automatic mapping should help facilitate the development of more complete and consistent cross-references between GARD and Orphanet, and is applicable to other rare disease information sources as well. PMID:23920611

  1. Editorial Bias in Crowd-Sourced Political Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Joshua L; Aronow, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.

  2. UCN sources at external beams of thermal neutrons. An example of PIK reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lychagin, E V; Muzychka, A Yu; Nekhaev, G V; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Onegin, M S; Sharapov, E I; Strelkov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We consider ultracold neutron (UCN) sources based on a new method of UCN production in superfluid helium (4He). The PIK reactor is chosen as a perspective example of the application of this idea, which consists of installing a 4He UCN source in a beam of thermal or cold neutrons and surrounding the source with a moderator-reflector, which plays the role of a source of cold neutrons (CNs) feeding the UCN source. The CN flux in the source can be several times larger than the incident flux, due to multiple neutron reflections from the moderator-reflector. We show that such a source at the PIK reactor would provide an order of magnitude larger density and production rate than an analogous source at the ILL reactor. We estimate parameters of a 4He source with solid methane (CH4) or/and liquid deuterium (D2) moderator-reflector. We show that such a source with CH4 moderator-reflector at the PIK reactor would provide the UCN density of ~1x10^5 1/cm^3, and the UCN production rate of ~2x10^7 1/s. These values are resp...

  3. UCN sources at external beams of thermal neutrons. An example of PIK reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychagin, E.V., E-mail: lychag@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Mityukhlyaev, V.A., E-mail: victim@pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Muzychka, A.Yu., E-mail: muz@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Nekhaev, G.V., E-mail: grigorijnekhaev@yandex.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Nesvizhevsky, V.V., E-mail: nesvizhevsky@ill.eu [Institut Max von Laue – Paul Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38042 (France); Onegin, M.S., E-mail: oneginm@gmail.com [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Sharapov, E.I., E-mail: sharapov@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A.V., E-mail: str@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    We consider ultracold neutron (UCN) sources based on a new method of UCN production in superfluid helium ({sup 4}He). The PIK reactor is chosen as a perspective example of application of this idea, which consists of installing {sup 4}He UCN source in the beam of thermal or cold neutrons and surrounding the source with moderator-reflector, which plays the role of cold neutron (CN) source feeding the UCN source. CN flux in the source can be several times larger than the incident flux, due to multiple neutron reflections from the moderator–reflector. We show that such a source at the PIK reactor would provide an order of magnitude larger density and production rate than an analogous source at the ILL reactor. We estimate parameters of {sup 4}He source with solid methane (CH{sub 4}) or/and liquid deuterium (D{sub 2}) moderator–reflector. We show that such a source with CH{sub 4} moderator–reflector at the PIK reactor would provide the UCN density of ~1·10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}, and the UCN production rate of ~2·10{sup 7} s{sup −1}. These values are respectively 1000 and 20 times larger than those for the most intense UCN user source. The UCN density in a source with D{sub 2} moderator-reflector would reach the value of ~2·10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}, and the UCN production rate would be equal ~8·10{sup 7} s{sup −1}. Installation of such a source in a beam of CNs would slightly increase the density and production rate.

  4. Is This Information Source Commercially Biased? How Contradictions between Web Pages Stimulate the Consideration of Source Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Yvonne; Kalbfell, Eva; Gerjets, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments we systematically examined whether contradictions between two web pages--of which one was commercially biased as stated in an "about us" section--stimulated university students' consideration of source information both during and after reading. In Experiment 1 "about us" information of the web pages was…

  5. Is This Information Source Commercially Biased? How Contradictions between Web Pages Stimulate the Consideration of Source Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Yvonne; Kalbfell, Eva; Gerjets, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments we systematically examined whether contradictions between two web pages--of which one was commercially biased as stated in an "about us" section--stimulated university students' consideration of source information both during and after reading. In Experiment 1 "about us" information of the web pages was…

  6. Number of warning information sources and decision making during tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan

    2015-03-01

    Taking proper protective action upon receiving tornado warnings is critical to reducing casualties. With more warning information sources becoming available, how the number of such information sources affects decision making should be quantitatively investigated. To examine how the number of warning information sources affected individuals' decisions to take protective action during tornadoes. A telephone survey using random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO, resulting in a working sample of 782 respondents. Both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (Enhanced Fujita Scale [EF]4 and EF5) in 2011. The analysis was conducted in 2013. Logistic regression analysis showed that relative to having only one warning information source, having two and three or more warning information sources significantly increased the odds of taking protective action in Joplin but not in Tuscaloosa; having three or more sources had a significantly stronger effect on taking protective action in Joplin than in Tuscaloosa. Having an emergency preparation plan in both cities and being white in Tuscaloosa significantly increased the odds of taking protective action, whereas being divorced in Joplin reduced these odds. Receiving warnings from more warning information sources might be more beneficial in places with less previous exposure to tornadoes and for populations with lower awareness of a potential tornado and higher probability of receiving no warnings. Emergency management agencies and public health officials should give priority to these places and populations when formulating disaster mitigation decisions and policies. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Information source exploitation/exploration and NPD decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the exploration/exploitation continuum is applied by decision-makers in new product gate decision-making. Specifically, we analyze at gate decision-points how the evaluation of a new product project is affected by the information source exploitation...... of gate decision-making and information sources was developed across five generic stages (idea, concept, design, test, and commercialization). Our data was generated with a participatory agent-based simulation of NPD gate decision-points in the development process. The sample consists of 134 managers from...... different Scandinavian companies. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression models across decision criteria dimensions and NPD stages as well as analyzing the combination of selected information sources. Rather than forwarding one optimal search behavior for the entire NPD process, we find optimal...

  8. Global sourcing - performance and integration : reflections on performance, implications from cross-functional and external integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms and individuals have been sourcing on a global basis since ancient times, global sourcing as a topic has received considerable attention from managers and scholars in recent years. Global business has been reported to be growing considerably during the last decades and

  9. Global sourcing - performance and integration : reflections on performance, implications from cross-functional and external integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms and individuals have been sourcing on a global basis since ancient times, global sourcing as a topic has received considerable attention from managers and scholars in recent years. Global business has been reported to be growing considerably during the last decades and th

  10. On Cascade Source Coding with A Side Information "Vending Machine"

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Choudhuri, Chiranjib; Mitra, Urbashi

    2012-01-01

    The model of a side information "vending machine" accounts for scenarios in which acquiring side information is costly and thus should be done efficiently. In this paper, the three-node cascade source coding problem is studied under the assumption that a side information vending machine is available either at the intermediate or at the end node. In both cases, a single-letter characterization of the available trade-offs among the rate, the distortions in the reconstructions at the intermediate and at the end node, and the cost in acquiring the side information are derived under given conditions.

  11. Agent paradigm and services technology for distributed Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Mellah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of information is issued from interacting information sources (IS, and could be better exploited with respect to relevance of information. In distributed IS system, relevant information has a content that is in connection with other contents in information network, and is used for a certain purpose. The highlighting point of the proposed model is to contribute to information system agility according to a three-dimensional view involving the content, the use and the structure. This reflects the relevance of information complexity and effective methodologies through self organized principle to manage the complexity. This contribution is primarily focused on presenting some factors that lead and trigger for self organization in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA and how it can be possible to integrate self organization mechanism in the same.

  12. Social internet sites as a source of public health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Karl; Howe, William; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2009-04-01

    Social media websites, such as YouTube, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and Second Life are rapidly emerging as popular sources of health information especially for teens and young adults. Social media marketing carries the advantages of low cost, rapid transmission through a wide community, and user interaction. Disadvantages include blind authorship, lack of source citation, and presentation of opinion as fact. Dermatologists and other health care providers should recognize the importance of social media websites and their potential usefulness for disseminating health information.

  13. THE CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE SNS EXTERNAL ANTENNA H- ION SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Desai, Nandishkumar J [ORNL; Fuja, Raymond E [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Lee, Shyh-Yuan [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Potter, Kerry G [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that the SNS will meet operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we are developing an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a water-cooled, ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber. To date, early versions of this source has delivered up to 42 mA to the SNS Front End (FE) and unanalyzed beam currents up to ~ 100mA (60Hz, 1ms) to the ion source test stand. This source was operated on the SNS accelerator from February to April 2009 and produced ~35mA (beam current required by the ramp up plan) with availability of ~97%. During this run several ion source failures identified reliability issues which must be addressed before the source re-enters routine operation: plasma ignition, antenna lifetime, magnet cooling and cooling jacket integrity. This report discusses these issues, details proposed engineering solutions and notes progress to date.

  14. Source Coding When the Side Information May Be Delayed

    CERN Document Server

    Simeone, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    For memoryless sources, delayed side information at the decoder does not improve the rate-distortion function. However, this is not the case for more general sources with memory, as demonstrated by a number of works focusing on the special case of (delayed) feedforward. In this paper, a setting is studied in which the encoder is potentially uncertain about the delay with which measurements of the side information are acquired at the decoder. Assuming a hidden Markov model for the sources, at first, a single-letter characterization is given for the set-up where the side information delay is arbitrary and known at the encoder, and the reconstruction at the destination is required to be (near) lossless. Then, with delay equal to zero or one source symbol, a single-letter characterization is given of the rate-distortion region for the case where side information may be delayed or not, unbeknownst to the encoder. The characterization is further extended to allow for additional information to be sent when the side ...

  15. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane C; Campbell, Karen J; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2015-08-07

    Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women's GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women's sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Consecutive women (n = 1032) received a mailed questionnaire after their first antenatal visit to a public maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Recalled provision of GWG guidelines by doctors and midwives, recalled provided GWG goals, and the obtaining of GWG information and information sources were assessed. Participants (n = 368; 35.7% response) averaged 32.5 years of age and 20.8 weeks gestation, with 33.7% speaking a language other than English. One in ten women recalled receiving GWG guidelines from doctors or midwives, of which half were consistent with Institute of Medicine guidelines. More than half the women (55.4%) had actively sought GWG information. Nulliparous (OR 7.07, 95% CI = 3.91-12.81) and obese (OR 1.96, 95% CI = 1.05-3.65) women were more likely to seek information. Underweight (OR 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09-0.97) women and those working part time (OR 0.52, 95% CI = 0.28-0.97) were less likely to seek information. Most frequently reported GWG sources included the internet (82.7%), books (55.4%) and friends (51.5%). The single most important sources were identified as the internet (32.8%), general practitioners (16.9%) and books (14.9%). More than half of women were seeking GWG guidance and were more likely to consult non-clinician sources. The small numbers given GWG targets, and the dominance of non-clinical information sources, reinforces that an important opportunity to provide evidence based advice and guidance in the antenatal care setting is currently being missed.

  16. Information needs and sources of information for patients during cancer follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea–Budgell, M.A.; Kostaras, X.; Myhill, K.P.; Hagen, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Now more than ever, cancer patients want health information. Little has been published to characterize the information needs and preferred sources of that information for patients who have completed cancer treatment. Methods We used a nationally validated instrument to prospectively survey patients attending a cancer clinic for a post-treatment follow-up visit. All patients who came to the designated clinics between December 2011 and June 2012 were approached (N = 648), and information was collected only from those who agreed to proceed. Results The 411 patients who completed the instrument included individuals with a wide range of primary malignancies. Their doctor or health professional was overwhelmingly the most trusted source of cancer information, followed by the Internet, family, and friends. The least trusted sources of information included radio, newspaper, and television. Patients most preferred to receive personalized written information from their health care provider. Conclusions Cancer survivors are keenly interested in receiving information about cancer, despite having undergone or finished active therapy. The data indicate that, for patients, their health care provider is the most trusted source of cancer information. Cancer providers should ask patients about the information they want and should direct them to trusted sources. PMID:25089098

  17. Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469

  18. Open source, open standards, and health care information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Carl J; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2011-02-17

    Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy.

  19. Spectra of Random Hermitian Matrices with a Small-Rank External Source: The critical and near-critical regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bertola, Marco; Lee, Seung-Yeop; Pierce, Virgil U

    2010-01-01

    Random Hermitian matrices are used to model complex systems without time-reversal invariance. Adding an external source to the model can have the effect of shifting some of the matrix eigenvalues, which corresponds to shifting some of the energy levels of the physical system. We consider the case when the $n\\times n$ external source matrix has two distinct real eigenvalues: $a$ with multiplicity $r$ and zero with multiplicity $n-r$. For a Gaussian potential, it was shown by P\\'ech\\'e \\cite{Peche:2006} that when $r$ is fixed or grows sufficiently slowly with $n$ (a small-rank source), $r$ eigenvalues are expected to exit the main bulk for $|a|$ large enough. Furthermore, at the critical value of $a$ when the outliers are at the edge of a band, the eigenvalues at the edge are described by the $r$-Airy kernel. We establish the universality of the $r$-Airy kernel for a general class of analytic potentials for $r=\\mathcal{O}(n^\\gamma)$ for $0\\leq\\gamma<1/12$.

  20. Fungal Pretreatment of Willow Sawdust with Abortiporus biennis for Anaerobic Digestion: Impact of an External Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandropoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of nitrogen (N supplementation in the fungal pretreatment of willow sawdust (WSD via the white rot fungus Abortiporus biennis (A. biennis was studied in terms of the fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass and biochemical methane potential (BMP. Thus, different external nitrogen sources (yeast extract (YE, urea (UR, and ammonium nitrate (AN at different ratios (N/C of 1/250 and 1/50 were added and the effect of the above parameters on the chemical composition of WSD during solid-state fermentation (SSF experiments with A. biennis was assessed and compared to the experiment of fungal pretreatment without N supplementation (N/C was 1/500, control experiment. The results indicated that the addition of an external nitrogen source did not facilitate delignification, regardless of the type of nitrogen source and the ratio of N/C used. On the other hand, enhanced cellulose uptake was observed. Samples of the 28th day of cultivation, with and without N supplementation, were used for BMP tests, where a reduction in methane yield was observed, compared to the control experiment. In addition, a combination of fungal with alkali (20% NaOH w/w dry mass pretreatment was performed in order to assess the effect of combined pretreatment on the lignocellulosic content and the BMP.

  1. Analysis and simulations of a frequency synthesizer with internal and external noise sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Sangha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel technique to analyse the noise behaviour of a second-order-PLL based synthesizer is demonstrated. Its non-linear behaviour is analyzed with independent noise-sources introduced at different points of the circuit. Phase plane trajectories will be used to demonstrate that noise sources at different locations in the loop produce qualitatively different contributions to the output signal of the synthesizer.

  2. A look ahead: Status of the SNS external antenna ion source and the new RFQ test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R. F.; Aleksandrov, A.; Dudnikov, V. G.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, M.; Kang, Y.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now operates with ˜1 MW of beam power to target with the near-term goal of delivering 1.4 MW. Plans are being considered to incorporate a second target station into the facility which will require ˜2.8 MW of beam power. Presently, H- beam pulses (˜1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by an RF-driven, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion source which injects beam into an RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) accelerator that, in turn, feeds the SNS Linac. Currently the source/RFQ system delivers ˜35 mA of pulsed current to the linac which is mostly sufficient for 1.4 MW operations while ˜50 mA are needed for the second target station upgrade. This paper provides a look forward for the SNS by providing (i) the present and future SNS source/RFQ beam requirements and our plans to achieve these, (ii) a description and status of the external antenna ion source being developed for the replacement of the current internal antenna ion source, and (iii) a description and status of the newly constructed RFQ test facility.

  3. A look ahead: Status of the SNS external antenna ion source and the new RFQ test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, R. F., E-mail: welton@ornl.gov; Aleksandrov, A.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, M.; Kang, Y.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830-647 (United States); Dudnikov, V. G. [Muons, Inc. 552 N. Batavia Avenue, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2015-04-08

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now operates with ∼1 MW of beam power to target with the near-term goal of delivering 1.4 MW. Plans are being considered to incorporate a second target station into the facility which will require ∼2.8 MW of beam power. Presently, H{sup −} beam pulses (∼1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by an RF-driven, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion source which injects beam into an RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) accelerator that, in turn, feeds the SNS Linac. Currently the source/RFQ system delivers ∼35 mA of pulsed current to the linac which is mostly sufficient for 1.4 MW operations while ∼50 mA are needed for the second target station upgrade. This paper provides a look forward for the SNS by providing (i) the present and future SNS source/RFQ beam requirements and our plans to achieve these, (ii) a description and status of the external antenna ion source being developed for the replacement of the current internal antenna ion source, and (iii) a description and status of the newly constructed RFQ test facility.

  4. The role of informal sources of information in the Polish consumer market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wójcik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research conducted in 2009 with the participation of 466 Internet users via an online survey. The research showed that consumers before the purchase utilize formal sources of information about the product more often than informal ones. Nevertheless, the more they refer to the formal sources, the more they refer to the informal ones. It was also proved that in the tested group the place of residence, the time spent using the Internet and the value of a product had an influence on the prevalence of formal sources.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Tobacco Information Seeking and Information Sources: Findings From the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Robinson, Joelle; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2017-09-01

    This article describes sources of health information, types of tobacco information sought, and trust in sources of tobacco information among U.S. racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and Other). Cross-sectional data (N = 3,788) from a nationally representative survey, HINTS-FDA 2015, were analyzed to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between race/ethnicity and (a) first source of health information, (b) tobacco information seeking, and (c) trust in sources of tobacco information. Adjusted associations controlled for current tobacco product use and sociodemographic variables. Findings indicated that the Internet was the most common first source of health information while health care providers were the second most common source for all racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco-related health information seeking was more prevalent than other tobacco product information seeking. Unadjusted analyses indicated that a higher proportion of Whites sought other tobacco product information compared to Asians and Pacific Islanders. Trust was rated highest for doctors while trust for health organizations was rated second highest. Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher trust in the government compared to all other groups. Blacks had higher trust in religious organizations compared to all other groups besides Hispanics. Blacks had higher trust for tobacco companies compared to Whites and Other. Many of these differences were attenuated in adjusted analyses. This research has implications for tobacco control practice and policymaking by identifying potential dissemination strategies.

  6. 78 FR 18253 - Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and External Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and... energy conservation standard levels for battery chargers if it is determined that new energy conservation... energy conservation standards for classes of battery chargers and external power supplies....

  7. Sources of Information for Discriminating Dynamic Human Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Baldwin, Dare

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of action identification and discrimination in action perception and social cognition more broadly, little research has investigated how these processes are achieved. To this end, we sought to identify the extent to which adults capitalize on featural versus configural sources of information when discriminating small-scale…

  8. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  9. Undergraduates' Use of Social Media as Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Sun; Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna; Yoo-Lee, Eun Young

    2014-01-01

    Social media have become increasingly popular among different user groups. Although used for social purposes, some social media platforms (such as Wikipedia) have been emerging as important information sources. Focusing on undergraduate students, a survey was conducted to investigate the following: (1) which social media platforms are used as…

  10. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  11. Sources of Information for Discriminating Dynamic Human Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Baldwin, Dare

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of action identification and discrimination in action perception and social cognition more broadly, little research has investigated how these processes are achieved. To this end, we sought to identify the extent to which adults capitalize on featural versus configural sources of information when discriminating small-scale…

  12. Undergraduates' Use of Social Media as Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Sun; Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna; Yoo-Lee, Eun Young

    2014-01-01

    Social media have become increasingly popular among different user groups. Although used for social purposes, some social media platforms (such as Wikipedia) have been emerging as important information sources. Focusing on undergraduate students, a survey was conducted to investigate the following: (1) which social media platforms are used as…

  13. Saudis trust and confidence in information sources about chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    814 ... decades and can represent a major health hazard and cause an .... perceived each group to have, followed by how good a job was doing at fulfilling ... Sources from which people received "a lot" of health risk information. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25.

  14. State FFA Officers' Confidence and Trustworthiness of Biotechnology Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    Are state FFA officers' awareness levels of agricultural topics reported in mass media superior to those who do not serve in leadership roles? The purpose of this study was to determine elected state FFA officers' awareness of biotechnology, and their confidence and trust of biotechnology information sources. Descriptive survey methods were used…

  15. [Use of information sources by recently graduated physicians of Lima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Caceres, Onice J; Vera, Claudia A; Nizama-Vía, Ayar; Curioso, Walter H; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the use of information sources by recently graduated physicians of Lima, Peru in 2011, a survey was conducted among graduated physicians at seven universities. They were asked about the use of search engines in the health area during their year of medical internship [last year of medical school]. Regular use was defined as the source being used once a week or daily. For 490 respondents, regularly used information sources were SciELO, accessed by 173 (36.4%); PubMed 165 (34.4%); HINARI 117 (25.5%); UpToDate 98 (22.3%); Cochrane Library 94 (20.6%); LILACS 91 (19.8%); a hospital institutional library 70 (15.0%); LIPECS 39 (8.7%); and Peru BVS 42 (9.3%). Only a minority regularly accessed information sources related to health. It is necessary to improve capacity in the efficient use of various resources of scientific information in a continuous way and that reaches students and health professionals.

  16. Human internal and external exposure to PBDEs - A review of levels and sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    ingest more dust than adults. Infants are also exposed to PBDEs via breast milk. Internal human exposure has generally been found to be one order of magnitude larger in North America than in Europe and Asia. These differences cannot solely be explained by the dietary intake as meat products are the only......This paper reviews the existing literature on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. dust, diet, and air) and the resulting internal exposure to PBDEs (e.g. breast milk and blood). Being lipophilic and persistent organic...... compounds, PBDEs accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. Consequently, food items like fish from high trophic levels or lipid-rich oils have been found to contain relatively high concentrations of PBDEs, thus presenting an important exposure pathway to humans. The presence of PBDEs in various products of everyday...

