WorldWideScience

Sample records for external guide sequence

  1. Inhibition of cell division induced by external guide sequences (EGS Technology targeting ftsZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Davies Sala

    Full Text Available EGS (external guide sequence technology is a promising approach to designing new antibiotics. EGSs are short antisense oligoribonucleotides that induce RNase P-mediated cleavage of a target RNA by forming a precursor tRNA-like complex. The ftsZ mRNA secondary structure was modeled and EGSs complementary to two regions with high probability of being suitable targets were designed. In vitro reactions showed that EGSs targeting these regions bound ftsZ mRNA and elicited RNase P-mediated cleavage of ftsZ mRNA. A recombinant plasmid, pEGSb1, coding for an EGS that targets region "b" under the control of the T7 promoter was generated. Upon introduction of this plasmid into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3(pLysS the transformant strain formed filaments when expression of the EGS was induced. Concomitantly, E. coli harboring pEGSb1 showed a modest but significant inhibition of growth when synthesis of the EGSb1 was induced. Our results indicate that EGS technology could be a viable strategy to generate new antimicrobials targeting ftsZ.

  2. Inhibition of expression of virulence genes of Yersinia pestis in Escherichia coli by external guide sequences and RNase P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-hyeong; Izadjoo, Mina; Altman, Sidney

    2008-08-01

    External guide sequences (EGSs) targeting virulence genes from Yersinia pestis were designed and tested in vitro and in vivo in Escherichia coli. Linear EGSs and M1 RNA-linked EGSs were designed for the yscN and yscS genes that are involved in type III secretion in Y. pestis. RNase P from E. coli cleaves the messages of yscN and yscS in vitro with the cognate EGSs, and the expression of the EGSs resulted in the reduction of the levels of these messages of the virulence genes when those genes were expressed in E. coli.

  3. RNase P-Associated External Guide Sequence Effectively Reduces the Expression of Human CC-Chemokine Receptor 5 and Inhibits the Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available External guide sequences (EGSs represent a new class of RNA-based gene-targeting agents, consist of a sequence complementary to a target mRNA, and render the target RNA susceptible to degradation by ribonuclease P (RNase P. In this study, EGSs were constructed to target the mRNA encoding human CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, one of the primary coreceptors for HIV. An EGS RNA, C1, efficiently directed human RNase P to cleave the CCR5 mRNA sequence in vitro. A reduction of about 70% in the expression level of both CCR5 mRNA and protein and an inhibition of more than 50-fold in HIV (R5 strain Ba-L p24 production were observed in cells that expressed C1. In comparison, a reduction of about 10% in the expression of CCR5 and viral growth was found in cells that either did not express the EGS or produced a “disabled” EGS which carried nucleotide mutations that precluded RNase P recognition. Furthermore, the same C1-expressing cells that were protected from R5 strain Ba-L retained susceptibility to X4 strain IIIB, which uses CXCR4 as the coreceptor instead of CCR5, suggesting that the RNase P-mediated cleavage induced by the EGS is specific for the target CCR5 but not the closely related CXCR4. Our results provide direct evidence that EGS RNAs against CCR5 are effective and specific in blocking HIV infection and growth. These results also demonstrate the feasibility to develop highly effective EGSs for anti-HIV therapy.

  4. Effective stimulation of growth in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inhibition of syntaxin18 by external guide sequence and ribonuclease P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Tyler; Harpur, Brock; Poon, Ho Y; Kuo, Kuo-Hsing; Lee, Chow H

    2008-12-01

    Syntaxin18 (Stx18) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane bound SNARE protein involved in membrane trafficking between the ER and Golgi as well as in phagocytosis. Stx18 has also been shown to physically interact with proteins involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis. These findings suggest the possible role of Stx18 in regulating cell growth. In this study, we used theoretically designed external guide sequence molecule which utilizes RNase P to cleave Stx18 mRNA and down-regulate Stx18 levels in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We showed that down-regulation of Stx18 leads to significant enhancement of growth in MCF-7 cells. Consistent with this finding was the observation that over-expression of Stx18 using the CMV promoter led to suppression of cell growth. Over-expressing Stx18 had no effect on c-myc mRNA expression and half-life, suggesting that the mechanism does not involve control at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level of the c-myc gene. Finally, we showed that Stx18 is over-expressed in clinical human breast cancer. Overall, this study showed that Stx18 plays a role in the growth of human breast cancer cells and provided the basis for further investigation in determining whether it can be used as a prognostic marker and as a molecular target in the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Inhibition of expression in Escherichia coli of a virulence regulator MglB of Francisella tularensis using external guide sequence technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoping Xiao

    Full Text Available External guide sequences (EGSs have successfully been used to inhibit expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We previously reported that EGS accessible and cleavable sites in the target RNAs can rapidly be identified by screening random EGS (rEGS libraries. Here the method of screening rEGS libraries and a partial RNase T1 digestion assay were used to identify sites accessible to EGSs in the mRNA of a global virulence regulator MglB from Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium. Specific EGSs were subsequently designed and their activities in terms of the cleavage of mglB mRNA by RNase P were tested in vitro and in vivo. EGS73, EGS148, and EGS155 in both stem and M1 EGS constructs induced mglB mRNA cleavage in vitro. Expression of stem EGS73 and EGS155 in Escherichia coli resulted in significant reduction of the mglB mRNA level coded for the F. tularensis mglB gene inserted in those cells.

  6. Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-04-01

    Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. In this study we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence-nonspecific learning during walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 yr,n= 20) could learn a specific sequence of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 yr,n= 8) had lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning were the same compared with those of older children (11-16 yr,n= 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited at faster walking speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that spatial sequence learning can be integrated with a highly automatic task such as walking. These findings suggest that adults and children use implicit knowledge about the sequence to plan and execute leg movement during visually guided walking.

  7. Markerless monocular tracking system for guided external eye surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, C; Rupérez, M J; Alcañiz, M; Mataix, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel markerless monocular tracking system aimed at guiding ophthalmologists during external eye surgery. This new tracking system performs a very accurate tracking of the eye by detecting invariant points using only textures that are present in the sclera, i.e., without using traditional features like the pupil and/or cornea reflections, which remain partially or totally occluded in most surgeries. Two known algorithms that compute invariant points and correspondences between pairs of images were implemented in our system: Scalable Invariant Feature Transforms (SIFT) and Speed Up Robust Features (SURF). The results of experiments performed on phantom eyes show that, with either algorithm, the developed system tracks a sphere at a 360° rotation angle with an error that is lower than 0.5%. Some experiments have also been carried out on images of real eyes showing promising behavior of the system in the presence of blood or surgical instruments during real eye surgery.

  8. Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 years, N = 20) could learn a specific sequence...... of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 years, N = 8) have lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning was the same compared to older children (11-16 years, N = 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited...... at faster walking speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that spatial sequence learning can be integrated with a highly automatic task like walking. These findings suggest that adults and children use implicit knowledge about the sequence to plan and execute leg movement during...

  9. Nonlinear evolution of electron shear flow instabilities in the presence of an external guide magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation mechanism by which the magnetic field reconnects in the presence of an external (guide) magnetic field in the direction of the main current is not well understood. In thin electron current sheets (ECS) (thickness ~ an electron inertial length) formed in collisionless magnetic reconnection, electron shear flow instabilities (ESFI) are potential candidates for providing an anomalous dissipation mechanism which can break the frozen-in condition of the magnetic field affecting the structure and rate of reconnection. We investigate the evolution of ESFI in guide field magnetic reconnection. The properties of the resulting plasma turbulence and their dependence on the strength of the guide field are studied. Utilizing 3-D electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of ECS we show that, unlike the case of ECS self-consistently embedded in anti-parallel magnetic fields, the evolution of thin ECS in the presence of a guide field (equal to the asymptotic value of the reconnecting magnetic field or larger) ...

  10. Mesolimbic confidence signals guide perceptual learning in the absence of external feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenmos, Matthias; Wilbertz, Gregor; Hebart, Martin N; Sterzer, Philipp

    2016-03-29

    It is well established that learning can occur without external feedback, yet normative reinforcement learning theories have difficulties explaining such instances of learning. Here, we propose that human observers are capable of generating their own feedback signals by monitoring internal decision variables. We investigated this hypothesis in a visual perceptual learning task using fMRI and confidence reports as a measure for this monitoring process. Employing a novel computational model in which learning is guided by confidence-based reinforcement signals, we found that mesolimbic brain areas encoded both anticipation and prediction error of confidence-in remarkable similarity to previous findings for external reward-based feedback. We demonstrate that the model accounts for choice and confidence reports and show that the mesolimbic confidence prediction error modulation derived through the model predicts individual learning success. These results provide a mechanistic neurobiological explanation for learning without external feedback by augmenting reinforcement models with confidence-based feedback.

  11. Sequence embedding for fast construction of guide trees for multiple sequence alignment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Blackshields, Gordon

    2010-05-14

    Abstract Background The most widely used multiple sequence alignment methods require sequences to be clustered as an initial step. Most sequence clustering methods require a full distance matrix to be computed between all pairs of sequences. This requires memory and time proportional to N 2 for N sequences. When N grows larger than 10,000 or so, this becomes increasingly prohibitive and can form a significant barrier to carrying out very large multiple alignments. Results In this paper, we have tested variations on a class of embedding methods that have been designed for clustering large numbers of complex objects where the individual distance calculations are expensive. These methods involve embedding the sequences in a space where the similarities within a set of sequences can be closely approximated without having to compute all pair-wise distances. Conclusions We show how this approach greatly reduces computation time and memory requirements for clustering large numbers of sequences and demonstrate the quality of the clusterings by benchmarking them as guide trees for multiple alignment. Source code is available for download from http:\\/\\/www.clustal.org\\/mbed.tgz.

  12. Sequence embedding for fast construction of guide trees for multiple sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilm Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most widely used multiple sequence alignment methods require sequences to be clustered as an initial step. Most sequence clustering methods require a full distance matrix to be computed between all pairs of sequences. This requires memory and time proportional to N2 for N sequences. When N grows larger than 10,000 or so, this becomes increasingly prohibitive and can form a significant barrier to carrying out very large multiple alignments. Results In this paper, we have tested variations on a class of embedding methods that have been designed for clustering large numbers of complex objects where the individual distance calculations are expensive. These methods involve embedding the sequences in a space where the similarities within a set of sequences can be closely approximated without having to compute all pair-wise distances. Conclusions We show how this approach greatly reduces computation time and memory requirements for clustering large numbers of sequences and demonstrate the quality of the clusterings by benchmarking them as guide trees for multiple alignment. Source code is available for download from http://www.clustal.org/mbed.tgz.

  13. Distinction between Externally vs. Internally Guided Decision-Making: Operational Differences, Meta-Analytical Comparisons and Their Theoretical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Takashi; Ohira, Hideki; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty). Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision-making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making). Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision-making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject's own, i.e., internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e., circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision-making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision-making to clarify experimental-operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using multi-level kernel density analysis, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision-making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.

  14. Electron beam guiding by external magnetic fields in imploded fuel plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johzaki, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Sunahara, A.; Sakagami, H.; Fujioka, S.; Shiraga, H.; Endo, T.; FIREX project Group

    2016-05-01

    For enhancing the core heating efficiency in fast ignition laser fusion, we proposed the fast electron beam by externally-applied the kilo-tesla (kT) class longitudinal magnetic field. We evaluated the imploded core and the magnetic field profiles formed through the implosion dynamics by resistive MHD radiation hydro code. Using those profiles, the guiding effect was evaluated by fast electron transport simulations, which shows that in addition to the feasible field configuration (moderate mirror ratio), the kT-class magnetic field is required at the fast electron generation point. In this case, the significant enhancement in heating efficiency is expected.

  15. Field guide to next-generation DNA sequencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Travis C

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of available 2(nd) and 3(rd) generation DNA sequencing platforms is increasing rapidly. Costs for these systems range from $10/Mb for 454 and some Ion Torrent chips). In terms of cost per nonmultiplexed sample and instrument run time, the Pacific Biosciences and Ion Torrent platforms excel, with the 454 GS Junior and Illumina MiSeq also notable in this regard. All platforms allow multiplexing of samples, but details of library preparation, experimental design and data analysis can constrain the options. The wide range of characteristics among available platforms provides opportunities both to conduct groundbreaking studies and to waste money on scales that were previously infeasible. Thus, careful thought about the desired characteristics of these systems is warranted before purchasing or using any of them. Updated information from this guide will be maintained at: http://dna.uga.edu/ and http://tomato.biol.trinity.edu/blog/. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Ultrasound guided transarterial coil placement in the internal and external carotid artery in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan; Iglesias, Manuel; Chao, Eduardo Lloret; Bussy, Christian

    2015-04-01

    To assess ultrasound guided transarterial coil placement (UGTACP) for occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) in horses. Cadaveric and in vivo study. Cadaveric horses (n = 10), healthy horses (3), and 1 clinical case. Cadaveric and in vivo (healthy horses): UGTACP was performed in the caudal part of the ICA and ECA. Coil placement in the rostral part of the ICA was performed blindly and controlled by conventional radiography. No coils were placed in the rostral part of the ECA. UGTACP of the ICA was in a horse with guttural pouch mycosis of the left guttural pouch. Accurate ultrasound-guided catheterization of the ICA and ECA was performed in all specimens. Ultrasound-guided coil placement was successfully performed in all cases except 1. No complications occurred in the in vivo study. The clinical case fully recovered and returned to its intended use. Based on our study, UGTACP of the ICA and ECA caudal part is a feasible alternative to fluoroscopy. An advantage of this technique is the accuracy with which you can catheterize both ICA and ECA and the ability to identify unusual branching at the origin of the ICA. Regarding the rostral part of the ICA, angiographic catheter guidance in this region is probably more precise using fluoroscopy as it is performed blindly. In a clinical situation, combination of US and fluoroscopy guidance can result in reduction of radiation exposure time. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Posterior approach for subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis by compact external fixation: a technique guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Guido; Bock, Felicia; Ghate, Nihar

    2013-01-01

    Subtalar joint arthrodesis is a commonly used surgical procedure for the management of rearfoot pathologic features. We present a technique guide for a posterior incisional approach to subtalar joint arthrodesis for correction of a calcaneal deformity secondary to calcaneal fracture malunion. This technique uses a monolateral external fixation device for controlled distraction and intercallary allograft placement. In contrast to a standard lateral approach, this incision provides better visualization of the joint space, and the use of a distractor enhances access to the joint surfaces for fusion preparation and maintains alignment while internal fixation is applied. A 44-year-old male underwent isolated subtalar joint arthrodesis to repair a malunion of a nonsurgically managed calcaneal fracture sustained 1 year before the surgical intervention. Controlled distraction was applied using a Hoffmann(®) Compact™ MRI external fixation device. This device maintained distraction and tibial-calcaneal alignment until placement of the allograft-bone marrow aspirate. The use of external fixation is a viable option for distraction arthrodesis in subtalar joint fusions. It facilitates frontal plane deformity correction. We have described the surgical technique and presented a case in which the posterior approach with distraction was successfully used in subtalar joint arthrodesis. At 12 weeks postoperatively, serial radiographs displayed incorporation of the graft, with distraction maintained at the subtalar joint arthrodesis site. At the 3-month follow-up visit, the patient had successfully transitioned to weightbearing in a CAM walker without any complications. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Planning of External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Guided by PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eyben, Finn Edler; Kairemo, Kalevi; Kiljunen, Timo; Joensuu, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of articles on non-choline tracers for PET/CT for patients with prostate cancer and planning of radiotherapy guided by PET/CT. Nineteen articles described (11)C-Acetate PET/CT. Of 629 patients 483 (77%, 95% CI 74% - 80%) had positive (11)C-Acetate PET/CT scans. Five articles described (18)F-FACBC PET/CT. Of 174 patients, 127 (73%, 95% CI 68% - 78%) had positive scans. Both tracers detected local lesions, lesions in regional lymph nodes, and distant organs. Ten articles described (18)F-NaF PET/CT and found that 1289 of 3918 patients (33%) had positive reactive lesions in bones. PET/CT scan can guide external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) planning for patients with loco-regional prostate cancer. In six studies with 178 patients with localized prostate cancer, PET/CT pointed out dominant intraprostatic lesions (DIL). Oncologists gave EBRT to the whole prostate and a simultaneously integrated boost to the DIL. Four studies with 254 patients described planning of EBRT for patients with PETpositive lymph nodes. After the EBRT, 15 of 29 node-positive patients remained in remission for median 28 months (range 14 to 50 months). Most articles describe (11)C- and (18)F-Choline PET/CT. However, (11)C-Acetate and (18)F-FACBC may also be useful tracers for PET/CT. Planning of radiotherapy guided by MRI or PET/CT is an investigational method for localized prostate cancer. Current clinical controlled trials evaluate whether the method improves overall survival.

  19. An alternating periodic-chaotic ISI sequence of HH neuron under external sinusoidal stimulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wu-Yin; Xu Jian-Xue; Wu Ying; Hong Ling

    2004-01-01

    A study of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neuron under external sinusoidal excited stimulus is presented in this paper. As is well known, the stimulus frequency is to be considered as a bifurcate parameter, and numerous phenomena, such as synchronization, period, and chaos appear alternatively with the changing of the stimulus frequency. For the stimulus frequency less than 2fB (fB being the base frequency in this paper), the simulation results demonstrate that the single HH neuron could completely convey the sinusoidal signal in anti-phase into interspike interval (ISI) sequences. We also report, perhaps for the first time, another kind of phenomenon, the beat phenomenon, which exists in the phase dynamics of the ISI sequences of the HH neuron stimulated by a sinusoidal current. It is shown furthermore that intermittent transition results in the general route to chaos.

  20. User guide for mapping-by-sequencing in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Geo Velikkakam; Patel, Vipul; Nordström, Karl J V; Klasen, Jonas R; Salomé, Patrice A; Weigel, Detlef; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2013-06-17

    Mapping-by-sequencing combines genetic mapping with whole-genome sequencing in order to accelerate mutant identification. However, application of mapping-by-sequencing requires decisions on various practical settings on the experimental design that are not intuitively answered. Following an experimentally determined recombination landscape of Arabidopsis and next generation sequencing-specific biases, we simulated more than 400,000 mapping-by-sequencing experiments. This allowed us to evaluate a broad range of different types of experiments and to develop general rules for mapping-by-sequencing in Arabidopsis. Most importantly, this informs about the properties of different crossing scenarios, the number of recombinants and sequencing depth needed for successful mapping experiments.

  1. Is the P3 amplitude reduction seen in externalizing psychopathology attributable to stimulus sequence effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Casey S; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2012-02-01

    P3 amplitude reduction (P3-AR) is associated with biological vulnerability to a spectrum of externalizing (EXT) disorders, such as conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and substance use disorders. P3 amplitude, however, can be affected by the context within which it is measured, for example, by the position of the target in the sequence of stimuli during an oddball task. We hypothesized that EXT-related P3-AR may be due to attention or working memory deficits in EXT that would weaken these stimulus sequence effects. Using a community-based sample of adolescent males, we examined the relationship between P3 and EXT as a function of the number of standards preceding the target. Higher EXT was associated with significantly smaller P3 amplitude, regardless of the number of standards preceding the target. These results suggest that P3-AR in EXT does not vary as a function of stimulus sequence, further supporting P3-AR as an endophenotype for EXT disorders.

  2. External and semi-internal controls for PCR amplification of homologous sequences in mixed templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Elena; Gulevich, Alexander; Rensing, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    In a mixed template, the presence of homologous target DNA sequences creates environments that almost inevitably give rise to artifacts and biases during PCR. Heteroduplexes, chimeras, and skewed template-to-product ratios are the exclusive attributes of mixed template PCR and never occur in a single template assay. Yet, multi-template PCR has been used without appropriate attention to quality control and assay validation, in spite of the fact that such practice diminishes the reliability of results. External and internal amplification controls became obligatory elements of good laboratory practice in different PCR assays. We propose the inclusion of an analogous approach as a quality control system for multi-template PCR applications. The amplification controls must take into account the characteristics of multi-template PCR and be able to effectively monitor particular assay performance. This study demonstrated the efficiency of a model mixed template as an adequate external amplification control for a particular PCR application. The conditions of multi-template PCR do not allow implementation of a classic internal control; therefore we developed a convenient semi-internal control as an acceptable alternative. In order to evaluate the effects of inhibitors, a model multi-template mix was amplified in a mixture with DNAse-treated sample. Semi-internal control allowed establishment of intervals for robust PCR performance for different samples, thus enabling correct comparison of the samples. The complexity of the external and semi-internal amplification controls must be comparable with the assumed complexity of the samples. We also emphasize that amplification controls should be applied in multi-template PCR regardless of the post-assay method used to analyze products.

  3. Weed detection by UAV with camera guided landing sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmann, Mads

    the built-in GPS, allows for the UAV to be navigated within the field of view of a camera, which is mounted on the landing platform. The camera on the platform determines the UAVs position and orientation from markers printed on the UAV, whereby it can be guided in its landing. The UAV has a camera mounted...

  4. Quality assurance of U.S.-guided external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: report of AAPM Task Group 154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A; Chan, Gordon; Markovic, Alexander; McNeeley, Shawn; Pfeiffer, Doug; Salter, Bill; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2011-02-01

    Task Group 154 (TG154) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was created to produce a guidance document for clinical medical physicists describing recommended quality assurance (QA) procedures for ultrasound (U.S.)-guided external beam radiotherapy localization. This report describes the relevant literature, state of the art, and briefly summarizes U.S. imaging physics. Simulation, treatment planning and treatment delivery considerations are presented in order to improve consistency and accuracy. User training is emphasized in the report and recommendations regarding peer review are included. A set of thorough, yet practical, QA procedures, frequencies, and tolerances are recommended. These encompass recommendations to ensure both spatial accuracy and image quality.