  17. Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnicki, Kevin

    Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on

  18. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy: Reliability of internet sources of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Branko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Health education of women of childbearing age has been shown to be an acceptable approach to the prevention of toxoplasmosis, the most frequent congenitally transmitted parasitic infection. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Internet as a source of health education on toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Methods. A group of 100 pregnant women examined in the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis was surveyed by a questionnaire on the source of their information on toxoplasmosis. We also analyzed information offered by websites in the Serbian and Croatian languages through the Google search engine, using “toxoplasmosis” as a keyword. The 23 top websites were evaluated for comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on the impact of toxoplasmosis on the course of pregnancy, diagnosis and prevention. Results. Having knowledge on toxoplasmosis was confirmed by 64 (64.0% examined women, 40.6% (26/64 of whom learned about toxoplasmosis through the Internet, 48.4% from physicians, and 10.9% from friends. Increase in the degree of education was found to be associated with the probability that pregnant women would be informed via the Internet (RR=3.15, 95% CI=1.27-7.82, p=0.013. Analysis of four interactive websites (allowing users to ask questions showed that routes of infection were the most common concern, particularly the risk presented by pet cats and dogs, followed by the diagnosis of infection (who and when should be tested, and how should the results be interpreted. Of 20 sites containing educational articles, only seven were authorized and two listed sources. Evaluation confirmed that information relevant to pregnant women was significantly more accurate than comprehensive, but no site gave both comprehensive and completely accurate information. Only four sites (20% were good sources of information for pregnant women. Conclusion. Internet has proved itself as an important source of information. However

  19. External Carbon Source Addition as a Means to Control an Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    In alternating type activated sludge nutrient removal processes, the denitrification rate can be limited by the availability of readily-degradable carbon substrate. A control strategy is proposed by which an easily metabolizable COD source is added directly to that point in the process at which...... denitrification momentarily occurs. This approach serves to increase the denitrification rate on demand, thereby allowing the accumulation of nitrate and nitrite during periods of peak nitrogen loading to be reduced or avoided. A pilot plant demonstration of the control strategy using acetate as COD source...

  20. The Danish National Prescription Registry in studies of a biological pharmaceutical: palivizumab – validation against two external data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haerskjold A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ann Haerskjold,1,2 Lonny Henriksen,2 Susanne Way,1 Mikkel Malham,3 Jesper Hallas,4 Lars Pedersen,5 Lone Graff Stensballe1 1The Child and Adolescent Clinic 4072, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2The Research Unit Women's and Children's Health, The Juliane Marie Centre for Women, Children and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Pediatrics, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark Background: National prescription databases are important tools in pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating potential long-term adverse events after drug use. Palivizumab is a biological pharmaceutical used as passive prophylaxis against severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus in high-risk children. Objective: To assess the registration of palivizumab in the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR and to examine if palivizumab reimbursement data obtained from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority could serve as a supplement to data from the DNPR. Methods: Registration of palivizumab exposure in the DNPR between 1999 and 2010 was compared to two external data sources: registration of palivizumab exposure in medical records, and palivizumab reimbursement data. Results: During the study period, 182 children with palivizumab exposure were registered in the DNPR. A total of 207 children were registered for palivizumab reimbursement. The sensitivity of palivizumab registration in the DNPR was 26% (20%–34%, and the specificity of no palivizumab registration in the DNPR was 97% (94%–99%, with data from the medical record as the reference. Palivizumab registration sensitivity in reimbursement data was 29% (22%–36%, and the specificity of no palivizumab

  1. Influence of external inputs and asymmetry of connections on information-geometric measures involving up to ten neuronal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yimin; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Tatsuno, Masami

    2014-10-01

    The investigation of neural interactions is crucial for understanding information processing in the brain. Recently an analysis method based on information geometry (IG) has gained increased attention, and the property of the pairwise IG measure has been studied extensively in relation to the two-neuron interaction. However, little is known about the property of IG measures involving more neuronal interactions. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of external inputs and the asymmetry of connections on the IG measures in cases ranging from 1-neuron to 10-neuron interactions. First, the analytical relationship between the IG measures and external inputs was derived for a network of 10 neurons with uniform connections. Our results confirmed that the single and pairwise IG measures were good estimators of the mean background input and of the sum of the connection weights, respectively. For the IG measures involving 3 to 10 neuronal interactions, we found that the influence of external inputs was highly nonlinear. Second, by computer simulation, we extended our analytical results to asymmetric connections. For a network of 10 neurons, the simulation showed that the behavior of the IG measures in relation to external inputs was similar to the analytical solution obtained for a uniformly connected network. When the network size was increased to 1000 neurons, the influence of external inputs almost disappeared. This result suggests that all IG measures from 1-neuron to 10-neuron interactions are robust against the influence of external inputs. In addition, we investigated how the strength of asymmetry influenced the IG measures. Computer simulation of a 1000-neuron network showed that all the IG measures were robust against the modulation of the asymmetry of connections. Our results provide further support for an information-geometric approach and will provide useful insights when these IG measures are applied to real experimental spike data.

  2. Freely available online information sources and their impact on libraries and information centres

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, T. B.

    2002-01-01

    Since past few years free online information sources like e-journals, e-books, e-data- bases have increased cnsiderably. The traditional library systems are going to transform into digital library systems and different projects like Gutenberg e-book project, Virginia Tech. Digital Library Project, University of California Digital Library project etc. have been undertaken. The author has started to compile the links of such freely available online information sources on the Internet at URL: ht...

  3. What makes Chinese firms to choose international external technology sources? An inquiry on internationalization, innovation and institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2013-01-01

    . However, we have also witnessed an emerging trend of external acquisition of technology by EMFs firms in both international and domestic markets. Why some EMFs are active in sourcing both domestic and international technologies instead of being significantly in favour of foreign technologies from...... developed countries? We argue that exploring the determinants of EMFs’ choice with regard to EMFs’ strategic choice of souring domestic or foreign technology becomes the key to understanding why EMFs are increasingly gaining prominence in the global competitive landscape. Thus, this paper tends to advance...... our understanding of EMF competitiveness by adding a crucial link of EMFs strategic choice regarding the origin of technology sourcing from different origins and exploring the determinants for such a choice through the lens of internationalization, innovation and institutions (3 I’s) within a coherent...

  4. Health information systems in Africa: descriptive analysis of data sources, information products and health statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbondji, Peter Ebongue; Kebede, Derege; Soumbey-Alley, Edoh William; Zielinski, Chris; Kouvividila, Wenceslas; Lusamba-Dikassa, Paul-Samson

    2014-05-01

    To identify key data sources of health information and describe their availability in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. An analytical review on the availability and quality of health information data sources in countries; from experience, observations, literature and contributions from countries. Forty-six Member States of the WHO African Region. No participants. The state of data sources, including censuses, surveys, vital registration and health care facility-based sources. In almost all countries of the Region, there is a heavy reliance on household surveys for most indicators, with more than 121 household surveys having been conducted in the Region since 2000. Few countries have civil registration systems that permit adequate and regular tracking of mortality and causes of death. Demographic surveillance sites function in several countries, but the data generated are not integrated into the national health information system because of concerns about representativeness. Health management information systems generate considerable data, but the information is rarely used because of concerns about bias, quality and timeliness. To date, 43 countries in the Region have initiated Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response. A multitude of data sources are used to track progress towards health-related goals in the Region, with heavy reliance on household surveys for most indicators. Countries need to develop comprehensive national plans for health information that address the full range of data needs and data sources and that include provision for building national capacities for data generation, analysis, dissemination and use. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  5. THE CONSUMER AS A SOURCE OF MARKETING INFORMATION IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Peszko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of IT technology has provided people with free access to the Internet, which is now a place for consumers to look for opportunities to share their observations with others. The Internet user wants to be more aware, and willingly participates in the development of emerging brands. Companies have also found their place on the Internet, where they source information from Internet users. They realize the power of the consumer as a source of marketing information, and "take advantage" of consumer behavior to promote their brands. They analyze information about consumers, especially consumer preferences, and then publish this via social media in ways that might appeal to users and lead them to share it with others. This study describes this relationship between consumers and marketing via the Internet, and how the consumer is a source of marketing information, because of the possibilities created for entrepreneurs in the information society.

  6. Nitrogen source and external medium pH interaction differentially affects root and shoot metabolism in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier eSarasketa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nutrition often represents an important growth-limiting stress in plants. Some of the symptoms that plants present under ammonium nutrition have been associated with pH deregulation, in fact external medium pH control is known to improve plants ammonium tolerance. However, the way plant cell metabolism adjusts to these changes is not completely understood. Thus, in this work we focused on how Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and root respond to different nutritional regimes by varying the nitrogen source (NO3- and NH4+, concentration (2 and 10 mM and pH of the external medium (5.7 and 6.7 to gain a deeper understanding of cell metabolic adaptation upon altering these environmental factors. The results obtained evidence changes in the response of ammonium assimilation machinery and of the anaplerotic enzymes associated to Tricarboxylic Acids (TCA cycle in function of the plant organ, the nitrogen source and the degree of ammonium stress. A greater stress severity at pH 5.7 was related to NH4+ accumulation; this could not be circumvented in spite of the stimulation of glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle anaplerotic enzymes. Moreover, this study suggests specific functions for different gln and gdh isoforms based on the nutritional regime. Overall, NH4+ accumulation triggering ammonium stress appears to bear no relation to nitrogen assimilation impairment.

  7. Nuclear fission sustainability with subcritical reactors driven by external neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.es [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Piera, M. [ETSII:UNED, c/Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Although nuclear breeder reactors are a promising way to enhance the potential energy currently retrievable from the Uranium reserves, they still have disadvantages because of their safety features (i.e. poor stabilizing mechanisms) and the security of their fuel cycle (diversion of Pu for non-civilian purposes). Loading natural nuclear fuels to a reactor and completely burning them without reprocessing would be ideal, however, this is not possible in critical reactors due to the limitations imposed by the maximum achievable burn-up. An alternative option to attain very high percentages of nuclear natural materials exploitation, while meeting other objectives of Nuclear Sustainability, could consist of using externally-driven subcritical reactors to reach the desired high burn-ups (of the order of 30% and more) without reprocessing. Such scheme would lead to an efficient exploitation of the available raw material, without any risk of proliferation. Exploring this type of reactor concept, this paper analyzes the different ways to accomplish this goal while identifying potential setbacks.

  8. Transition from a maternal to external nitrogen source in maize seedlingsoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kasra Sabermanesh; Luke R. Holtham; Jessey George; Ute Roessner; Berin A. Boughton; Sigrid Heuer; Mark Tester; Darren C. Plett; Trevor P. Garnett

    2017-01-01

    Maximizing NO3- uptake during seedling development is important as it has a major influence on plant growth and yield. However, little is known about the processes leading to, and involved in, the initiation of root NO3- uptake capacity in developing seedlings. This study examines the physiological processes involved in root NO3- uptake and metabolism, to gain an under-standing of how the NO3- uptake system responds to meet demand as maize seedlings transition from seed N use to external N capture. The concentrations of seed-derived free amino acids within root and shoot tissues are initially high, but decrease rapidly until stabilizing eight days after imbibition (DAI). Similarly, shoot N% decreases, but does not stabilize until 12–13 DAI. Following the decrease in free amino acid concentra-tions, root NO3-uptake capacity increases until shoot N%stabilizes. The increase in root NO3- uptake capacity corresponds with a rapid rise in transcript levels of putative NO3-transporters, ZmNRT2.1 and ZmNRT2.2. The processes underlying the increase in root NO3- uptake capacity to meet N demand provide an insight into the processes controlling N uptake.

  9. The transition from a maternal to external nitrogen source in maize seedlings

    KAUST Repository

    Sabermanesh, Kasra

    2017-02-07

    Maximising NO3 - uptake during seedling development is important as it has a major influence on plant growth and yield. However, little is known about the processes leading to, and involved in, the initiation of root NO3 - uptake capacity in developing seedlings. This study examines the physiological processes involved in root NO3 - uptake and metabolism, to gain an understanding of how the NO3 - uptake system responds to meet demand as maize seedlings transition from seed N use to external N capture. The concentrations of seed-derived free amino acids within root and shoot tissues are initially high, but decrease rapidly until stabilising eight days after imbibition (DAI). Similarly, shoot N% decreases, but does not stabilise until 12-13 DAI. Following the decrease in free amino acid concentrations, root NO3 - uptake capacity increases until shoot N% stabilises. The increase in root NO3 uptake capacity corresponds with a rapid rise in transcript levels of putative NO3 - transporters, ZmNRT2.1 and ZmNRT2.2. The processes underlying the increase in root NO3 - uptake capacity to meet N demand provide an insight into the processes controlling N uptake.

  10. Key Generation Using External Source Excitation: Capacity, Reliability, and Secrecy Exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Tzu-Han; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2011-01-01

    We study the fundamental limits to secret key generation from an excited distributed source (EDS). In an EDS a pair of terminals observe dependent sources of randomness excited by a pre-arranged signal. We first determine the secret key capacity for such systems with one-way public messaging. We then characterize a tradeoff between the secret key rate and exponential bounds on the probability of key agreement failure and on the secrecy of the key generated. We find that there is a fundamental tradeoff between reliability and secrecy. We then explore this framework within the context of reciprocal wireless channels. In this setting, the users transmit pre-arranged excitation signals to each other. When the fading is Rayleigh, the observations of the users are jointly Gaussian sources. We show that an on-off excitation signal with an SNR-dependent duty cycle achieves the secret key capacity of this system. Furthermore, we characterize a fundamental metric -- minimum energy per key bit for reliable key generatio...

  11. BioZone Exploting Source-Capability Information for Integrated Access to Multiple Bioinformatics Data Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L; Buttler, D; Paques, H; Pu, C; Critchlow

    2002-01-28

    Modern Bioinformatics data sources are widely used by molecular biologists for homology searching and new drug discovery. User-friendly and yet responsive access is one of the most desirable properties for integrated access to the rapidly growing, heterogeneous, and distributed collection of data sources. The increasing volume and diversity of digital information related to bioinformatics (such as genomes, protein sequences, protein structures, etc.) have led to a growing problem that conventional data management systems do not have, namely finding which information sources out of many candidate choices are the most relevant and most accessible to answer a given user query. We refer to this problem as the query routing problem. In this paper we introduce the notation and issues of query routing, and present a practical solution for designing a scalable query routing system based on multi-level progressive pruning strategies. The key idea is to create and maintain source-capability profiles independently, and to provide algorithms that can dynamically discover relevant information sources for a given query through the smart use of source profiles. Compared to the keyword-based indexing techniques adopted in most of the search engines and software, our approach offers fine-granularity of interest matching, thus it is more powerful and effective for handling queries with complex conditions.

  12. Ovipositor morphology of cosmetid harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores): a new source of informative characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric A; Townsend, Victor R

    2014-12-01

    The external morphology of the penis is an important source of systematic characters in phylogenetic studies of harvestmen. Modern taxonomic studies generally include micrographs generated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to illustrate penis morphology. In contrast, the external morphology of the ovipositor has largely been ignored for harvestmen belonging to the suborder Laniatores. Comparative studies of ovipositor microanatomy using SEM are especially lacking for species belonging to the superfamily Gonyleptoidea. In an effort to determine if the ovipositor could be a useful source of informative characters for these harvestmen, we investigated interspecific variation in the external morphology of the ovipositor for 14 species from the family Cosmetidae. Our SEM-based study revealed that the external surface of the distal tips of the ovipositors of most species was generally divided into four symmetrical lobes, although we observed a bilobed condition in Erginulus clavotibialis and Erginulus subserialis. The distal surfaces were also generally smooth, with the exception of the ovipositor of Erginulus weyerensis, which featured small surface setae. In addition, we observed considerable interspecific variation in the morphology of the peripheral setae on the distal tip, especially with respect to relative size, morphology of the shaft, and number, symmetry, and shapes of the distal tips. The functional significance, if any, of variation in the structure of the peripheral setae is unclear. Additional behavioral studies of copulation and oviposition are needed to determine the functional relationships between reproductive morphology and behavior. The morphological variation that we observed suggests that future taxonomic studies of cosmetid harvestmen, and potentially other gonyleptoidean taxa, would benefit from the inclusion of descriptions of ovipositor morphology.

  13. Collecting Information for Rating Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): Sources of Information and Methods for Information Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I H, Monrad Aas

    2014-11-01

    Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is an assessment instrument that is known worldwide. It is widely used for rating the severity of illness. Results from evaluations in psychiatry should characterize the patients. Rating of GAF is based on collected information. The aim of the study is to identify the factors involved in collecting information that is relevant for rating GAF, and gaps in knowledge where it is likely that further development would play a role for improved scoring. A literature search was conducted with a combination of thorough hand search and search in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews. Collection of information for rating GAF depends on two fundamental factors: the sources of information and the methods for information collection. Sources of information are patients, informants, health personnel, medical records, letters of referral and police records about violence and substance abuse. Methods for information collection include the many different types of interview - unstructured, semi-structured, structured, interviews for Axis I and II disorders, semistructured interviews for rating GAF, and interviews of informants - as well as instruments for rating symptoms and functioning, and observation. The different sources of information, and methods for collection, frequently result in inconsistencies in the information collected. The variation in collected information, and lack of a generally accepted algorithm for combining collected information, is likely to be important for rated GAF values, but there is a fundamental lack of knowledge about the degree of importance. Research to improve GAF has not reached a high level. Rated GAF values are likely to be influenced by both the sources of information used and the methods employed for information collection, but the lack of research-based information about these influences is fundamental. Further development of

  14. Open source based cadastral information system : ANCFCC-MOROCCO

    CERN Document Server

    Elasri, Hicham; Jamila, Aatab; Karima, Ganoun

    2012-01-01

    This present project is developing a geographic information system to support the cadastral business. This system based on open source solutions which developed within the National Agency of Land Registry, Cadastre and Cartography (ANCFCC) enabling monitoring and analysis of cadastral procedures as well as offering consumable services by other information systems: consultation and querying spatial data. The project will also assist the various user profiles in the completion of production tasks and the possibility to eliminate the deficiencies identified to ensure an optimum level of productivity

  15. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  16. Searching for external sources of the riboflavin stored in earthworm eleocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sulik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (vitamin B2 is essential to maintain immune potency in animals and plants. So far is accepted that animals cannot synthesise riboflavin; they rely on plant-sourced diets and intestinal bacteria for their supplies. A unique feature of earthworm ‘hepatocyte-like’ chloragocytes and chloragocyte-derived eleocytes floating in celomic cavity is the storage of riboflavin within intracellular granules. The hypothesis was that vegetarian food-deprivation or antibiotic/antifungal treatment inhibits riboflavin accumulation in eleocytes of Eisenia andrei. The 7-week starvation inhibited worm body weight gain and worm reproduction but had insignificant effects on celomocytes, both amoebocytes and eleocytes, and eleocyte riboflavin accumulation. The 1 week or 3 week antibiotic exposure had insignificant effects on worm coelomocytes and riboflavin content. Thus, a vegetarian diet and intestinal bacteria are not the exclusive or perhaps even the main sources of eleocyte riboflavin. The role of endosymbionts in earthworm flavonoid economy warrants targeted investigation. Moreover, the possibility of horizontal transfer of riboflavin biosynthesis genes from bacteria/fungi to earthworm genomes cannot be neglected.

  17. Towards A Topological Framework for Integrating Semantic Information Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Robinson, Michael

    2014-09-07

    In this position paper we argue for the role that topological modeling principles can play in providing a framework for sensor integration. While used successfully in standard (quantitative) sensors, we are developing this methodology in new directions to make it appropriate specifically for semantic information sources, including keyterms, ontology terms, and other general Boolean, categorical, ordinal, and partially-ordered data types. We illustrate the basics of the methodology in an extended use case/example, and discuss path forward.

  18. Sources of referral information: a marketing analysis of physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T L; Swan, J E; Taylor, J A; Bendall, D

    1998-01-01

    The referral process is an important means of obtaining patients and it is necessary to determine ways of influencing the referral process to increase the patient base. This article reports research based on a survey of the referral habits of 806 primary care physicians. The results are examined in the context of physician receptivity to marketer-controlled versus health services sources of referral information.

  19. Visible light scatter as quantitative information source on milk constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melentieva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    VISIBLE LIGHT SCATTER AS A QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION SOURCE ON MILK CONSTITUENTS A. Melenteva 1, S. Kucheryavski 2, A. Bogomolov 1,31Samara State Technical University, Molodogvardeyskaya Street 244, 443100 Samara, Russia. 2Aalborg University, campus Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmar...... research area are presented and discussed. References: [1] A. Bogomolov, S. Dietrich, B. Boldrini, R.W. Kessler, Food Chemistry (2012), doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.077....