  5. RNA-guided complex from a bacterial immune system enhances target recognition through seed sequence interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedenheft, Blake; van Duijn, Esther; Bultema, Jelle; Waghmare, Sakharam; Zhou, Kaihong; Barendregt, Arjan; Westphal, Wiebke; Heck, Albert; Boekema, Egbert; Dickman, Mark; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved multiple versions of an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that targets foreign nucleic acids. In each case, transcripts derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are thought to selectively target invading phage and plasmids in a sequenc

  6. RNA-guided complex from a bacterial immune system enhances target recognition through seed sequence interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedenheft, Blake; van Duijn, Esther; Bultema, Jelle; Waghmare, Sakharam; Zhou, Kaihong; Barendregt, Arjan; Westphal, Wiebke; Heck, Albert; Boekema, Egbert; Dickman, Mark; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved multiple versions of an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that targets foreign nucleic acids. In each case, transcripts derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are thought to selectively target invading phage and plasmids in a sequenc

  7. Students' Guided Reinvention of Definition of Limit of a Sequence with Interactive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Park, Jungeun

    2016-01-01

    In a course emphasizing interactive technology, 19 students, including 18 mathematics education majors, mostly in their first year, reinvented the definition of limit of a sequence while working in small cooperative groups. The class spent four sessions of 75 minutes each on a cyclical process of guided reinvention of the definition of limit of a…

  8. Prediction and Validation of Native and Engineered Cas9 Guide Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Alexandra E; Henriksen, Emily D; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-07-01

    Cas9-based technologies rely on native elements of Type II CRISPR-Cas bacterial immune systems, including the trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA), CRISPR RNA (crRNA), Cas9 protein, and protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM). The tracrRNA and crRNA form an RNA duplex that guides the Cas9 endonuclease to complementary nucleic acid sequences. Mechanistically, Cas9 initiates interactions by binding to the target PAM sequence and interrogating the target DNA in a 3'-to-5' manner. Complementarity between the guide RNA and the target DNA is key. In natural systems, precise cleavage occurs when the target DNA sequence contains a PAM flanking a sequence homologous to the crRNA spacer sequence. Currently, the majority of commercial Cas9-based genome-editing tools are derived from the Type II CRISPR-Cas system of Streptococcus pyogenes However, a diverse set of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems exist in nature that are potentially valuable for genome engineering applications. Exploitation of these systems requires prediction and validation of both native and engineered dual and single guide RNAs to drive Cas9 functionality. Here, we discuss how to identify the elements of these immune systems to develop next-generation Cas9-based genome-editing tools. We first discuss how to predict tracrRNA sequences and suggest a method for designing single guide RNAs containing only critical structural modules. We then outline how to predict the PAM sequence, which is crucial for determining potential targets for Cas9. Finally, validation of the system elements through transcriptome analysis and interference assays is essential for developing next-generation Cas9-based genome-editing tools.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and whole genome sequencing: a practical guide and online tools available for the clinical microbiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, G; Atzeni, A; McHugh, T D

    2017-02-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection but the lack of bioinformatic expertise among clinical microbiologists is a barrier for adoption. Software products for analysis should be simple, free of charge, able to accept data directly from the sequencer (FASTQ files) and to provide the basic functionalities all-in-one. The main aim of this narrative review is to provide a practical guide for the clinical microbiologist, with little or no practical experience of WGS analysis, with a specific focus on software products tailor-made for M. tuberculosis analysis. With sequencing performed by an external provider, it is now feasible to implement WGS analysis in the routine clinical practice of any microbiology laboratory, with the potential to detect resistance weeks before traditional phenotypic culture methods, but the clinical microbiologist should be aware of the limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective inhibition of human cytomegalovirus gene expression by DNA-based external guide sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Zeng; Hongjian Li; Yueqing Li; Yanwei Cui; Qi Zhou; Yi Zou; Guang Yang; Tianhong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether a 12 nucleotide DNA-based miniEGSs can silence the expression of human cytomegalovirus(HCMV)UL49 gene efficiently,A HeLa cell line stably expressing UL49 gene was constructed and the putative miniEGSs(UL49-miniEGSs)were assayed in the stable cell line.Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot resuits showed a reduction of 67%in UL49expression level in HeLa cells that were transfected with UL49-miniEGSs.It was significantly different from that of mock and control miniEGSs(TK-miniEGSs)which were 1 and 7%,respectively.To further confirm the gene silence directed by UL49-miniEGSs with human RNase P,a mutant of UL49-miniEGSs was constructedand a modified 5'RACE was carried out.Data showed that the inhibition of UL49 gene expression directed by UL49-miniEGSs was RNase P-dependent and the clea vage of UL49 mRNA by RNase P was site specific.As a result,the length of DNA-based miniEGSs that could silence gene expression efficiently was only 12 nt.That is significantly less than any other Oligonucleotide-based method of gene inactivation known SO far.MiniEGSs may represent novel gene-targeting agents for the inhibition of viral genes and other human disease reiated gene expression.

  11. Unique nucleotide sequence-guided assembly of repetitive DNA parts for synthetic biology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, JP; Lienert, F; Boehm, CR; Chen, JH; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2014-08-07

    Recombination-based DNA construction methods, such as Gibson assembly, have made it possible to easily and simultaneously assemble multiple DNA parts, and they hold promise for the development and optimization of metabolic pathways and functional genetic circuits. Over time, however, these pathways and circuits have become more complex, and the increasing need for standardization and insulation of genetic parts has resulted in sequence redundancies-for example, repeated terminator and insulator sequences-that complicate recombination-based assembly. We and others have recently developed DNA assembly methods, which we refer to collectively as unique nucleotide sequence (UNS)-guided assembly, in which individual DNA parts are flanked with UNSs to facilitate the ordered, recombination-based assembly of repetitive sequences. Here we present a detailed protocol for UNS-guided assembly that enables researchers to convert multiple DNA parts into sequenced, correctly assembled constructs, or into high-quality combinatorial libraries in only 2-3 d. If the DNA parts must be generated from scratch, an additional 2-5 d are necessary. This protocol requires no specialized equipment and can easily be implemented by a student with experience in basic cloning techniques.

  12. Conceptual design and sample preparation of electrode covered single glass macro-capillaries for studying the effect of an external electric field on particle guiding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartak, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Bereczky, R.J., E-mail: bereczky.reka@atomki.mta.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Kowarik, G. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Tőkési, K. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Aumayr, F. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    We present the design and construction of a macroscopic glass capillary covered by electrodes on the outside. With these new capillary targets it will be possible to study the influence of an external electric field on the process of guiding of charged particles through a capillary. The new degrees of freedoms will contribute to both a better fundamental understanding of the guiding phenomenon but might also be of use in practical applications.

  13. Rapid construction of insulated genetic circuits via synthetic sequence-guided isothermal assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, JP; Boehm, CR; Lienert, F; Chen, JH; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2013-12-28

    In vitro recombination methods have enabled one-step construction of large DNA sequences from multiple parts. Although synthetic biological circuits can in principle be assembled in the same fashion, they typically contain repeated sequence elements such as standard promoters and terminators that interfere with homologous recombination. Here we use a computational approach to design synthetic, biologically inactive unique nucleotide sequences (UNSes) that facilitate accurate ordered assembly. Importantly, our designed UNSes make it possible to assemble parts with repeated terminator and insulator sequences, and thereby create insulated functional genetic circuits in bacteria and mammalian cells. Using UNS-guided assembly to construct repeating promoter-gene-terminator parts, we systematically varied gene expression to optimize production of a deoxychromoviridans biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli. We then used this system to construct complex eukaryotic AND-logic gates for genomic integration into embryonic stem cells. Construction was performed by using a standardized series of UNS-bearing BioBrick-compatible vectors, which enable modular assembly and facilitate reuse of individual parts. UNS-guided isothermal assembly is broadly applicable to the construction and optimization of genetic circuits and particularly those requiring tight insulation, such as complex biosynthetic pathways, sensors, counters and logic gates.

  14. Sequence-controlled polymerization guided by aryl-fluoroaryl π-stacking

    KAUST Repository

    Mugemana, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control monomer sequences is essential in macromolecular chemistry. Better sequence control leads to better control over macromolecular folding and self-assembly, which, in turn, would enable control over bulk properties (such as thermal behavior, conductivity and rigidity), as well as mimicking the properties of globular proteins. Here, we present a three-part synopsis of recent advances in research on sequence-controlled polymerization guided by aryl-perfluoroaryl π-π stacking of monomer pairs. We also show that for monomers that are capable of strong associative interactions, the classical reactivity ratio analysis based on Fineman-Ross/terminal reactivity models may lead to an imprecise determination of the monomer alternation mode. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. External and semi-internal controls for PCR amplification of homologous sequences in mixed templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalle, Elena; Gulevich, Alexander; Rensing, Christopher Günther T

    2013-01-01

    in a single template assay. Yet, multi-template PCR has been used without appropriate attention to quality control and assay validation, in spite of the fact that such practice diminishes the reliability of results. External and internal amplification controls became obligatory elements of good laboratory...... practice in different PCR assays. We propose the inclusion of an analogous approach as a quality control system for multi-template PCR applications. The amplification controls must take into account the characteristics of multi-template PCR and be able to effectively monitor particular assay performance...

  16. On Sequence Learning Models: Open-loop Control Not Strictly Guided by Hick's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Rodrigo; Savietto, Joice P; Sato, João R; Xavier, Gilberto F; Helene, André F

    2016-03-15

    According to the Hick's law, reaction times increase linearly with the uncertainty of target stimuli. We tested the generality of this law by measuring reaction times in a human sequence learning protocol involving serial target locations which differed in transition probability and global entropy. Our results showed that sigmoid functions better describe the relationship between reaction times and uncertainty when compared to linear functions. Sequence predictability was estimated by distinct statistical predictors: conditional probability, conditional entropy, joint probability and joint entropy measures. Conditional predictors relate to closed-loop control models describing that performance is guided by on-line access to past sequence structure to predict next location. Differently, joint predictors relate to open-loop control models assuming global access of sequence structure, requiring no constant monitoring. We tested which of these predictors better describe performance on the sequence learning protocol. Results suggest that joint predictors are more accurate than conditional predictors to track performance. In conclusion, sequence learning is better described as an open-loop process which is not precisely predicted by Hick's law.

  17. Mice and Men Environmental Balance, Parts Three and Four of an Integrated Science Sequence, Teacher's Guide, 1970 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    This teacher's guide contains parts three and four of the four-part first year Portland Project, a three-year secondary integrated science curriculum sequence. Part three of the guide deals with topics such as the cell, reproduction, embryology, genetics, genetic diseases, genetics and change, populations, effects of density on populations,…

  18. Context-dependent neural activation: internally and externally guided rhythmic lower limb movement in individuals with and without neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Eve Hackney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, tai chi have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control and postural stability in people with PD (Amano, Nocera, Vallabhajosula, Juncos, Gregor, Waddell et al., 2013; Earhart, 2009; M. E. Hackney & Earhart, 2008; Kadivar, Corcos, Foto, & Hondzinski, 2011; Morris, Iansek, & Kirkwood, 2009; Ridgel, Vitek, & Alberts, 2009. However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG and externally guided (EG movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG versus EG designs. Because of the potential task specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural

  19. Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Lee, Ho Lim; Battisto, Jessica; Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients' quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1-6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability.

  20. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean-René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-11-02

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative's Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident.

  1. RNA-guided complex from a bacterial immune system enhances target recognition through seed sequence interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenheft, Blake; van Duijn, Esther; Bultema, Jelle B.; Waghmare, Sakharam P.; Zhou, Kaihong; Barendregt, Arjan; Westphal, Wiebke; Heck, Albert J. R.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Dickman, Mark J.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved multiple versions of an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that targets foreign nucleic acids. In each case, transcripts derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are thought to selectively target invading phage and plasmids in a sequence-specific process involving a variable cassette of CRISPR-associated (cas) genes. The CRISPR locus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14) includes four cas genes that are unique to and conserved in microorganisms harboring the Csy-type (CRISPR system yersinia) immune system. Here we show that the Csy proteins (Csy1–4) assemble into a 350 kDa ribonucleoprotein complex that facilitates target recognition by enhancing sequence-specific hybridization between the CRISPR RNA and complementary target sequences. Target recognition is enthalpically driven and localized to a “seed sequence” at the 5′ end of the CRISPR RNA spacer. Structural analysis of the complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and single particle electron microscopy reveals a crescent-shaped particle that bears striking resemblance to the architecture of a large CRISPR-associated complex from Escherichia coli, termed Cascade. Although similarity between these two complexes is not evident at the sequence level, their unequal subunit stoichiometry and quaternary architecture reveal conserved structural features that may be common among diverse CRISPR-mediated defense systems. PMID:21536913

  2. A Guide RNA Sequence Design Platform for the CRISPR/Cas9 System for Model Organism Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cas9/CRISPR has been reported to efficiently induce targeted gene disruption and homologous recombination in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Thus, we developed a Guide RNA Sequence Design Platform for the Cas9/CRISPR silencing system for model organisms. The platform is easy to use for gRNA design with input query sequences. It finds potential targets by PAM and ranks them according to factors including uniqueness, SNP, RNA secondary structure, and AT content. The platform allows users to upload and share their experimental results. In addition, most guide RNA sequences from published papers have been put into our database.

  3. A biologist's guide to de novo genome assembly using next-generation sequence data: A test with fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Sajeet; Breuill, Colette; Bohlmann, Joerg; Hsiang, Tom

    2011-09-01

    We offer a guide to de novo genome assembly using sequence data generated by the Illumina platform for biologists working with fungi or other organisms whose genomes are less than 100Mb in size. The guide requires no familiarity with sequencing assembly technology or associated computer programs. It defines commonly used terms in genome sequencing and assembly; provides examples of assembling short-read genome sequence data for four strains of the fungus Grosmannia clavigera using four assembly programs; gives examples of protocols and software; and presents a commented flowchart that extends from DNA preparation for submission to a sequencing center, through to processing and assembly of the raw sequence reads using freely available operating systems and software.

  4. External Quality Assessment for Detection of Fetal Trisomy 21, 18, and 13 by Massively Parallel Sequencing in Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hongyun; Li, Yulong; Han, Yanxi; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2016-03-01

    An external quality assessment for detection of trisomy 21, 18, and 13 by massively parallel sequencing was implemented by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories of People's Republic of China in 2014. Simulated samples were prepared by mixing fragmented abnormal DNA with plasma from non-pregnant women. The external quality assessment panel, comprising 5 samples from pregnant healthy women, 2 samples with sex chromosome aneuploidies, and 13 samples with different concentrations of fetal fractions positive for trisomy 21, 18, and 13, was then distributed to participating laboratories. In total, 55.6% (47 of 84) of respondents correctly identified each of the samples in the panel. Seventeen false-negative and 87 gray zone results were reported, most [102 of 104 (98.1%)] of which were derived from for trisomy samples with effective fetal fractions trisomy sample generated by BGISEQ-100. Overall, most clinical laboratories detected samples containing effective fetal fractions >4%. Our study shows need for further laboratory training in the management of samples with low fetal fractions. For some assays, precision of Z values needs to be improved.

  5. Group I Intron Internal Guide Sequence Binding Strength as a Component of Ribozyme Network Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Satterwhite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Origins-of-life research requires searching for a plausible transition from simple chemicals to larger macromolecules that can both hold information and catalyze their own production. We have previously shown that some group I intron ribozymes possess the ability to help synthesize other ribozyme genotypes by recombination reactions in small networks in an autocatalytic fashion. By simplifying these recombination reactions, using fluorescent anisotropy, we quantified the thermodynamic binding strength between two nucleotides of two group I intron RNA fragments for all 16 possible genotype combinations. We provide evidence that the binding strength (KD between the 3-nucleotide internal guide sequence (IGS of one ribozyme and its complement in another is correlated to the catalytic ability of the ribozyme. This work demonstrates that one can begin to deconstruct the thermodynamic basis of information in prebiotic RNA systems.

  6. Motion and Energy Chemical Reactions, Parts One and Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Teacher's Guide, 1973 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    This teacher's guide is for the second year of the Portland Project, a three-year integrated secondary science curriculum sequence. The first of two parts in this volume, "Motion and Energy," begins with the study of motion, going from the quantitative description to a consideration of what causes motion and a discussion of Newton's…

  7. Successful treatment of a 67-year-old woman with urethral adenocarcinoma with the use of external beam radiotherapy and image guided adaptive interstitial brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujkanovic, Jasmin; Tanderup, Kari; Agerbæk, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Primary urethral cancer (PUC) is a very rare disease. This case report illustrates a successful treatment approach of a 67-year-old woman with a urethral adenocarcinoma selected for an organ preserving treatment with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and interstitial brachytherapy (BT) boost, using...... the GEC-ESTRO target concept originally designed for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Treatment included EBRT with 45 Gy in 25 fractions followed by image guided adaptive interstitial BT (IGABT) with a pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) BT boost with 30 Gy in 50 hourly pulses. The D90 for CTVHR was 79.1 Gy...

  8. Application of the MAFFT sequence alignment program to large data—reexamination of the usefulness of chained guide trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazunori D.; Tomii, Kentaro; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Large multiple sequence alignments (MSAs), consisting of thousands of sequences, are becoming more and more common, due to advances in sequencing technologies. The MAFFT MSA program has several options for building large MSAs, but their performances have not been sufficiently assessed yet, because realistic benchmarking of large MSAs has been difficult. Recently, such assessments have been made possible through the HomFam and ContTest benchmark protein datasets. Along with the development of these datasets, an interesting theory was proposed: chained guide trees increase the accuracy of MSAs of structurally conserved regions. This theory challenges the basis of progressive alignment methods and needs to be examined by being compared with other known methods including computationally intensive ones. Results: We used HomFam, ContTest and OXFam (an extended version of OXBench) to evaluate several methods enabled in MAFFT: (1) a progressive method with approximate guide trees, (2) a progressive method with chained guide trees, (3) a combination of an iterative refinement method and a progressive method and (4) a less approximate progressive method that uses a rigorous guide tree and consistency score. Other programs, Clustal Omega and UPP, available for large MSAs, were also included into the comparison. The effect of method 2 (chained guide trees) was positive in ContTest but negative in HomFam and OXFam. Methods 3 and 4 increased the benchmark scores more consistently than method 2 for the three datasets, suggesting that they are safer to use. Availability and Implementation: http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/software/ Contact: katoh@ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27378296

  9. Imaging sequences for intraoperative MR-guided laparoscopic liver resection in 1.0-T high field open MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, S.S.; Schmidt, S.C.; Schumacher, G. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Charite Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin (Germany); Rump, J.; Streitparth, F.; Teichgraeber, U. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Seebauer, C. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Trauma Surgery, Charite Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin (Germany); Voort, I.V. der [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Gastroenterology, Charite Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to identify suitable interactive (dynamic) magnetic resonance (MR) sequences for real-time MR-guided liver dissection in a 1.0-T high field open MRI system. Four dynamic sequences encompassing balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP), T1W gradient echo (GRE), T2W GRE and T2W fast spin echo (FSE) were analysed regarding the image quality, artefact susceptibility and the performance of SNR and CNR. The T2W FSE sequence (1.5 s/image) was considered superior because of an intraoperative SNR of 6.9 ({+-}0.7) and CNR (vessel to parenchyma) of 5.6 ({+-}1.7) in the interventional setting. As a proof of concept, MR-guided laparoscopic liver resection was performed in two healthy domestic pigs by using the T2W FSE sequence. The additional MR images offered simultaneous multiplanar real-time visualisation of the liver vessels during the intervention and thereby increased the anatomical orientation of the surgeon. (orig.)

  10. External Validation of a Decision Tool To Guide Post-Operative Management of Patients with Secondary Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jasper J; Ram, Kim; Schultz, Marcus J; Boermeester, Marja A

    Timely identification of patients in need of an intervention for abdominal sepsis after initial surgical management of secondary peritonitis is vital but complex. The aim of this study was to validate a decision tool for this purpose and to evaluate its potential to guide post-operative management. A prospective cohort study was conducted on consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery for secondary peritonitis in a single hospital. Assessments using the decision tool, based on one intra-operative and five post-operative variables, were performed on the second and third post-operative days and when the patients' clinical status deteriorated. Scores were compared with the clinical reference standard of persistent sepsis based on the clinical course or findings at imaging or surgery. Additionally, the potential of the decision tool to guide management in terms of diagnostic imaging in three previously defined score categories (low, intermediate, and high) was evaluated. A total of 161 assessments were performed in 69 patients. The majority of cases of secondary peritonitis (68%) were caused by perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. Post-operative persistent sepsis occurred in 28 patients. The discriminative capacity of the decision tool score was fair (area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic = 0.79). The incidence rate differed significantly between the three score categories (p peritonitis, the decision tool score predicts with fair accuracy whether persistent sepsis is present.

  11. A field guide to whole-genome sequencing, assembly and annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom, Robert; Wolf, Jochen B W

    2014-11-01

    Genome sequencing projects were long confined to biomedical model organisms and required the concerted effort of large consortia. Rapid progress in high-throughput sequencing technology and the simultaneous development of bioinformatic tools have democratized the field. It is now within reach for individual research groups in the eco-evolutionary and conservation community to generate de novo draft genome sequences for any organism of choice. Because of the cost and considerable effort involved in such an endeavour, the important first step is to thoroughly consider whether a genome sequence is necessary for addressing the biological question at hand. Once this decision is taken, a genome project requires careful planning with respect to the organism involved and the intended quality of the genome draft. Here, we briefly review the state of the art within this field and provide a step-by-step introduction to the workflow involved in genome sequencing, assembly and annotation with particular reference to large and complex genomes. This tutorial is targeted at scientists with a background in conservation genetics, but more generally, provides useful practical guidance for researchers engaging in whole-genome sequencing projects.

  12. Transperineal gold marker implantation for image-guided external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer. A single institution, prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgo, Kliton; Agoston, Peter; Major, Tibor; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    To present the feasibility and complications of transperineal fiducial marker implantation in prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) Between November 2011 and April 2016, three radiopaque, gold-plated markers were transperineally implanted into the prostate of 300 patients under transrectal ultrasound guidance and with local anaesthesia. A week after the procedure patients filled in a questionnaire regarding pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, rectal bleeding, hematuria, hematospermia or fever symptoms caused by the implantation. Pain was scored on a 1-10 scale, where score 1 meant very weak and score 10 meant unbearable pain. The implanted gold markers were used for daily verification and online correction of patients' setup during IGRT. Based on the questionnaires no patient experienced fever, infection, dysuria or rectal bleeding after implantation. Among the 300 patients, 12 (4%) had hematospermia, 43 (14%) hematuria, which lasted for an average of 3.4 and 1.8 days, respectively. The average pain score was 4.6 (range 0-9). Of 300 patients 87 (29%) felt any pain after the intervention, which took an average of 1.5 days. None of the patients needed analgesics after implantation. Overall, 105 patients (35%) reported less, 80 patients (27%) more, and 94 patients (31%) equal amount of pain during marker implantation compared to biopsy. The 21 patients who had a biopsy performed under general anesthesia did not answer this question. Transperineal gold marker implantation under local anesthesia was well tolerated. Complications were limited; rate and frequency of perioperative pain was comparable to the pain caused by biopsy. The method can be performed safely in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Machbarkeit und Komplikationen der transperinealen Implantation von Goldmarkern bei mit perkutaner Strahlentherapie (IGRT) behandelten Prostatakarzinompatienten. Zwischen November 2011 und April 2016 bekamen 300

  13. Guiding outbreak management by the use of influenza A(H7Nx) virus sequence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, M.; Meijer, A.; Fouchier, R.A.M.; Koch, G.; Li, J.; Pan, J.C.; Shu, Y.L.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The recently identified human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China raise important questions regarding possible source and risk to humans. Sequence comparison with an influenza A(H7N7) outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003 and an A(H7N1) epidemic in Italy in 1999–2000 suggests that

  14. Guiding outbreak management by the use of influenza a(H7NX) virus sequence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jonges (Marcel); A. Meijer (Adam); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G. Koch (Guus); J. Li; J.C. Pan; H. Chen (Hong); Y.L. Shu (Yue-Long); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe recently identified human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China raise important questions regarding possible source and risk to humans. Sequence comparison with an influenza A(H7N7) outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003 and an A(H7N1) epidemic in Italy in 1999-2000 s

  15. The sequence to hydrogenate coronene cations: A journey guided by magic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Cazaux, Stéphanie; Rougeau, Nathalie; Reitsma, Geert; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Teillet-Billy, Dominique; Morisset, Sabine; Spaans, Marco; Schlathölter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of hydrogen attachment to carbonaceous surfaces is essential to a wide variety of research fields and technologies such as hydrogen storage for transportation, precise localization of hydrogen in electronic devices and the formation of cosmic H2. For coronene cations as prototypical Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, the existence of magic numbers upon hydrogenation was uncovered experimentally. Quantum chemistry calculations show that hydrogenation follows a site-specific sequence leading to the appearance of cations having 5, 11, or 17 hydrogen atoms attached, exactly the magic numbers found in the experiments. For these closed-shell cations, further hydrogenation requires appreciable structural changes associated with a high transition barrier. Controlling specific hydrogenation pathways would provide the possibility to tune the location of hydrogen attachment and the stability of the system. The sequence to hydrogenate PAHs, leading to PAHs with magic numbers of H atoms att...

  16. Profiling single-guide RNA specificity reveals a mismatch sensitive core sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Hou, Yingzi; Zhang, Pingjing; Zhang, Zhenxi; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Letian; Niu, Leilei; Yang, Yi; Liang, Da; Yi, Fan; Peng, Wei; Feng, Wenjian; Yang, Ying; Chen, Jianxin; Zhu, York Yuanyuan; Zhang, Li-He; Du, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Targeting specificity is an essential issue in the development of CRISPR-Cas technology. Using a luciferase activation assay, off-target cleavage activity of sgRNA was systematically investigated on single nucleotide-mismatched targets. In addition to confirming that PAM-proximal mismatches are less tolerated than PAM-distal mismatches, our study further identified a “core” sequence that is highly sensitive to target-mismatch. This sequence is of 4-nucleotide long, located at +4 to +7 position upstream of PAM, and positioned in a steric restriction region when assembled into Cas9 endonuclease. Our study also found that, single or multiple target mismatches at this region abolished off-target cleavage mediated by active sgRNAs, thus proposing a principle for gene-specific sgRNA design. Characterization of a mismatch sensitive “core” sequence not only enhances our understanding of how this elegant system functions, but also facilitates our efforts to improve targeting specificity of a sgRNA. PMID:28098181

  17. Seqüenciamento de peptídeos usando espectrometria de massas: um guia prático Peptide sequencing using mass spectrometry: a practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Delmar Cantú

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the basics of peptide mass spectra interpretation applied to proteomics and is directed to chemists, biochemists and biologists. The manuscript presents a well detailed protocol aiming to serve as a first choice guide for understanding peptide sequencing. The tutorial was elaborated based on both a thorough bibliographic revision and the author's experience. In order to prove the applicability of the proposed guide, spectra obtained on different instruments have been successfully interpreted by applying the presented rational.

  18. CPHmodels-3.0--remote homology modeling using structure-guided sequence profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    CPHmodels-3.0 is a web server predicting protein 3D structure by use of single template homology modeling. The server employs a hybrid of the scoring functions of CPHmodels-2.0 and a novel remote homology-modeling algorithm. A query sequence is first attempted modeled using the fast CPHmodels-2.......0 profile-profile scoring function suitable for close homology modeling. The new computational costly remote homology-modeling algorithm is only engaged provided that no suitable PDB template is identified in the initial search. CPHmodels-3.0 was benchmarked in the CASP8 competition and produced models.......3 A. These performance values place the CPHmodels-3.0 method in the group of high performing 3D prediction tools. Beside its accuracy, one of the important features of the method is its speed. For most queries, the response time of the server is...

  19. A novel adaptive needle insertion sequencing for robotic, single needle MR-guided high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borot de Battisti, M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Hautvast, G.; Binnekamp, D.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Maenhout, M.; Moerland, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has gained increasing interest as a treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer because of the superior value of MRI for tumor and surrounding tissues localization. To enable needle insertion into the prostate with the patient in the MR bore, a single needle MR-compatible robotic system involving needle-by-needle dose delivery has been developed at our institution. Throughout the intervention, dose delivery may be impaired by: (1) sub-optimal needle positioning caused by e.g. needle bending, (2) intra-operative internal organ motion such as prostate rotations or swelling, or intra-procedural rectum or bladder filling. This may result in failure to reach clinical constraints. To assess the first aforementioned challenge, a recent study from our research group demonstrated that the deposited dose may be greatly improved by real-time adaptive planning with feedback on the actual needle positioning. However, the needle insertion sequence is left to the doctor and therefore, this may result in sub-optimal dose delivery. In this manuscript, a new method is proposed to determine and update automatically the needle insertion sequence. This strategy is based on the determination of the most sensitive needle track. The sensitivity of a needle track is defined as its impact on the dose distribution in case of sub-optimal positioning. A stochastic criterion is thus presented to determine each needle track sensitivity based on needle insertion simulations. To assess the proposed sequencing strategy, HDR prostate brachytherapy was simulated on 11 patients with varying number of needle insertions. Sub-optimal needle positioning was simulated at each insertion (modeled by typical random angulation errors). In 91% of the scenarios, the dose distribution improved when the needle was inserted into the most compared to the least sensitive needle track. The computation time for sequencing was less than 6 s per needle track. The

  20. CPHmodels-3.0--remote homology modeling using structure-guided sequence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl

    2010-07-01

    CPHmodels-3.0 is a web server predicting protein 3D structure by use of single template homology modeling. The server employs a hybrid of the scoring functions of CPHmodels-2.0 and a novel remote homology-modeling algorithm. A query sequence is first attempted modeled using the fast CPHmodels-2.0 profile-profile scoring function suitable for close homology modeling. The new computational costly remote homology-modeling algorithm is only engaged provided that no suitable PDB template is identified in the initial search. CPHmodels-3.0 was benchmarked in the CASP8 competition and produced models for 94% of the targets (117 out of 128), 74% were predicted as high reliability models (87 out of 117). These achieved an average RMSD of 4.6 A when superimposed to the 3D structure. The remaining 26% low reliably models (30 out of 117) could superimpose to the true 3D structure with an average RMSD of 9.3 A. These performance values place the CPHmodels-3.0 method in the group of high performing 3D prediction tools. Beside its accuracy, one of the important features of the method is its speed. For most queries, the response time of the server is web server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/CPHmodels/.

  1. Discovering [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Laboratory through a Sequence of Guided-Inquiry Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, H. Darrell; Justice, David; Brauer, Shari; Landis, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This sequence of three guided-inquiry labs is designed for a second-semester general chemistry course and challenges students to discover basic theoretical principles associated with [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Students learn to identify and explain basic concepts of magnetic resonance and vibrational…

  2. Discovering [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Laboratory through a Sequence of Guided-Inquiry Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, H. Darrell; Justice, David; Brauer, Shari; Landis, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This sequence of three guided-inquiry labs is designed for a second-semester general chemistry course and challenges students to discover basic theoretical principles associated with [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Students learn to identify and explain basic concepts of magnetic resonance and vibrational…

  3. A base-sequence-modulated Golay code improves the excitation and measurement of ultrasonic guided waves in long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojun; Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi

    2012-11-01

    Researchers are interested in using ultrasonic guided waves (GWs) to assess long bones. However, GWs suffer high attenuation when they propagate in long bones, resulting in a low SNR. To overcome this limitation, this paper introduces a base-sequence-modulated Golay code (BSGC) to produce larger amplitude and improve the SNR in the ultrasound evaluation of long bones. A 16-bit Golay code was used for excitation in computer simulation. The decoded GWs and the traditional GWs, which were generated by a single pulse, agreed well after decoding the received signals, and the SNR was improved by 26.12 dB. In the experiments using bovine bones, the BSGC excitation produced the amplitudes which were at least 237 times greater than those produced by a single pulse excitation. The BSGC excitation also allowed the GWs to be received over a longer distance between two transducers. The results suggest the BSGC excitation has the potential to measure GWs and assess long bones.

  4. Treatment of low-strength wastewater using immobilized biomass in a sequencing batch external loop reactor: influence of the medium superficial velocity on the stability and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo E.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sequencing batch bioreactor with external circulation of the liquid phase wherein the biomass was immobilized on a polyurethane foam matrix was analyzed, focussing on the influence of the liquid superficial velocity on the reactor's stability and efficiency. Eight-hour cycles were carried out at 30ºC treating glucose-based synthetic wastewater around 500 mgDQO/L. The performance of the reactor was assessed without circulation and with circulating liquid superficial velocity between 0.034 and 0.188 cm/s. The reactor attained operating stability and a high organic matter removal was achieved when liquid was circulated. A first order model was used to evaluate the influence of the liquid superficial velocity (vS, resulting in an increase in the apparent first order parameter when vS increased from 0.034 to 0.094 cm/s. The parameter value remained unchangeable when 0.188 cm/s was applied, indicating that beyond this value no improvement on liquid mass transfer was observed. Moreover, the necessary time to reach the final removal efficiency decreased when liquid circulation was applied, indicating that a 3-hour cycle could be enough.

  5. Long span DNA paired-end-tag (DNA-PET sequencing strategy for the interrogation of genomic structural mutations and fusion-point-guided reconstruction of amplicons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yao

    Full Text Available Structural variations (SVs contribute significantly to the variability of the human genome and extensive genomic rearrangements are a hallmark of cancer. While genomic DNA paired-end-tag (DNA-PET sequencing is an attractive approach to identify genomic SVs, the current application of PET sequencing with short insert size DNA can be insufficient for the comprehensive mapping of SVs in low complexity and repeat-rich genomic regions. We employed a recently developed procedure to generate PET sequencing data using large DNA inserts of 10-20 kb and compared their characteristics with short insert (1 kb libraries for their ability to identify SVs. Our results suggest that although short insert libraries bear an advantage in identifying small deletions, they do not provide significantly better breakpoint resolution. In contrast, large inserts are superior to short inserts in providing higher physical genome coverage for the same sequencing cost and achieve greater sensitivity, in practice, for the identification of several classes of SVs, such as copy number neutral and complex events. Furthermore, our results confirm that large insert libraries allow for the identification of SVs within repetitive sequences, which cannot be spanned by short inserts. This provides a key advantage in studying rearrangements in cancer, and we show how it can be used in a fusion-point-guided-concatenation algorithm to study focally amplified regions in cancer.

  6. What Do Biochemistry Students Pay Attention to in External Representations of Protein Translation? Tthe Case of the Shine-Dalgarno Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry instructors often use external representations--ranging from static diagrams to dynamic animations and from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations--to help their students visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. However, relatively little is known about how…

  7. 国内媒介对外传播的偏向及引导路径研究%Research on the bias of the external communication of domestic media and the guiding path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧民; 孙金晶

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the external communication of domestic media in international multi-net-work media environment and achieve the discourse power of the domestic media in such environment,this paper analyzed the cause of external communication bias of domestic media on the basis of its influence by combing the principles of communication theory.In addition,the guiding paths were proposed:communi-cation content innovation,network leadership system improvement,social platform construction,skillful use of the elite and the monitoring of network public opinion.%为研究国际多元网络媒介环境中国内媒介对外传播问题,实现国内媒介在国际网络环境中的话语权,结合传播学原理,在分析国内媒介对外传播偏向影响的基础上分析当下多元网络媒介环境中国内媒介对外传播偏向产生的原因,提出了引导路径:创新传播内容、完善网络领导体制、搭建社会化平台、巧用精英人物和监控网络舆情。

  8. CRISPR multitargeter: a web tool to find common and unique CRISPR single guide RNA targets in a set of similar sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V Prykhozhij

    Full Text Available Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1 a set of input sequences; 2 a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3 transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology.

  9. CRISPR multitargeter: a web tool to find common and unique CRISPR single guide RNA targets in a set of similar sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Gaston, Daniel; Berman, Jason N

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering has been revolutionized by the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The type IIB Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system functions in many species and additional types of CRISPR/Cas systems are under development. In the type II system, expression of CRISPR single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting a defined sequence and Cas9 generates a sequence-specific nuclease inducing small deletions or insertions. Moreover, knock-in of large DNA inserts has been shown at the sites targeted by sgRNAs and Cas9. Several tools are available for designing sgRNAs that target unique locations in the genome. However, the ability to find sgRNA targets common to several similar sequences or, by contrast, unique to each of these sequences, would also be advantageous. To provide such a tool for several types of CRISPR/Cas system and many species, we developed the CRISPR MultiTargeter software. Similar DNA sequences in question are duplicated genes and sets of exons of different transcripts of a gene. Thus, we implemented a basic sgRNA target search of input sequences for single-sgRNA and two-sgRNA/Cas9 nickase targeting, as well as common and unique sgRNA target searches in 1) a set of input sequences; 2) a set of similar genes or transcripts; or 3) transcripts a single gene. We demonstrate potential uses of the program by identifying unique isoform-specific sgRNA sites in 71% of zebrafish alternative transcripts and common sgRNA target sites in approximately 40% of zebrafish duplicated gene pairs. The design of unique targets in alternative exons is helpful because it will facilitate functional genomic studies of transcript isoforms. Similarly, its application to duplicated genes may simplify multi-gene mutational targeting experiments. Overall, this program provides a unique interface that will enhance use of CRISPR/Cas technology.

  10. TH-E-17A-11: Tracking Tumor’s Boundary in MV Image Sequences for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X; Homma, N; Ichiji, K; Abe, M; Sugita, N; Yoshizawa, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Narita, Y; Takai, Y [Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a level set method (LSM)-based algorithm to track the tumor’s boundary in MV image sequences for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Method: Four MV image sequences, each of which consists of 100 frames at frame rate of 7.5 Hz, are acquired by using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) (Varian Medical Systems, Pal Alto, USA) during the treatment of lung cancer. In the first frame of each sequence, we roughly delineate an initial contour of the target tumor by hand. Using a LSM-based algorithm, the initial contour can automatically shape itself to fit the tumor, and eventually detect the tumor’s boundary. We then employ the tumor’s boundary obtained from the previous frame as the initial contour in the subsequent frame, so that the LSM-based method can drive this initial contour to the tumor’s boundary quickly and fulfill a tracking task. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on four MV image sequences. The mean tracking errors were 0.23, 0.29, 0.37, and 1.18 mm, and their corresponding standard deviations were 0.97, 0.75, 1.2 and 1.48 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional tumor tracking techniques, the proposed system is capable not only of tracking the tumor’s position, but also of detecting the tumor’s boundary varying with the respiration during the treatment. Considering current radiation therapy technique, for example, dynamical multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) has been widely applied in clinical treatment, this study indicates the potential for significant accuracy improvement in radiation therapy. This work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical Systems (Palo Alto, California)

  11. MR-sequences for prostate cancer diagnostics: validation based on the PI-RADS scoring system and targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmoeller, Lars; Quentin, Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, Christian; Hiester, Andreas; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the accuracy of MR sequences [T2-, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (T2WI, DWI, and DCE) imaging] at 3T, based on the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) scoring system [Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)] using MR-guided in-bore prostate biopsies as reference standard. In 235 consecutive patients [aged 65.7 ± 7.9 years; median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 8 ng/ml] with multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), 566 lesions were scored according to PI-RADS. Histology of all lesions was obtained by targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy. In 200 lesions, biopsy revealed prostate cancer (PCa). The area under the curve (AUC) for cancer detection was 0.70 (T2WI), 0.80 (DWI), and 0.74 (DCE). A combination of T2WI + DWI, T2WI + DCE, and DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81, 0.78, and 0.79. A summed PI-RADS score of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81. For higher grade PCa (primary Gleason pattern ≥ 4), the AUC was 0.85 for T2WI + DWI, 0.84 for T2WI + DCE, 0.86 for DWI + DCE, and 0.87 for T2WI + DWI + DCE. The AUC for T2WI + DWI + DCE for transitional-zone PCa was 0.73, and for the peripheral zone 0.88. Regarding higher-grade PCa, AUC for transitional-zone PCa was 0.88, and for peripheral zone 0.96. The combination of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved the highest test accuracy, especially in patients with higher-grade PCa. The use of ≤2 MR sequences led to lower AUC in higher-grade and peripheral-zone cancers. (orig.)

  12. The simple fool's guide to population genomics via RNA-Seq: An introduction to high-throughput sequencing data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Wit, P.; Pespeni, M.H.; Ladner, J.T.;

    2012-01-01

    to Population Genomics via RNA-seq' (SFG), a document intended to serve as an easy-to-follow protocol, walking a user through one example of high-throughput sequencing data analysis of nonmodel organisms. It is by no means an exhaustive protocol, but rather serves as an introduction to the bioinformatic methods......://sfg.stanford.edu, that includes detailed protocols for data processing and analysis, along with a repository of custom-made scripts and sample files. Steps included in the SFG range from tissue collection to de novo assembly, blast annotation, alignment, gene expression, functional enrichment, SNP detection, principal components...

  13. Multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging integration framework for image-guided catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Milles, Julien; van Huls van Taxis, Carine; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Zeppenfeld, Katja; van der Geest, Rob J.

    2012-02-01

    Catheter ablation is an important option to treat ventricular tachycardias (VT). Scar-related VT is among the most difficult to treat, because myocardial scar, which is the underlying arrhythmogenic substrate, is patient-specific and often highly complex. The scar image from preprocedural late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE- MRI) can provide high-resolution substrate information and, if integrated at the early stage of the procedure, can largely facilitate the procedure with image guidance. In clinical practice, however, early MRI integration is difficult because available integration tools rely on matching the MRI surface mesh and electroanatomical mapping (EAM) points, which is only possible after extensive EAM has been performed. In this paper, we propose to use a priori information on patient posture and a multi-sequence MRI integration framework to achieve accurate MRI integration that can be accomplished at an early stage of the procedure. From the MRI sequences, the left ventricular (LV) geometry, myocardial scar characteristics, and an anatomical landmark indicating the origin of the left main coronary artery are obtained preprocedurally using image processing techniques. Thereby the integration can be realized at the beginning of the procedure after acquiring a single mapping point. The integration method has been evaluated postprocedurally in terms of LV shape match and actual scar match. Compared to the iterative closest point (ICP) method that uses high-intensity mapping (225+/-49 points), our method using one mapping point reached a mean point-to-surface distance of 5.09+/-1.09 mm (vs. 3.85+/-0.60 mm, p<0.05), and scar correlation of -0.51+/-0.14 (vs. -0.50+/-0.14, p=NS).

  14. Automatic detection of the carotid artery boundary on cross-sectional MR image sequences using a circle model guided dynamic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brambs Hans

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic aerobe training has positive effects on the compliance of dedicated arterial walls. The adaptations of the arterial structure and function are associated with the blood flow-induced changes of the wall shear stress which induced vascular remodelling via nitric oxide delivered from the endothelial cell. In order to assess functional changes of the common carotid artery over time in these processes, a precise measurement technique is necessary. Before this study, a reliable, precise, and quick method to perform this work is not present. Methods We propose a fully automated algorithm to analyze the cross-sectional area of the carotid artery in MR image sequences. It contains two phases: (1 position detection of the carotid artery, (2 accurate boundary identification of the carotid artery. In the first phase, we use intensity, area size and shape as features to discriminate the carotid artery from other tissues and vessels. In the second phase, the directional gradient, Hough transform, and circle model guided dynamic programming are used to identify the boundary accurately. Results We test the system stability using contrast degraded images (contrast resolutions range from 50% to 90%. The unsigned error ranges from 2.86% ± 2.24% to 3.03% ± 2.40%. The test of noise degraded images (SNRs range from 16 to 20 dB shows the unsigned error ranging from 2.63% ± 2.06% to 3.12% ± 2.11%. The test of raw images has an unsigned error 2.56% ± 2.10% compared to the manual tracings. Conclusions We have proposed an automated system which is able to detect carotid artery cross sectional boundary in MRI sequences during heart cycles. The accuracy reaches 2.56% ± 2.10% compared to the manual tracings. The system is stable, reliable and results are reproducible.