  20. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  1. Trends in differences between births and surviving infants reported for immunization program planning and external data sources in Eastern and Southern Africa 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Reinhard; Chakauya, Jethro M; Shibeshi, Messeret E

    2016-02-24

    To inform our WHO team's support for immunization programs in Member States in Eastern and Southern Africa, we compared annual trends from 2000 to 2013 in target populations reported by Member States through the WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form with United Nations (UN) population projections and modeled infant mortality estimates from the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Our findings indicated a tendency of underestimating births and surviving infants used by Member States as denominators for administrative immunization coverage rates, resulting in or contributing to overestimation of coverage. The difference with UN estimates appeared to be more pronounced for surviving infants than births. Measures of central tendency for individual country differences indicated that those differences decreased over time. Comparing trends of births and surviving infants with external sources can help monitoring progress in efforts to provide accurate and reliable target population estimates and sampling frames.

  2. Spatial Context from Open and Online Processing (SCOOP: Geographic, Temporal, and Thematic Analysis of Online Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Robertson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly a source of data for geographic information systems, as more data becomes linked, available through application programing interfaces (APIs, and more tools become available for handling unstructured web data. While many web data extraction and structuring methods exist, there are few examples of comprehensive data processing and analysis systems that link together these tools for geographic analyses. This paper develops a general approach to the development of spatial information context from unstructured and informal web data sources through the joint analysis of the data’s thematic, spatial, and temporal properties. We explore the utility of this derived contextual information through a case study into maritime surveillance. Extraction and processing techniques such as toponym extraction, disambiguation, and temporal information extraction methods are used to construct a semi-structured maritime context database supporting global scale analysis. Geographic, temporal, and thematic content were analyzed, extracted and processed from a list of information sources. A geoweb interface is developed to allow user visualization of extracted information, as well as to support space-time database queries. Joint keyword clustering and spatial clustering methods are used to demonstrate extraction of documents that relate to real world events in official vessel information data. The quality of contextual geospatial information sources is evaluated in reference to known maritime anomalies obtained from authoritative sources. The feasibility of automated context extraction using the proposed framework and linkage to external data using standard clustering tools is demonstrated.

  3. Influences on parents' fever management: beliefs, experiences and information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne; Edwards, Helen; Fraser, Jenny

    2007-12-01

    To identify parents' knowledge, beliefs, management and sources of information about fever management. Despite numerous studies exploring parents' management of childhood fever; negative beliefs about fever and overuse of antipyretics and health services for mild fevers and self-limiting viral illnesses continue to be reported. Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and discussions. Fifteen metropolitan parents whose children were aged six months to five years, volunteered to participate in individual interviews or group discussions. Recruitment was through Playgroup Queensland's online newsletter and letters from two childcare centres to all parents. Verbatim and audio data were collected by an experienced moderator using a semi-structured interview guide. Two transcripts were independently analysed by two researchers; categories, sub-headings and codes were independently developed, crosschecked and found comparable. Remaining transcripts were analysed using developed categories and codes. Fever, determined through behavioural changes, was perceived as 'good', a warning that something was wrong. High fever, reported as 38.0-39.1 degrees C, was considered harmful; it must be prevented or reduced irrespective of concerns about antipyretics. Positive febrile experiences reduced concern about fever. Negative experiences such as febrile convulsions, media reports of harm, not receiving a definitive diagnosis, inaccessibility to regular doctors and receiving conflicting information about fever management increased the concerns. Parents seek information about fever from multiple sources such as doctors, books and other parents. Parents' experiences with and information sources about fever and fever management influenced their knowledge, beliefs and practices. Positive experiences reduce concerns, health service usage and sometimes antipyretic usage. Negative experiences increase concerns, monitoring and antipyretic and health service usage. Health

  4. Testability evaluation using prior information of multiple sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chao; Qiu Jing; Liu Guanjun; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability plays an important role in improving the readiness and decreasing the life-cycle cost of equipment. Testability demonstration and evaluation is of significance in measuring such testability indexes as fault detection rate (FDR) and fault isolation rate (FIR), which is useful to the producer in mastering the testability level and improving the testability design, and helpful to the consumer in making purchase decisions. Aiming at the problems with a small sample of testabil-ity demonstration test data (TDTD) such as low evaluation confidence and inaccurate result, a test-ability evaluation method is proposed based on the prior information of multiple sources and Bayes theory. Firstly, the types of prior information are analyzed. The maximum entropy method is applied to the prior information with the mean and interval estimate forms on the testability index to obtain the parameters of prior probability density function (PDF), and the empirical Bayesian method is used to get the parameters for the prior information with a success-fail form. Then, a parametrical data consistency check method is used to check the compatibility between all the sources of prior information and TDTD. For the prior information to pass the check, the prior credibility is calculated. A mixed prior distribution is formed based on the prior PDFs and the corresponding credibility. The Bayesian posterior distribution model is acquired with the mixed prior distribution and TDTD, based on which the point and interval estimates are calculated. Finally, examples of a flying control system are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  5. Testability evaluation using prior information of multiple sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Testability plays an important role in improving the readiness and decreasing the life-cycle cost of equipment. Testability demonstration and evaluation is of significance in measuring such testability indexes as fault detection rate (FDR and fault isolation rate (FIR, which is useful to the producer in mastering the testability level and improving the testability design, and helpful to the consumer in making purchase decisions. Aiming at the problems with a small sample of testability demonstration test data (TDTD such as low evaluation confidence and inaccurate result, a testability evaluation method is proposed based on the prior information of multiple sources and Bayes theory. Firstly, the types of prior information are analyzed. The maximum entropy method is applied to the prior information with the mean and interval estimate forms on the testability index to obtain the parameters of prior probability density function (PDF, and the empirical Bayesian method is used to get the parameters for the prior information with a success-fail form. Then, a parametrical data consistency check method is used to check the compatibility between all the sources of prior information and TDTD. For the prior information to pass the check, the prior credibility is calculated. A mixed prior distribution is formed based on the prior PDFs and the corresponding credibility. The Bayesian posterior distribution model is acquired with the mixed prior distribution and TDTD, based on which the point and interval estimates are calculated. Finally, examples of a flying control system are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  6. Comparison of Three Information Sources for Smoking Information in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Ping; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare independent and joint performance of retrieving smoking status through different sources, including narrative text processed by natural language processing (NLP), patient-provided information (PPI), and diagnosis codes (ie, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9]). We also compared the performance of retrieving smoking strength information (ie, heavy/light smoker) from narrative text and PPI. Our study leveraged an existing lung cancer cohort for smoking status, amount, and strength information, which was manually chart-reviewed. On the NLP side, smoking-related electronic medical record (EMR) data were retrieved first. A pattern-based smoking information extraction module was then implemented to extract smoking-related information. After that, heuristic rules were used to obtain smoking status-related information. Smoking information was also obtained from structured data sources based on diagnosis codes and PPI. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were measured using patients with coverage (ie, the proportion of patients whose smoking status/strength can be effectively determined). NLP alone has the best overall performance for smoking status extraction (patient coverage: 0.88; sensitivity: 0.97; specificity: 0.70; accuracy: 0.88); combining PPI with NLP further improved patient coverage to 0.96. ICD-9 does not provide additional improvement to NLP and its combination with PPI. For smoking strength, combining NLP with PPI has slight improvement over NLP alone. These findings suggest that narrative text could serve as a more reliable and comprehensive source for obtaining smoking-related information than structured data sources. PPI, the readily available structured data, could be used as a complementary source for more comprehensive patient coverage.

  7. Youtube as a source of information on Ebola virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Pathak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD, which began from Guinea in December 2013, has been the longest and deadliest Ebola outbreak to date. With the propagation of the internet, public health officials must now compete with other official and unofficial sources of information to get their message out. Aims: This study aimed at critically appraising videos available on one popular internet video site (YouTube as a source of information for Ebola virus disease (EVD. Materials and Methods: Videos were searched in YouTube (http://www.youtube.com using the keyword "Ebola outbreak" from inception to November 1, 2014 with the default "relevance" filter. Only videos in English language under 10 min duration within first 10 pages of search were included. Duplicates were removed and the rest were classified as useful or misleading by two independent reviewers. Video sources were categorized by source. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated with kappa coefficient. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed using the Student t-test and Chi-squared test, respectively. Results: One hundred and eighteen out of 198 videos were evaluated. Thirty-one (26.27% videos were classified as misleading and 87 (73.73% videos were classified as useful. The kappa coefficient of agreement regarding the usefulness of the videos was 0.68 (P < 0.001. Independent users were more likely to post misleading videos (93.55% vs 29.89%, OR = 34.02, 95% CI = 7.55-153.12, P < 0.001 whereas news agencies were most likely to post useful videos (65.52% vs 3.23%, OR = 57.00, 95% CI = 7.40-438.74, P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that majority of the internet videos about Ebola on YouTube were characterized as useful. Although YouTube seems to generally be a useful source of information on the current outbreak, increased efforts to disseminate scientifically correct information is desired to prevent unnecessary panic among the among

  8. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods.

  9. [Dosimetric system for assessing doses received by people occupationally exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodecki, Marcin; Domienik, Joanna U; Zmyślony, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The current system of dosimetric quantities has been defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Complexity of the system implies the physical nature of ionizing radiation, resulting from the presence of different types of radiation of different ionization capabilities, as well as the individual radiation sensitivity of biological material exposed. According to the latest recommendations, there are three types of dosimeter quantities relevant to radiation protection and radiological assessment of occupational exposure. These are the basic quantities, safety quantities and operational quantities. Dose limits for occupational exposure relate directly to the protection quantities, i.e. the equivalent dose and effective dose, while these quantities are practically unmeasurable in real measurement conditions. For this reason, in the system of dosimetric quantities directly measurable operating volumes were defined. They represent equivalents of the protection quantities that allow for a reliable assessment of equivalent and effective dose by conducting routine monitoring of occupational exposure. This paper presents the characteristics of these quantities, their relationships and importance in assessing individual effects of radiation. Also the methods for their implementation in personal and environmental dosimetry were showcased. The material contained in the article is a compendium of essential information about dosimetric quantities with reference to the contemporary requirements of the law, including the changed annual occupational exposure limit for the lens of the eye. The material is especially addressed to those responsible for dosimetry monitoring in the workplace, radiation protection inspectors and occupational health physicians.

  10. Analysis and categorization of information sources in the subject field of cynology

    OpenAIRE

    Bušková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis, titled "Analysis and Categorization of Information Sources for the Field of Dog-breeding", is to map and analyze information sources relating to the field of dog-breeding, introduce dog-breeding as a field, compile an overview of current information sources for this field and focus on particularly defined groups of information sources.

  11. Use of Information Sources by Cancer Patients: Results of a Systematic Review of the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankem, Kalyani

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Existing findings on cancer patients' use of information sources were synthesized to (1) rank the most and least used information sources and the most helpful information sources and to (2) find the impact of patient demographics and situations on use of information sources. Methods: To synthesize results found across studies, a…

  12. Spatial Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.

    2009-12-01

    . Spatial information intelligence is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing spatial information in its native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three basic elements are required: data delivery (server technology), data access (client technology), and data processing (information intelligence). NASA World Wind provides open source client and server technologies based on open standards. The possibilities for data processing and data sharing are enhanced by this inclusive infrastructure for geographic information. It is interesting that this open source and open standards approach, unfettered by proprietary constraints, simultaneously provides for entirely proprietary use of this same technology. 1. WHY WORLD WIND? NASA World Wind began as a single program with specific functionality, to deliver NASA content. But as the possibilities for virtual globe technology became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information technology, we were also getting in the way. Researchers, developers and even users expressed their desire for World Wind functionality in ways that would service their specific needs. They want it in their web pages. They want to add their own features. They want to manage their own data. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential for this technology be truly realized. World Wind client technology is a set of development tools, a software development kit (SDK) that allows a software engineer to create applications requiring geographic visualization technology. 2. MODULAR COMPONENTRY Accelerated evolution of a technology requires that the essential elements of that technology be modular components such that each can advance independent of the other

  13. Health Care Reform: Understanding Individuals’ Attitudes and Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn K. Shue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA was signed into law by President Barrack Obama, little is known about state-level perceptions of residents on the ACA. Perceptions about the act could potentially affect implementation of the law to the fullest extent. This 3-year survey study explored attitudes about the ACA, the types of information sources that individuals rely on when creating those attitudes, and the predictors of these attitudes among state of Indiana residents. The respondents were split between favorable and unfavorable views of the ACA, yet the majority of respondents strongly supported individual components of the act. National TV news, websites, family members, and individuals’ own reading of the ACA legislation were identified as the most influential information sources. After controlling for potential confounders, the respondent’s political affiliation, age, sex, and obtaining ACA information from watching national television news were the most important predictors of attitudes about the ACA and its components. These results mirror national-level findings. Implications for implementing health care reform at the state-level are discussed.

  14. The Source and Credibility of Colorectal Cancer Information on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SoHyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Park, Gibeom; Suh, Bongwon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jin Won; Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2016-02-01

    Despite the rapid penetration of social media in modern life, there has been limited research conducted on whether social media serves as a credible source of health information. In this study, we propose to identify colorectal cancer information on Twitter and assess its informational credibility. We collected Twitter messages containing colorectal cancer-related keywords, over a 3-month period. A review of sample tweets yielded content and user categorization schemes. The results of the sample analysis were applied to classify all collected tweets and users, using a machine learning technique. The credibility of the information in the sampled tweets was evaluated. A total of 76,119 tweets were analyzed. Individual users authored the majority of tweets (n = 68,982, 90.6%). They mostly tweeted about news articles/research (n = 16,761, 22.0%) and risk/prevention (n = 14,767, 19.4%). Medical professional users generated only 2.0% of total tweets (n = 1509), and medical institutions rarely tweeted (n = 417, 0.6%). Organizations tended to tweet more about information than did individuals (85.2% vs 63.1%; P Credibility analysis of medically relevant sample tweets revealed that most were medically correct (n = 1763, 84.5%). Among those, more frequently retweeted tweets contained more medically correct information than randomly selected tweets (90.7% vs 83.2%; P information from a large number and variety of users. Coupled with the Internet's potential to increase social support, Twitter may contribute to enhancing public health and empowering users, when used with proper caution.

  15. Multisensory softness perceived compliance from multiple sources of information

    CERN Document Server

    Luca, Massimiliano Di

    2014-01-01

    Offers a unique multidisciplinary overview of how humans interact with soft objects and how multiple sensory signals are used to perceive material properties, with an emphasis on object deformability. The authors describe a range of setups that have been employed to study and exploit sensory signals involved in interactions with compliant objects as well as techniques to simulate and modulate softness - including a psychophysical perspective of the field. Multisensory Softness focuses on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the use of multiple sources of information in softness perception. D

  16. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Lenormand

    Full Text Available The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census, and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. We assess the correlation between the datasets on different aspects: the spatial distribution of people concentration, the temporal evolution of people density, and the mobility patterns of individuals. Our results show that the three data sources are providing comparable information. Even though the representativeness of Twitter geolocated data is lower than that of mobile phone and census data, the correlations between the population density profiles and mobility patterns detected by the three datasets are close to one in a grid with cells of 2×2 and 1×1 square kilometers. This level of correlation supports the feasibility of interchanging the three data sources at the spatio-temporal scales considered.

  17. OPINION GIVING SERVICES AS A SOURCE OF CONSUMER INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wyrwisz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to determine the place and role of opinion giving services in consumer behaviours. The discussion is conducted around the thesis saying that in the information society, opinion giving services constitute an important source of information for consumers in the process of selecting and purchasing both products and services. In the article the research approach based on the theoretical and empirical examinations was presented. The discussion starts with presenting a defi nition and types of opinion giving services which constitute the base for the characteristics of activities and usefulness of web portals collecting consumers opinions. The use of opinion giving services provided in the purchase process was evaluated. An essential interest in other consumers opinions, placed in Internet, was observed together with perceiving them as credible. Positive assessment of the functionality of opinion giving services was noticed.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary....

  19. Clinicians' information sources for new substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Agius, Elizabeth; Dickson, Marcus W

    2005-09-01

    Little is known about clinicians' information sources for new treatments or ways to improve dissemination of that information. We analyzed 163 clinicians' responses to a checklist of where and how frequently they obtain information on new treatment approaches. They reported at least yearly use of a median of four cosmopolite categories (e.g., journals or books, Internet) and a median of three local categories (e.g., co-workers, personal experience) with interpersonal contact with co-workers (89%) and seminars/conferences (86%) being the most frequently endorsed responses for at least yearly use. In response to the hypothetical scenario of receiving monthly e-mail summaries of journal articles, 59% of the clinicians rated the strategy as "very helpful". If continuing education credits were offered, more clinicians (from 50-80%) would read the relevant articles. Information dissemination may improve with expanded Internet access at programs and short e-mailed summaries carrying links to full articles coupled with the incentive of earning continuing education credits.

  20. Sources of information on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, satisfaction with diagnostic process and information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2016-09-29

    This study aimed to investigate the percentage of the needs and expectations of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) about the best sources of information on GDM, their satisfaction with the diagnostic process and information provision. Questionnaires were completed by 116 pregnant women aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with GDM and recruited from maternity diabetes clinic. Eligible women were invited to participate in the study and informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to enrolment. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and chi-square test were used to analyse data. Most women (64.2 %) expected general practitioners (GPs) to be the best source of GDM information, following by diabetes educator nurses (45.9 %), diabetes support groups (33.9 %) and internet (32.1 %). However, women found that diabetes educator nurses were more helpful than GPs (32.6 and 20.2 %, respectively). Participants' age and country of birth were statistically significant. For women aged over 30 years and women born overseas the internet was the most useful information source (68.9 and 77.1 % respectively). Overall, women were very satisfied (33.0 %) or satisfied (45.0 %) with how they were informed of the GDM diagnosis, although 26.0 % were informed by telephone and 16.0 % by text message. More than one-third (39.0 %) of women were not referred to sources of information by GPs at time of diagnosis of GDM (p information they received. Only 8.0 % of women reported dissatisfaction with the manner of health professionals. The results suggest that health professionals should be aware of the needs and expectations of women who have been diagnosed with GDM, with most women expecting to receive information on GDM from their GPs and diabetes educator nurses. The findings suggest that there is scope for improving how women are informed of the GDM diagnosis and given information, and in clinicians' manner.

  1. Predictors for the Number of Warning Information Sources During Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; Liang, Daan; Nejat, Ali

    2017-04-01

    People may receive tornado warnings from multiple information sources, but little is known about factors that affect the number of warning information sources (WISs). This study examined predictors for the number of WISs with a telephone survey on randomly sampled residents in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, approximately 1 year after both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (EF4 and EF5) in 2011. The survey included 1006 finished interviews and the working sample included 903 respondents. Poisson regression and Zero-Inflated Poisson regression showed that older age and having an emergency plan predicted more WISs in both cities. Education, marital status, and gender affected the possibilities of receiving warnings and the number of WISs either in Joplin or in Tuscaloosa. The findings suggest that social disparity affects the access to warnings not only with respect to the likelihood of receiving any warnings but also with respect to the number of WISs. In addition, historical and social contexts are important for examining predictors for the number of WISs. We recommend that the number of WISs should be regarded as an important measure to evaluate access to warnings in addition to the likelihood of receiving warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:168-172).

  2. The relationship between the external environment and physician e-mail communication: The mediating role of health information technology availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, Olena; Hearld, Larry R; Menachemi, Nir

    Physician e-mail communication, with patients and other providers, is one of the cornerstones of effective care coordination but varies significantly across physicians. A physician's external environment may contribute to such variations by enabling or constraining a physician's ability to adopt innovations such as health information technology (HIT) that can be used to support e-mail communication. The aim of the study was to examine whether the relationship of the external environment and physician e-mail communication with patients and other providers is mediated by the practice's HIT availability. The data were obtained from the Health Tracking Physician Survey (2008) and the Area Resource File (2008). Cross-sectional multivariable subgroup path analysis was used to investigate the mediating role of HIT availability across 2,850 U.S. physicians. Solo physicians' perceptions about malpractice were associated with 0.97 lower odds (p communication with patients and other providers, as compared to group and hospital practices, even when mediated by HIT availability. Subgroup analyses indicated that different types of practices are responsive to the different dimensions of the external environment. Specifically, solo practitioners were more responsive to the availability of resources in their environment, with per capita income associated with lower likelihood of physician e-mail communication (OR = 0.99, p information technology availability, which in turn was associated with a greater likelihood of communicating via e-mail with patients (OR = 1.02, p communication and the external environment is mediated by the practice's HIT availability. Efforts to improve physician e-mail communication and HIT adoption may need to reflect the varied perceptions of different types of practices.

  3. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  4. Audit in public administration’s information systems - External or internal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drljača, D.; Latinović, B.

    2017-05-01

    Audit of the information system, thanks to the increased use of ICT and related cyber-crime, becomes a very important process in modern companies and institutions. It is usual to engage or outsource a third party for independent financial audit. But what about auditing of the information system of public administration institutions? This paper gives an introduction to possible aspects of information system’s audit with the aim to discuss possible answer on the question in the title.

  5. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local SO₂ and O₃ levels of the Mexico megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui; Fast, Jerome D.; Sosa, G.

    2014-08-22

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO₂ peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 10 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kgs-¹. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked"emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 15 41.7%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23%) and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb) and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be 20 as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. 25 Finally, the influence in SO₂ levels

  6. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local SO2 and O3 levels of the Mexico megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.