  15. Reviews Opera: Doctor Atomic DVD: Doctor Atomic Equipment: Digital stopclock with external trigger Book: I Cyborg Book: Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Book: Mere Thermodynamics Book: CGP revision guides Book: Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible Book: Back of the Envelope Physics Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Doctor Atomic The new Doctor Atomic opera provkes discussion on ethics I Cyborg The world's first human cyborg shares his life story in I Cyborg Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Flat Earth gives us a different perspective on creationism Mere Thermodynamics An introductory text on the three laws CGP revision guides This revision guide suits all courses and every pocket Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible The mystery of many illusions are solved in this book Back of the Envelope Physics This reference deserves a place on your bookshelf WORTH A LOOK Doctor Atomic The DVD doesn't do justice to the live performance Digital stopclock with external trigger Use these stopclocks when you need an external trigger WEB WATCH Webcasts reach out to an online audience

  16. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  17. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  18. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  19. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  20. Recurrent Network Models of Sequence Generation and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kanaka; Harvey, Christopher D; Tank, David W

    2016-04-01

    Sequential activation of neurons is a common feature of network activity during a variety of behaviors, including working memory and decision making. Previous network models for sequences and memory emphasized specialized architectures in which a principled mechanism is pre-wired into their connectivity. Here we demonstrate that, starting from random connectivity and modifying a small fraction of connections, a largely disordered recurrent network can produce sequences and implement working memory efficiently. We use this process, called Partial In-Network Training (PINning), to model and match cellular resolution imaging data from the posterior parietal cortex during a virtual memory-guided two-alternative forced-choice task. Analysis of the connectivity reveals that sequences propagate by the cooperation between recurrent synaptic interactions and external inputs, rather than through feedforward or asymmetric connections. Together our results suggest that neural sequences may emerge through learning from largely unstructured network architectures.

  1. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  2. Expanding our understanding of sequence-function relationships of type II polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters: bioinformatics-guided identification of Frankiamicin A from Frankia sp. EAN1pec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ogasawara

    Full Text Available A large and rapidly increasing number of unstudied "orphan" natural product biosynthetic gene clusters are being uncovered in sequenced microbial genomes. An important goal of modern natural products research is to be able to accurately predict natural product structures and biosynthetic pathways from these gene cluster sequences. This requires both development of bioinformatic methods for global analysis of these gene clusters and experimental characterization of select products produced by gene clusters with divergent sequence characteristics. Here, we conduct global bioinformatic analysis of all available type II polyketide gene cluster sequences and identify a conserved set of gene clusters with unique ketosynthase α/β sequence characteristics in the genomes of Frankia species, a group of Actinobacteria with underexploited natural product biosynthetic potential. Through LC-MS profiling of extracts from several Frankia species grown under various conditions, we identified Frankia sp. EAN1pec as producing a compound with spectral characteristics consistent with the type II polyketide produced by this gene cluster. We isolated the compound, a pentangular polyketide which we named frankiamicin A, and elucidated its structure by NMR and labeled precursor feeding. We also propose biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for frankiamicin A based on comparative genomic analysis and literature precedent, and conduct bioactivity assays of the compound. Our findings provide new information linking this set of Frankia gene clusters with the compound they produce, and our approach has implications for accurate functional prediction of the many other type II polyketide clusters present in bacterial genomes.

  3. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Venuti

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  4. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Venuti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  5. Cosmetology: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a cosmetology vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  6. Sunshine School's S.O.P.: Sequenced Objectives for Preschoolers. An Evaluation and Instruction Guide for Working with the Developmentally Delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine School, Gainesville, FL.

    Developed by professional educational staff, the curriculum of developmentally sequenced objectives for preschoolers (SOP) is designed for use in infant stimulation programs, for preschool training for all levels of retardation, with severely and profoundly retarded school age children, and for trainable and educable children during the earlier…

  7. The sequence of administration of 1.5% mepivacaine and 0.5% bupivacaine does not affect latency of block onset or duration of analgesia in ultrasound-guided interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsden, Jeff; Shariat, Ali; Hadzic, Admir; Xu, Daquan; Patel, Vijay; Maliakal, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    During peripheral nerve blockade, different local anesthetics may be sequentially administered. Typically, a short- or intermediate-acting local anesthetic is administered before a long-acting local anesthetic to achieve a block with rapid onset and long duration. However, there is a paucity of data on advantages of such sequencing. We hypothesized that when using a sequential mixture of mepivacaine and bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided interscalene block, the order of injection of the drugs does not influence the clinical characteristics of the block achieved. Sixty-four patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery (aged 18-65 years; ASA physical status I-II) with a single-injection ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block as sole anesthetic were studied. The subjects were randomized to receive 1 of 2 local anesthetic sequences: 15 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% followed by 15 mL of bupivacaine 0.5% (group A), or the same local anesthetics in the reverse order (group B). The durations of sensory and motor block were the primary outcomes. Block onset was also assessed. Duration of motor block was similar between group A and group B (10.1 ± 4.7 hours vs 10.3 ± 5.1 hours, mean difference 0.2 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] -3.3 to 2.9, P = 0.9). Duration of analgesia was also similar between group A and group B (9.5 ± 5.6 hours vs 10.2 ± 4.5 hours, mean difference 0.7 hours, 95% CI -3.2 to 1.9, P = 0.42). Onset of sensory block was similar between the 2 groups (15.9 ± 7.1 minutes for group A, 13.9 ± 7.0 minutes for group B, mean difference 1.9 minutes, 95% CI -1.4 to 5.2, P = 0.25). The sequence in which 15 mL mepivacaine 1.5% and 15 mL bupivacaine 0.5% are administered does not seem to have a clinically meaningful effect on duration or onset of ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block.

  8. Comprehensive screening of target molecules by next-generation sequencing in patients with malignant solid tumors: guiding entry into phase I clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Yuko; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Kohno, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kubo, Takashi; Kato, Mamoru; Iwasa, Satoru; Ochiai, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    It is still controversial whether comprehensive genome screening of target molecules by next generation sequencing (NGS) is needed to increase clinical efficacy of investigational drugs or accelerate drug development, although several studies are being carried out. Therefore, we performed a prospective study to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive gene screening in this setting. Our findings indicate that actionable alterations were identified in 45% of the analyzed patients, most freque...

  9. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  10. External NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain of plants and some fungi contains multiple rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, of which at least two are located on the outer surface of the inner membrane (i.e., external NADH and external NADPH dehydrogenases). Annotated sequences of the putative alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii demonstrated similarity to plant and fungal sequences. We also studied activity of these dehydrogenases in isolated A. castellanii mitochondria. External NADPH oxidation was observed for the first time in protist mitochondria. The coupling parameters were similar for external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation, indicating similar efficiencies of ATP synthesis. Both external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation had an optimal pH of 6.8 independent of relevant ubiquinol-oxidizing pathways, the cytochrome pathway or a GMP-stimulated alternative oxidase. The maximal oxidizing activity with external NADH was almost double that with external NADPH. However, a lower Michaelis constant (K(M)) value for external NADPH oxidation was observed compared to that for external NADH oxidation. Stimulation by Ca(2+) was approximately 10 times higher for external NADPH oxidation, while NADH dehydrogenase(s) appeared to be slightly dependent on Ca(2+). Our results indicate that external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases similar to those in plant and fungal mitochondria function in mitochondria of A. castellanii.

  11. Nanoparticle-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and nano-sized particles for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of a target tissue. More specifically, the invention relates to nano-sized particles comprising X-ray-imaging contrast agents in solid form with the ability to block x-rays, allowing for simult...... for simultaneous or integrated external beam radiotherapy and imaging, e.g., using computed tomography (CT)....

  12. External legitimation in international new ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores within the framework of new venture legitimation how and why international new ventures acquire external legitimacy and strive for survival in the face of critical events. Following a longitudinal multiple-case study methodology that was adopted for the purpose of theory...... threshold, and on the valuation of the venture are discussed and respective propositions are put forward to guide future research....

  13. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2010-01-01

    We prove that externally definable sets in first order NIP theories have honest definitions, giving a new proof of Shelah's expansion theorem. Also we discuss a weak notion of stable embeddedness true in this context. Those results are then used to prove a general theorem on dependent pairs, which in particular answers a question of Baldwin and Benedikt on naming an indiscernible sequence.

  14. Deployment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  15. DNA sequence analysis to guide the release of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna, Psittaciformes, Aves) from the illegal trade back into the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gislaine A; Caparroz, Renato

    2013-03-01

    The illegal wildlife trade is one of the major threats to Brazil's biodiversity. Approximately 80 % of illegally captured animals are birds, and 4 % of those are parrots. Although many seized birds do not survive, those that are recovered may be returned to the wild. The release of seized individuals into the wild should be conducted with caution, as local populations may suffer adverse effects if genetically different individuals are introduced. In this study, we evaluated the genetic relationships between 13 illegally captured blue-and-yellow macaws selected for release in northeastern Goiás, Brazil, and previously studied Brazilian macaw populations. We identified the seized macaws that were genetically similar to those from northwestern Goiás and that were therefore most suitable for release in that area. The genetic relationship was evaluated by sequence analysis of 403 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region. Relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes were computed via a median-joining network. Only six of the seized macaws were closely related to the macaws of northeastern Goiás, indicating that those macaws were potential candidates for release in that area. However, the release of these birds should follow all technical recommendations required by the Brazilian environmental authorities.

  16. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  17. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  18. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  19. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  20. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  1. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  2. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  3. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  4. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  5. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  6. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  7. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  8. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  9. MP users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brent, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    MP is a package of ANSI Standard Fortran (ANS X3.9-1966) subroutines for performing multiple-precision floating-point arithmetic and evaluating elementary and special functions. The subroutines are machine independent and the precision is arbitrary, subject to storage limitations. The User's Guide describes the routines and their calling sequences, example and test programs, use of the Augment precompiler, and gives installation instructions for the package.

  10. Guided labworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lærke Bang

    For the last 40 years physics education research has shown poor learning outcomes of guided labs. Still this is found to be a very used teaching method in the upper secodary schools. This study explains the teacher's choice of guided labs throught the concept of redesign as obstacle dislodgement...

  11. Synchronization of cardiorhythm by weak external forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Anishchenko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the possibility to synchronize cardiorhythm of a human by periodic and aperiodic sequences of light and sound pulses. Aperiodic forcing is defined by variation of RR intervals of another subject. Phase locking between cardiorhythm and weak external forcing is detected on finite time intervals. We observe the 1:1 synchronization for periodic forcing and n:m synchronization for aperiodic one.

  12. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  13. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  14. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  15. HBR guides

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Nancy; Dillon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Master your most pressing professional challenges with this seven-volume set that collects the smartest best practices from leading experts all in one place. "HBR Guide to Better Business Writing" and "HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations" help you perfect your communication skills; "HBR Guide to Managing Up and Across" and "HBR Guide to Office Politics" show you how to build the best professional relationships; "HBR Guide to Finance Basics for Managers" is the one book you'll ever need to teach you about the numbers; "HBR Guide to Project Management" addresses tough questions such as how to manage stakeholder expectations and how to manage uncertainty in a complex project; and "HBR Guide to Getting the Right Work Done" goes beyond basic productivity tips to teach you how to prioritize and focus on your work. This specially priced set of the most popular books in the series makes a perfect gift for aspiring leaders looking for trusted advice. Arm yourself with the advice you need to succeed on the job, from ...

  16. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  17. Colostomy Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects Managing Cancer-related Side Effects Ostomies Colostomy Guide Colostomy surgery is done for many different diseases and problems. Some colostomies are done because of cancer; others are not. ...

  18. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  19. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  20. Expert Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    This guide summarizes the work of Subtask B of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 “Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings” and is based on the contributions from the participating countries. The publication is an official Annex report. With a focus on innovative building concepts...... that dynamically respond to changes in climate and user demands, the report describes building concepts, design methods and tools that have been tested in theory and practice in buildings around the world. This guide is aimed at designers and consultants and describes the principles of responsive building concepts...

  1. Evaluation of embryological sequences of ear anomalies and its radiological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Amarnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To correlate the sequence of embryological development of ear with radiological imaging. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 23 patients of age group 11 months to 27 years with malformed external ear/microtia and hearing loss. The children with postoperative changes, acute hearing loss (such as infection, trauma were excluded from the study. We used high-resolution computed tomography, with axial and coronal sections to examine the temporal bones of patients. Results: Of the 23 cases, 12 cases had external ear anomaly and 11 cases had cochlear anomaly. In patients with the external ear anomaly, seven cases had associated middle ear malformations, one patient had associated middle and inner ear anomaly, one had anomalous course of facial nerve, and three cases had isolated external ear anomalies. In patients with inner ear anomalies, one patient had complete labyrinthine aplasia, one had cochlear dysplasia with incomplete cochlear turns, four had common cavity malformations, one had cystic featureless cochlea with dilated and cystic vestibule, two patients had small cochlea with the middle and apical turns coalescing to form a cystic apex, one patient had small rudimentary cochlea, and the other one had dilated vestibule and enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac with cochlear dysmorphism. Conclusion: Most of the children with malformed pinna had external auditory canal atresia with associated middle ear anomalies. Though the inner ear development is independent of external and middle ear development, we insist on the fact that insult during the 1 st month of embryogenesis can result in associated abnormalities involving external, middle, and inner ear. Developmental arrest at various stages of inner ear development results in various types of cochlear anomalies with associated vestibular, semicircular canal abnormalities, and rarely associated with middle and external ear anomalies. Hence, clear knowledge about embryology will help to

  2. Homebuyer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Roger P.; Harris, Jack

    Designed to assist prospective buyers in making such important decisions as whether to buy a new or older home and within what price range, the guide provides information on the purchase process. Discussion of the purchase process covers the life-cycle costs (recurring homeownership costs that must be met every month); selection of a home;…

  3. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  4. External fixators in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  5. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs II

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2012-01-01

    We continue investigating the structure of externally definable sets in NIP theories and preservation of NIP after expanding by new predicates. Most importantly: types over finite sets are uniformly definable; over a model, a family of non-forking instances of a formula (with parameters ranging over a type-definable set) can be covered with finitely many invariant types; we give some criteria for the boundedness of an expansion by a new predicate in a distal theory; naming an arbitrary small indiscernible sequence preserves NIP, while naming a large one doesn't; there are models of NIP theories over which all 1-types are definable, but not all n-types.

  6. Guided Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Presented are four mathematical discoveries made by students on an arithmetical function using the Fibonacci sequence. Discussed is the nature of the role of the teacher in directing the students' discovery activities. (KR)

  7. Guide for the Education of Foreign Students Human Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, August G., Ed.; Kovach, Joseph W., Ed.

    This guide is designed to outline the ideal experience for both sponsored and nonsponsored foreign students in U. S. academic institutions and communities. The guide is both schematic and narrative in order to guide the experience of foreign student and the sequence of related events under ideal conditions. Ten stages of events include planning…

  8. Skepticism, contextualism, externalism and modality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-01-01

    .... However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated...

  9. MR-guided lumbar sympathicolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Claudius W.; Schott, Ulrich G.; Pereira, Philippe L.; Truebenbach, Jochen; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Schneider, Wilke [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of MR-guided lumbar sympathicolysis (LSL) in a non-selected patient population. One hundred one MR-guided LSL procedures were performed in 89 patients according to Haaga's technique using a horizontally open clinical MR system (0.2 T) and non-ferromagnetic 20-G cannulas (neurolysis, n=93; blockade, n=8). Only gradient-recalled sequences in either single or multislice mode [fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) and fast low-angle shot] were applied for anatomical survey and needle guiding. Bupivacaine injection was monitored with MR fluoroscopically. Fluid distribution was subsequently documented in a CT scan in 65 patients. Ninety-one LSL procedures could be successfully completed. Ten patients were not treated using MR due to patient inconvenience, severe motion artifacts (n=4 each), excessive spondylophytes, and retroperitoneal hematoma (n=1 each). One case of ureteral necrosis occurred. Motion artifacts were rated less severe in single-slice FISP sequences and in obese patients. An average of 3.48 sequence measurements were required for definitive needle placement. Average table time was 32.3 min. An MR-guided LSL is feasible and can be performed with acceptable safety and time effort. It can be recommended for repeated sympathetic blockades in younger patients to avoid cumulative irradiation associated with CT guidance. (orig.)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: isolated lissencephaly sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions isolated lissencephaly sequence isolated lissencephaly ...

  11. The DWPF Melter proposed heat up sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.

    1989-08-11

    Per the request of DWPT supervision, a proposed heatup sequence for the DWPF Melter has been documented in this report. DWPF personnel will use this report as a guide to write the detailed DWPF Melter startup plan. 6 refs.

  12. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  13. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution (DK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark); Willumsen, E.; Kristensen, N.B. [COWI (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AiGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Inititally, a brief description of the ExternE Transport methodology is given and it is summarised how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area. (au)

  14. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies...

  15. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  16. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  17. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  18. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  19. 分布式环境下基于多UIO的测试序列生成方法%Multiple UIO-based test sequence generation for distributed systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文宇; 曾红卫; 缪淮扣

    2008-01-01

    In developing distributed systems, conformance testing is required to determine whether an implementation under test (IUT) conforms to its specification. With distributed test architectures involving multiple remote testers, testing approaches may become more complicated because of issues known as controllability and observability problems. Based on a finite state machine (FSM) representation of the system's specification, this paper proposes a new method to generate a test sequence utilizing multiple UIO sequences. The method is essentially guided by the way of minimizing the use of external coordination messages and input/output operations. Experiments are given to evaluate the proposed method.

  20. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  1. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  2. Industrial Cooperative Education Co-op: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 2-year cooperative program in industrial education. The guide consists of a course description;…

  3. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  4. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  5. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  6. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  7. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  8. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  9. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective of...

  10. Statistical mechanics of secondary structures formed by random RNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, R; Hwa, T

    2002-03-01

    The formation of secondary structures by a random RNA sequence is studied as a model system for the sequence-structure problem omnipresent in biopolymers. Several toy energy models are introduced to allow detailed analytical and numerical studies. First, a two-replica calculation is performed. By mapping the two-replica problem to the denaturation of a single homogeneous RNA molecule in six-dimensional embedding space, we show that sequence disorder is perturbatively irrelevant, i.e., an RNA molecule with weak sequence disorder is in a molten phase where many secondary structures with comparable total energy coexist. A numerical study of various models at high temperature reproduces behaviors characteristic of the molten phase. On the other hand, a scaling argument based on the external statistics of rare regions can be constructed to show that the low-temperature phase is unstable to sequence disorder. We performed a detailed numerical study of the low-temperature phase using the droplet theory as a guide, and characterized the statistics of large-scale, low-energy excitations of the secondary structures from the ground state structure. We find the excitation energy to grow very slowly (i.e., logarithmically) with the length scale of the excitation, suggesting the existence of a marginal glass phase. The transition between the low-temperature glass phase and the high-temperature molten phase is also characterized numerically. It is revealed by a change in the coefficient of the logarithmic excitation energy, from being disorder dominated to being entropy dominated.

  11. Dna Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  12. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  13. Total cross-section for photon-axion conversions in external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Soa, D V; Tham, T D

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider the conversion of the photon into axion in the external electromagnetic fields, namely in the static fields and in a periodic field of the wave guide. The total cross-sections for the conversion are evaluated in detail. The result shows that with strong strength of external electromagnetic fields, the cross-sections are large enough to measure the axion production. In the wave guide there exists the resonant conversion at the low energies, in which the value of cross-sections is much enhanced

  14. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  15. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  16. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  17. Optimal Auctions with Financial Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We construct optimal auctions when bidders face financial externalities.In a Coasean World, in which the seller cannot prevent a perfect resale market, nor withhold the object, the lowest-price all-pay auction is optimal.In a Myersonean World, in which the seller can both prevent resale after the au

  18. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  19. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  20. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  1. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  2. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  3. Post-external dacryocystorhinostomy lagophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Thabit A; Odat, Haitham A; Khraisat, Heba; Odat, Mohannad A; Alzoubi, Firas Q

    2015-06-01

    To describe lagophthalmos and eyelid closure abnormality after external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). A retrospective review of medical records and postoperative photographs of 79 patients who underwent external DCR for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and developed eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos with or without exposure keratopathy was conducted. Collected data included age, sex, indication for surgery, laterality, length and type of incision, length of follow-up duration, presence of punctate epithelial keratopathy, and time for resolution of eyelid closure abnormalities. Twenty-seven patients with 28 external dacryocystorhinostomy had postoperative eyelid closure abnormalities. Male to female ratio was 1:6. The mean age was 40.1 years (range 9-80 years). All surgeries were performed through diagonal skin incision. Lagophthalmos involving the medial third of the palpebral fissure was noticed in 28.6 % of cases. All patients had hypometric blink mainly of the upper eyelid. One patient had punctate epithelial keratopathy. Resolution of lagophthalmos was noticed over a period of 1-5 weeks with an average of 3 weeks. None of the patients continued to have residual hypometric blink or punctate keratopathy at the last follow-up time. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 months (range 3-6 months). Eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos after external DCR are underestimated problems. Spontaneous resolution is seen in all cases weeks to months after surgery.

  4. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  5. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  6. The clinical significance of different sequence in radiofrequency ablation of liver caner guided by ultrasound%超声引导下不同布针策略在肝癌射频消融治疗中的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 李云; 郑刚; 金则选; 晋红; 罗旋; 潘登; 钟山

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨超声引导下不同布针策略在肝癌射频消融治疗中的临床价值.方法 拟对62例肝癌(经临床确诊或经病理确诊)患者62个病灶行超声引导下经皮射频消融治疗,将患者随机分为2组:A组从肿瘤中央开始布针,顺序向周边延伸;B组从肿瘤周边开始布针,顺序向中央延伸.治疗后3个月复查彩超或增强CT,评价病灶消融效果.结果 两种布针方法消融治疗有效部分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但是A方法消融效果好的部分多于B方法,有更多的病灶完全毁损,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 两种不同布针方法RFA治疗肝癌均有效,但从肿瘤中央开始布针,顺序向周边延伸的方法优于从肿瘤周边开始布针,顺序向中央延伸的方法.%Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of different sequences in Radiofrequency ablation of Liver caner guided by ultrasound. Methods Ultrasound guided percutaneous RFA was performed randomly by the same doctor in 62 tumors (clinically definited or pathology definited) of 62 patients with two defferent sequences. Group A was from center parts of a tumor to peripheries. Group B was opposite. The ablation effectiveness was evaluated by enhanced CT or ultrasound three months later. Results There were not significant differences of improved patients between Group A and Group B (P>0. 05), but sequence A and sequence B were statistically significant in better parts(the quantity: Group A > Group B)of improved patients. Conclusions The two strategies of RFA for treating hepatocellular carcinoma are utility, but A is better.

  7. AB096. Pharmaco-genetic guided personalized medicine: discovery of a maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY2) novel mutation [S441W in glucose kinase (GCK) gene] by next generation sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Tan Si Hua; Fen, Ang Su; Jessie, Fong Choi Wan; Ester, Yeoh Chai Kheng; Subramaniam, Tavintharan; Fang, Sum Chee; Chi, Lim Su

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Monogenic diabetes or maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is characterized by young-onset (G, p.Ser441Trp) in the GCK gene, which was confirmed by bi-directional Sanger’s sequencing. The mutation is predicted to be functionally deleterious using multiple bioinformatics tools (e.g., SIFT and PolyPhen-2). In accordance with clinical practice guideline, insulin replacement was successfully discontinued with no deterioration of glycemic control. Conclusions The successful treatment-conversion based on genotype exemplifies how pharmaco-genetics can improve disease-stratify to inform diagnosis and treatment. This can translate into improved clinical outcome and quality of life.

  8. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  9. External Description for Multivariable Systems Sampled in an Aperiodic Way

    CERN Document Server

    Fúster-Sabater, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    An external description for nonperiodically sampled multivariable linear systems has been developed. Emphasis is on the sampling period sequence, included among the variables to be handled. The computational procedure is simple and no use of polynomial matrix theory is required. This input/output description is believed to be a basic formulation for its later application to the problem of optimal control and/or identification of linear dynamical systems.

  10. The diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Ruiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we...

  11. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  12. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  13. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  14. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  15. Main: Sequences [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Nucleotide Sequence Nucleotide sequence of full length cDNA (trimmed sequence) kome_ine_full_seq...uence_db.fasta.zip kome_ine_full_sequence_db.zip kome_ine_full_sequence_db ...

  16. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Automated Machining in Metals Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985

    This curriculum guide is designed to be used for creating programs in automated machining education in Connecticut. The first sections of the guide are introductory, explaining the importance of computer-numerically controlled machines, describing the industrial arts scope and sequence for kindergarten through adult levels, describing the…

  17. Textile Science Leader's Guide. 4-H Textile Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jan

    This instructor's guide provides an overview of 4-H student project modules in the textile sciences area. The guide includes short notes explaining how to use the project modules, a flowchart chart showing how the project areas are sequenced, a synopsis of the design and content of the modules, and some program planning tips. For each of the…

  18. Network externalities across financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Iragorri, Carlos Alberto; Preciado Pua, Sergio Andrés; Ordóñez Herrera, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We propose and estimate a financial distress model that explicitly accounts for the interactions or spill-over effects between financial institutions, through the use of a spatial continuity matrix that is build from financial network data of inter bank transactions. Such setup of the financial distress model allows for the empirical validation of the importance of network externalities in determining financial distress, in addition to institution specific and macroeconomic covariates. The re...

  19. Externe Kosten in der Energiewirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Alfred; Friedrich, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    Als externe Effekte werden unbeteiligte Dritte betreffende Zusatzkosten oder Zusatznutzen verstanden, die sich in den jeweiligen Güterpreisen nicht wiederfinden und denen die Betroffenen nicht indifferent gegenüberstehen. Die gegenwärtige Energiebereitstellung und -nutzung ist in vielen Bereichen eine wesentliche Quelle der Belastung von Umwelt und Natur. Begriffe und Schlagworte wie Waldsterben, Tankerunglücke, Tschernobyl und Treibhauseffekt seien in diesem Zusammenhang erwähnt.

  20. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas......, optimistic, and pessimistic behaviour, and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  1. ENDOSCOPIC DCR VERSUS EXTERNAL DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare success rates of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR and external DCR for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative non randomized study of 64 patients who presented with acquired NLD obstruction to a tertiary hospital. They were fully evaluated to ascertain the site of obstruction and patients with distal obstruction were included in the study. 34 patients underwent endoscopic DCR and 30 patients underwent external DCR RESULTS: 64 patients were included in the study and 72 procedures carried out. Success was achieved in 65 cases and failure in 7. Of the 7 failed cases, anatomical obstruction at the fistula site was found in 3, whereas functional failure was found in 4. In our patients, endoscopic DCR had a significantly higher success rate than external DCR, 95.23% versus 83.33% (P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of Endoscopic DCR for acquired NLDO in our group of patients was 95.23%, with endoscopic surgery showing better results.

  2. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii......) The relevance and efficiency of different instruments for internalisation and compensation; and iii) Implementing internalisation over large geographical and temporal distances. We find taxation to be a more relevant and efficient tool for internalisation than insurance and litigation. With increasing...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  3. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  4. Environmental Capital, Negative Externality and Carbon Finance Innovation%Environmental Capital, Negative Externality and Carbon Finance Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yuejun; Li Defu

    2011-01-01

    In the context of global climate change, the internalization of negative externality, which is brought about by the traditional mode of economic growth, has become an inevitable choice. In order to achieve the internalization, it is necessary to make innovations on the market mechanism and system, find the value of environmental capital, establish a new mode of economic growth based on environmental capital, and then transform the environ- mental capital, an exogenous factor of economic growth, into an endogenous factor. Of this, the key of market mechanism and sys- tem innovation is the financial innovation that is based on environmental capital and negative externality; the government defines the initial property right of environmental resources and establishes environment energy trading market, so as to guide enterprises to trade environmental resources (represented by carbon emission permit trading) based on the Clean Development Mechanism, and to vigorously develop environmental finance and carbon finance.

  5. A Library Media Guide for Vermont Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier. Div. of Federal Assistance.

    This guide is designed to be used in developing and improving school library media programs and in teaching students how to use the library. Topics covered include: general philosophy; specific goals; roles and responsibilities; resources needed; creating a library media center; curriculum (including a brief scope and sequence of library skills);…

  6. COLLABORATIVE GUIDE: A REEF MANAGER'S GUIDE TO ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Referred to as A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching, the guide will provide coral reef managers with the latest scientific information on the causes of coral bleaching and new management strategies for responding to this significant threat to coral reef ecosystems. Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Dr. Jordan West, of the National Center for Environmental Assessment, was a major contributor to the guide. Referred to as

  7. Numerical prediction for effects of guide vane blade numbers on hydraulic turbine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F. X.; Yang, J. H.; Wang, X. H.; Li, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Using unstructured hybrid grid technique and SIMPLEC algorithm,a general three-dimensional simulation based on Reynolds Navier- stocks in multiple reference frames and the RNG k-ε turbulence model, is presented for the reversal centrifugal pump (PAT) with a guide vane. Four different schemes are designed by a change of the number of guide vane blade of PAT. The inner flow field in every scheme is simulated, accordingly, the external characteristic and static pressure distribution in flow field in PAT is obtained. The results obtained show that the efficiency can be improved by adding a guide vane for the PAT, besides, the high efficiency area is wider than before. Guide blade numbers changed, external characteristics of turbine changed, and the external characteristic changed. The optimal value is existent for the guide vane blade number, which has a great impact on the distribution of pressure in runner inlet.

  8. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Operating Room? A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth > For Kids > A Kid's Guide to Fever ... some lighter-weight pajamas. previous continue Fighting a Fever For almost all kids, fevers aren't a ...

  9. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  10. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  11. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    own specific set of mechanisms and conditions. Integrating innovations has been mostly studied from an absorptive capacity perspective, with less attention given to the impact of competencies and culture (including “not invented here”). Commercializing innovations puts the most emphasis on how......” in a way inconsistent with earlier definitions in innovation management. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research that include examining the end-to-end innovation commercialization process, and studying the moderators and limits of leveraging external sources of innovation....

  12. Radon Guide for Tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is for people who rent their apartments or houses. The guide explains what radon is, and how to find out if there is a radon problem in your home. The guide also talks about what you can do if there are high radon levels in your home.

  13. Optimal synthesis of tunable elastic wave-guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Rupp, Cory J.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2008-01-01

    Topology optimization, or control in the coefficients of partial differential equations, has been successfully utilized for designing wave-guides with precisely tailored functionalities. For many applications it would be desirable to have the possibility of drastically altering the wave......-guiding properties of a device “on the fly,” in a controllable manner as an influence of some external input. This would enable wave-guides with highly non-linear input–output mappings, such as for example controllable wave switches. In this paper, we propose using finite elastic pre-straining for the purpose...

  14. Empirical Evaluation On External Debt Of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nor’Aznin Abu Bakar; Sallahuddin Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of external debts on economic growth in Malaysia. The analysis is conducted both at aggregate and disaggregate levels. The empirical results are based on VAR estimates using GDP, external debts, capital accumulation, labor force and human capital. Estimation results at the aggregate level indicate that total external debts affect economic growth positively. In particular, one percentage point increase in total external debts generates 1.29 percentage point of e...

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses sound waves ... Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast are often ...

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy ... limitations of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the ...

  17. Value of B-FFE MR sequence before CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of primary trigeminal neuralgia%射频热凝术前磁共振B-FFE序列三叉神经成像评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芸; 金朝林; 王翔; 张树桐; 蔡毅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨 CT 定位射频温控热凝治疗原发性三叉神经痛术前,磁共振平衡式快速梯度回波(B-FFE)序列三叉神经成像检查的必要性和临床意义。方法采用B-FFE 序列扫描63例拟行射频温控热凝治疗的原发性三叉神经痛患者的患侧三叉神经,观察三叉神经脑池段、半月神经节及其三大分支的解剖形态、走行方式,半月神经节与卵圆孔之间的位置关系,指导术中CT定位穿刺。结果本研究63例患者中,23例(37%)病变侧三叉神经跨岩骨尖时呈聚拢束状,40例(63%)病变侧三叉神经跨岩骨尖时呈三支分散状。眼神经走行于前内侧,下颌神经走行于后外方,上颌神经则走行于两者之间。三叉神经跨岩骨尖角度(150.11±8.32)°。卵圆孔至半月神经节距离(12.37±3.21) cm。结论三叉神经痛射频热凝温控治疗术前行磁共振B-FFE 序列三叉神经成像检查,明确相应解剖结构关系,可以提高术中 CT 定位的准确性,缩短手术时间,减低手术风险,具有较高的临床实用价值。%Objective To analyze the value of B-FFE MR sequence before CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of primary trigeminal neuralgia..Methods The B-FFE Sequence were performed on 63 patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia before CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation..MR images were analyzed to identify the relationship between trigeminal nerves and surrounding vessels,.the anatomy of trigeminal ganglion in Meckel′s caves and their branches,.the relationship between the trigeminal semilunar ganglion and the oval foramen..Results The affected trigeminal nerve roots were bundled (23/63, 37%) or divided (40/63, 63%) at (150.11±8.32) angle at the petrous apex before entering the Meckel′s caves. The ophthalmic division travelled anteromedially,.maxillary division in the middle,.and mandibular division posterolaterally

  18. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

  19. Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, P

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  20. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an enclosed...

  1. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum breaker...

  2. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on the...

  3. Quantum electrodynamics on background external fields

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  4. From Fibonacci Numbers To Geometric Sequences and the Binet Formula by Way of the Golden Ratio!

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Angelo S.

    1997-01-01

    Provides activities that deal with Fibonacci-like sequences and guide students' thinking as they explore mathematical induction. Investigation leads to a discovery of an interesting relation that involves all Fibonacci-like sequences. (DDR)

  5. Hybrid computing using a neural network with dynamic external memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Alex; Wayne, Greg; Reynolds, Malcolm; Harley, Tim; Danihelka, Ivo; Grabska-Barwińska, Agnieszka; Colmenarejo, Sergio Gómez; Grefenstette, Edward; Ramalho, Tiago; Agapiou, John; Badia, Adrià Puigdomènech; Hermann, Karl Moritz; Zwols, Yori; Ostrovski, Georg; Cain, Adam; King, Helen; Summerfield, Christopher; Blunsom, Phil; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-10-27

    Artificial neural networks are remarkably adept at sensory processing, sequence learning and reinforcement learning, but are limited in their ability to represent variables and data structures and to store data over long timescales, owing to the lack of an external memory. Here we introduce a machine learning model called a differentiable neural computer (DNC), which consists of a neural network that can read from and write to an external memory matrix, analogous to the random-access memory in a conventional computer. Like a conventional computer, it can use its memory to represent and manipulate complex data structures, but, like a neural network, it can learn to do so from data. When trained with supervised learning, we demonstrate that a DNC can successfully answer synthetic questions designed to emulate reasoning and inference problems in natural language. We show that it can learn tasks such as finding the shortest path between specified points and inferring the missing links in randomly generated graphs, and then generalize these tasks to specific graphs such as transport networks and family trees. When trained with reinforcement learning, a DNC can complete a moving blocks puzzle in which changing goals are specified by sequences of symbols. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DNCs have the capacity to solve complex, structured tasks that are inaccessible to neural networks without external read-write memory.

  6. Monocular Video Guided Garment Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-Ming Li; Xiao-Wu Chen∗; Bin Zhou; Fei-Xiang Lu; Kan Guo; Qiang Fu

    2015-01-01

    We present a prototype to generate a garment-shape sequence guided by a monocular video sequence. It is a combination of a physically-based simulation and a boundary-based modification. Given a garment in the video worn on a mannequin, the simulation generates a garment initial shape by exploiting the mannequin shapes estimated from the video. The modification then deforms the simulated 3D shape into such a shape that matches the garment 2D boundary extracted from the video. According to the matching correspondences between the vertices on the shape and the points on the boundary, the modification is implemented by attracting the matched vertices and their neighboring vertices. For best-matching correspondences and efficient performance, three criteria are introduced to select the candidate vertices for matching. Since modifying each garment shape independently may cause inter-frame oscillations, changes by the modification are also propagated from one frame to the next frame. As a result, the generated garment 3D shape sequence is stable and similar to the garment video sequence. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype with a number of examples.

  7. User Guide to the PDS Dataset for the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Kaelberer, Monte S.; Gorius, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This User Guide to the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been written with two communities in mind. First and foremost, scientists external to the Cassini Project who seek to use the CIRS data as archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS). In addition, it is intended to be a comprehensive reference guide for those internal to the CIRS team.

  8. Does Language Guide Behavior in Children with Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley Larson, Jennifer C.; Suchy, Yana

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown if children with high-functioning autism (HFA) employ self-directed speech to guide motor sequencing and motor control, or if they can benefit from using self-directed speech when prompted to do so. Participants performed a three-movement sequence across three conditions: Natural Learning, Task-Congruent Verbalization (TCV), and…

  9. Safety, Health, and Environmental Auditing A Practical Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Simon Watson

    2010-01-01

    A practical guide to environmental, safety, and occupational health audits. It allows organizations and business to avoid expensive external auditors and retain the knowledge and learning 'in-house'. It allows any competent manager or safety/environmental officer to undertake in-house audits in a competent and reproducible fashion.

  10. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  11. External symmetry in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cotaescu, I I

    2000-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the isometry transformations to the geometric context of the field theories with spin where the local frames are explicitly involved. We define the external symmetry transformations as isometries combined with suitable tetrad gauge transformations and we show that these form a group which is locally isomorphic with the isometry one. We point out that the symmetry transformations that leave invariant the equations of the fields with spin have generators with specific spin terms which represent new physical observables. The examples we present are the generators of the central symmetry and those of the maximal symmetries of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes derived in different tetrad gauge fixings. Pacs: 04.20.Cv, 04.62.+v, 11.30.-j

  12. Microprocessor based interface unit for coupling a picosecond laser oscillator with external laser amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navathe, C. P.; Ansari, M. S.; Upadhyaya, J.; Sreedhar, N.; Chandra, R.; Kumbhare, S. R.; Chakera, J. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    1996-07-01

    A microprocessor based interface unit for coupling a commercial picosecond Nd:YLF laser oscillator amplifier to external high power Nd:phosphate glass laser amplifier stages is described. The system generates charging and firing signals required for the picosecond oscillator, and also carries out the charging and firing sequence of external amplifiers for a single shot or a repetitive mode of operation. The electronics developed is simple and modular, with sufficient scope for expansion of the system, and resistant to electromagnetic interference.

  13. Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbell, Gloria; And Others

    This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

  14. Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbell, Gloria; And Others

    This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

  15. Accurate external localization of the left frontal cortex in dogs by using pointer based frameless neuronavigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robrecht Dockx

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In humans, non-stereotactic frameless neuronavigation systems are used as a topographical tool for non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS. TMS studies in dogs may provide treatment modalities for several neuropsychological disorders in dogs. Nevertheless, an accurate non-invasive localization of a stimulation target has not yet been performed in this species. Hypothesis This study was primarily put forward to externally locate the left frontal cortex in 18 healthy dogs by means of a human non-stereotactic neuronavigation system. Secondly, the accuracy of the external localization was assessed. Animals A total of 18 healthy dogs, drawn at random from the research colony present at the faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University, were used. Methods Two sets of coordinates (X, Y, Z and X″, Y″, Z″ were compared on each dog their tomographical dataset. Results The non-stereotactic neuronavigation system was able to externally locate the frontal cortex in dogs with accuracy comparable with human studies. Conclusion and clinical importance This result indicates that a non-stereotactic neuronavigation system can accurately externally locate the left frontal cortex and paves the way to use guided non-invasive brain stimulation methods as an alternative treatment procedure for neurological and behavioral disorders in dogs. This technique could, in analogy with human guided non-invasive brain stimulation, provide a better treatment outcome for dogs suffering from anxiety disorders when compared to its non-guided alternative.

  16. Next generation of sequencing techniques guide the new progress of malignant blood diseases: reports in the 55th ASH annual meeting%下一代测序技术引领下的血液系统恶性肿瘤研究新进展:第55届美国血液学会年会报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱林

    2014-01-01

    The biggest highlight in the 55th ASH annual meeting is a series of revolutionary progress in the field of diagnosis,pathogenesis,prediction,prognosis and minimal residue disease (MRD) of malignant blood diseases guiding with next generation of sequencing (NGS) techniques.This article will share the major contents of 7 papers using NGS techniques in the ASH annual meeting with domestic readers here.%第55届美国血液学会(ASH)年会最大亮点是在下一代测序技术(NGS)引领下,血液系统恶性肿瘤诊断、发病机制、疗效评价、预后分析和微小残留病(MRD)监测等领域出现一系列革命性进步.文章仅将第55届Best ASH中应用NGS技术取得重要突破的7篇论文介绍给国内读者.

  17. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  18. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B. [PPPL; Gobbin, M. [Euratom-ENEA Association

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  19. Joomla! 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An easy to use, step-by-step guide to creating professional, mobile-friendly websites with the free Joomla CMS. The Joomla! 3 Beginner's Guide Second Edition is the ultimate guide for web developers who wish to build upon their skills and knowledge on creating websites. Even if you're new to this subject, you won't have any difficulty understanding the clear and friendly instructions and explanations. No prior knowledge of HTML and CSS is required.

  20. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information.

  1. CISSP study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Eric; Feldman, Joshua; Riggins, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    "The Eleventh Hour CISSP Study Guide" is keyed to the latest CISSP exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered concisely with key concepts highlighted. This is the only guide you need for last-minute studying. This title answers the toughest questions and highlights core topics. This title can be paired with any other study guide so you are completely prepared.

  2. XML Style Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    TELEMETRY GROUP DOCUMENT 125-15 XML STYLE GUIDE DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUL 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE XML Style Guide 5a. CONTRACT...standard was prepared by the Data Multiplex Committee of the Telemetry Group, Range Commanders Council. The XML Style Guide defines rules and guidelines

  3. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  4. Sequence-dependent nucleosome positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ho-Ryun; Vingron, Martin

    2009-03-13

    Eukaryotic DNA is organized into a macromolecular structure called chromatin. The basic repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, which consists of two copies of each of the four core histones and DNA. The nucleosomal organization and the positions of nucleosomes have profound effects on all DNA-dependent processes. Understanding the factors that influence nucleosome positioning is therefore of general interest. Among the many determinants of nucleosome positioning, the DNA sequence has been proposed to have a major role. Here, we analyzed more than 860,000 nucleosomal DNA sequences to identify sequence features that guide the formation of nucleosomes in vivo. We found that both a periodic enrichment of AT base pairs and an out-of-phase oscillating enrichment of GC base pairs as well as the overall preference for GC base pairs are determinants of nucleosome positioning. The preference for GC pairs can be related to a lower energetic cost required for deformation of the DNA to wrap around the histones. In line with this idea, we found that only incorporation of both signal components into a sequence model for nucleosome formation results in maximal predictive performance on a genome-wide scale. In this manner, one achieves greater predictive power than published approaches. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the DNA sequence has a major role in nucleosome positioning in vivo.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided versus Surrogate-Based Motion Tracking in Liver Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.paganelli@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Seregni, Matteo; Fattori, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Summers, Paul [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: This study applied automatic feature detection on cine–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver images in order to provide a prospective comparison between MRI-guided and surrogate-based tracking methods for motion-compensated liver radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In a population of 30 subjects (5 volunteers plus 25 patients), 2 oblique sagittal slices were acquired across the liver at high temporal resolution. An algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was used to extract and track multiple features throughout the image sequence. The position of abdominal markers was also measured directly from the image series, and the internal motion of each feature was quantified through multiparametric analysis. Surrogate-based tumor tracking with a state-of-the-art external/internal correlation model was simulated. The geometrical tracking error was measured, and its correlation with external motion parameters was also investigated. Finally, the potential gain in tracking accuracy relying on MRI guidance was quantified as a function of the maximum allowed tracking error. Results: An average of 45 features was extracted for each subject across the whole liver. The multi-parametric motion analysis reported relevant inter- and intrasubject variability, highlighting the value of patient-specific and spatially-distributed measurements. Surrogate-based tracking errors (relative to the motion amplitude) were were in the range 7% to 23% (1.02-3.57mm) and were significantly influenced by external motion parameters. The gain of MRI guidance compared to surrogate-based motion tracking was larger than 30% in 50% of the subjects when considering a 1.5-mm tracking error tolerance. Conclusions: Automatic feature detection applied to cine-MRI allows detailed liver motion description to be obtained. Such information was used to quantify the performance of surrogate-based tracking methods and to provide a prospective comparison with respect to MRI-guided

  6. Phytoremediation Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide provides abstracts of over 100 phytoremediation overviews, field studies and demonstrations, research articles, and Internet resources. It also provides a brief summary of phytoremediation.