    2014-08-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emission sources on both global and regional scales. At the same time their outflow emissions can exert an impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and at ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the northern region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event coming from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back-trajectory analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is about 2 kg s-1. To the best of our knowledge, sulfur dioxide emissions from the Tizayuca region have not been considered in previous studies. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the state of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico. It was found that they can contribute to the SO2 levels in the northeast (NE) region of the basin (about 42%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41%) and that at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than the contribution from the Tula Industrial Complex (TIC). The contribution of the Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 to 4 ppb) and slightly higher contribution at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of the state of Hidalgo. In addition, the results indicated that the ozone plume could also be transported to northwest

  7. Youtube as a source of information on cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. Aims: We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com for videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. Results: We studied 172 videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Conclusion: Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  8. Teaching post-mortem external examination in undergraduate medical education--the formal and the informal curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Fischer-Bruegge, Dorothee; Fabian, Merle; Raupach, Tobias; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna; Harendza, Sigrid

    2011-07-15

    In undergraduate medical education, the training of post-mortem external examination on dead bodies might evoke strong emotional reactions in medical students that could counteract the intended learning goals. We evaluated student perception of a forensic medicine course, their perceived learning outcome (via self-assessment) and possible tutor-dependent influences on the overall evaluation of the course by a questionnaire-based survey among 150 medical students in Hamburg, Germany. The majority of students identified post-mortem external examination as an important learning objective in undergraduate medical education and did not feel that the dignity of the deceased was offended by the course procedures. After the course, more than 70% of the students felt able to perform an external examination and to fill in a death certificate. Respectful behavior of course tutors towards the deceased entailed better overall course ratings by students (pformal curriculum) as well as tutor behavior (informal curriculum) in undergraduate education in forensic medicine. Furthermore, we suggest embedding teaching in forensic medicine in longitudinal curricula on death and dying and on the health consequences of interpersonal violence.

  9. Healthcare Personnel's Use of E-Information Sources in Riyadh Governmental Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudair, Ahmad A.; Cooke, Louise

    2008-01-01

    ICT has enabled a wide dissemination of information and a sharp increase in the magnitude of electronic information sources. The use of e-information sources by healthcare personnel within Saudi Arabia has received little research attention. This paper discusses the use of e-information sources by healthcare personnel in the kingdom. A…

  10. Healthcare Personnel's Use of E-Information Sources in Riyadh Governmental Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudair, Ahmad A.; Cooke, Louise

    2008-01-01

    ICT has enabled a wide dissemination of information and a sharp increase in the magnitude of electronic information sources. The use of e-information sources by healthcare personnel within Saudi Arabia has received little research attention. This paper discusses the use of e-information sources by healthcare personnel in the kingdom. A…

  11. Joint Encryption and Compression of Correlated Sources with Side Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem MA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a joint encryption and compression (JEC scheme with emphasis on application to video data. The proposed JEC scheme uses the philosophy of distributed source coding with side information to reduce the complexity of the compression process and at the same time uses cryptographic principles to ensure that security is built into the scheme. The joint distributed compression and encryption is achieved using a special class of codes called high-diffusion (HD codes that were proposed recently in the context of joint error correction and encryption. By using the duality between channel codes and Slepian-Wolf coding, we construct a joint compression and encryption scheme that uses these codes in the diffusion layer. We adapt this cipher to MJPEG2000 with the inclusion of minimal amount of joint processing of video frames at the encoder.

  12. Characterization of a Low-Cost Optical Flow Sensor When Using an External Laser as a Direct Illumination Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low cost optical flow sensor is combined with an external laser device to measure surface displacements and mechanical oscillations. The measurement system is based on applying coherent light to a diffuser surface and using an optical flow sensor to analyze the reflected and transferred light to estimate the displacement of the surface or the laser spot. This work is focused on the characterization of this measurement system, which can have the optical flow sensor placed at different angles and distances from the diffuser surface. The results have shown that the displacement of the diffuser surface is badly estimated when the optical mouse sensor is placed in front of the diffuser surface (angular orientation >150° while the highest sensitivity is obtained when the sensor is located behind the diffuser surface and on the axis of the laser source (angular orientation 0°. In this case, the coefficient of determination of the measured displacement, R2, was very high (>0.99 with a relative error of less than 1.29%. Increasing the distance between the surface and the sensor also increased the sensitivity which increases linearly, R2 = 0.99. Finally, this measurement setup was proposed to measure very low frequency mechanical oscillations applied to the laser device, up to 0.01 Hz in this work. The results have shown that increasing the distance between the surface and the optical flow sensor also increases the sensitivity and the measurement range.

  13. Score-Informed Source Separation for Multichannel Orchestral Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Miron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a system for score-informed audio source separation for multichannel orchestral recordings. The orchestral music repertoire relies on the existence of scores. Thus, a reliable separation requires a good alignment of the score with the audio of the performance. To that extent, automatic score alignment methods are reliable when allowing a tolerance window around the actual onset and offset. Moreover, several factors increase the difficulty of our task: a high reverberant image, large ensembles having rich polyphony, and a large variety of instruments recorded within a distant-microphone setup. To solve these problems, we design context-specific methods such as the refinement of score-following output in order to obtain a more precise alignment. Moreover, we extend a close-microphone separation framework to deal with the distant-microphone orchestral recordings. Then, we propose the first open evaluation dataset in this musical context, including annotations of the notes played by multiple instruments from an orchestral ensemble. The evaluation aims at analyzing the interactions of important parts of the separation framework on the quality of separation. Results show that we are able to align the original score with the audio of the performance and separate the sources corresponding to the instrument sections.

  14. An Earthquake Information Service with Free and Open Source Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüngling, Sebastian; Schroeder, Matthias; Lühr, Birger-Gottfried; Woith, Heiko; Wächter, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    At the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, the working group Earthquakes and Volcano Physics examines the spatiotemporal behavior of earthquakes. In this context also the hazards of volcanic eruptions and tsunamis are explored. The aim is to collect related event parameters after the occurrence of extreme events and make them available for science and public as quick as possible. However, the overall objective of this research is to reduce geological risks that emanate from such natural hazards. In order to meet the stated objectives and to get a quick overview about the seismicity of a particular region and to compare the situation to historical and current events, a comprehensive visualization is necessary. Based on the web-accessible data from the famous GFZ GEOFON network a user-friendly interactive web mapping application could be realized. Further, this web service tool integrates historical and current earthquake information from the USGS earthquake database NEIC, and more historical events from various other catalogues like Pacheco, International Seismological Centre (ISC) and others. This compilation of data sources is unique in Earth sciences. Additionally, information about historical and current occurrences of volcanic eruptions and tsunamis are retrievable too. Another special feature in the application is the limitation of time spans via a time shifting tool. Users can interactively vary the visualization by moving the time slider. In addition, the events can be narrowed down based on the magnitude, the wave height of tsunamis or the volcanic explosion index. Furthermore, the use of the latest JavaScript libraries makes it possible to display the application on all screen sizes and devices. With this application, information on current and historical earthquakes and other extreme events can be obtained based on the spatio-temporal context, such as the concomitant visualization of seismicity of a particular region.

  15. 45 CFR 150.205 - Sources of information triggering an investigation of State enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of information triggering an investigation... § 150.205 Sources of information triggering an investigation of State enforcement. Information that may... complaint received by CMS. (b) Information learned during informal contact between CMS and State officials...

  16. Use of information sources by cancer patients: results of a systematic review of the research literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Ankem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Existing findings on cancer patients' use of information sources were synthesized to 1 rank the most and least used information sources and the most helpful information sources and to 2 find the impact of patient demographics and situations on use of information sources. Method. . To synthesize results found across studies, a systematic review was conducted. Medline and CINAHL were searched to retrieve literature on cancer patients' information source use. The retrieved articles were carefully selected according to predetermined criteria, and several articles were eliminated in a systematic approach. Analysis. The twelve articles that met the criteria were systematically analysed by extracting data from articles and summarizing data for the purpose of synthesis to determine the meaning of findings on most used information sources, least used information sources, most helpful information sources, effect of patient characteristics on preference for an information source, and effect of patient situations on preference for an information source. Results. In descending order of use, health care professionals, medical pamphlets, and family and friends were most used information sources. Internet and support groups were least used. In descending order of helpfulness, books, health care professionals and medical pamphlets were found to be most helpful information sources. Younger patients used health care professionals and certain forms of written information sources more than older patients. Conclusion. . The systematic review shows that many areas of cancer patients' information source use have been either neglected or barely analysed. An in-depth understanding of cancer patients' use of information sources and the characteristics in information sources they consider to be helpful is important for developing successful interventions to better inform patients.

  17. 75 FR 41486 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Reporting Purchases From Sources Outside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Reporting Purchases From Sources Outside the United States AGENCY... and approve an extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning reporting purchases from sources outside the United States. Public comments are particularly invited on...

  18. Health Reference Center™: A User-Friendly, Hypertext Information Source for Consumer Health and Patient Education

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    This demonstration shows a hypertext-linked integrated database consisting of a variety of sources of consumer health information that enables the user to retrieve and understand information more easily than consulting independent sources in the traditional fashion.

  19. Particular Qualities of Soviet Information Policy according Chornobyl Accident: Source Study Aspects of the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Makhno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the main groups of historical sources for a comprehensive study of Soviet information policy with respect to the Chernobyl accident. Determine their informational potential, deals with the methods of source analysis.

  20. Natural gas pyrolysis in double-walled reactor tubes using thermal plasma or concentrated solar radiation as external heating source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stèphane Abanades; Stefania Tescari; Sylvain Rodat; Gilles Flamant

    2009-01-01

    The thermal pyrolysis of natural gas as a clean hydrogen production route is examined.The concept of a double-walled reactor tube is proposed and implemented.Preliminary experiments using an external plasma heating source are carded out to validate this concept.The results point out the efficient CH4 dissociation above 1850 K (CH4 conversion over 90%) and the key influence of the gas residence time.Simulations are performed to predict the conversion rate of CH4 at the reactor outlet,and are consistent with experimental tendencies.A solar reactor prototype featuring four independent double-walled tubes is then developed.The heat in high temperature process required for the endothermic reaction of natural gas pyrolysis is supplied by concentrated solar energy.The tubes are heated uniformly by radiation using the blackbody effect of a cavity-receiver absorbing the concentrated solar irradiation through a quartz window.The gas composition at the reactor outlet,the chemical conversion of CH4,and the yield to H2 are determined with respect to reaction temperature,inlet gas flow-rates,and feed gas composition.The longer the gas residence time,the higher the CH4 conversion and H2 yield,whereas the lower the amount of acetylene.A CH4 conversion of 99% and H2 yield of about 85% are measured at 1880 K with 30% CH4 in the feed gas (6 L/min injected and residence time of 18 ms).A temperature increase from 1870 K to 1970 K does not improve the H2 yield.

  1. Sources of Information Used by Teachers in Professional Development Book Club Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Nicole H.

    2010-01-01

    The research questions were: What sources of information do teachers use in their book-club discussions; and is there variability among teachers in which sources of information they use in book club discussions? Sources of information were described in four categories: (a) the Book-Club Text that is read and discussed by the book club…

  2. 48 CFR 703.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of proprietary and source information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of proprietary and source information. 703.104-5 Section 703.104-5 Federal Acquisition... CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 703.104-5 Disclosure, protection, and marking of proprietary and source information. A Contracting Office may authorize release of proprietary and/or source selection information...

  3. 42 CFR 82.13 - What sources of information may be used for dose reconstructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What sources of information may be used for dose... § 82.13 What sources of information may be used for dose reconstructions? NIOSH will use the following sources of information for dose reconstructions, as necessary: (a) DOE and its contractors, including...

  4. Whose Story Is This? Discrepancy Triggers Readers' Attention to Source Information in Short Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, Jean-François; Le Bigot, Ludovic; de Pereyra, Guillaume; Britt, M. Anne

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of source information (i.e., who said what) in readers' comprehension of short informational texts. Based on the Discrepancy-Induced Source Comprehension assumption (Braasch, Rouet, Vibert, & Britt, 2012), we hypothesized that readers would be more likely to make use of source information when…

  5. Sources of Information Used by Teachers in Professional Development Book Club Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Nicole H.

    2010-01-01

    The research questions were: What sources of information do teachers use in their book-club discussions; and is there variability among teachers in which sources of information they use in book club discussions? Sources of information were described in four categories: (a) the Book-Club Text that is read and discussed by the book club…

  6. Consistent interpretation of molecular simulation kinetics using Markov state models biased with external information

    CERN Document Server

    Rudzinski, Joseph F; Bereau, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular simulations can provide microscopic insight into the physical and chemical driving forces of complex molecular processes. Despite continued advancement of simulation methodology, model errors may lead to inconsistencies between simulated and reference (e.g., from experiments or higher-level simulations) observables. To bound the microscopic information generated by computer simulations within reference measurements, we propose a method that reweights the microscopic transitions of the system to improve consistency with a set of coarse kinetic observables. The method employs the well-developed Markov state modeling framework to efficiently link microscopic dynamics with long-time scale constraints, thereby consistently addressing a wide range of time scales. To emphasize the robustness of the method, we consider two distinct coarse-grained models with significant kinetic inconsistencies. When applied to the simulated conformational dynamics of small peptides, the reweighting procedure systematically ...

  7. Communication: Consistent interpretation of molecular simulation kinetics using Markov state models biased with external information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, Joseph F.; Kremer, Kurt; Bereau, Tristan

    2016-02-01

    Molecular simulations can provide microscopic insight into the physical and chemical driving forces of complex molecular processes. Despite continued advancement of simulation methodology, model errors may lead to inconsistencies between simulated and reference (e.g., from experiments or higher-level simulations) observables. To bound the microscopic information generated by computer simulations within reference measurements, we propose a method that reweights the microscopic transitions of the system to improve consistency with a set of coarse kinetic observables. The method employs the well-developed Markov state modeling framework to efficiently link microscopic dynamics with long-time scale constraints, thereby consistently addressing a wide range of time scales. To emphasize the robustness of the method, we consider two distinct coarse-grained models with significant kinetic inconsistencies. When applied to the simulated conformational dynamics of small peptides, the reweighting procedure systematically improves the time scale separation of the slowest processes. Additionally, constraining the forward and backward rates between metastable states leads to slight improvement of their relative stabilities and, thus, refined equilibrium properties of the resulting model. Finally, we find that difficulties in simultaneously describing both the simulated data and the provided constraints can help identify specific limitations of the underlying simulation approach.

  8. "Right-sourcing" or obtaining the correct balance between in-house activity and the purchase of external services

    CERN Document Server

    Ninin, P

    2003-01-01

    During the last few years, and more particularly to face the LHC construction, several Information Technology activities of the ST Division have been outsourced. This concerns various domains such as desktop support, application software development, system maintenance as well as turn-key control systems. Among other motivations, this tactical approach was seen as a way to achieve higher product quality and service rationalization. The outsourcing success of IT activities resides in the mastering of a complex process that includes amongst other specification, purchasing, negotiation, contract management skills on top of advanced technical knowledge. The perception of the success of outsourcing differs also from one stakeholder to another. Nowadays, as CERN encounters a cash-flow issue, in-sourcing is investigated as an alternative path for savings. From this experience and the survey of current practice in industry, this paper analyses various parameters that should be considered to find the correct balance b...

  9. Associations between Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Sources of Information about Sex and Sexual Risk Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…

  10. Associations between Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Sources of Information about Sex and Sexual Risk Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…

  11. Use of and Satisfaction with Sources of Health Information among Older Internet Users and Nonusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Jessica; Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults generally have an increased need for health care information. Whereas some use the Internet to look for this information, others use more traditional sources. This study gathered data from older adults to determine their health information needs, the perceived usefulness of sources of health information, and if there are…

  12. Use and value of information sources by parents of child psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Adrienne; Kabashi, Arta; Guthrie, Hannah; Burket, Roger; Turner, Philip

    2011-06-01

    With Web 2.0, the variety of information sources for parents of paediatric psychiatric patients has increased dramatically. Information use theory suggests newer sources supplement rather than supplant traditional sources of health information. This study sought to determine the use and value of traditional and emerging sources of information and whether the subjects had access to highly valued sources of information. One hundred parents indicated the use and value of six sources of information on the child's symptoms, diagnoses and treatment. The data were analyzed to determine if significant relationships existed between type of source and the use and value of the information sources. Ninety-four percent of the subjects had access to the Internet and almost half of those reported using the Social Web. Eighty-five percent had at least one high-value information source. The psychiatrist in the clinic, the Internet and the primary care physician were the most highly used and valued sources. Use of digital information sources was greater than found in other studies of similar populations. This use appears to complement rather than supplant more traditional sources. Further studies are needed to see if the negative impact of lack of Internet access is replicated. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  13. Association of Information Sources and Knowledge on HIV/AIDS in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yufeng; Wang, Huadong; Chen, Baifeng; Chen, Yujuan; Zhang, Tiejun; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between the number of available information sources on HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in a rural population in China. We performed a cross-sectional survey on the number and types of sources of HIV/AIDS information available to rural residents of China and assessed HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in this population. We collected information from 5,355 Chinese rural residents and then correlated the results of the scores on knowledge to the numbers of information sources, and adjusted for age, sex, education and occupation. The sources of HIV/AIDs information reported by subjects included television, radio, newspapers, periodicals, discussions with neighbors and friends. There were significant differences in sources of information based on gender, occupation, educational level and age. The average number of information sources was 3.01 ± 1.74. The average score on the AIDS related knowledge questionnaire was 8.21 ± 4.23. Subjects who reported 6 sources of HIV/AIDS information had an average score of 11.67 ± 3.0 on the HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire. Subjects who reported between 3-7 sources of HIV/AIDS information had significantly higher scores than those who had 1,2 or 8 sources of information. There is an association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and the number of available information sources. By increasing the sources, one could not always make more people curious or interested in HIV/AIDS knowledge.

  14. The influence of age, muscle strength and speed of information processing on recovery responses to external perturbations in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Adam, J; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance caused by external perturbations to gait can successfully be counteracted by adequate recovery responses. The current study investigated how the recovery response is moderated by age, walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing. The gait pattern of 50 young and 45 elderly subjects was repeatedly perturbed at 20% and 80% of the first half of the swing phase using the Timed Rapid impact Perturbation (TRiP) set-up. Recovery responses were identified using 2D cameras. Muscular factors (dynamometer) and speed of information processing parameters (computer-based reaction time task) were determined. The stronger, faster reacting and faster walking young subjects recovered more often by an elevating strategy than elderly subjects. Twenty three per cent of the differences in recovery responses were explained by a combination of walking speed (B=-13.85), reaction time (B=-0.82), maximum extension strength (B=0.01) and rate of extension moment development (B=0.19). The recovery response that subjects employed when gait was perturbed by the TRiP set-up was modified by several factors; the individual contribution of walking speed, muscle strength and speed of information processing was small. Insight into remaining modifying factors is needed to assist and optimise fall prevention programmes.

  15. Information sources used by parents to learn about medications they are giving their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holappa, Miina; Ahonen, Riitta; Vainio, Kirsti; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated the use of medication by children to be dependent on the attitudes of knowledge of their parents; however, little is known about sources parents might use in driving medication use decisions. The aim of this study was to describe the information sources that parents use regarding their children's medication and their perceptions of the reliability of these information sources. This study is part of a cross-sectional population survey with a random sample of 6000 children younger than 12 years. The response rate of the questionnaire was 67%. Parents were asked about the use of information sources and their perception of reliability with a list of 16 information sources. The information sources that parents reported having used were physicians (72%), patient information leaflets (PILs) (67%), public or school health nurses (52%), and pharmacists (44%). Regardless of the child's age, physicians were the parents' most-used information source. Physicians were the most-used information source also when the child had at least 1 of the 4 most common long-term diseases among children in Finland (asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis). Parents considered physicians (50%), PILs (31%), pharmacists (27%), nurses (20%), and public or school health nurses (17%) very reliable information sources. Finnish parents seek information from health care professionals and PILs when looking for information concerning their children's medication. Furthermore, they find health care professionals and PILs to be reliable information sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple sclerosis: patients' information sources and needs on disease symptoms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Albert I; McCarl, Helen; Klaer, Pamela; Keane, Miriam C; Chen, Celia S

    2010-06-24

    To investigate the current information sources of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the early stages of their disease and to identify patients' preferred source of information. The relative amounts of information from the different sources were also compared. Participants at a newly diagnosed information session organized by the Multiple Sclerosis Society of South Australia were invited to complete a questionnaire. Participants were asked to rate on a visual analog scale how much information they had received about MS and optic neuritis from different information sources and how much information they would like to receive from each of the sources. A close to ideal amount of information is being provided by the MS society and MS specialist nurses. There is a clear deficit between what information patients are currently receiving and the amount of information they actually want from various sources. Patients wish to receive significantly more information from treating general practitioners, eye specialists, neurologists, and education sessions. Patients have identified less than adequate information received on optic neuritis from all sources. This study noted a clear information deficit regarding MS from all sources. This information deficit is more pronounced in relation to optic neuritis and needs to be addressed in the future. More patient information and counselling needs to be provided to MS patients even at early stages of their disease, especially in relation to management of disease relapse.