  7. Infinite matrices and sequence spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    This clear and correct summation of basic results from a specialized field focuses on the behavior of infinite matrices in general, rather than on properties of special matrices. Three introductory chapters guide students to the manipulation of infinite matrices, covering definitions and preliminary ideas, reciprocals of infinite matrices, and linear equations involving infinite matrices.From the fourth chapter onward, the author treats the application of infinite matrices to the summability of divergent sequences and series from various points of view. Topics include consistency, mutual consi

  8. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  9. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  10. Control of External Kink Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Gerald

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.

  11. Guided Learning at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Guided learning (questioning, diagrams/analogies, modeling, coaching) was studied through critical incident interviews in five workplaces. Participation in everyday work activities was the most effective contributor to workplace learning. Organizational readiness and the efficacy of guided learning in resolving novel tasks were also important. (SK)

  12. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  13. Educator's Guide to Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This teaching guide was designed to implement eight teaching units based on specific events or periods in history. The learning packet was developed to give educators and students a view of the parallel growth of our country and its business and industry. The guide presents: (1) an overview of each of the teaching units; (2) guidelines for using…

  14. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  15. Radiologic Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a radiologic technology program. The guide contains four major sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining purpose and objectives; a program description,…

  16. JBoss ESB Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    DiMaggio, Len; Magesh, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter contains practical examples with step-by-step instructions and plenty of screenshots to guide you through the implementation of JBoss ESB. This book is intended for Java programmers although you don't need previous experience with middleware such as application servers or ESBs.

  17. The Higgs hunter's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gunion, John F; Haber, Howard E; Kane, Gordon L

    1989-01-01

    The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.

  18. Public Relations Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH.

    This guide was especially designed for home economists and includes 50 pages of practical ideas and examples on how to set public relations objectives, determine target audiences, work with the media, write releases' and prepare for broadcast interviews. The guide includes definitions of basic terms used in public relations, establishes guidelines…

  19. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES.""BONES" HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE AND REQUIRES FROM 10 TO 25 LESSONS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES USED. THE GUIDE DOES NOT PROVIDE DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR CONDUCTING CLASSES, BUT RATHER SOME POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES, AND LEAVES THE DAY-TO-DAY…

  20. Measurement Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    College and Career Readiness and Success Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This discussion guide is part of a larger practice guide designed to help state education agencies (SEAs) define measurement goals, select college and career readiness measures and indicators designed to support those goals, and use the data gathered with those measures and indicators to make informed decisions about college and career readiness…

  1. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  2. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  3. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  4. concrete5 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laubacher, Remo

    2011-01-01

    This book is part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series. You will be guided through the set up of a Concrete5 site with step-by-step practical examples. This book is ideal for developers who would like to build their first site with Concrete5. Some k

  5. Medical Assisting Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a medical assisting program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the medical assisting field, such as medical law and ethics, typing,…

  6. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth > For Parents > Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  7. Myanmar: Political Reforms and the Recalibration of External Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bünte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This opening chapter provides some background to the domestic reform agenda, along with its drivers and motivations. From 1988 to 2011, the military built up institutions that guaranteed the military’s dominant position in the political arena. The second phase, since 2011, has seen a guided relaxation of the military’s coercive controls and the liberalisation of political spaces for the opposition and civil society. In order to contextualise Myanmar’s external relations, this article will first describe the military’s strategy and then outline the key changes that have been implemented in the country’s foreign policy.

  8. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Patients About ACOG A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs A Partner's Guide ... May 2016 PDF Format A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Pregnancy Why is it important to be supportive ...

  9. Externalities and Compensation : Primeval Games and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.; Borm, P.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The classical literature (Pigou (1920), Coase (1960), Arrow (1970)) and the relatively recent studies (cf.Varian (1994)) associate the externality problem with efficiency.This paper focuses explicitly on the compensation problem in the context of externalities.To capture the features of inter-indivi

  10. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...

  11. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers, customers

  12. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...

  13. Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  14. Internal and External Forces in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles D.

    2000-01-01

    Develops a model of language change characterizing the dynamic interaction between internal universal grammar and external linguistic evidence, as mediated by language acquisition. Borrows insights from the study of biological evolution, where internal and external forces interact in similar fashion. Applies the model to explore the loss of the…

  15. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  16. Inverted temperature sequences: role of deformation partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, D.; Ashley, K. T.; Coble, M. A.; Coutand, I.; Kellett, D.; Whynot, N.

    2015-12-01

    The inverted metamorphism associated with the Main Central thrust zone in the Himalaya has been historically attributed to a number of tectonic processes. Here we show that there is actually a composite peak and deformation temperature sequence that formed in succession via different tectonic processes. The deformation partitioning seems to the have played a key role, and the magnitude of each process has varied along strike of the orogen. To explain the formation of the inverted metamorphic sequence across the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in eastern Bhutan, we used Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) to determine the peak metamorphic temperatures and Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry to determine the deformation temperatures combined with thermochronology including published apatite and zircon U-Th/He and fission-track data and new 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite. The dataset was inverted using 3D-thermal-kinematic modeling to constrain the ranges of geological parameters such as fault geometry and slip rates, location and rates of localized basal accretion, and thermal properties of the crust. RSCM results indicate that there are two peak temperature sequences separated by a major thrust within the LHS. The internal temperature sequence shows an inverted peak temperature gradient of 12 °C/km; in the external (southern) sequence, the peak temperatures are constant across the structural sequence. Thermo-kinematic modeling suggest that the thermochronologic and thermobarometric data are compatible with a two-stage scenario: an Early-Middle Miocene phase of fast overthrusting of a hot hanging wall over a downgoing footwall and inversion of the synkinematic isotherms, followed by the formation of the external duplex developed by dominant underthrusting and basal accretion. To reconcile our observations with the experimental data, we suggest that pervasive ductile deformation within the upper LHS and along the Main Central thrust zone at its top stopped at

  17. Female external genitalia on fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, S F; Nemec, U; Weber, M; Rotmensch, S; Brugger, P C; Kasprian, G; Krestan, C R; Rimoin, D L; Graham, J M; Prayer, D

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the normal development of the female external genitalia on fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study included MRI examinations of 191 female fetuses (20-36 gestational weeks) with normal anatomy or minor abnormalities, following suspicion of anomalies on prenatal ultrasound examination. Using a 1.5-Tesla unit, the bilabial diameter was measured on T2-weighted sequences. Statistical description, as well as correlation and regression analyses, was used to evaluate bilabial diameter in relation to gestational age. MRI measurements were compared with published ultrasound data. The morphological appearance and signal intensities of the external genitalia were also assessed. Mean bilabial diameters, with 95% CIs and percentiles, were defined. The bilabial diameter as a function of gestational age was expressed by the regression equation: bilabial diameter = - 11.336 + 0.836 × (gestational age in weeks). The correlation coefficient, r = 0.782, was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Bilabial diameter on MRI was not significantly different from that on ultrasound (P < 0.001). In addition, on MRI we observed changes in morphology of the external genitalia and in signal intensities with increasing gestational age. We have provided a reference range of fetal bilabial diameter on MRI, which, in addition to ultrasound findings, may be helpful in the identification of genital anomalies. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Wideband Analog Transmission System Based on the External Intensity Electro-Optic Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Svarny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with design and integration of an analog electro-optic transmission system suitable for some specialized tasks of diagnostics and measurements. The system is based on principle of external intensity modulation of fiber guided laser radiation. Besides wideband and almost lossless transmission the system tolerates extreme length of the transmitting medium and ensures ultimate galvanic barrier between the input and output.

  19. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western Europ...... show that estimated damages due to the greenhouse effect are predominant, however, the uncertainty is high. The predominant damage at the local and regional level is related to emission of NOx, which results in effects on public health....... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...... the use of a software package, EcoSence, having an environmental database at both a local and regional level including population, crops, building materials and forest. The system also incorporates two air transport models, allowing local and regional scale modelling. The results of the Danish case study...

  20. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  1. SEQassembly: A Practical Tools Program for Coding Sequences Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongbin; Yang, Hang; Fu, Lei; Qin, Long; Li, Huili; He, Feng; Wang, Bo; Wu, Xiaoming

    CDS (Coding Sequences) is a portion of mRNA sequences, which are composed by a number of exon sequence segments. The construction of CDS sequence is important for profound genetic analysis such as genotyping. A program in MATLAB environment is presented, which can process batch of samples sequences into code segments under the guide of reference exon models, and splice these code segments of same sample source into CDS according to the exon order in queue file. This program is useful in transcriptional polymorphism detection and gene function study.

  2. 2014 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2014 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the latest findings from space probes. Published annually since 1991, the Sky Guide continues to be a favourite with photographers,

  3. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  4. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  5. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Bram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI. Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most discriminative items from existing scales and using a three-word memory test. Methods Mild, moderate and severe TBI patients and control subjects were assessed in two separate cohorts, one for derivation and one for validation, using a questionnaire comprised of items from existing PTA scales. We tested which individual items best discriminated between TBI patients and controls, represented by sensitivity and specificity. We then created our PTA scale based on these results. This new scale was externally evaluated for its discriminative value using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and compared to existing PTA scales. Results The derivation cohort included 126 TBI patients and 31 control subjects; the validation cohort consisted of 132 patients and 30 controls. A set of seven items was eventually selected to comprise the new PTA scale: age, name of hospital, time, day of week, month, mode of transport and recall of three words. This scale demonstrated adequate discriminative values compared to existing PTA scales on three consecutive administrations in the validation cohort. Conclusion We introduce a valid, practical and examiner independent PTA scale, which is suitable for mild TBI patients at the emergency department and yet still valuable for the follow-up of more severely injured TBI patients.

  6. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  7. Classifying Genomic Sequences by Sequence Feature Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Liu; Dian Jiao; Xiao Sun

    2005-01-01

    Traditional sequence analysis depends on sequence alignment. In this study, we analyzed various functional regions of the human genome based on sequence features, including word frequency, dinucleotide relative abundance, and base-base correlation. We analyzed the human chromosome 22 and classified the upstream,exon, intron, downstream, and intergenic regions by principal component analysis and discriminant analysis of these features. The results show that we could classify the functional regions of genome based on sequence feature and discriminant analysis.

  8. Sequencing of chloroplast genome using whole cellular DNA and Solexa sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eWu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing of the chloroplast genome using traditional sequencing methods has been difficult because of its size (>120 kb and the complicated procedures required to prepare templates. To explore the feasibility of sequencing the chloroplast genome using DNA extracted from whole cells and Solexa sequencing technology, we sequenced whole cellular DNA isolated from leaves of three Brassica rapa accessions with one lane per accession. In total, 246 Mb, 362Mb, 361 Mb sequence data were generated for the three accessions Chiifu-401-42, Z16 and FT, respectively. Microreads were assembled by reference-guided assembly using the cpDNA sequences of B. rapa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Nicotiana tabacum. We achieved coverage of more than 99.96% of the cp genome in the three tested accessions using the B. rapa sequence as the reference. When A. thaliana or N. tabacum sequences were used as references, 99.7–99.8% or 95.5–99.7% of the B. rapa chloroplast genome was covered, respectively. These results demonstrated that sequencing of whole cellular DNA isolated from young leaves using the Illumina Genome Analyzer is an efficient method for high-throughput sequencing of chloroplast genome.

  9. Main: Sequences [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Amino Acid Sequence Amino Acid sequence of full length cDNA (Longest ORF) kome_ine_full_seq...uence_amino_db.fasta.zip kome_ine_full_sequence_amino_db.zip kome_ine_full_sequence_amino_db ...

  10. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  11. Guide to Understanding Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Understanding Lymphedema Get Support Guide to Understanding Lymphedema 2015, 5th Edition By: Robin Warshaw, Contributing Writer ... YES NO ADDITIONAL FEEDBACK Home page More In Lymphedema Breast Cancer News August 14, 2013 Extra Weight — ...

  12. NASA Guided Dropsonde Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exquadrum, Inc. proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach to providing NASA with a Guided Dropsonde (NGD). NASA's desire to use existing...

  13. Guide to Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-11

    This guide examines new methods of enclosure designs that provide high thermal performance and long-term durability but also take opportunities to reduce material use, simplify or integrate systems and details, and potentially reduce overall initial costs of construction.

  14. Cirrhosis: A Patient's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient's Guide Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  15. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  16. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  17. Kenai Wilderness Management Guide

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kenai Wilderness Management Guide is a description, interpretation, and synthesis of Congressional legislation, Department of the Interior regulation, and Fish...

  18. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  19. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  20. Environment and externalization; Environnement et externalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremlis, G.; Renaud, R. [Association francaise des ingenieurs et techniciens de l' environnement, AFITE, 75 - Paris (France); Touron, M. [Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the discussions of the 16 may 2000, concerning the externalization and the environment and proposes to answer the following questions: is the externalization a new strategy to better perceive, hopeful engineering department, the technological risks problems, the environment or the land pollution? Does the externalization allow a better organization of the enterprise? To analyse the situation, the document presents the white book of the environmental liability, the administration point of view, some enterprises examples and the importance of the environmental management. (A.L.B.)

  1. Leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Wakako; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the iliac vein is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 63-year-old Japanese woman with leiomyosarcoma of the right external iliac vein. The patient complained of right inguinal pain and swelling. Computed tomography demonstrated a mass surrounding the right external iliac artery and vein. Metastases in the lungs and liver were found. Complete resection of the tumor along with the involved vessels was performed. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts were used to reconstruct the vessels. Pathological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein. Although the prognosis of leiomyosarcoma is poor, en bloc tumor resection is the treatment of choice.

  2. The sustainability of Serbia's external position: The impact of fiscal adjustment and external shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zildžović Emir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of fiscal policy and external shocks on the sustainability of Serbia’s external position. The key determinants of Serbia's current account balance are identified using model averaging techniques and are compared with estimates obtained for other small open economies (Poland, Georgia, Morocco, Ukraine, and Estonia. The paper uses estimated influences of macrovariables on the current account balance to generate a rich set of possible outcomes for the external position of the country. The results suggest the importance of fiscal policy for the reduction of external imbalances in all countries in our sample. In particular, credible and sustained fiscal adjustment can reduce current account deficit and stabilize Serbia’s external position close to its current level over the medium term. The analysis also warns that lack of success in fiscal consolidation coupled with external shocks may easily push the external position onto an unsustainable path.

  3. Guide for a typewriter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, R. D.; Pinson, G. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to accessories for typewriters, and more particularly to an improved guide for use in aligning a sheet of paper preparatory to an application of typed indicia to selected spaces. The device includes an aligning plate pivotally mounted on a line guide having formed therein a plurality of aligned apertures. The plate is so positioned that an aperture is positioned immediately above a target area for a type slug so that a slug will imprint a character in selected spaces.

  4. Hand deburring guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1979-07-01

    Appropriate hand deburring techniques have always been difficult to define because of the infinite variety of part shapes, sizes, materials, and burr conditions. This guide, however, has been prepared to assist those responsible for hand deburring. The purpose of the guide is to define Bendix Kansas City burr specifications and inspection practices; to define the results of practical tests on hand deburring; to define some typical in-house practices; and to define the in-house tools available for this work.

  5. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  6. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  7. Liferay Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Robert; Bhatt, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter follows the creation of a fictional neighbourhood site to demonstrate an aspect of Liferay portal with practical examples, screenshots, and step-by-step instructions. All you need in order to benefit from the Liferay Beginner's Guide is programming experience. No prior knowledge of Liferay is required, although experienced Liferay portal programmers who need to get up to speed with its latest features will also find this book useful.

  8. Wind Energy Teachers Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2003-01-01

    This guide, created by the American Wind Association, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is a learning tool about wind energy targeted toward grades K-12. The guide provides teacher information, ideas for sparking children's and students' interest, suggestions for activities to undertake in and outside the classroom, and research tools for both teachers and students. Also included is an additional resources section.

  9. Railo 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Drew, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book uses practical examples and screenshots to steadily guide the reader through setting up and using Railo. If you want to develop your own dynamic web applications using CFML, then this book is for you. No prior experience with Railo or CFML is required, although you will be expected to have some web application development experience and knowledge of HTML.

  10. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  11. Robotic image-guided needle interventions of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors' group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image.

  12. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  13. Iterative guided image fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-scale image fusion scheme based on guided filtering. Guided filtering can effectively reduce noise while preserving detail boundaries. When applied in an iterative mode, guided filtering selectively eliminates small scale details while restoring larger scale edges. The proposed multi-scale image fusion scheme achieves spatial consistency by using guided filtering both at the decomposition and at the recombination stage of the multi-scale fusion process. First, size-selective iterative guided filtering is applied to decompose the source images into approximation and residual layers at multiple spatial scales. Then, frequency-tuned filtering is used to compute saliency maps at successive spatial scales. Next, at each spatial scale binary weighting maps are obtained as the pixelwise maximum of corresponding source saliency maps. Guided filtering of the binary weighting maps with their corresponding source images as guidance images serves to reduce noise and to restore spatial consistency. The final fused image is obtained as the weighted recombination of the individual residual layers and the mean of the approximation layers at the coarsest spatial scale. Application to multiband visual (intensified and thermal infrared imagery demonstrates that the proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance for the fusion of multispectral nightvision images. The method has a simple implementation and is computationally efficient.

  14. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  15. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence.

  16. Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.

    1996-02-15

    A feasibility study to develop a requirements analysis and functional specification for a data management system for large-scale DNA sequencing laboratories resulted in a functional specification for a Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). This document reports the results of this feasibility study, and includes a functional specification for a SIMS relational schema. The SIMS is an integrated information management system that supports data acquisition, management, analysis, and distribution for DNA sequencing laboratories. The SIMS provides ad hoc query access to information on the sequencing process and its results, and partially automates the transfer of data between laboratory instruments, analysis programs, technical personnel, and managers. The SIMS user interfaces are designed for use by laboratory technicians, laboratory managers, and scientists. The SIMS is designed to run in a heterogeneous, multiplatform environment in a client/server mode. The SIMS communicates with external computational and data resources via the internet.

  17. Fibonacci Sequence and Supramolecular Structure of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalkin, I P; Grigor'eva, E Yu; Gudkova, M V; Shabalkin, P I

    2016-05-01

    We proposed a new model of supramolecular DNA structure. Similar to the previously developed by us model of primary DNA structure [11-15], 3D structure of DNA molecule is assembled in accordance to a mathematic rule known as Fibonacci sequence. Unlike primary DNA structure, supramolecular 3D structure is assembled from complex moieties including a regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron consisting of monomers, elements of the primary DNA structure. The moieties of the supramolecular DNA structure forming fragments of regular spatial lattice are bound via linker (joint) sequences of the DNA chain. The lattice perceives and transmits information signals over a considerable distance without acoustic aberrations. Linker sequences expand conformational space between lattice segments allowing their sliding relative to each other under the action of external forces. In this case, sliding is provided by stretching of the stacked linker sequences.

  18. Coordinate cytokine regulatory sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention provides CNS sequences that regulate the cytokine gene expression, expression cassettes and vectors comprising or lacking the CNS sequences, host cells and non-human transgenic animals comprising the CNS sequences or lacking the CNS sequences. The present invention also provides methods for identifying compounds that modulate the functions of CNS sequences as well as methods for diagnosing defects in the CNS sequences of patients.

  19. Bonobos extract meaning from call sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    Full Text Available Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred and apples (less preferred at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system.

  20. Integrated sequence analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.; Pyy, P

    1998-02-01

    The NKS/RAK subprojet 3 `integrated sequence analysis` (ISA) was formulated with the overall objective to develop and to test integrated methodologies in order to evaluate event sequences with significant human action contribution. The term `methodology` denotes not only technical tools but also methods for integration of different scientific disciplines. In this report, we first discuss the background of ISA and the surveys made to map methods in different application fields, such as man machine system simulation software, human reliability analysis (HRA) and expert judgement. Specific event sequences were, after the surveys, selected for application and testing of a number of ISA methods. The event sequences discussed in the report were cold overpressure of BWR, shutdown LOCA of BWR, steam generator tube rupture of a PWR and BWR disturbed signal view in the control room after an external event. Different teams analysed these sequences by using different ISA and HRA methods. Two kinds of results were obtained from the ISA project: sequence specific and more general findings. The sequence specific results are discussed together with each sequence description. The general lessons are discussed under a separate chapter by using comparisons of different case studies. These lessons include areas ranging from plant safety management (design, procedures, instrumentation, operations, maintenance and safety practices) to methodological findings (ISA methodology, PSA,HRA, physical analyses, behavioural analyses and uncertainty assessment). Finally follows a discussion about the project and conclusions are presented. An interdisciplinary study of complex phenomena is a natural way to produce valuable and innovative results. This project came up with structured ways to perform ISA and managed to apply the in practice. The project also highlighted some areas where more work is needed. In the HRA work, development is required for the use of simulators and expert judgement as

  1. Externality, environment, and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, S F

    1981-07-01

    On the assumption that external responsiveness and environmental characteristics jointly determine whether a child will achieve an excessive weight gain, perpetuating and maintaining obesity, probability hierarchy was hypothesized and tested. Ss of the study were 24 obese and 24 average-weight, white boys, mean age 9 years, 5 months. An auditory distraction task and Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures Test were used to measure auditory and visual responsivity to external cues, respectively. Socioeconomic status was used as an indicator of the childhood environment. As predicted, the greatest percentages of obese children were observed in the lower-socioeconomic, external group, followed by the lower-socioeconomic, internal group and middle-socioeconomic, external group. The smallest percentage of obese children was observed in the middle-socioeconomic, internal group.