  17. Energy Deposition in the Body from External Sources to Chemically Trigger Cellular Responses in Desired Localized Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Stuart Duncan

    One of the major challenges of modern chemotherapy is to deliver a therapeutic dose of active drug to the tumor tissue without causing systemic exposure. The realization of this goal could considerably reduce the negative side effects experienced by patients. The work conducted in this thesis looks at two different approaches to trigger drug activation with the use of external energy sources. This avoids the challenges of relying solely on biochemical and environmental differences as triggers. The two triggers used were low intensity focused ultrasound and 365 nm light delivered with a custom designed needle UV LED fiber optic system. Both can be localized within the body to spatially highlight just the tumor tissue creating a stark differentiation between it and the healthy tissue. The 365nm light based delivery scheme developed here was the first demonstration of a photoactivatable doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug called DOX-PCB. DOX-PCB was shown to be 200 times less toxic than DOX and could be activated to a fully therapeutic form upon exposure to 365nm light. The pharmacokinetics showed a circulation half life comparable to that of DOX and stability against in vivo metabolic degradation. The 365 nm light was shown to adequately irradiate a centimeter of tumor tissue and cause localized activation. In vivo tumors exposed to the light had significantly higher doses of DOX than unexposed control tumors in the same individual. The second delivery scheme made use of focused ultrasound to activate echogenic drug delivery vehicles. These vehicles were the first demonstration of encapsulating microbubbles within liposomes. Specially designed optical equipment documented that the microbubble was ultrasound responsive. The microbubble was shown to violently cavitate and rupture the outer liposome membrane releasing the payload contents. The three dimensional localization of activation was demonstrated in tissue phantoms. The strengths of these two delivery schemes could

  18. heteroHarvest: Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...

  19. heteroHarvest: Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. Finally we describe the results of experimental evaluation. The results are found promising with an overall error rate equal to 6.5% across heterogeneous formats....

  20. Business News as a Source of Information Literacy in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kendra; Bridges, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Among the proficiencies that marketing students should acquire, information literacy, the ability to gather and apply pertinent information to aid in decision making, is commonly overlooked. In this article, information literacy is explored along four complementary dimensions: instrumental, conceptual, reflective, and symbolic. Furthermore, the…

  1. Parent Perspectives on Sources of Information about Autism Spectrum Disorder Interventions in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlon, Sarah; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on sources of information about interventions used by parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has provided a general overview of sources used. However, it has provided little insight into why parents view certain sources as reliable or trustworthy, or how useful parents found the information provided to them by the…

  2. 41 CFR 101-6.209-3 - Access to sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.209-3 Access to sources of information... business hours to such of its books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and its... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Access to sources of...

  3. Parent Perspectives on Sources of Information about Autism Spectrum Disorder Interventions in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlon, Sarah; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on sources of information about interventions used by parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has provided a general overview of sources used. However, it has provided little insight into why parents view certain sources as reliable or trustworthy, or how useful parents found the information provided to them by the…

  4. SESAME: a software tool for the numerical dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents involving external sources and its application to the accident in Chile in December 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, C; Lemosquet, A; Clairand, I; Rioual, J B; Franck, D; de Carlan, L; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Bottollier-Depois, J F

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the dose distribution in a victim's body is a relevant indicator in assessing biological damage from exposure in the event of a radiological accident caused by an external source. This dose distribution can be assessed by physical dosimetric reconstruction methods. Physical dosimetric reconstruction can be achieved using experimental or numerical techniques. This article presents the laboratory-developed SESAME--Simulation of External Source Accident with MEdical images--tool specific to dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents through numerical simulations which combine voxel geometry and the radiation-material interaction MCNP(X) Monte Carlo computer code. The experimental validation of the tool using a photon field and its application to a radiological accident in Chile in December 2005 are also described.

  5. Information sources, donation knowledge, and attitudes toward transplant recipients in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge is linked consistently with organ donation attitudes, willingness, and consent. Negative information about donation and the recipients of donation can affect public opinion and donation willingness. However, it is unclear which information sources are most important in forming knowledge, particularly in Australia where little prior research exists. To identify information sources that may inform Australians' organ donation knowledge and attitudes toward transplant recipients. 1487 Australian residents aged 18 years or older who completed an online survey. Self-reported knowledge, information sources, and attitudes toward transplant recipients. Participants felt fairly well informed about organ donation, particularly if they registered donation wishes, were female, and were older. More than half reported their driver's license, television news, and discussion with family/friends as donation information sources. However, information sources contributing to knowledge were personal experience, online, hospital, government campaign, discussion with family/friends, Medicare, doctor's surgery, and the newspaper. Differences based on registration status, sex, and age, were found. Discussion with family/friends and movies or television shows, as well as not having seen information in a newspaper or doctor's surgery, contributed to positive attitudes toward recipients, although the variance explained was small. People felt more informed by personal, medical, and government information sources than by mass media. Family discussion was not only a common information source but also contributed significantly and positively to both donation knowledge and attitudes toward recipients. Further exploration of information sources contributing to donation knowledge and community attitudes toward transplant recipients among young men is needed.

  6. Towards the full information chain theory: answer depth and source models

    CERN Document Server

    Perevalov, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A problem of optimal information acquisition for its use in general decision making problems is considered. This motivates the need for developing quantitative measures of information sources' capabilities for supplying accurate information depending on the particular content of the latter. A companion article developed the notion of a question difficulty functional for questions concerning input data for a decision making problem. Here, answers which an information source may provide in response to such questions are considered. In particular, a real valued answer depth functional measuring the degree of accuracy of such answers is introduced and its overall form is derived under the assumption of isotropic knowledge structure of the information source. Additionally, information source models that relate answer depth to question difficulty are discussed. It turns out to be possible to introduce a notion of an information source capacity as the highest value of the answer depth the source is capable of provid...

  7. Information Seeking and Satisfaction with Information Sources Among Spouses of Men with Newly Diagnosed Local-Stage Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Aasthaa; Koepl, Lisel M; Fedorenko, Catherine R; Li, Chunyu; Smith, Judith Lee; Hall, Ingrid J; Penson, David F; Ramsey, Scott D

    2017-02-25

    Information sources about prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are typically designed for patients. Little is known about the availability and utility of information for partners. The objectives of our study were to evaluate information sources used by partners to understand prostate cancer management options, their perceived usefulness, and the relationship between sources used and satisfaction with treatment experience. A longitudinal survey of female partners of men newly diagnosed with local-stage prostate cancer was conducted in three different geographic regions. Partners and associated patients were surveyed at baseline (after patient diagnosis but prior to receiving therapy) and at 12 months following diagnosis. Information sources included provider, literature, friends or family members, Internet websites, books, traditional media, and support groups. Utility of an information source was defined as whether the partner would recommend it to caregivers of other patients with local-stage prostate cancer. Our study cohort included 179 partner-patient pairs. At diagnosis, partners consulted an average of 4.6 information sources. Non-Hispanic white partners were more likely than others to use friends and family as an information source (OR = 2.44, 95% CI (1.04, 5.56)). More educated partners were less likely to use support groups (OR = 0.31, 95% CI (0.14, 0.71)). At 12-month follow-up, partners were less likely to recommend books (OR = 0.23, 95% CI (0.11, 0.49)) compared to baseline. Partners consulted a large number of information sources in researching treatment options for local-stage prostate cancer and the types of sources accessed varied by race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Additional resources to promote selection of high-quality non-provider information sources are warranted to enable partners to better aid patients in their treatment decision-making process.

  8. Network Infusion to Infer Information Sources in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feizi, Soheil; Quon, Gerald; Kellis, Manolis; Duffy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Several significant models have been developed that enable the study of diffusion of signals across biological, social and engineered networks. Within these established frameworks, the inverse problem of identifying the source of the propagated signal is challenging, owing to the numerous alternative possibilities for signal progression through the network. In real world networks, the challenge of determining sources is compounded as the true propagation dynamics are typically unknown, and when they have been directly measured, they rarely conform to the assumptions of any of the well-studied models. In this paper we introduce a method called Network Infusion (NI) that has been designed to circumvent these issues, making source inference practical for large, complex real world networks. The key idea is that to infer the source node in the network, full characterization of diffusion dynamics, in many cases, may not be necessary. This objective is achieved by creating a diffusion kernel that well-approximates s...

  9. Preferred information sources for clinical practice by nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Çalışkan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge sources that nurses working in inpatient treatment institutions use in their practices. It is inevitable for nurses to base their nursing practices on evidence from knowledge sources in order to improve the quality of nursing care. In this context, it is necessary for the nurses to gain skill in using knowledge sources effectively during their basic education and to further develop this skill after graduation in order provide qualified and safe care. This study utilised descriptive design. The study sample consisted of 296 nurses who work in general training and research hospitals that serve in all regions of Istanbul and are subsidiary to the Ministry of Health. A demographic questionnaire and a Knowledge Source Scale for nurses were used for data collection. Data were analysed with Cruncher Statistical System (NCSS 2007&2008 Statistical Software (Utah USA package programme. The following figures are from the demographic questionnaires: mean age of study participants, 31.69±6.03 years; females, 91.6%; married, 65.2%; bachelor’s degree, 39.9%; worked in surgical units, 56.8%; and worked as clinic nurse, 74.7%. One of the main knowledge sources used in nursing practice is the knowledge acquired in nursing school. Basic nursing education plays an ongoing role as a source of practice knowledge. These knowledge sources should be renewed and updated with continuing education courses or short-term training programs. This research can be used to guide development of continuing education programs and underscores the sources of knowledge about general nursing practice. This study can serve as an impetus to further study the use and highlight education needs of practicing nurses.

  10. External forcing as a source for the observed multi-decadal relation between AMV and the Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Lea; Luo, Feifei; Sankar, Syam; Gao, Yongqi; Keenlyside, Noel; Vareed Joseph, Porathur; Johannessen, Ola

    2016-04-01

    The instrumental records show a significant positive correlation between the Atlantic multi-decadal variability (AMV) and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, where a positive (negative) AMV is associated with more (less) ISM rainfall. We have used both proxy reconstruction and twelve models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to investigate if the observed AMV-ISM relation is a persistent internal climate signal or externally forced. A comparison of several annual resolution proxy records both from the Atlantic and for the ISM show that the multi-decadal variability in both indices is persistent, but the link between them is not. The correlation between the two regions is weak, and even negative in some periods, before the instrumental time period. The analysis of CMIP5 simualtions is consistent with these results. While none of the CMIP5 models investigated simulate the significant AMV-ISM connection in the pre-industrial control simulations with fixed external forcing, three of the models reproduce the relation in the 20th century historical simulations with transient forcing. In these models external forcing is linked to the mid-to-upper tropospheric temperature pattern with a strengthened land-ocean contrast over South Asia, consistent with an enhanced ISM, as well as the evolution of AMV. We conclude that the significant AMV-ISM relation found in the observations after the industrial revolution may be associated with external forcing, rather than being internal climate variability.

  11. Public Library Internet Services and the Digital Divide: The Role and Impacts from Selected External Funding Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Ryan, Joe; Bertot, John Carlo

    This study examines the role of external funding in the development of public library network resources and services, their identification, and their benefit and impact, particularly as they affect the digital divide. The study was conducted between February 2001 and January 2002, employing a range of data collection techniques, including site…

  12. An assessment of bias and uncertainty in recorded dose from external sources of radiation for workers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.; Baumgartner, W.V.

    1994-08-01

    Worker dose estimates are used in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. A major objective of these studies is to provide a direct assessment of the carcinogenic risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. If dose estimates used in analyses of worker data are biased, then risk estimates expressed per unit of dose will also be biased. In addition, random error in dose estimates may lead to underestimation of risk coefficients and can also distort dose-response analyses. Analyses of data from nuclear worker studies, including Hanford, have typically not been adjusted for biases and uncertainties in dose estimates in part because of the lack of adequate information on the nature and magnitude of these biases and uncertainties. This report describes an approach used to assess bias and uncertainty in radiation dose for Hanford dosimetry systems. The approach can be considered as an elaboration of work conducted by a technical committee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) used to quantify the bias and uncertainty in estimated doses for personnel exposed to radiation as a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons between 1945 and 1962. In addition, laboratory studies were conducted to measure bias for selected sources of photon radiation resulting from angular response characteristics of Hanford dosimeter systems. An overall assessment is presented of bias and uncertainty for photon radiation greater than 100 keV. This radiation is expected to have caused the vast majority of recorded dose for Hanford workers.

  13. 28 CFR 57.3 - Scope and purpose of investigation; other sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources of information. 57.3 Section 57.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... investigation; other sources of information. (a) The authority granted the Attorney General by section 816(d)(1... investigation. (b) There shall be no use, with respect to particular information, of the authority granted by...

  14. 21 CFR 1301.93 - Sources of information for employee checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sources of information for employee checks. 1301...-Practitioners § 1301.93 Sources of information for employee checks. DEA recommends that inquiries concerning... place of birth, and other identifying information, to local courts and law enforcement agencies for...

  15. Changes in the Use of Precision Farming Information Sources among Cotton Farmers and Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Brittani; Velandia, Margarita; Lambert, Dayton M.; Roberts, Roland K.; Larson, James A.; English, Burton C.; Boyer, Christopher; Rejesus, Roderick; Mishra, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Using information from precision farmer surveys conducted in the southern United States in 2005 and 2013, we evaluated changes in the use of precision farming information sources among cotton producers. Although Extension remains an important source for producers interested in precision farming information, the percentage of cotton producers using…

  16. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of information and relevant data... Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the lists, the Secretary shall..., administrative reports, maps or other graphic materials, information received from experts on the subject, and...

  17. Source of Sex Information and Condom Use Intention among Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Jillian S.; Berglas, Nancy F.; Deardorff, Julianna; Constantine, Norman A.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a common time for sexual initiation and information seeking about sexual health, yet little is known about how adolescents' sources of information about sex influence their sexual beliefs and behaviors. This is particularly true for Latino adolescents, whose sources of sex information and sexual behaviors are vastly understudied. A…

  18. THE COLLOQUIUM ON MULTI-SOURCE IMPERFECT INFORMATION FUSION AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attributes and characteristics of objects and environments can be described qualitatively and quantitatively by multi-source information. Because of the complexity of environments, limitation of sensor performance and imperfection of information acquisition technique, multi-source information is usually uncertain, vague and incomplete.

  19. Health information sources for different types of information used by Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Su, Zhaohui; Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo; Zhang, Ming

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the information sources of Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers, yet this knowledge is critical for providing patient-centred care. To assess and compare the information sources used by Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers. The validated Health Information Wants Questionnaire (HIWQ) was translated and administered in March 2014. The oncology department of a general hospital in south-west China. A convenience sample of 198 individuals, including 79 patients with cancer (mean age=55.24, SD=13.80) and 119 family caregivers (mean age=46.83, SD=14.61). Ratings on the HIWQ items assessing information sources for different types of information. The interaction between information source and group was significant (F3,576 =6.32, Pinformation than patients from the Internet. Caregivers and patients did not differ in the amount of information they obtained from doctors/nurses, interpersonal contacts or mass media. The interaction between information type and information source was significant (F18,3456 =6.38, Pinformation of all types from doctors/nurses than from the other three sources and obtained more information from interpersonal contacts than from mass media or the Internet. The information sources of Chinese patients with cancer and their family caregivers were similar, with an important difference that caregivers obtained more online information than patients. These findings have important implications for patient care and education in China where the family typically plays a major role in the care and decision making. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sources of Drug and Alcohol Information Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvela, Paul D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of data collected from 555 junior and senior high school students in rural Ohio suggested that the media and teachers provided subjects with the most information about drugs and alcohol, while few subjects cited siblings or alcohol or drug agency personnel as providing information. (CB)

  1. Cross-checking different sources of mobility information

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu-Ros, Oliva G; Tugores, Antonia; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frias-Martinez, Enrique; Ramasco, Jose J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive use of new mobile devices has allowed a better characterization in space and time of human concentrations and mobility in general. Besides its theoretical interest, describing mobility is of great importance for a number of practical applications ranging from the forecast of disease spreading to the design of new spaces in urban environments. While classical data sources, such as surveys or census, have a limited level of geographical resolution (e.g., districts, municipalities, counties are typically used) or are restricted to generic workdays or weekends, the data coming from mobile devices can be precisely located both in time and space. Most previous works have used a single data source to study human mobility patterns. Here we perform instead a cross-check analysis by comparing results obtained with data collected from three different sources: Twitter, census and cell phones. The analysis is focused on the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid, for which data of the three types is available. ...

  2. The not so unique Global Trade Identification Number : Exploring inconsistencies in online product information sources

    OpenAIRE

    Karpischek, Stephan; Michahelles, Florian; Fleisch, Elgar

    2011-01-01

    Mobile shopping apps for consumers often identify retail products by Global Trade Identification Number (GTIN) using barcodes or RFID technology and rely on online data sources to provide basic product information. Several different sources exist, and reports show that the available product information in them is often inconsistent with implications for both retail businesses and consumers. In this paper we compare the product information provided by 10 different online sources for more than ...

  3. Information sources in science and technology in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarala, Arja-Riitta

    1994-01-01

    Finland poses some problems to be overcome in the field of scientific and technical information: a small user community which makes domestic systems costly; great distances within the country between users and suppliers of information; great distances to international data systems and large libraries abroad; and inadequate collections of scientific and technical information. The national bibliography Fennica includes all books and journals published in Finland. Data base services available in Finland include: reference data bases in science and technology; data banks for decision making such as statistical time series or legal proceedings; national bibliographies; and library catalogs.

  4. ACCOUNTING - A SOURCE OF INFORMATION WITHIN THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUŞAN GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accounting information system is a complex system of registration and processing of goods movement, the reflection of the rights and obligations with economic value; it is necessary and indispensable to the economy. Through its own system of concepts and procedures, accounting is the only discipline that can provide information that form the basis of the assessment of an organization by a wide category of users. Those in need of information for the purpose of making accounting decisions on allocating economic resources efficiently and effectively.

  5. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.

  6. Sources of Health Information Related to Preventive Health Behaviors in a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J.; Clark, Cheryl R.; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Current literature suggests that certain sources of information are used in varying degrees among different socioeconomic and demographic groups; therefore, it is important to determine if specific classes of health information sources are more effective than others in promoting health behaviors. Purpose To determine if interpersonal versus mass media sources of health information are associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors (nonsmoking, fruit/vegetable intake, and exercise) and cancer screening. Methods Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of health information sources (mass media sources including print, TV, Internet; and interpersonal sources including friends and family, community organizations, and healthcare providers); with meeting recommendations for healthy behaviors and cancer screening in the 2005 and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). Analyses were conducted in 2009. Results In the 2005 HINTS, participants reporting use of print media and community organizations as sources of health information over the past year were mostly likely to meet recommendations for health behaviors. In the 2007 HINTS, utilization of healthcare providers for health information was associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors, particularly cancer screening. Conclusions Use of print media and interpersonal sources of health information are most consistently associated with self-reported health behaviors. Additional research should explore the relationship of health information sources to clinical outcomes. Social network interventions to promote adoption of health behaviors should be further developed. PMID:20494238

  7. Simple models of two-dimensional information sources and codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Shtarkov, Y. M.

    1998-01-01

    We consider discrete random fields which have simple descriptions of rows and columns. We present constructions which combine high entropy with simple means of generating the fields and analyzing the probability distribution. Hidden state Markov sources are an essential tool in the construction...

  8. Applying to Higher Education: Information Sources and Choice Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Claudia; Soares, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions are facing increasingly complex challenges, which demand a deeper understanding of the sources prospective students use when applying to a higher education institution. This research centres on students' decision-making process for higher education institutions, focusing on the pre-purchase period, and, in particular,…

  9. Applying to Higher Education: Information Sources and Choice Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Claudia; Soares, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions are facing increasingly complex challenges, which demand a deeper understanding of the sources prospective students use when applying to a higher education institution. This research centres on students' decision-making process for higher education institutions, focusing on the pre-purchase period, and, in particular,…

  10. Artificial Intelligence Information Sources for the Beginner and Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Francaise de Robotique In- Expert Systems for Information Management dustrielle) Expert Systems in Government Symposium. Pro- Al & Society: The Jour...Newsletter Machine Intelligence. Robots: Jour. de I& Robotique Industreielle at Machine Intelligence and Pattern Recognition de la Productique

  11. INFORMATION SOURCES FOR FINANCIAL ANALYSE IN THE ORGANISATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nora ŠTANGOVÁ; Agneša VÍGHOVÁ

    2016-01-01

    Financial analysis is an essential part of the financial management of the company, as it acts as a feedback information, where the business is in different areas of the financial management, in which...

  12. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    For effective administration of agricultural credit, financial institutions while ... of the farmers to provide the needed funds, the financial institutions ultimately ... There is uncertainty in the agrarian credit market because of incomplete information,.

  13. Impact of Mass-media information on suicidal behavior of adolescents and youths (review of foreign sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihristuk O.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews a number of foreign sources disclosing the influence of information in public media about suicides on population in general and on young people in particular. It discusses the possibility of imitative suicides after publications in press (syndrome of Werther and the increase of suicides after TV special reports. The reviewed articles analyze the data obtained in Internet survey of the visitors of prosuicidal web-sites. Alongside with other findings in foreign sources they register the impact of mass-media reports about suicides on young people subjected to external influences. The World Health Organization recommends a more balanced approach to news coverage of suicidal accidents by mass-media.

  14. What sources do adolescents turn to for information about their health concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Khoori, Elham; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Ybarra, Michele L

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are developmentally normatively interested in information about sexuality and other health-related issues. In the absence of available health programming, identifying the sources of information that youth are currently accessing will help adolescent health researchers understand where youth 'are,' thereby informing where and how future interventions can be targeted. This is particularly important in resource-limited settings, such as Iran, where funding for public health programming is scant. This study aimed to examine primary and preferred sources of adolescents' health information queries and identify health topics in which they are most interested. In 2011, a random sample of 915 adolescents, aged 14-18 years, completed anonymous, self-administered questionnaires. Mothers (51.11%) and same-sex friends (40.11%) were both the primary as well as the preferred source of health information for adolescents. More than one in three adolescents identified media information sources, including books (39.6%) and the Internet (37.9%), as their primary and preferred sources. The most common topic adolescents sought information about was sexuality issues. Younger adolescents preferred receiving information from parents, whereas older adolescents preferred friends as sources for information [X2=9.3, p=0.009]. No age differences were noted in using media sources (p>0.05). These findings indicate future interventions should integrate some if not all of these sources [both people (mothers, same-sex friends) and media (books, the Internet)] to deliver evidenced-based health information.

  15. Sources and types of online information that breast cancer patients read and discuss with their doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; D'Agostino, Thomas A; Heerdt, Alexandra; Dickler, Maura; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S; Bylund, Carma L

    2015-04-01

    Most research examining the impact of patients seeking online health information treats internet information homogenously, rather than recognizing that there are multiple types and sources of available information. The present research was conducted to differentiate among sources and types of internet information that patients search for, intend to discuss with their doctors, and recall discussing with their doctors, and to determine how accurate and hopeful patients rate this information. We surveyed 70 breast cancer patients recruited from the waiting rooms of breast medical oncology and surgery clinics. The main variables in the study were as follows: (1) the sources and types of online information patients have read, intended to discuss, and actually discussed with their doctors, and (2) how accurately and hopefully they rated this information to be. Patients read information most frequently from the websites of cancer organizations, and most often about side effects. Patients planned to discuss fewer types of information with their doctors than they had read about. They most often intended to discuss information from cancer organization websites or WebMD, and the material was most often about alternative therapies, side effects, and proven or traditional treatments. Some 76.8% of total participants rated the information they had read as very or somewhat accurate, and 61% rated the information they had read as very or somewhat hopeful. Internet information varies widely by source and type. Differentiating among sources and types of information is essential to explore the ways in which online health information impacts patients' experiences.

  16. [Analysis of information sources in the journal, Atencion Primaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, R; Giménez Sánchez, J V; Terrada Ferrandis, M L; López Piñero, J M

    1996-03-31

    To contribute to improving the understanding of the information bases of Spanish scientific production in the primary care field; to aid international contacts and the diffusion of information among doctors in our country. A bibliometric analysis of the bibliographic references of the studies published in the journal Atención Primaria during 1991. A data base, managed by dBASE IV, was created. The Unit of Documental Analysis and Bibliometry of the Institute of Documental and Historical Studies in Science (University of Valencia-CSIC). 2,615 bibliographic references in 205 studies contained in volume 8 of Atención Primaria. References from journal articles (68%) and books (26%) predominated. There were a large number of references from Spanish publications (45%) as against Northamerican (27%) and British (15%). There were few references from other European countries or Latin America. Information was quickly out of date (4 year semiperiod; Price index 50%). High proportion of self-quotations from the journal. The major role of the journal Atención Primaria in communicating information in the primary care field was underlined. The small amount of information from Latin America and E.U. countries (except Great Britain) highlights the isolation of Spain from these countries, which can be explained by the limits of the primary care field itself. There was also little use of information to which access was more difficult for primary care doctors, such as doctoral theses, congress papers or reports. Moreover this is a field with a high percentage of recent literature and rapidly out-of-date information.

  17. Evidence Locator: sources of evidence-based dentistry information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsve-Hawley, Julie

    2008-09-01

    Multiple resources are available to help practitioners access the latest scientific evidence. Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to clinical decision making that incorporates the most current and comprehensive scientific evidence with the practitioner's judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. One challenge in implementing this approach is access to evidence, and there are multiple online resources that can be used in this endeavor. This article presents the Evidence Locator, a list of Web sites that provide access to "secondary sources" of evidence. Such "secondary sources" are typically summaries of systematic reviews and evidence-based clinical recommendations or guidelines. Also presented is a list of other Web sites that may be useful to the practitioner in implementing EBD.

  18. Trust in health information sources differs between young/middle and oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Chaudhuri, Shomir; White, Cathy; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Examine differences in trust of health information sources between the oldest old and young/middle old. Cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling. Eleven retirement communities. Older adults ≥65 years (N = 353). Self-rated trust in health information sources. Mann-Whitney U-test or Fisher exact test to compare trust between age groups; multinomial ordered logistic regression analyses to model trust in Internet information sources. The overall survey response rate was 26.6%. Differences in trust were identified between oldest old (n = 108) and young/middle old (n = 245) for pharmacist (p sources. In the oldest old, we found associations between levels of trust in Internet sources and frequency of Internet use (β = 4.13, p inform the design of resources to support the information-seeking process. When planning widespread distribution of health information to these distinct groups, program developers need to consider these differences.

  19. Strategies in the information search process: interaction among task structure, knowledge, and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Simona; Burigo, Michele

    2008-07-01

    The authors explored the information search strategies of 145 individuals in the predecisional stage. Decision-making participants selected pieces of information from a list including relevant and irrelevant data. The authors investigated the influence of the individual's knowledge and information source. In Experiment 1, the authors experimentally manipulated the information source reliability. The results revealed that participants tended to use a sequential strategy when the authors presented information as supplied by a reliable source. In Experiment 2, the authors analyzed the interaction between information source and the individuals' knowledge. When participants believed the source to be reliable, even knowledgeable participants adopted a strategy as sequential as that chosen by naive individuals. In Experiment 3, a mediational model corroborated the hypothesis that the search strategy affects the final judgment. The results were consistent with the constructivist framework, which emphasizes the role of individual, task, and context in the decision-making process.

  20. Design and Experimental Study of the External H~- Ion Source for a 10 MeV Medical Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A 10 MeV medical cyclotron has been designed by the BRIF Division at CIAE, for which the H- beam is axially injected to the machine. To satisfy the requirement for the cyclotron with H- ion source, a compact multicusp H- ion source has

  1. Environmental Toxicology: A Guide to Information Sources. Volume 7 in the "Man and the Environment Information Guide" Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Robert L.

    This annotated bibliography on environmental toxicology brings together a diverse set of information sources from the physical, social, and natural sciences. These sources include periodical literature, government documents, scientific journals, and teaching materials. The volume is divided into sixteen sections organized into four parts: (1)…

  2. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.

  3. 48 CFR 603.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 603.104-4... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following classes of persons may be authorized to receive contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information...

  4. 48 CFR 3.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 3.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Except as... information or source selection information to any person other than a person authorized, in accordance...

  5. 48 CFR 1303.104-4 - Disclosure, protection and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1303.104-4 Section... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. Contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information must be protected from unauthorized disclosure in accordance...

  6. Distributed Joint Source-Channel Coding on a Multiple Access Channel with Side Information

    CERN Document Server

    Rajesh, R

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of transmission of several distributed sources over a multiple access channel (MAC) with side information at the sources and the decoder. Source-channel separation does not hold for this channel. Sufficient conditions are provided for transmission of sources with a given distortion. The source and/or the channel could have continuous alphabets (thus Gaussian sources and Gaussian MACs are special cases). Various previous results are obtained as special cases. We also provide several good joint source-channel coding schemes for a discrete/continuous source and discrete/continuous alphabet channel. Channels with feedback and fading are also considered. Keywords: Multiple access channel, side information, lossy joint source-channel coding, channels with feedback, fading channels.

  7. INFORMATION SOURCES FOR FINANCIAL ANALYSE IN THE ORGANISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora ŠTANGOVÁ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial analysis is an essential part of the financial management of the company, as it acts as a feedback information, where the business is in different areas of the financial management, in which areas of the company the targets have been achieved and, conversely, in which areas the business is lagging behind the expectations.

  8. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.

  9. Social Media as Source of Medical Information for Healthcare Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Anamaria CORDOȘ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The scope of the research was a more detailed understanding of the influence of social media and the importance of student’s usage of social media context in relation to medical information. The research aimed to increase the understanding of social media and the impact on medical information use, informing policy and practice while highlighting gaps in the literature and areas for further research. Methods: The search of PubMed database was performed in October 2015, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media technologies were an important feature for health occupations, premedical, pharmacy, nursing or medical students. A systematic approach was used to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results: There were initially identified 435 studies involving social media, healthcare information and medical students subject headings (MeSH terminology. After filtering for free full text articles, and exclusion of not students or social media specific ones, 33 articles were reviewed. The majority of the studies were interventional studies that either assessed the outcomes of online discussion groups or teaching methods through social media. The majority of studies focused on the use of social media as a teaching tool, how students use it and the implications upon their education. The largest number of original papers was published in 2013. Facebook, Podcasts, Multiplayer virtual worlds, Blogs, and Twitter were identified as being used by medical students. Conclusion: Social media is used as a tool of information for students mainly as the means for engaging and communicating with students.

  10. Information technology security at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorowicz, K. V.; McDowell, W.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of 'botnets,' phishing schemes, denial-of-service attacks, root kits, and other cyber attack schemes designed to capture a system or network creates a climate of concern for system administrators, especially for those managing accelerator and large experimental-physics facilities, as they are very public targets. This paper will describe the steps being taken at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to protect the infrastructure of the overall network with emphasis on security for the APS control system.

  11. Visible light scatter as quantitative information source on milk constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melentieva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    -time monitoring of processes and products. Optical analysis is generally performed in near and middle infrared (NIR and MIR) regions and relies on the component absorbance and Beer’s Law. The light scatter effect is therefore considered as a disturbance to be avoided during the measurement or eliminated...... at the data analysis stage. The region of visible (Vis) light (400-800 nm) is economically attractive, because it offers a range of inexpensive light sources, optics and detectors. At present, however, it is commonly considered useless, because of the light scatter by fat globules (1-10 μm) and protein...

  12. Multiple information sources and consequences of conflicting information about medicine use during pregnancy: a multinational Internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Nordeng, Hedvig; Kokki, Esa; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Lupattelli, Angela; Vainio, Kirsti; Enlund, Hannes

    2014-02-20

    A wide variety of information sources on medicines is available for pregnant women. When using multiple information sources, there is the risk that information will vary or even conflict. The objective of this multinational study was to analyze the extent to which pregnant women use multiple information sources and the consequences of conflicting information, and to investigate which maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical factors were associated with these objectives. An anonymous Internet-based questionnaire was made accessible during a period of 2 months, on 1 to 4 Internet websites used by pregnant women in 5 regions (Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Northern Europe, Americas, Australia). A total of 7092 responses were obtained (n=5090 pregnant women; n=2002 women with a child younger than 25 weeks). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Of the respondents who stated that they needed information, 16.16% (655/4054) used one information source and 83.69% (3393/4054) used multiple information sources. Of respondents who used more than one information source, 22.62% (759/3355) stated that the information was conflicted. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors significantly associated with experiencing conflict in medicine information included being a mother (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.58), having university (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.09-1.63) or other education (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.03), residing in Eastern Europe (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89) or Australia (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.42-3.67), use of 3 (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60) or >4 information sources (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49-2.23), and having ≥2 chronic diseases (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.18-1.89). Because of conflicting information, 43.61% (331/759) decided not to use medication during pregnancy, 30.30% (230/759) sought a new information source, 32.67% (248/759) chose to rely on one source and ignore the conflicting one, 25.03% (190/759) became anxious, and 2.64% (20/759) did

  13. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic predictors of cancer-related information sources used by cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    With 14 million cancer survivors in the United States, identifying and categorizing their use of sources of cancer-related information is vital for targeting effective communications to this growing population. In addition, recognizing socioeconomic and sociodemographic differences in the use of cancer-related information sources is a potential mechanism for reducing health disparities in survivorship. Fourteen sources of information survivors (N = 519) used for cancer-related information were factor-analyzed to create a taxonomy of source use. The association between social determinants and use of these source types was analyzed in regression models. Factor analysis revealed 5 categories of information source use (mass media; Internet and print; support organizations; family and friends; health care providers), and use varied based on sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Higher education predicted increased use of all source categories except mass media. African American cancer survivors turned to health care providers as a source for cancer-related information less often than did White survivors. Social determinants predicted differences in the type of cancer-related information sources used. Providers and health communicators should target communication platforms based on the demographic profile of specific survivor audiences.

  14. 8 CFR 1208.12 - Reliance on information compiled by other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Withholding of Removal § 1208.12 Reliance on information compiled by other sources. (a) In deciding an asylum... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reliance on information compiled by other sources. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW...

  15. 8 CFR 240.69 - Reliance on information compiled by other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Reliance on information compiled by other sources. In determining whether an applicant is eligible for... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reliance on information compiled by other sources. 240.69 Section 240.69 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 564 - Information To Be Submitted for Replaceable Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information required by paragraphs A, B, and C of this section I for light sources using a resistive type... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information To Be Submitted for Replaceable Light Sources A Appendix A to Part 564 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...

  17. 78 FR 56230 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Reporting Purchases From Sources Outside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Reporting Purchases From Sources Outside the United States AGENCY... request to review and approve an extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning reporting purchases from sources outside the United States. DATES: Submit comments on or before...

  18. 8 CFR 1240.69 - Reliance on information compiled by other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 203 of Pub. L. 105-100 § 1240.69 Reliance on information compiled by other sources. In determining... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reliance on information compiled by other sources. 1240.69 Section 1240.69 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW...

  19. 8 CFR 208.12 - Reliance on information compiled by other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Reliance on information compiled by other sources. (a) In deciding an asylum application, or in deciding... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reliance on information compiled by other sources. 208.12 Section 208.12 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  20. 36 CFR 1290.3 - Sources of assassination records and additional records and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sources of assassination records and additional records and information. Assassination records and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sources of assassination records and additional records and information. 1290.3 Section 1290.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  1. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Practices § 137.50 Reviews of historical sources of information. (a) Historical documents and records must... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reviews of historical sources of information. 137.50 Section 137.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  2. The Effects of Source Credibility Ratings in a Cultural Heritage Information Aggregator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.K.; Zhang, J.; Cramer, H.; Hardman, L.; Evers, V.

    2008-01-01

    State of the art web search applications allow the user to aggregate information from many sources. Because of this, users are confronted with having to assess the reliability of information from different sources. This paper reports on an empirical user study on the effect of displaying credibility

  3. The use of drug information sources by physicians : Development of a data-generating methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerkamp, EJC; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Reuyl, JC

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was: (1) to develop and evaluate a methodology to determine hospital physician's use of personal drug information sources; (2) a preliminary insight into the use personal drug information sources. Written case simulations appeared to be the most appropriate method. To construct

  4. Young Cypriots on Sex Education: Sources and Adequacy of Information Received on Sexuality Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesta, Stalo; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Essen, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In the absence of standardised sex education and because schools usually limit their teaching to the "health" aspects of sexuality, young people in Cyprus rely on their peers and the media for information on sexuality. This study examines the sources and adequacy of the information received by young people from various sources on…

  5. Adolescent Health Literacy: The Importance of Credible Sources for Online Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…

  6. All-source Information Management and Integration for Improved Collective Intelligence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    increasing amounts of ISR data and information from various sources (SIGINT, IMINT, GEOINT, HUMINT, OSINT , etc.), produced in disparate multiple media...Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) • Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ) • Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) These intelligence disciplines produce...Multi-sources: SIGINT, IMINT/GeoINT, HUMINT, OSINT , etc. – Various formats: sensor data, multimedia (text, images, audio, video) • Hard/soft

  7. Acquisition and sources. [documents for scientific and technical information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, P. F.

    1978-01-01

    Suggestions and ideas for acquiring documents or their surrogates for a planned or fledgling information system are offered. The problems of selectivity of documents or their surrogates, both in superabundant quantities, and duplicate checking are highlighted. Acquisitioning flow, a semiautomated duplicate search technique, and alerting methods for prospective documentation are described. Appendices include two category systems, selected definitions and acronyms, and a selected address list for document procurement.

  8. Mapping Sources of Food Safety Information for U.S. Consumers: Findings From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Verrill, Linda; Kim, Jarim

    2017-03-01

    This research examines the sources from which U.S. consumers obtain their food safety information. It seeks to determine differences in the types of information sources used by U.S. consumers of different sociodemographic background, as well as the relationships between the types of information sources used and food safety risk perceptions. Analyzing the 2010 Food Safety Survey (N = 4,568) conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, we found that age, gender, education, and race predicted the use of different sources for food safety information. Additionally, use of several information sources predicted perceived susceptibility to foodborne illnesses and severity of food contamination. Implications of the findings for food safety risk communication are discussed.

  9. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  10. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  11. Consumer Health Information Sources in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Daley

    2011-10-01

    " SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    When consumers have health questions, they often seek answers at online sources. Consumer health information is readily available on the Internet but the lack of quality control on the Internet is problematic. This essay examines the following: quality issues associated with online health information, the features and benefits of several consumer health websites, how Web 2.0 innovations can add an interactive layer to basic online consumer health resources, and the role that information professionals play in the field of consumer health information.

  12. ENHANCEMENT AND EVOLUTION OF SOLITARY WAVES EXCITED BY A LOCALIZED EXTERNAL SOURCE%局地外源激发的孤波的增强和演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGLu; 吕克利

    2002-01-01

    利用扰动法由准地转涡度方程导出了强迫mKdV方程,讨论了强迫mKdV孤波的质量和能量的时间演变,并通过拟谱法求得了强迫mKdV方程的数值解.计算结果显示,局地外源强迫激发的mKdV孤波与失谐参数α和外源强度有密切关系.与强迫KdV方程相比,在强迫mKdV方程中,外源强迫可以激发出振幅更大的更不稳定的孤波.%By using aperturbation method, a forced mKdV equation is derived from the so-called quasi-geostrophic vorticity equation, and time evolutions of mass and energy of the mKdV solitary waves are discusse. Finally, numerical solutions of the forced mKdV equation are obtained by using the pseudo-spectral method. The calculation results show that the features of the mKdV solitary waves excited by localized external source are closely related to the detuning parameter a and the strength of the external source. The external forcing source in a forced mKdV system can excite larger amplitude and more instable disturbances than those in a forced KdV system.

  13. Quality of Information Approach to Improving Source Selection in Tactical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Intelligence operations in highly dynamic and constrained networked environments require a prudent strategies to query information sources. We...metrics are identified in military doctrine as requirements that promote mission success. Further, it is possible to identify specific network metrics...social networks to assist a decision maker in the source selection problem. We show how this approach can be used to score information sources for such tasks using results from representative simulations.

  14. Multi-sources information fusion algorithm in airborne detection systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yan; Jing Zhanrong; Gao Tian; Wang Huilong

    2007-01-01

    To aim at the multimode character of the data from the airplane detecting system, the paper combines DempsterSharer evidence theory and subjective Bayesian algorithm and makes to propose a mixed structure multimode data fusion algorithm. The algorithm adopts a prorated algorithm relate to the incertitude evaluation to convert the probability evaluation into the precognition probability in an identity frame, and ensures the adaptability of different data from different source to the mixed system. To guarantee real time fusion, a combination of time domain fusion and space domain fusion is established, this not only assure the fusion of data chain in different time of the same sensor, but also the data fusion from different sensors distributed in different platforms and the data fusion among different modes. The feasibility and practicability are approved through computer simulation.

  15. The Internet as an information source for geriatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowniak, J

    1997-03-01

    Electronic storage of and access to medical data is becoming increasingly common. Advances in computer technology and telecommunications have made it possible to store vast amounts of information in databases and transmit this information rapidly to any place on the globe. At the forefront of this technology is the Internet, a worldwide computer network that links together over 10 million computers in more than 80 countries. The Internet is an unprecedented information resource. There are tens of thousands of computers on the Internet that are freely accessible to the general public. Commercial organisations, academic institutions and government agencies are just some of the entities that can be accessed through the Internet. There are a large number of medical resources at these sites including electronic journals, online databases and search services, teaching materials, and methods for obtaining online continuing medical education credits. The Internet offers a variety of services such as electronic mail, discussion groups and the ability to log on to and run programs on remote computers. The one service, however, that has been responsible for the phenomenal growth of the Internet is the World Wide Web, the primary focus of this article. The World Wide Web allows a user to view documents that contain text, graphics, images, and movie and sound clips. In addition, any of these elements can be linked to other documents or services anywhere on the Internet. This article gives a general overview of the Internet and the medical resources it contains, with an emphasis on material related to geriatrics and aging. The Internet is in a state of continual evolution, and it is likely that dramatic new capabilities will become available in the near future.

  16. La relation entre les sources externes de connaissances, l’innovation organisationnelle et la performance organisationnelle : application au contexte tunisien

    OpenAIRE

    Rim Maâlej Ben Zaied; Habib Affes

    2016-01-01

    Les entreprises d’aujourd’hui sont devenues plus intéressées à stimuler la connaissance, qui est considérée comme le principal atout. En conséquence, le concept de knowledge management attire une attention particulière et considérable. Cette recherche examine l’importance des sources externes de connaissances et sa relation avec l’innovation organisationnelle et la performance organisationnelle. Nous avons fait cette recherche sur un échantillon de 200 entreprises tunisiennes opérant dans dif...