  2. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul

  3. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  4. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  5. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  6. reoperation rates following intramedullary nailing versus external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons for reoperation among EF patients were infection. (2 patients) ... fixation. Keywords: Orthopaedic surgery, Tanzania, Intramedullary nail, External fixation, Open tibia fracture. INTRODUCTION ..... of surgical site infection. Infect Control ...

  7. Consumption Externalities, Rental Markets and Purchase Clubs.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Scotchmer

    2002-01-01

    A premise of general equilibrium theory is that private goods are rival. Nevertheless, many private goods are shared, e.g., through barter, through co-ownership, or simply because one person’s consumption affects another person’s wellbeing. We analyze consumption externalities from the perspective of club theory, and argue that, provided consumption externalities are limited in scope, they can be internalized through membership fees to groups. Our main applications are to rental markets and “...

  8. Inferential knowledge, externalism and self-knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    R G Ford

    2004-01-01

    Privileged self-knowledge says, roughly, that we have non-empirical knowledge of our own thoughts. Externalism about mental content says, roughly, that our mental states are determined at least in part by our environment. It has been alleged that jointly assuming externalism about mental content and privileged self-knowledge are true has the consequence that any subject can have non-empirical knowledge of her own environment and this is intuitively absurd. The thesis investigates in various w...

  9. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function.Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available.Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt.Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically Autoclaved

  10. External Prestressing Bridge Reinforcement Technology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Externally prestressed bridge can not only limit and reduce the cracks and deformation of the structure, improve the rigidity and bearing capacity of structure, improve the stress state of structure, but also have less interference for bridge operation when it is operating and have the good economic efficiency. This paper introduces the advantages and disadvantages of external prestressed strengthening technique, its calculation theory and construction technology described in detail, and finally the paper discusses the deficiency of existing research.

  11. Nuclear waste storage and environmental intergenerational externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Fodha, Mouez

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article analyzes the long-term consequences of nuclear waste storage within a general equilibrium framework. The objective is to determine the conditions for which the storage of waste, and thus the transfer of externalities towards the future, can be optimal. These conditions could explain the implementation of intergenerational externalities, justifying an intertemporal Not In My Back Yard behaviour. We first show that the choice of the policy instruments determ...

  12. Depletion of Abundant Sequences by Hybridization (DASH): using Cas9 to remove unwanted high-abundance species in sequencing libraries and molecular counting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, W; Crawford, E D; O'Donovan, B D; Wilson, M R; Chow, E D; Retallack, H; DeRisi, J L

    2016-03-04

    Next-generation sequencing has generated a need for a broadly applicable method to remove unwanted high-abundance species prior to sequencing. We introduce DASH (Depletion of Abundant Sequences by Hybridization). Sequencing libraries are 'DASHed' with recombinant Cas9 protein complexed with a library of guide RNAs targeting unwanted species for cleavage, thus preventing them from consuming sequencing space. We demonstrate a more than 99 % reduction of mitochondrial rRNA in HeLa cells, and enrichment of pathogen sequences in patient samples. We also demonstrate an application of DASH in cancer. This simple method can be adapted for any sample type and increases sequencing yield without additional cost.

  13. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation.

  14. The ventilatory effect of external oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabey, D; Piquet, J

    1989-01-01

    High frequency ventilation (HFV) may be achieved by external oscillation (external HFV) applied around the chest wall (HFCWO) in large animals and humans, or over the entire body (HFBSO) in small animals, instead of being applied via the trachea (internal HFV). We present a synthesis of the results obtained with external HFV in both normal and bronchoconstricted subjects. Whereas external and internal HFV were found to be equivalent in terms of gas exchange in normal rats, external HFV was found to have a beneficial effect in bronchoconstricted rabbits, but internal HFV did not. From the frequency-oscillatory tidal volume relationship determined in normocapnic rabbits, HFBSO at 5 Hz was found to be the optimal frequency at which to ventilate with tidal volumes close to the dead space volume, and which was also shown to be the optimal volume to obtain normocapnia. Moreover, 5 Hz oscillations (HFCWO) at 20 ml and 40 ml superimposed on tidal breathing accelerated nitrogen washout, i.e., gas exchange in normal humans. Unfortunately, only oscillations with much smaller volumes (5-10 ml) were obtainable in COPD patients. Nevertheless, they produced a clear change in breathing pattern associated with a slight improvement in gas exchange and a potentially positive effect on inspiratory muscle fatigue. These results support the concept that non-invasive external HFV technique may be of use in assisting ventilation in bronchoconstricted subjects and may possibly replace conventional controlled ventilation, at least in subjects with high lung compliance, such as babies, neonates and normal adults.

  15. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  16. Promotion Guide – A guide for career reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 8 February, the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) approved the Promotion Guide, subtitled “A guide for career reviews”. The English version is already published on the HR website. This Promotion Guide is not very different from the Career Path Guide which it replaces following the implementation of the new career structure with benchmark jobs and grades. Structure The guide is composed of three parts: Section I – Introduction revisits the reference documents: the Staff Rules and Regulations (S&R) and the Administrative Circular No. 26 (AC 26). In the Staff Rules and Regulations, the term promotion is defined as a change of grade1 and in Administrative Circular No. 26, the Promotion Guide is referenced under paragraph 452. The objective of the Promotion Guide is laid out in Section I: “The Promotion Guide defines the criteria to be used as a reference for career reviews with a view to a potential promotion”. However, this guide do...

  17. Inferences from tip-calibrated phylogenies: a review and a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieux, Adrien; Balloux, François

    2016-05-01

    Molecular dating of phylogenetic trees is a growing discipline using sequence data to co-estimate the timing of evolutionary events and rates of molecular evolution. All molecular-dating methods require converting genetic divergence between sequences into absolute time. Historically, this could only be achieved by associating externally derived dates obtained from fossil or biogeographical evidence to internal nodes of the tree. In some cases, notably for fast-evolving genomes such as viruses and some bacteria, the time span over which samples were collected may cover a significant proportion of the time since they last shared a common ancestor. This situation allows phylogenetic trees to be calibrated by associating sampling dates directly to the sequences representing the tips (terminal nodes) of the tree. The increasing availability of genomic data from ancient DNA extends the applicability of such tip-based calibration to a variety of taxa including humans, extinct megafauna and various microorganisms which typically have a scarce fossil record. The development of statistical models accounting for heterogeneity in different aspects of the evolutionary process while accommodating very large data sets (e.g. whole genomes) has allowed using tip-dating methods to reach inferences on divergence times, substitution rates, past demography or the age of specific mutations on a variety of spatiotemporal scales. In this review, we summarize the current state of the art of tip dating, discuss some recent applications, highlight common pitfalls and provide a 'how to' guide to thoroughly perform such analyses. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results; Externaliteter - en analys utifraan EU:s ExternE-resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case.

  19. Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Karen E; Ma, Wei Ji; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Chiu, Pearl H

    2015-06-01

    The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized as the free-choice time spent on a task when this was not required, and tested the neural and behavioral effects of external reward on intrinsic motivation. We found that increased duration of free-choice time was predicted by generally diminished neural responses in regions associated with cognitive and affective regulation. By comparison, the possibility of additional reward improved task accuracy, and specifically increased neural and behavioral responses following errors. Those individuals with the smallest neural responses associated with intrinsic motivation exhibited the greatest error-related neural enhancement under the external contingency of possible reward. Together, these data suggest that human performance is guided by a "tonic" and "phasic" relationship between the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation (tonic) and the impact of external incentives (phasic).

  20. CATEGORIZATION OF EVENT SEQUENCES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.E. Ragan; P. Mecheret; D. Dexheimer

    2005-04-14

    The purposes of this analysis are: (1) Categorize (as Category 1, Category 2, or Beyond Category 2) internal event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. (2) Categorize external event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. This includes examining DBGM-1 seismic classifications and upgrading to DBGM-2, if appropriate, to ensure Beyond Category 2 categorization. (3) State the design and operational requirements that are invoked to make the categorization assignments valid. (4) Indicate the amount of material put at risk by Category 1 and Category 2 event sequences. (5) Estimate frequencies of Category 1 event sequences at the maximum capacity and receipt rate of the repository. (6) Distinguish occurrences associated with normal operations from event sequences. It is beyond the scope of the analysis to propose design requirements that may be required to control radiological exposure associated with normal operations. (7) Provide a convenient compilation of the results of the analysis in tabular form. The results of this analysis are used as inputs to the consequence analyses in an iterative design process that is depicted in Figure 1. Categorization of event sequences for permanent retrieval of waste from the repository is beyond the scope of this analysis. Cleanup activities that take place after an event sequence and other responses to abnormal events are also beyond the scope of the analysis.

  1. Effect of External Magnetic Field on Critical Current for the Onset of Virtual Cathode Oscillations in Relativistic Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hramov, Alexander E; Morozov, Mikhail; Mushtakov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we research the space charge limiting current value at which the oscillating virtual cathode is formed in the relativistic electron beam as a function of the external magnetic field guiding the beam electrons. It is shown that the space charge limiting (critical) current decreases with growth of the external magnetic field, and that there is an optimal induction value of the magnetic field at which the critical current for the onset of virtual cathode oscillations in the electron beam is minimum. For the strong external magnetic field the space charge limiting current corresponds to the analytical relation derived under the assumption that the motion of the electron beam is one-dimensional [High Power Microwave Sources. Artech House Microwave Library, 1987. Chapter~13]. Such behavior is explained by the characteristic features of the dynamics of electron space charge in the longitudinal and radial directions in the drift space at the different external magnetic fields.

  2. Joomla! 25 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Written with a fast-paced but friendly and engaging approach, this Packt Beginner's guide is designed to be placed alongside the computer as your guide and mentor. Step-by-step tutorials are bolstered by explanations of the reasoning behind what you are doing. You will quickly pick up the necessary skills, tips, and tricks for building a successful Joomla! website. This book is written for beginners to website design. By the end of the book you will have built a complete custom content managed website, and be ready to build any kind of website.

  3. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  4. 2013 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world. The Sky guide has been published annually by the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, since 1991. It is recommended for photogr

  5. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  6. Simple guide to Skype

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Simple Guides give you Just the Facts Get up to speed with Skypefast! Simple Guides: get you started quickly. No extra clutter, no extra reading. Learn how to set up Skype, as well as how to add and set up all your friends, family, and other contacts. Find out about all the features of Skype, how to change views, set your status and conduct video and audio only calls. Learn about all the different things you can do to contact your friends and family on Skype for free, and start having fun!

  7. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  8. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  9. Pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide is a guide for the design of pneumatic conveying systems and includes detailed data and information on the conveying characteristics of a number of materials with a wide range of properties. This book includes logic diagrams for design procedures and scaling parameters for the conveying line configuration. It also explains how to improve the performance of pneumatic conveyors by optimizing, uprating, and extending the system or adapting it for a change of material. This book consists of 15 chapters divided into three sections and opens with an overview of the s

  10. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  11. The OSIRIS user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Telling, M T F

    2003-01-01

    This user guide contains all the information necessary to perform a successful neutron scattering experiment on the OSIRIS spectrometer at ISIS, RAL, UK. Since OSIRIS is a continually evolving and improving instrument some information contained within this manual may become redundant. However, the basic instrument operating procedures should remain essentially unchanged. While updated manuals will be produced when appropriate, the most comprehensive source of information concerning OSIRIS is the Instrument Scientist/Local Contact. It would be appreciated, however, if this user guide were the first point of call should problems arise

  12. CFEngine 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rajneesh

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book guides you through setting up Cfengine to maximizing its potential. This book focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also learn how to avoid some common pitfalls. If you are a System Administrator or Configuration manager with a growing infrastructure and if you are looking for a dependable tool to manage your infrastructure, then this book is for you. If your infrastructure is already big with hundreds and thousands of nodes and you are looking for a secure, versatile and stable configu

  13. Seismic Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagling, D.G. (ed.)

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  14. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  15. Google Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calishain, Tara; Adams, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Beneath its deceptively simple search form, Google is a remarkably powerful and flexible search engine that indexes billions of web pages, handling more than 150 million searches a day. You know that what you're looking for must be in there somewhere, but how do you make Google work for you? Crafted from our best-selling Google Hacks title, the Google Pocket Guide provides exactly the information you need to make your searches faster and more effective, right from the start. The Google Pocket Guide unleashes the power behind that blinking cursor by delivering: A thorough but concise tour o

  16. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  17. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  18. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  19. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpwang@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  20. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  1. English as a Second Language: Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Jane

    This teaching guide is based on Paulo Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" and is intended for use with Haitian migrant workers. The first chapter enunciates the general principles of foreign language teaching; chapters 2-5 illustrate actual use of the principles of control, sequence, reinforcement, and total physical response. Chapters…

  2. College Algebra Grades 11, 12, A Tentative Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Benjamin P.; And Others

    This teaching guide outlines a college algebra course for use in the secondary school. Units studied are: mathematical induction, functions, groups and fields, linear algebra, and limits. Special emphasis is given to the study of functions and linear algebra. Sequence, textbook references and assignments, and time allotments are suggested. Some…

  3. Imaging guided differentiation of parotid tumors; Bildgebende Differenzierung von Parotistumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloth, C.; Horger, M.; Haap, M.; Ioanoviciu, S.D.; Boesmueller, H.

    2015-09-15

    Imaging guided differentiation of parotid tumors is helping diagnosis and therapy decision making. It is necessary to consider seldom tumor forms and their characteristic appearance. Modern techniques as diffusion supported NMR imaging sequences and correlated contrast agent kinetics may be helpful besides computer tomography and PET techniques.

  4. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Vic; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching nuclear chemistry. In this book, the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and the applications of nuclear energy are discussed. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  5. Diversity and Periodicity: An Inorganic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huheey, James; Sandoval, Amado

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching inorganic chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified science. Contents include: (1) "Periodicity: A Chemical Calendar"; (2)…

  6. Collective Decision Dynamics in the Presence of External Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bassett, Danielle S; Carlson, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    We develop a sequence of models describing information transmission and decision dynamics for a network of individual agents subject to multiple sources of influence. Our general framework is set in the context of an impending natural disaster, where individuals, represented by nodes on the network, must decide whether or not to evacuate. Sources of influence include a one-to-many externally driven global broadcast as well as pairwise interactions, across links in the network, in which agents transmit either continuous opinions or binary actions. We consider both uniform and variable threshold rules on the individual opinion as baseline models for decision-making. Our results indicate that 1) social networks lead to clustering and cohesive action among individuals, 2) binary information introduces high temporal variability and stagnation, and 3) information transmission over the network can either facilitate or hinder action adoption, depending on the influence of the global broadcast relative to the social n...

  7. Teaching biological evolution - internal and external evaluation of learning outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Olander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports from a study where teachers and researchers collaborate on designing and validatingtopic-oriented teaching-learning sequences. In an iterative process, data about learning andteaching biological evolution are generated through continuous cycles of design, teaching, evaluation,and redesign. The study involved 180 Swedish students aged 11 – 16, and the overall learning aim was that the students should be able to use the theory of evolution as a tool when explaining the development of life on earth. The aim of this paper is to validate the students’ learning outcome, estimated as appropriation of scientific ways of reasoning in written answers. The students’ answers of questions are analysed before and after interventions (internal evaluation, and compared with the answers from a national sample (external evaluation. The students in the experimental group did develop their reasoning, and they attained the aim, to a greater extent than a national sample.

  8. Intermittency in Hall-magnetohydrodynamics with a strong guide field

    CERN Document Server

    Imazio, P Rodriguez; Dmitruk, P; Mininni, P D

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of intermittency in the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations of compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an external guide field. To solve the equations numerically, a reduced model valid when a strong guide field is present is used. Different values for the ion skin depth are considered in the simulations. The resulting data is analyzed computing field increments in several directions perpendicular to the guide field, and building structure functions and probability density functions. In the magnetohydrodynamic limit we recover the usual results with the magnetic field being more intermittent than the velocity field. In the presence of the Hall effect, field fluctuations at scales smaller than the ion skin depth show a substantial decrease in the level of intermittency, with close to monofractal scaling.

  9. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination.

  10. External Tonehole Interactions in Woodwind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, Antoine; Kergomard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is often used to calculate the input impedance of woodwind instruments but it ignores the possible influence of the radiated sound from toneholes on other open holes. In this paper, a method is proposed to account for external tonehole interactions. It is found that the external tonehole interactions increase the amount of radiated energy, reduce slightly the lower resonance frequencies, and modify significantly the response near and above the tonehole lattice cutoff frequency. The results of simulations with the Finite Element Method, as well as experimental measurements, are presented and compared to the calculation with the method presented in this paper, confirming that the external tonehole interactions play a significant role in woodwind instrument.

  11. External-Memory Algorithms and Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    . This is due to the huge difference in access time of fast internal memory and slower external memory such as disks. The goal of theoretical work in the area of external memory algorithms (also called I/O algorithms or out-of-core algorithms) has been to develop algorithms that minimize the Input......The data sets involved in many modern applications are often too massive to fit in main memory of even the most powerful computers and must therefore reside on disk. Thus communication between internal and external memory, and not actual computation time, becomes the bottleneck in the computation....../Output communication (or just I/O) performed when solving a given problem. The area was effectively started in the late eighties by Aggarwal and Vitter and subsequently I/O algorithms have been developed for several problem domain. Also I/O performance can often be improved if many disks can efficiently be used...

  12. DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, D. (AT and T Bell Labs. Holmdel, NJ (US))

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the frequency pulling effect exerted on a DFB laser by an external amplitude modulator that is directly attached to it. The modulator consists of a piece of waveguide whose loss is modulated by means of an externally applied voltage. The modulator affects the laser due to residual reflections from its far end which appear as a variable effective reflectivity to the output end of the DFB laser. Modulation affects the magnitude as well as the phase of the effective reflection coefficient presented to the laser due to the coupling of the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of the modulator waveguide. The tuning problem is formulated as an eigenvalue equation for the DFB laser in the presence of an externally attached lossy cavity.

  13. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  14. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... level differences (ILDs) that occurs in reverberant environments was altered via modifications of the signal envelope in the left and right ear. It was found that the dynamic ILDs had an effect on externalization for broadband and highpass filtered speech, while no effect was found for lowpass filtered......, this work contributes to the understanding of the auditory processing of spatial cues that are important for externalization in reverberant environments and may have implications for hearing instrument signal processing....

  15. Einstein a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-01-01

    This guide contains the essential facts and concepts of the life and work of Albert Einstein. It examines his background and the scientific method of the day, and explains his theories in simple terms. Central themes are presented in jargon-free language and key terms are highlighted and explained.

  16. Acronyms & Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide includes the following: higher education and related associations; advocacy organizations and coalitions of interest to research universities; explanations of acronyms and terms commonly used in the university community; web links to government resources and agencies; Executive and Legislative Branch offices; and key federal…

  17. CERN honours its guides

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of January, CERN's guides were rewarded for their devotion to the Laboratory. They have a passion for their work, know CERN inside-out and for 40 years have shown people of all ages and nationalities, from all walks of life, around the Laboratory. Who are they? Why, the CERN guides, of course. On 27 January, ten of CERN's 180 guides received special honours for their impressive number of guided tours in 2003. Presenting the awards in the Microcosm hall, CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar congratulated the winners on the key role they play with respect to the general public. "CERN would be nothing without you who show them its activities," he stressed. CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar congratulates Alberto Ribon for his tally of over 40 visits in the course of 2003.One of the prizes was the book «The Particle Odyssey». Here the book's co-author Christine Sutton dedicates it for Sijin Qian. Tzanko Spassoff (PH) and retired staff members Klaus Batzner and Antonio Francano wo...

  18. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  19. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  20. Field Guide to Radiometry

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Written from a systems engineering perspective, this SPIE Field Guide covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. The book's organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables, and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today's fast-paced technical environment.

  1. Follow the guide!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For once it was the turn of the CERN guides to be shown around. A special tour had been organised for their annual outing on 24 June 2003, the aim of which was to go behind the scenes at research centres similar to CERN and discover the secrets of their public communications activities. The first stop was the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, where the twenty or so CERN guides were welcomed by Dominique Cornujeols, head of communication at ESRF, who explained the Facility's history and purpose and how it operates before they were taken on a tour of the actual installations. CERN guides are welcomed to the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility).The second visit of this trip to the Grenoble region was to the centre for science, technology and industry (CCSTI). "The people in charge at CCSTI showed us their day-to-day work in science and technology workshops", explains Stephan Petit, one of the guides. These workshops allow the public to discuss fundamental issues relating to a ...

  2. Guide for Occupational Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Intended for use with or without counseling help, this occupational exploration guide is organized around 12 interest areas, 66 work groups, and 348 subgroups of occupational titles. The interest areas (an expansion of John Holland's six occupational categories) represent the broad interest requirements of occupations as well as the vocational…

  3. Ozone Layer Educator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide has been developed through a collaborative effort involving the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is part of an ongoing commitment to ensure that the results of scientific research on ozone depletion are…

  4. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  5. Material Writer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  6. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  7. Welding. Student Learning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains 30 modules for completing a course in welding. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. Each module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information sheets, student self-check…

  8. Destination: Paraguay. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Roxanne

    This guide offers a closer look at Paraguay as a landlocked republic in the heart of South America. The activities emphasize the interaction between the people and their land and pertain to three academic levels. Activities for grades 3-5 include: (1) "Packing for Paraguay"; (2) "Where in the World Are We Going and How in the World Will We Get…

  9. Drush User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Requena, Juan Pablo Novillo

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide full of examples and step-by-step instructions to start using Drush right from chapter 1. Drupal developers or themers who understand Drupal administration's basic concepts. Drush can make building any kind of website quicker and easier, no matter if it is a development environment, beta, a simple blog or a complex system.