  17. Development and Validation of a Standardized Tool for Prioritization of Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwar, Holy; Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir

    2016-01-01

    To validate the utility and effectiveness of a standardized tool for prioritization of information sources for early detection of diseases. The tool was developed with input from diverse public health experts garnered through survey. Ten raters used the tool to evaluate ten information sources and reliability among raters was computed. The Proc mixed procedure with random effect statement and SAS Macros were used to compute multiple raters' Fleiss Kappa agreement and Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance. Ten disparate information sources evaluated obtained the following composite scores: ProMed 91%; WAHID 90%; Eurosurv 87%; MediSys 85%; SciDaily 84%; EurekAl 83%; CSHB 78%; GermTrax 75%; Google 74%; and CBC 70%. A Fleiss Kappa agreement of 50.7% was obtained for ten information sources and 72.5% for a sub-set of five sources rated, which is substantial agreement validating the utility and effectiveness of the tool. This study validated the utility and effectiveness of a standardized criteria tool developed to prioritize information sources. The new tool was used to identify five information sources suited for use by the KIWI system in the CEZD-IIR project to improve surveillance of infectious diseases. The tool can be generalized to situations when prioritization of numerous information sources is necessary.

  18. Near Real Time Discovery and Conversion of Open Source Information to a Reward Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rahmes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a system model for determining decision making strategies based upon the ability to perform data mining and pattern discovery utilizing open source information to automatically predict the likelihood of reactions to specific events or situational awareness from multiple information sources. Within this paper, we discuss the development of a method for determining actionable information to efficiently propitiate manpower, equipment assets, or propaganda responses to multiple application case scenario experiments. In our experiments, we have integrated open source information linking to human sentiment and manipulated other user selectable interlinking relative probabilities for different reactions to different events based upon current knowledge generated from the situation or event. The goal of our solution, called GlobalSite, is to deliver trustworthy decision making analysis which evaluates situations and potential impacts of such decisions through acquired open source information becoming a vital tool for continuing mission operations, analyst information or other decision making scenarios.

  19. Non-equilibrium Information Envelopes and the Capacity-Delay-Error-Tradeoff of Source Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lübben, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an envelope-based approach to establish a link between information and queueing theory. Unlike classical, equilibrium information theory, information envelopes focus on the dynamics of sources and coders, using functions of time that bound the number of bits generated. In the limit the information envelopes converge to the average behavior and recover the entropy of a source, respectively, the average codeword length of a coder. In contrast, on short time scales and for sources with memory it is shown that large deviations from known equilibrium results occur with non-negligible probability. These can cause significant network delays. Compared to well-known traffic models from queueing theory, information envelopes consider the functioning of information sources and coders, avoiding a priori assumptions, such as exponential traffic, or empirical, trace-based traffic models. Using results from the stochastic network calculus, the envelopes yield a characterization of the operating points of...

  20. Health literacy and sources of health information for caregivers of urban children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnano, Maria; Halterman, Jill S; Conn, Kelly M; Shone, Laura P

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about the resources used by urban caregivers of children with asthma to obtain health information. The authors analyzed data for 304 families of children with persistent asthma to describe (1) sources of health information, (2) access and use of Internet resources, and (3) the association between the caregiver's health literacy (HL) and use of health information sources. Overall, 37% of caregivers had limited HL. Most families received health information from a health care professional (94%), written sources (51%), family/friends (42%), non-print media (34%), and the Internet (30%). Less than half of caregivers had access to the Internet at home, but 73% reported Internet use in the past year. Caregivers with adequate HL were more likely to obtain information from multiple sources and to use and have access to the Internet. The results suggest that HL is associated with where caregivers obtain health information from for their children and their use of the Internet.

  1. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication.

  2. AUTOMATIC REGISTRATION OF MULTI-SOURCE DATA USING MUTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Parmehr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic image registration is a basic step in multi-sensor data integration in remote sensing and photogrammetric applications such as data fusion. The effectiveness of Mutual Information (MI as a technique for automated multi-sensor image registration has previously been demonstrated for medical and remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new General Weighted MI (GWMI approach that improves the robustness of MI to local maxima, particularly in the case of registering optical imagery and 3D point clouds, is presented. Two different methods including a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM and Kernel Density Estimation have been used to define the weight function of joint probability, regardless of the modality of the data being registered. The Expectation Maximizing method is then used to estimate parameters of GMM, and in order to reduce the cost of computation, a multi-resolution strategy has been used. The performance of the proposed GWMI method for the registration of aerial orthotoimagery and LiDAR range and intensity information has been experimentally evaluated and the results obtained are presented.

  3. CVO Perspectives on the Usefulness of Various Sources of Traffic Information

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand how trucking companies perceive the benefits of traditional and advanced traveler information services. There is considerable interest in identifying the appropriate public sector role for investments in real-time traveler information sources. Managers in charge of the California operations of more than 1,100 private and for-hire trucking companies were asked to evaluate the usefulness of various sources of traffic information. These evaluations...

  4. The effects of aging on ERP correlates of source memory retrieval for self-referential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulas, Michael R; Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey

    2011-03-04

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that normal aging negatively affects source memory accuracy for various kinds of associations. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that less efficient retrieval processing (temporally delayed and attenuated) may contribute to these impairments. Previous aging studies have not compared source memory accuracy and corresponding neural activity for different kinds of source details; namely, those that have been encoded via a more or less effective strategy. Thus, it is not yet known whether encoding source details in a self-referential manner, a strategy suggested to promote successful memory in the young and old, may enhance source memory accuracy and reduce the commonly observed age-related changes in neural activity associated with source memory retrieval. Here, we investigated these issues by using event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure the effects of aging on the neural correlates of successful source memory retrieval ("old-new effects") for objects encoded either self-referentially or self-externally. Behavioral results showed that both young and older adults demonstrated better source memory accuracy for objects encoded self-referentially. ERP results showed that old-new effects onsetted earlier for self-referentially encoded items in both groups and that age-related differences in the onset latency of these effects were reduced for self-referentially, compared to self-externally, encoded items. These results suggest that the implementation of an effective encoding strategy, like self-referential processing, may lead to more efficient retrieval, which in turn may improve source memory accuracy in both young and older adults.

  5. Warning labels. A source of toxicity information for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, B E; Klein-Schwartz, W; Oderda, G M; Lucy, J S

    1984-08-01

    The Hazardous Substances Act specifies that warning labels for household products contain specific signal words. This study was designed to determine whether this warning label format provides enough information for parents to accurately assess product toxicity. One hundred forty-two parents from two different sites (community health clinic, private pediatrician's office) were asked to rate the toxicity of four common household products (Crystal Drano, Lysol Basin/Tub and Tile Cleaner, Clorox Bleach, Tempera Poster Paint) and four imaginary products based on the warning labels found on them. Parents had a fairly accurate perception of the toxicity of products and the toxicity to be anticipated based on the warning label. There was considerable variability in response for products which were less toxic or nontoxic. Confusion was noted regarding the meaning of the term nontoxic.

  6. Query processing in distributed, taxonomy-based information sources

    CERN Document Server

    Meghini, Carlo; Coltella, Veronica; Analyti, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of answering queries over a distributed information system, storing objects indexed by terms organized in a taxonomy. The taxonomy consists of subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. In the first part of the paper, we consider the centralized case, deriving a hypergraph-based algorithm that is efficient in data complexity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the distributed case, presenting alternative ways implementing the centralized algorithm. These ways descend from two basic criteria: direct vs. query re-writing evaluation, and centralized vs. distributed data or taxonomy allocation. Combinations of these criteria allow to cover a wide spectrum of architectures, ranging from client-server to peer-to-peer. We evaluate the performance of the various architectures by simulation on a network with O(10^4) nodes, and derive final results. An extensive review of the relevant literature is finally included.

  7. Hair: a complementary source of bioanalytical information in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Queiroz, João António

    2011-01-01

    Hair has been used for years in the assessment and documentation of human exposure to drugs, as it presents characteristics that make it extremely valuable for this purpose, namely the fact that sample collection is performed in a noninvasive manner, under close supervision, the possibility of collecting a specimen reflecting a similar timeline in the case of claims or suspicion of a leak in the chain of custody, and the increased window of detection for the drugs. For these reasons, testing for drugs in hair provides unique and useful information in several fields of toxicology, from which the most prominent is the possibility of studying individual drug use histories by means of segmental analysis. This paper will review the unique role of hair as a complementary sample in documenting human exposure to drugs in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology and workplace drug testing.

  8. Use of Networked Information Sources and Services By Information Science Faculty in Services: A Field Study Performed at the School of Information Studies at Syracuse University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouserie, Hossam M. R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and investigate the ways faculty at The School of Information Studies at Syracuse University use Networked Information Sources and Services to support their service tasks. Library and Information Sciences faculty were chosen as the population for this study. The study aimed to answer the following…

  9. Identifying public health policymakers' sources of information: comparing survey and network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn A; de Vocht, Frank; Money, Annemarie; Everett, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Research suggests that policymakers often use personal contacts to find information and advice. However, the main sources of information for public health policymakers are not known. This study aims to describe policymakers' sources of information. A questionnaire survey of public health policymakers across Greater Manchester (GM) was carried out (response rate 48%). All policy actors above Director level involved in public health policy (finding, analyzing or producing information, producing or implementing policy) in GM were included in the sampling frame. Respondents were provided with a list of sources of information and asked which they used (categorical data) and to name specific individuals who acted as sources of information (network data). Data were analyzed using frequencies and network analysis. The most frequently chosen sources of information from the categorical data were NICE, government websites and Directors of Public Health. However, the network data showed that the main sources of information in the network were actually mid-level managers in the NHS, who had no direct expertise in public health. Academics and researchers did not feature in the network. Both survey and network analyses provide useful insights into how policymakers access information. Network analysis offers practical and theoretical contributions to the evidence-based policy debate. Identifying individuals who act as key users and producers of evidence allows academics to target actors likely to use and disseminate their work.

  10. 48 CFR 1403.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1403.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following classes of persons may be authorized access to contractor bid or proposal information and source...

  11. 48 CFR 2903.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 2903.104-5... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Government employees serving in the following positions are authorized access to proprietary or source selection information, but...

  12. Constructing a Traffic Information Providing System Utilizing Multi-Source Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Hiroshi; Yano, Junji; Kagawa, Kouji; Morita, Tetsuo; Numao, Masayuki; Kurihara, Satoshi

    To realize an effective ITS(Intelligent Transport Systems) services, such as a traffic jam prediction system or car navigation system, the traffic information like average traffic speed is indispensable. However, current systems providing traffic information have serious problems about lack of data. Hence, we construct a system which provides traffic information, which complements lack data using incomplete probe and VICS(Vehicle Information and Communication System) data. The system utilizes multi-information such as real time/stored/diffusion/succession information effectively. We verified the performance of the system through experiments using probe/VICS data of Nagoya city, and confirmed beneficial results.

  13. Information needs and barriers to information sources by open and distance learners: A case of Mzuzu University, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winner D. Chawinga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Centre for Open and Distance Learning at Mzuzu University was established in 2006 with the aim to increase and broaden access to higher education to most Malawians who despite meeting entry requirements into higher education were not selected because of shortage of space on campus and other learning and teaching resources. Although Open and Distance Learning (ODL is hyped as a practical option for making higher education available to many people as widely reported in the literature, universities need to address several issues for it to hold its ground.Objectives: The study set out to investigate information needs and barriers to information sources by ODL students by addressing three objectives, namely information needs of ODL students, information sources of ODL students and challenges that ODL students face when seeking information for their courses of study.Method: A survey questionnaire with a mix of closed-ended and open-ended questions was distributed to 350 students to find out the information sources and challenges that the ODL students face when searching for information to accomplish their academic activities.Results: According to the findings, all 258 (100% students who answered the questionnaire need information to prepare for the end-of-semester examinations. Information sources that are used most by students include lecture notes, Internet and library books with scores of 238 (92.6%, 207 (80.5% and 199 (77.4%, respectively.Conclusion: ODL students have limited access to information materials for accomplishing their academic activities and Mzuzu University can resolve this challenge by introducing satellite information centres in the three geographical regions of Malawi. 

  14. Internal integration as a pre-condition for external integration in global sourcing: A social capital perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Philipp; Scheffler, Paul; Schiele, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the link between integration and global sourcing success in international operations and by doing so, to clarify the ambiguous picture that prevails in the existing literature. Specifically, this quantitative study aims at identifying the role of the buying

  15. Internal integration as a pre-condition for external integration in global sourcing: A social capital perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Philipp; Scheffler, Paul; Schiele, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the link between integration and global sourcing success in international operations and by doing so, to clarify the ambiguous picture that prevails in the existing literature. Specifically, this quantitative study aims at identifying the role of the buying co

  16. Register of specialized sources for information on mechanics of structural failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Denny, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Specialized information sources that generate information relative to six problem areas in aerospace mechanics of structural failure are identified. Selection for inclusion was based upon information obtained from the individual knowledge and professional contacts of Martin Marietta Aerospace staff members and the information uncovered by the staff of technical reviewers. Activities listed perform basic or applied research related to the mechanics of structural failure and publish the results of such research. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy reference form, original sources for dependable information regarding failure modes and mechanisms of aerospace structures.

  17. Young adults' sources of contraceptive information: variations based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Bleakley, Amy

    2015-02-01

    Sexual information sources used by young adults can influence their contraceptive knowledge and behaviors, yet little is known about sources most frequently used by young adults, especially by groups with histories of sexual risk involvement. Nationally representative data from 1800 unmarried young adults, aged 18-29 years, were analyzed to (1) examine the sources of contraceptive information most frequently used by young adults and (2) assess variations (if any) in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history (determined based on past sexual behaviors). "Doctors/nurses" was the most frequently used contraceptive information source reported by young adults. Significant variations existed in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history. Females were more likely to obtain contraceptive information from health care professionals, whereas males were more likely to report friends, partners, internet and television/radio as their frequently used source. Young adults with a sexual risk history were more likely to rely on doctors/nurses and less likely to report friends and internet as their frequently used source than those without a sexual risk history. Receiving contraceptive information from doctors/nurses was associated with greater accuracy in knowledge about contraceptive use and efficacy as compared to all other sources. Young adults' use of specific contraceptive information sources can vary based on their demographic characteristics and sexual risk involvement. Future research should identify better strategies to connect young adults, especially young males, with sexual risk histories to more reliable sources of information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Just Google It"--The Scope of Freely Available Information Sources for Doctoral Thesis Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigas, Vincas; Juzeniene, Simona; Velickaite, Jone

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Recent developments in the field of scientific information resource provision lead us to the key research question, namely,what is the coverage of freely available information sources when writing doctoral theses, and whether the academic library can assume the leading role as a direct intermediator for information users. Method:…

  19. Sources of Information on Sex and Antecedents of Early Sexual Initiation among Urban Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxman, Shai; De Los Santos, Sabrina; Finkelstein, Daniel; Landon, Mary Kay; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between young adolescents' sources of information on sex and precursors to sexual activity. Surveys were conducted with 3,940 Latino sixth grade students. According to results, girls who received information from their parents were less likely to engage in sex precursors. For boys, getting information from other…

  20. Sources of Information on Sex and Antecedents of Early Sexual Initiation among Urban Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxman, Shai; De Los Santos, Sabrina; Finkelstein, Daniel; Landon, Mary Kay; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between young adolescents' sources of information on sex and precursors to sexual activity. Surveys were conducted with 3,940 Latino sixth grade students. According to results, girls who received information from their parents were less likely to engage in sex precursors. For boys, getting information from other…

  1. Trust and Mistrust when Students Read Multiple Information Sources about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braten, Ivar; Stromso, Helge I.; Salmeron, Ladislao

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how undergraduates judged the trustworthiness of different information sources that they read about climate change. Results showed that participants (N = 128) judged information from textbook and official documents to be more trustworthy than information from newspapers and a commercial agent. Moreover, participants…

  2. The Internet as a Source of Academic Research Information: Findings of Two Pilot Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, Harry M.; DePalo, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information available on the Internet focuses on two pilot studies that investigated how academic users perceive search engines and subject-oriented databases as sources of topical information. Highlights include information seeking behavior of academic users; undergraduate users; graduate users; faculty; and implications for…

  3. Human terrain exploitation suite: applying visual analytics to open source information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Timothy; Richardson, John; Mittrick, Mark; Dumer, John; Heilman, Eric; Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept development and demonstration of the Human Terrain Exploitation Suite (HTES) under development at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Tactical Information Fusion Branch. The HTES is an amalgamation of four complementary visual analytic capabilities that target the exploitation of open source information. Open source information, specifically news feeds, blogs and other social media, provide a unique opportunity to collect and examine salient topics and trends. Analysis of open source information provides valuable insights into determining opinions, values, cultural nuances and other socio-political aspects within a military area of interest. The early results of the HTES field study indicate that the tools greatly increased the analysts' ability to exploit open source information, but improvement through greater cross-tool integration and correlation of their results is necessary for further advances.

  4. THE INTERNET AS INFORMATIONAL SOURCE FOR MIS: THE PROCESSES OF CAPTATION AND THE FORMS OF EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use and the ways of assessment of the internet as a source of information due to the agility that this way has been providing to the Marketing Information System, which also shows to be fragile in terms of reliability of the available information The study consists of an exploratory research, which includes literature review and multiple case studies, and presents as its objective the understanding of how the internet is used in the processes of data source definition and evaluation in a company, from the user’s point of view. The results indicate that the internet is an important source of information, but there is little systematization in the information collection and the sources evaluation is based only on the users’ individual and practical knowledge

  5. Sources of information used when prescribing for children, a survey of hospital based pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukattash, Tareq L; Nuseir, Khawla Q; Jarab, Anan S; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Shara, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of properly tested medicines for children, there is little available information with regards to indications and dosing of medications in children. To collect data on sources where hospital based pediatricians obtain prescribing information when treating children and the extent of collaboration with the hospital pharmacist. Two hundred and fifty pediatricians in different hospitals within different cities in Jordan were asked to fill in a structured questionnaire regarding information sources used when prescribing for children. Questionnaires were collected from 162 (64.8%) hospital based pediatricians, who have completed the questionnaire by the designated date. Most (75.5%) reported that the Lexi Comp's Drug Information Handbook was the source that they most frequently used for drug information when prescribing for in children. The BNF and the BNFc (British National Formulary for children) were found to be the most sources that contain sufficient information that aids pediatricians when prescribing for children. A minority (22%) claimed to consult with the hospital pharmacist when they face difficulties when prescribing for children. Pediatricians rely on different information sources when they prescribe for children. Those sources vary in their reliability in aiding pediatrician when prescribing. Further work should be done in the provision of useful information on pediatric drug therapy to pediatricians. More steps should be taking place to activate collaboration and interaction between pediatricians and pharmacists as well.

  6. External Compton emission from relativistic jets in Galactic black hole candidates and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Georganopoulos, M; Kirk, J G

    2002-01-01

    Galactic binary systems that contain a black hole candidate emit hard X-rays in their low luminosity mode. We show that this emission can be understood as due to the Compton scattering of photons from the companion star and/or the accretion disk by relativistic electrons in a jet. The same electrons are also responsible for the radio emission. Two sources -- XTE J1118+480 and Cygnus X-1 -- are modelled as representatives of black holes with low and high luminosity companion stars respectively. We further show that the ultraluminous compact X-ray sources observed in nearby galaxies have the properties expected of stellar mass black holes with high luminosity companions in which the jet is oriented close to our line of sight.

  7. [Inaccurate information about the size of the penis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: about 21 information sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Philippe Cilundika; Kazadi, Alex Bukasa

    2016-01-01

    Penis size is a huge topic of anxiety for a lot of men. Some of them are unhappy with their penis size as shown in the study conducted by Tiggemann in 2008. There are relatively few studies on erect penis size. This may reflect cultural taboos of researchers or doctors interacting with men who are in a state of sexual arousal. On the other hand, it is important for people who announce details on penis size to give the average penis size first and then sizes suggested by the researchers. We performed a cross-sectional survey in the two major urban centres of the Democratic Republic of Congo namely Kinshasa and Lubumbashi over a period of two years from May 2014 to May 2016. A total of 21 information sources constituted our sample, 8 in Kinshasa and 13 in Lubumbashi. We found it sufficient because in our culture discussing about sexual matter is rare. The parameters studied were: the nature of the source, the accuracy of the measurement method, the presence of bibliographical reference, the announced penis size. The majority of information sources used were radio or television broadcastings (23,8%); this can be explained by the fact that there are an increasing number of radio and television stations in our country and especially in large cities. With regard to accuracy of information about penis measurement method when sharing the message about penis size, our study showed that the majority of information sources did not indicate it when they announced penis size to the public (85,7%). Several sources did not report bibliographical references (57,1%). Announced data analysis on penis size showed that the average penis size was: 14 cm (28,6%), 15 cm (23,8%) and 15-20 cm (19%). All these results are intended to offer a warning to all players responsible for diffusing information on sexual health (penis size): scientific rigor consists in seeking information from reliable sources.

  8. Dose adjustment guidelines for medications in patients with renal impairment: how consistent are drug information sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, A; Castelino, R L; Peterson, G M; Jose, M D

    2014-01-01

    It is known that patients with renal disease are often administered inappropriate dosages of drugs. A lack of quantitative data in the available drug information sources and inconsistency in dosing information may augment the problem of dosing error. To determine the concordance among five drug information sources regarding the dosing recommendations provided for drugs considered problematic in patients with renal impairment and to determine the consistency among the sources regarding the definition of renal impairment and categorisation of chronic kidney disease. Five standard drug information sources were reviewed for 61 drugs recommended to be used with caution in renal impairment. Information on recommendations for dosage adjustment in renal impairment was extracted and analysed. Further, the definition and classification of renal impairment were recorded. The recommendation for each drug was coded into six different categories and the intersource reliability was calculated. Only slight agreement was observed among the sources (Fleiss Kappa: 0.3). Qualitative data were not well defined, and there was a lack of consistency in quantitative values. Some drugs marked as contraindicated in one source were not mentioned as such in others. Also, drugs considered as not requiring dosage adjustment in one source had explicit recommendations in other sources. The definition and classification of renal impairment differed among the five information sources. There should be an evidence-based approach to drug dosage adjustment in order to bring uniformity to the recommendations. Regular updating of the content of the drug information sources is also important. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. A review to collate information on external communication as a basis of innovation success (Deliverable 2.2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of work package 2: “Identify success factors” is to identify relevant success factors and barriers in the scientific literature on internal (between relevant disciplines) and external (from and to the public and end-users) communication strategies to enhance food technology innovation

  10. Analysis of classical Fourier, SPL and DPL heat transfer model in biological tissues in presence of metabolic and external heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Surjan; Rai, K. N.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the temperature distribution in a finite biological tissue in presence of metabolic and external heat source when the surface subjected to different type of boundary conditions is studied. Classical Fourier, single-phase-lag (SPL) and dual-phase-lag (DPL) models were developed for bio-heat transfer in biological tissues. The analytical solution obtained for all the three models using Laplace transform technique and results are compared. The effect of the variability of different parameters such as relaxation time, metabolic heat source, spatial heat source, different type boundary conditions on temperature distribution in different type of the tissues like muscle, tumor, fat, dermis and subcutaneous based on three models are analyzed and discussed in detail. The result obtained in three models is compared with experimental observation of Stolwijk and Hardy (Pflug Arch 291:129-162, 1966). It has been observe that the DPL bio-heat transfer model provides better result in comparison of other two models. The value of metabolic and spatial heat source in boundary condition of first, second and third kind for different type of thermal therapies are evaluated.

  11. Influence of Sources of Information and Parental Attitudes on Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Natasha L; Gargano, Lisa M; Jacobs, Samantha; Seib, Katherine; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; Hughes, James M; Sales, Jessica M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) describe parental sources of information about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for adolescents, 2) understand how parental sources of information about HPV vaccine are associated with adolescent HPV vaccine uptake, and 3) understand if the relationship between a greater number of HPV-related information sources and HPV vaccine uptake among adolescents is mediated by parental attitudes. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial in middle and high schools in eastern Georgia from 2011 to 2013. As part of the trial, we surveyed parents during the final year to understand their sources of information about HPV vaccine for their adolescent. Data were collected from 360 parents via phone and online surveys. Parents responded to a survey that asked them to identify demographic information, parental HPV attitudes, sources of information about HPV vaccination, and HPV vaccine uptake. Most of the sample was African American (74%; n = 267) and 53% of parents (n = 192) reported that their adolescent received at least 1 HPV vaccine dose. The top sources of information about HPV vaccine reported by parents were a doctor or medical professional (80%; n = 287) and television (64%; n = 232). A mediation analysis showed sources of information about HPV vaccine are associated with parental attitudes, and parental attitudes about HPV vaccine are associated with vaccine uptake among adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of HPV sources of information on parental attitudes. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with adolescents' perspectives on health needs and preference for health information sources in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Che; Chou, Yen-Yin; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    To identify health needs, preferred sources of health information and associated factors in Taiwanese adolescents. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted in Taiwanese adolescents aged 12-18 years in 2010. Adolescents were queried about their health needs, healthcare service utilisation and preferred sources of health information. We compared differences in reported health needs and available sources among gender groups and grade levels. Demographic correlates of adolescent health needs were further examined using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Participants (n=5018) needed weight and height information most, followed by dietary health advice. Academic stress was emphasised more than behavioural issues. Perceived needs for health information varied by age and gender. General high school programme, suburban location and chronic illness were associated with higher need. Only a small proportion (4.3%) of adolescents used healthcare services for mental and emotional concerns. Parents were the primary sources of health information, although students also turned to teachers, particularly for sensitive issues. Moreover, the mass media and internet were increasingly popular sources of information. To achieve continuous care from childhood through adolescence to adulthood, paediatricians should understand adolescents' diverse views of health needs and preferred sources of health information. Several demographic variables were shown to influence their health needs, reflecting the East Asian cultural context. Anticipatory guidance on body image, dietary health and academic stress should be emphasised while caring for these adolescents. We therefore advocate the development and effective delivery of culturally relevant adolescent-friendly health services.

  13. Sources and types of information on self-care symptom management strategies for HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Modeste, Regis R; Majeke, Sisana J

    2014-04-03

    It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV. The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV,exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS-) related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collecteddata were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities. The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information.

  14. Sources of Health Information Among Select Asian American Immigrant Groups in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nadia S; Patel, Shilpa; Wyatt, Laura C; Sim, Shao-Chee; Mukherjee-Ratnam, Runi; Chun, Kay; Desai, Bhairavi; Tandon, S Darius; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Pollack, Henry; Kwon, Simona C

    2016-01-01

    Health information can potentially mitigate adverse health outcomes among ethnic minority populations, but little research has examined how minorities access health information. The aim of this study was to examine variations in the use of health information sources among Asian American (AA) subgroups and to identify differences in characteristics associated with the use of these sources. We analyzed data from a foreign-born community sample of 219 Asian Indians, 216 Bangladeshis, 484 Chinese, and 464 Koreans living in New York City. Results found that use of health information sources varied by AA subgroup. Print media source use, which included newspapers, magazines, and/or journals, was highest among Chinese (84%), Koreans (75%), and Bangladeshis (80%), while radio was most utilized by Chinese (48%) and Koreans (38%). Television utilization was highest among Bangladeshis (74%) and Koreans (64%). Koreans (52%) and Chinese (40%) were most likely to use the Internet to access health information. Radio use was best explained by older age and longer time lived in the United States, while print media were more utilized by older individuals. Results also highlighted differences in native-language versus non-native-language media sources for health information by subgroup. Media sources can be used as a vehicle to disseminate health information among AAs.

  15. Sources and types of information on self-care symptom management strategies for HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV.Method: The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV,exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS- related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collecteddata were analysed using qualitative content analysis.Results: The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities.Conclusion: The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information.

  16. Information sources and knowledge on vaccination in a population from southern Italy: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Ferro, Antonio; Marchese, Valentina; Napoli, Giuseppe; Palmeri, Sara; Raia, Daniele; Restivo, Vincenzo; Siddu, Andrea; Vitale, Francesco; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    Vaccine knowledge of the general population is shaped by different information sources and strongly influences vaccination attitudes and uptake. The CCM-Italian Ministry of Health ESCULAPIO project attempted to identify the role of such information sources, in order to address adequate strategies to improve information on vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. In the present study, data on 632 adults from Southern Italy regarding information sources were collected, and their perceived and actual knowledge on vaccinations were compared and analyzed in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources. The main reported reference sources were general practitioners (GPs) (42.5%) and pediatricians (33.1%), followed by mass media (24.1%) and the Internet (17.6%). A total of 45.4% reported they believed to be informed (45.4%), while those estimated to be truly informed were 43.8%. However, as showed in the multivariate logistic regression, people having the perception to be correctly informed ascribed their good knowledge to their profession in the health sector (Adj OR 2.28, CI 1.09-4.77, p informed population thought the responsibility had to be attributed to mass media (AdjOR 0.45, CI 0.22-0.92, p information, instead, were younger (AdjOR 1.64, CI 1.04-2.59, p sources were pediatricians (AdjOR 1.63, CI 1.11-2.39, p information about vaccination should be addressed to fortifying healthcare workers knowledge in order to make them public health opinion leaders. General population should be provided with correct indications on trustworthy websites on vaccines to contrast false information supplied by anti-vaccinists on their own websites or social networks pages and on the mass media.

  17. Effusive molecular beam-sampled Knudsen flow reactor coupled to vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry using an external free radical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leplat, N; Rossi, M J

    2013-11-01

    A new apparatus using vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry (VUV SPIMS) of an effusive molecular beam emanating from a Knudsen flow reactor is described. It was designed to study free radical-molecule kinetics over a significant temperature range (300-630 K). Its salient features are: (1) external free radical source, (2) counterpropagating molecular beam and diffuse VUV photon beam meeting in a crossed-beam ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with perpendicular ion extraction, (3) analog detection of the photocurrent of the free radical molecular cation, and (4) possibility of detecting both free radicals and closed shell species in the same apparatus and under identical reaction conditions owing to the presence of photoelectrons generated by the photoelectric effect of the used VUV-photons. The measured thermal molecular beam-to-background ratio was 6.35 ± 0.39 for Ar and 10.86 ± 1.59 for i-C4H10 at 300 K, a factor of 2.52 and 1.50 smaller, respectively, than predicted from basic gas-dynamic considerations. Operating parameters as well as the performance of key elements of the instrument are presented and discussed. Coupled to an external free radical source a steady-state specific exit flow of 1.6 × 10(11) and 5.0 × 10(11) molecule s(-1) cm(-3) of C2H5(●) (ethyl) and t-C4H9(●) (t-butyl) free radicals have been detected using VUV SPIMS at their molecular ion m/z 29 and 57, respectively, at 300 K.

  18. Uses and Gratifications of Online Information Sources: Political Information Efficacy and the Effects of Interactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, David Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There are two distinct purposes to this investigation: to develop the predictive power of the theory of political information efficacy and to determine how exposure to political information formats on the Internet under distinctly different interactive conditions affects cognitive and affective processes. Examined in the first section of this…

  19. Uses and Gratifications of Online Information Sources: Political Information Efficacy and the Effects of Interactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, David Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There are two distinct purposes to this investigation: to develop the predictive power of the theory of political information efficacy and to determine how exposure to political information formats on the Internet under distinctly different interactive conditions affects cognitive and affective processes. Examined in the first section of this…

  20. What's New in Software? Current Sources of Information Boost Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Nancy J.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews current resources on computer-assisted instruction. Included are sources of software and hardware evaluations, advances in current technology, research, an information hotline, and inventories of available technological assistance. (DB)

  1. 76 FR 35462 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... to iacb@ios.doi.gov . Please mention that your comments concern the Source Directory, OMB Control... iacb@ios.doi.gov or by facsimile to (202) 208-5196. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The...

  2. Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Ternier, Stefaan; Olmedilla, Daniel; Duval, Erik; Dicerto, Michele; Stefanov, Krassen; Sacristán, Naiara

    2007-01-01

    Demidova, E., Ternier, S., Olmedilla, D., Duval, E., Dicerto, M., Stefanov, K., et al. (2007). Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong. TENCompetence Workshop on Service Oriented Approaches and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastr

  3. Sources of pre-admission medication information: observational study of accuracy and availability.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzsimons, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    To identify the accessibility of sources of pre-admission medication (PAM) information, to quantify agreement between the PAM list and the \\'gold-standard\\' PAM list (GS-PAML) and to categorise disagreements.

  4. The eye in hand: predicting others' behavior by integrating multiple sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Costantini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    The ability to predict the outcome of other beings' actions confers significant adaptive advantages. Experiments have assessed that human action observation can use multiple information sources, but it is currently unknown how they are integrated and how conflicts between them are resolved. To address this issue, we designed an action observation paradigm requiring the integration of multiple, potentially conflicting sources of evidence about the action target: the actor's gaze direction, hand preshape, and arm trajectory, and their availability and relative uncertainty in time. In two experiments, we analyzed participants' action prediction ability by using eye tracking and behavioral measures. The results show that the information provided by the actor's gaze affected participants' explicit predictions. However, results also show that gaze information was disregarded as soon as information on the actor's hand preshape was available, and this latter information source had widespread effects on participants' prediction ability. Furthermore, as the action unfolded in time, participants relied increasingly more on the arm movement source, showing sensitivity to its increasing informativeness. Therefore, the results suggest that the brain forms a robust estimate of the actor's motor intention by integrating multiple sources of information. However, when informative motor cues such as a preshaped hand with a given grip are available and might help in selecting action targets, people tend to capitalize on such motor cues, thus turning out to be more accurate and fast in inferring the object to be manipulated by the other's hand. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Evolution is based on natural selection of existing biological phenotypic traits. Natural selection can only eliminate traits. It cannot create new ones, requiring a theory to explain the origin of new genetic information. The theory of pangenesis was a major attempt to explain the source of new genetic information required to produce phenotypic variety. This theory, advocated by Darwin as the main source of genetic variety, has now been empirically disproved. It is currently a theory mainly of interest to science historians.

  6. Sparse Signal Reconstruction with Multiple Side Information using Adaptive Weights for Multiview Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Seiler, Jürgen; Kaup, André

    2016-01-01

    This work considers reconstructing a target signal in a context ofdistributed sparse sources. We propose an efficient reconstruction algorithmwith the aid of other given sources as multiple side information (SI). Theproposed algorithm takes advantage of compressive sensing (CS) with SI andadaptive...... the proposedreconstruction algorithm with multiple SI using adaptive weights (RAMSIA) torobustly exploit the multiple SIs with different qualities. We experimentallyperform our algorithm on generated sparse signals and also correlated featurehistograms as multiview sparse sources from a multiview image database. Theresults...

  7. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible...

  8. Teaching Fourth and Fifth Graders to Evaluate Information Sources during Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Britt, M. Anne; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue.…

  9. How Sources of Sexual Information Relate to Adolescents' Beliefs about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how sources of sexual information are associated with adolescents' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about having sexual intercourse using the integrative model of behavior change. Methods: Survey data from a quota sample of 459 youth. Results: The most frequently reported sources were friends, teachers, mothers,…

  10. Teaching Fourth and Fifth Graders to Evaluate Information Sources during Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Britt, M. Anne; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue.…

  11. Build, Buy, Open Source, or Web 2.0?: Making an Informed Decision for Your Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit; Keach, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    When improving a web presence, today's libraries have a choice: using a free Web 2.0 application, opting for open source, buying a product, or building a web application. This article discusses how to make an informed decision for one's library. The authors stress that deciding whether to use a free Web 2.0 application, to choose open source, to…

  12. Historical Inquiry in an Informal Fan Community: Online Source Usage and the TV Show "The Tudors"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jolie Christine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines an informal online community dedicated to "The Tudors," a historical television show, and the ways in which its members engaged with a variety of sources in their discussions of the drama's real-life past. Data were collected over a 5-month period. The analysis included the types of sources used in conversation;…

  13. Useful Web Sites for International Business Communication Education: New Information Sources for an Expanding Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Jacqueline; Mayfield, Milton; Kohl, John

    2005-01-01

    The World Wide Web presents many opportunities for improving the instructional quality of international business communication related classes by providing access to a large variety of information sources. These sources can be used as supplements to traditional texts, as the basis for specific program assignments, or even as the main focus of a…

  14. Open source information acquisition, analysis and integration in the IAEA Department of Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, M.; Zarimpas, N.; Zarucki, R., E-mail: M.Barletta@iaea.or [IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Acquisition and analysis of open source information plays an increasingly important role in the IAEA strengthened safeguards system. The Agency's focal point for open source information collection and analysis is the Division of Safeguards Information Management (SGIM) within the IAEA Department of Safeguards. In parallel with the approval of the Model Additional Protocol in 1997, a new centre of information acquisition and analysis expertise was created within SGIM. By acquiring software, developing databases, retraining existing staff and hiring new staff with diverse analytical skills, SGIM is pro actively contributing to the future implementation of information-driven safeguards in collaboration with other Divisions within the Department of Safeguards. Open source information support is now fully integrated with core safeguards processes and activities, and has become an effective tool in the work of the Department of Safeguards. This provides and overview of progress realized through the acquisition and use of open source information in several thematic areas: evaluation of additional protocol declarations; support to the State Evaluation process; in-depth investigation of safeguards issues, including assisting inspections and complementary access; research on illicit nuclear procurement networks and trafficking; and monitoring nuclear developments. Demands for open source information have steadily grown and are likely to continue to grow in the future. Coupled with the enormous growth and accessibility in the volume and sources of information, new challenges are presented, both technical and analytical. This paper discusses actions taken and future plans for multi-source and multi-disciplinary analytic integration to strengthen confidence in safeguards conclusions - especially regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities. (Author)

  15. Oral health literacy and information sources among adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, M M Naghibi; Yazdani, R; Virtanen, J; Pakdaman, A; Murtomaa, H

    2013-09-01

    To assess oral health literacy level and oral health information of Iranian adults in Tehran, and to determine the factors related to oral health literacy. A cross-sectional population study. A random sample of 1,031 adults in Tehran, Iran. Oral health literacy was measured using an oral health adult literacy questionnaire (OHL-AQ). Variation in use of information sources by socio-economic and demographic background was estimated by odds ratios. A multiple linear regression model served to determine predictor factors of OHL-AQ scores controlling for characteristics of the subjects and number of information sources. The mean OHL-AQ score was 10.5 (sd 3.0). Women (p information were dentists (52.6%), and TV/Radio (49.5%). According to the regression model, females (p = 0.001), high educational level (p information sources (two sources p = 0.01, three sources or more p = 0.002) were the main predictor factors of OHL-AQ scores. The average oral health literacy level of Iranian adults was low. Disseminating evidence-based oral health care information from multiple sources including TV/radio, dentists, and other health professionals in different settings should improve public oral health literacy.

  16. Information sources in biomedical science and medical journalism: methodological approaches and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Giovanna F; Vercellesi, Luisa; Bruno, Flavia

    2004-09-01

    Throughout the world the public is showing increasing interest in medical and scientific subjects and journalists largely spread this information, with an important impact on knowledge and health. Clearly, therefore, the relationship between the journalist and his sources is delicate: freedom and independence of information depend on the independence and truthfulness of the sources. The new "precision journalism" holds that scientific methods should be applied to journalism, so authoritative sources are a common need for journalists and scientists. We therefore compared the individual classifications and methods of assessing of sources in biomedical science and medical journalism to try to extrapolate scientific methods of evaluation to journalism. In journalism and science terms used to classify sources of information show some similarities, but their meanings are different. In science primary and secondary classes of information, for instance, refer to the levels of processing, but in journalism to the official nature of the source itself. Scientists and journalists must both always consult as many sources as possible and check their authoritativeness, reliability, completeness, up-to-dateness and balance. In journalism, however, there are some important differences and limits: too many sources can sometimes diminish the quality of the information. The sources serve a first filter between the event and the journalist, who is not providing the reader with the fact, but with its projection. Journalists have time constraints and lack the objective criteria for searching, the specific background knowledge, and the expertise to fully assess sources. To assist in understanding the wealth of sources of information in journalism, we have prepared a checklist of items and questions. There are at least four fundamental points that a good journalist, like any scientist, should know: how to find the latest information (the sources), how to assess it (the quality and

  17. [Access to health information sources in Spain. how to combat "infoxication"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Martin, Miguel Ángel; Albornos-Muñoz, Laura; Escandell-García, Cintia

    2012-01-01

    Internet has become a priceless source for finding health information for both patients and healthcare professionals. However, the universality and the abundance of information can lead to unfounded conclusions about health issues that can confuse further than clarify the health information. This aspect causes intoxication of information: infoxication. The question lies in knowing how to filter the information that is useful, accurate and relevant for our purposes. In this regard, integrative portals, such as the Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, compile information at different levels (international, national and regional), different types of resources (databases, repositories, bibliographic sources, etc.), becoming a starting point for obtaining quality information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical connections: use of the internet and traditional sources of health information by rural Alabama households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laura M; Dunkelberger, John D; Wheat, John R

    2005-01-01

    Rural household adoption of the PC and Internet for accessing medical and healthcare information was investigated using survey data collected from 305 households randomly selected from non-metropolitan, rural counties across Alabama. The diffusion-adoption model for new technologies was employed to create five adoption stages relevant to this technology and its applications to communication of information in the health field. Descriptive household characteristics of age, education, income, and children revealed differences between adoption stages, with age and education having major impacts. Use of traditional sources of health information and the Internet were compared in relation to age and availability of medical services. Older, less educated households lagged behind in use of the Internet for health information. Medical professionals, doctors and pharmacists, were the most utilized information source by rural households; but those households connected to the Internet used on-line sources, even e-mail to communicate with their doctors.

  19. The Situation in the Sphere of Consortia and Licensing of Information Sources in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrich Pilar

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary reason for founding „consortia“ (open associations of information services in the Czech Republic seems to be the possibility of obtaining access to extensive and highly expensive information sources under more convenient conditions than if each of the participating institutions had to organise this access separately.Licensing the access to information sources within special purpose association of information services is a relatively recent innovation in the Czech republic practice. It has started at the end of the nineties (except for the CrossFire and Chemical Abstracts system users. Therefore, there has not been created any methodology of selecting „suitable“ members for forming a consortium nor for selection of partners, information source producers yet.

  20. National Information Centre for Marine Sciences (NICMAS) - An excellent source of information for aquaculturists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tapaswi, M.P.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Natl_Workshop_Aquacult_WeeK_1998_258.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Natl_Workshop_Aquacult_WeeK_1998_258.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...