  10. Cosmetology. Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to offer guidelines along with supporting resources and teaching ideas from which the local secondary instructor can extract a cosmetology curriculum that meets local needs. Following an outline of the philosophy and goals underlying state and local vocational education programs in Georgia, the purpose and…

  11. Material Writer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  12. Fashion Merchandising Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education Services.

    Developed to address the needs of the apparel industry, this fashion merchandising curriculum guide is designed to assist marketing educators in effective instructional delivery. Introductory materials include the following: a course blueprint that illustrates units of instruction, core competencies in each unit, and specific objectives for each…

  13. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  14. Environmental Horticulture Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard environmental horticulture curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the environmental horticulture field. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  15. Electrical Distribution Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard electrical distribution curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the electrical distribution field, and in job skills such as construction, maintenance, and repair of overhead and underground electrical…

  16. Introductory guide to noise

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferreira, T.M

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between sound and noise varies from one human being to another. Noise, then, is simply unwanted sound and to understand how it can be combatted we must know more about its nature. A guide of acceptable levels of noise are investigated....

  17. Rust scoring guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1986-01-01

    This brief guide for identifying rust diseases of smaill grain cereals contains color photos depicting the growth stages of small grain cereal crops and provides instructions for recording rust severity and field response for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), stem rust (P. graminis), and leaf rust

  18. The Turing guide

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, Jack; Sprevak, Mark; Wilson, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This carefully edited resource brings together contributions from some of the world's leading experts on Alan Turing to create a comprehensive guide that will serve as a useful resource for researchers in the area as well as the increasingly interested general reader.

  19. Architectural Guide of Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilberth, Thomas Roger

    2016-01-01

    Architectural and cultural guidebook for Jordan that also includes a view on the Syrian refugee situation, especially in the large UNHCR camp of Zaatari. The guide book is a preparatory study for a field trip our master studio undertook to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Fall 2016....

  20. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  1. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy

    2015-01-01

    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...... methods that directly alter the features of the external wound microenvironment indirectly affect the internal wound microenvironment due to the exchange between the two compartments. In this review, we focus on the effects of temperature, pressure (positive and negative), hydration, gases (oxygen...

  2. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  3. Black holes under external influence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiří Bičák

    2000-10-01

    The work on black holes immersed in external fields is reviewed in both test-field approximation and within exact solutions. In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating black holes accelerated by strings.

  4. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  5. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...

  6. Social Ontology Documentation for Knowledge Externalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Corral, Gonzalo A.; Borrego-Díaz, Joaquín; Jiménez-Mavillard, Antonio

    Knowledge externalization and organization is a major challenge that companies must face. Also, they have to ask whether is possible to enhance its management. Mechanical processing of information represents a chance to carry out these tasks, as well as to turn intangible knowledge assets into real assets. Machine-readable knowledge provides a basis to enhance knowledge management. A promising approach is the empowering of Knowledge Externalization by the community (users, employees). In this paper, a social semantic tool (called OntoxicWiki) for enhancing the quality of knowledge is presented.

  7. RAM-Efficient External Memory Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Thorup, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a large number of problems have been considered in external memory models of computation, where the complexity measure is the number of blocks of data that are moved between slow external memory and fast internal memory (also called I/Os). In practice, however, internal memory time...... often dominates the total running time once I/O-efficiency has been obtained. In this paper we study algorithms for fundamental problems that are simultaneously I/O-efficient and internal memory efficient in the RAM model of computation....

  8. Mathematics for physicists and engineers fundamentals and interactive study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weltner, Klaus; Weber, Wolfgang J; Schuster, Peter; Grosjean, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This textbook offers an accessible and highly approved approach which is characterized by the combination of the textbook with a detailed study guide available online at our repository extras.springer.com. This study guide divides the whole learning task into small units which the student is very likely to master successfully. Thus he or she is asked to read and study a limited section of the textbook and to return to the study guide afterwards. Working with the study guide his or her learning results are controlled, monitored and deepened by graded questions, exercises, repetitions and finally by problems and applications of the content studied. Since the degree of difficulties is slowly rising the students gain confidence and experience their own progress in mathematical competence thus fostering motivation. Furthermore in case of learning difficulties he or she is given supplementary explanations and in case of individual needs supplementary exercises and applications. So the sequence of the studies is ind...

  9. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  10. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  11. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  12. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  13. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  14. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: Familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAIL

  15. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  16. Callus patterns in femur lengthening using a monolateral external fixator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, Dileep; Fernandez, Harry; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young; Kumar Shyam, Ashok [Korea University Medical Centre, Guro Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rare Diseases Institute, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seok-Hyun [Dongguk University International Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ilsan (Korea); Lee, Jong-Chan [Korea University, Department of Statistics, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    We studied the callus pattern seen in femoral lengthening using monolateral external fixator to determine whether callus types and shapes can predict the final outcome of the procedure. The radiographs of 41 cases of femoral lengthening (33 unilateral and 8 bilateral) in 33 patients with a mean age 11.9 years (range 4-22 years) were retrospectively analysed by four observers and classified into different shapes and types in concordance with the Ru Li classification. The classification was tested for concurrence and reproducibility by inter-observer studies. An average of 6.2 cm of lengthening (range 3-10.8) was achieved with an external fixator index of 36.5 (range 20.9-55.3). The fusiform type of callus (fixator index 32.04, maturation index 21.6) showed the best result followed by the cylinder type of callus (fixator index 35.7, maturation index 22.3) and the lateral type of callus (fixator index 33.2, maturation index 21.5). However, the concave type of callus showed poor results with a fixator index of 49.4 and a maturation index of 37.1. The homogeneous path showed the best results (fixator index 30.4, maturation index 18.6). The heterogeneous path also showed good results (fixator index 36.4, maturation index 23.9). The mixed path (fixator index 42.5, maturation index 30.8) and the lucent path (fixator index 45.1, maturation index 32.8) showed poor results. Analysis of the callus pattern helps the surgeon to predict the outcome of the procedure and guide him in planning any additional interventions if necessary. (orig.)

  17. SAGE 2.1: SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. SAGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. It leads the user through a question-and-answer session. The user's responses allow the system ...

  18. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  19. Dynamics and Control of DNA Sequence Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan

    2014-01-01

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence \\emph{in vitro} through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal tempe...

  20. Contamination of sequence databases with adaptor sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Takeo; Sanders, A.R.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.D. [National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Because of the exponential increase in the amount of DNA sequences being added to the public databases on a daily basis, it has become imperative to identify sources of contamination rapidly. Previously, contaminations of sequence databases have been reported to alert the scientific community to the problem. These contaminations can be divided into two categories. The first category comprises host sequences that have been difficult for submitters to manage or control. Examples include anomalous sequences derived from Escherichia coli, which are inserted into the chromosomes (and plasmids) of the bacterial hosts. Insertion sequences are highly mobile and are capable of transposing themselves into plasmids during cloning manipulation. Another example of the first category is the infection with yeast genomic DNA or with bacterial DNA of some commercially available cDNA libraries from Clontech. The second category of database contamination is due to the inadvertent inclusion of nonhost sequences. This category includes incorporation of cloning-vector sequences and multicloning sites in the database submission. M13-derived artifacts have been common, since M13-based vectors have been widely used for subcloning DNA fragments. Recognizing this problem, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) started to screen, in April 1994, all sequences directly submitted to GenBank, against a set of vector data retrieved from GenBank by use of key-word searches, such as {open_quotes}vector.{close_quotes} In this report, we present evidence for another sequence artifact that is widespread but that, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  1. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  2. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radon Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  3. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guy's Guide to Body Image KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to Body ... image can be a problem. Why Is Body Image Important? Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, ...

  4. Creating A Guided- discovery Lesson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田枫

    2005-01-01

    In a guided - discovery lesson, students sequentially uncover layers of mathematical information one step at a time and learn new mathematics. We have identified eight critical steps necessary in developing a successful guided- discovery lesson.

  5. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  6. International Labor Migration and External Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Jorge A.

    1987-01-01

    Mexico and the United States have different perspectives on undocumented migrant workers. Possible solutions to this dilemma are (1) deciding on a common definition; (2) bilateral negotiations on the status of migrant workers; (3) addressing Mexico's external debt and scarce money resources; and (4) addressing the ways the American economy…

  7. network externalities into the technology acceptance model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Parry, Mark E.; Kawakami, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Research on network externalities has identified a number of product categories in which the market performance of an innovation (e.g., unit sales and revenues) is an increasing function of that innovation's installed base and the availability of complementary products. Innovation scholars have attr

  8. Ion Plasma Responses to External Electromagnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The response of ion plasmas to external radiation fields is investigated in a quantum mechanical formalism.We focus on the total electric field within the plasma. For general bandpass signals three frequency regions can be distinguished in terms of the plasma frequency. For low frequencies, the exte

  9. Rational bargaining in games with coalitional externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, Peter; Ju, Y.; Wettstein, D.

    This paper provides a flexible strategic framework to analyze bargaining and values in environments with coalitional externalities. Within this framework we propose a new value that extends the Shapley value to partition function form games, the so-called Rational Belief Shapley (RBS) value. We

  10. Thoughts on Internal and External Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance of higher education is made up of two parts: internal quality assurance (IQA) and external quality assurance (EQA). Both belong to a union of the coexistence and balance of yin and yang. But in reality there exists a paradox of "confusion of quality assurance (QA) subject consciousness, singularity of social QA and lack of QA…

  11. Fiscal externalities of becoming a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Douglas A; Lee, Ronald D; Miller, Timothy; Donehower, Gretchen; Genest, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical results suggest that there are externalities to childbearing, but those results usually assume that these externalities accrue uniformly within a homogeneous population. We advance this argument by developing separate estimates of the fiscal externalities associated with parents—those who devote time or material resources to minor children—and nonparents. Our analysis uses data from the US Panel Study of income Dynamics on the age profiles of taxes paid and publicly funded benefits consumed by parents and nonparents, together with a previously developed intertemporal economic-demographic accounting model. The accounting framework takes into account the net fiscal impacts of future generations as well as the present population. Our findings indicate that, with a 3 percent discount rate, parents produce a substantial net fiscal externality, about $217,000 in 2009 dollars. This is equivalent to a lifetime annuity of nearly $8,100 per year beginning at age 18. The results are sensitive to both the discount rate used and the proportion of parents within the cohort.

  12. External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel

    This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...

  13. Frequent external focus feedback enhances motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eWulf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that feedback inducing an external focus of attention enhances motor learning if it is provided frequently (i.e., 100% rather than less frequently. Children (10-12 year olds practiced a soccer throw-in task and were provided feedback about movement form. The feedback statements, provided either after every (100% or every third (33% practice trial, were similar in content but induced either an internal focus (body-movement related or external focus (movement-effect related. The results demonstrated that learning of the movement form was enhanced by external-focus feedback after every trial (100% relative to external-focus feedback after every third trial (33% or internal-focus feedback (100%, 33%, as demonstrated by immediate and delayed transfer tests without feedback. There was no difference between the two internal-focus feedback groups. These findings indicate that the attentional focus induced by feedback is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of different feedback frequencies. We argue that the informational properties of feedback cannot sufficiently account for these and related findings, and suggest that the attentional role of feedback be given greater consideration in future studies.

  14. External Approach Microsurgery of Retinal Dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Piqing Hu; Lixin Shun; Xuechun Zhu; Yingwu Yi; Wen Liu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effect of external approach microsurgery in retinal dialysis.Methods: Consecutive 30 eyes of 28 patients with retinal dialysis were enrolled for this study. The progresses of the external approach microsurgery were following. Under the surgical microscopy, the preplacement of mattress sutures for buckling and/or encircling following retrobulbar anesthesia and scleral exposure, draining subretinal fluid, the cryotherapy of retinal breaks, checking the position of breaks on scleral buckle and gases injection were performed in turn.Results: After drainage of subretinal fluid, with scleral depression cryotherapy reaction around breaks could be observed clearly under the microscopy. All breaks were located on anterior slope of the buckle. Intraoperative complications were mild subretinal hemorrhage at drainage site and corneal epithelium exfoliation in 3 eyes, respectively.Postoperative complications were mainly secondary glaucoma and retinal redetachment.The one-operation reattachmentl rate was 96.7% (29 eyes), and the final reattachment rate was 100% after one eye had a second external approach microsurgery. The postoperative vision acuity (VA) was significantly better than the preoperative VA (X2=9.529, P< 0.01).Conclusion: External approach microsurgery has favourable effect on the surgery of retinal dialysis.

  15. A taxonomy of external and internal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Marvin M; Golomb, Julie D; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over--the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

  16. Identifying Cross-Sided Liquidity Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the relevance of the cross-sided externality between liquidity makers and takers from the two-sided market perspective. We use exogenous changes in the make/take fee structure, minimum tick-size and technological shocks for liquidity takers and makers, as exper

  17. An Indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  18. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  19. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature.

  20. 75 FR 70015 - External Defibrillators; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... of innovative AED features such as automated integration into local 9-1-1 systems. FDA will work with... consumers, to share perspectives. II. Topics for Discussion at the Public Workshop The public workshop will... signals, or enhance the use of external defibrillators? III. Transcripts Please be advised that as soon...

  1. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature. PMID:27901225

  2. External Tank CIL Closed Loop Verification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Eugene A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Lockheed Martin was requested to develop a closed loop CIL system following the Challenger accident. The system that was developed has proven to be very robust with minimal problems since implementation, having zero escapes in the last 7 years (27 External Tanks). We are currently investigating expansion of the CIL Closed Loop system to include "MI" CILs.

  3. The External Dimension of EU Migration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gjipali

    2017-01-01

    Defining the conditions of consistency and flexibility to which the Union’s external action can bring the management of migration - a management which will pursue all objectives of the EU’s migration policy in accordance with the its principles, such as solidarity and the protection of fundamental rights - is the focus of this paper.

  4. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  5. Nonlinear External Kink Computing with NIMROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    Vertical displacement events (VDEs) during disruptions often include non-axisymmetric activity, including external kink modes, which are driven unstable as contact with the wall eats into the q-profile. The NIMROD code is being applied to study external-kink-unstable tokamak profiles in toroidal and cylindrical geometries. Simulations with external kinks show the plasma swallowing a vacuum bubble, similar to. NIMROD reproduces external kinks in both geometries, using an outer vacuum region (modeled as a plasma with a large resistivity), but as the boundary between the vacuum and plasma regions becomes more 3D, the resistivity becomes a 3D function, and it becomes more difficult for algebraic solves to converge. To help allow non-axisymmetric, nonlinear VDE calculations to proceed without restrictively small time-steps, several computational algorithms have been tested. Flexible GMRES, using a Fourier and real space representation for the toroidal angle has shown improvements. Off-diagonal preconditioning and a multigrid approach were tested and showed little improvement. A least squares finite element method (LSQFEM) has also helped improve the algebraic solve. This effort is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Award Numbers DE-FG02-06ER54850 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  6. KEUNTUNGAN PENGGUNAAN EXTERNAL FUNCTION PADA DATABASE POSTGRESQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahrun Hartono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Database id a central data for an information system, there were many database system applications that revolve both paid and free. PostgreSQL is one of the free database system and it has the powerful feature, one of the feature that make it different with others sysem is a function features, where the users can make their function by them selves by using spesific programming language, then it can be called return for executed. In this research the writer tries for conducting additional data testing by using INSERT Query and External Function Query on the terminal/command prompt and web browser. From the result of the trial, the research found that the average of time in additional data processing on the terminal/command prompt by using INSERT Query was 185.293 ms and the average of time External Function Query proccess was 129.52 ms, while the average of time in additional data processing on web browser by using INSERT Query was 168.363 ms and External Function Query was 145.64 ms. There was a difference both of the query, but the important thing and should be noted that external function is a command was defined by stand alone by the user, this matter lets the user to determine a specify command that they need.

  7. Thoughts on Internal and External Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance of higher education is made up of two parts: internal quality assurance (IQA) and external quality assurance (EQA). Both belong to a union of the coexistence and balance of yin and yang. But in reality there exists a paradox of "confusion of quality assurance (QA) subject consciousness, singularity of social QA and lack of QA…

  8. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  9. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  10. External fixation for phalangeal and metacarpal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, DJ; Klasen, HJ

    From 1987 to 1993 we treated 33 patients with 29 phalangeal and seven metacarpal fractures by external fixation using a mini-Hoffmann device. There were 27 open and 25 comminuted fractures, In 12 patients one or more tendons was involved, The mean follow-up was 4.4 years, Complications occurred in

  11. Video exams and the external examiners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    to the Master’s programme. The programme offers streamed videos in combination with other learning resources. Oral exams have been mediated with the help of Skype and later with Adobe Connect Professional. It has for all participants - students, examiners and external examiners – been both a challenge...

  12. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  13. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  14. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  15. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  16. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  17. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  18. Programmable DNA-Guided Artificial Restriction Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enghiad, Behnam; Zhao, Huimin

    2017-02-06

    Restriction enzymes are essential tools for recombinant DNA technology that have revolutionized modern biological research. However, they have limited sequence specificity and availability. Here we report a Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute (PfAgo) based platform for generating artificial restriction enzymes (AREs) capable of recognizing and cleaving DNA sequences at virtually any arbitrary site and generating defined sticky ends of varying length. Short DNA guides are used to direct PfAgo to target sites for cleavage at high temperatures (>87 °C) followed by reannealing of the cleaved single stranded DNAs. We used this platform to generate over 18 AREs for DNA fingerprinting and molecular cloning of PCR-amplified or genomic DNAs. These AREs work as efficiently as their naturally occurring counterparts, and some of them even do not have any naturally occurring counterparts, demonstrating easy programmability, generality, versatility, and high efficiency for this new technology.

  19. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  20. Mind over Matter. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This teacher's guide aims to develop an understanding among students in grades 5-9 about the biological effects of drug use. The guide provides background information on the anatomy of the brain, nerve cells and neurotransmission, and the effects of drugs on the brain. Drugs described in this guide include marijuana, opiates, inhalants,…

  1. A New Dutch Spelling Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, J. G.; van Sterkenburg, P. G. J.

    This paper describes the development of two new corpus-based Dutch spelling guides using language data gathered by the Institute for Dutch Lexicology, a research institute subsidized by the Dutch and Belgian governments. The guides were produced in 1990 and 1995. The guides are based on two earlier ones, published in 1866 and 1954, but attempt to…

  2. English Learners Program Guide. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This guide is designed as a reference for District and School personnel working with English learners (ELs). The content of the guide represents a compilation of information, examples, and resources. This guide is a living document and subject to frequent updates. It is recommended to review the document online rather than printing a hard copy.

  3. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  4. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  5. A Teacher's Guide for "Middlemarch."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Alice

    This teacher's guide for public television's 6-part adaptation of George Eliot's "Middlemarch" provides information that will enrich students' viewing of the series. The guide includes a wide range of activities to help students further explore the novel's universal themes. The guide suggests that students read the informational materials first…

  6. Health insurance and the obesity externality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    If rational individuals pay the full costs of their decisions about food intake and exercise, economists, policy makers, and public health officials should treat the obesity epidemic as a matter of indifference. In this paper, we show that, as long as insurance premiums are not risk rated for obesity, health insurance coverage systematically shields those covered from the full costs of physical inactivity and overeating. Since the obese consume significantly more medical resources than the non-obese, but pay the same health insurance premiums, they impose a negative externality on normal weight individuals in their insurance pool. To estimate the size of this externality, we develop a model of weight loss and health insurance under two regimes--(1) underwriting on weight is allowed and (2) underwriting on weight is not allowed. We show that under regime (1), there is no obesity externality. Under regime (2), where there is an obesity externality, all plan participants face inefficient incentives to undertake unpleasant dieting and exercise. These reduced incentives lead to inefficient increases in bodyweight, and reduced social welfare. Using data on medical expenditures and bodyweight from the National Health and Interview Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimate that, in a health plan with a coinsurance rate of 17.5%, the obesity externality imposes a welfare cost of about $150 per capita. Our results also indicate that the welfare loss can be reduced by technological change that lowers the pecuniary and non-pecuniary costs of losing weight, and also by increasing the coinsurance rate.

  7. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Todd N; Wylie, Kristine M; Herter, Brandi N; Storch, Gregory A

    2015-12-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications.

  8. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Debra M.; Brittenham, Phillip W.

    2005-12-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal Web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  9. PASTA: Ultra-Large Multiple Sequence Alignment for Nucleotide and Amino-Acid Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirarab, Siavash; Nguyen, Nam; Guo, Sheng; Wang, Li-San; Kim, Junhyong; Warnow, Tandy

    2015-05-01

    We introduce PASTA, a new multiple sequence alignment algorithm. PASTA uses a new technique to produce an alignment given a guide tree that enables it to be both highly scalable and very accurate. We present a study on biological and simulated data with up to 200,000 sequences, showing that PASTA produces highly accurate alignments, improving on the accuracy and scalability of the leading alignment methods (including SATé). We also show that trees estimated on PASTA alignments are highly accurate--slightly better than SATé trees, but with substantial improvements relative to other methods. Finally, PASTA is faster than SATé, highly parallelizable, and requires relatively little memory.

  10. DNA sequences encoding erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.K.

    1987-10-27

    A purified and isolated DNA sequence is described consisting essentially of a DNA sequence encoding a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence sufficiently duplicative of that of erythropoietin to allow possession of the biological property of causing bone marrow cells to increase production of reticulocytes and red blood cells, and to increase hemoglobin synthesis or iron uptake.

  11. A simple strategy guides the complex metabolic regulation in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchetti, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A way to decipher the complexity of the cellular metabolism is to study the effect of different external perturbations. Through an analysis over a sufficiently large set of gene knockouts and growing conditions, one aims to find a unifying principle that governs the metabolic regulation. For instance, it is known that the cessation of the microorganism proliferation after a gene deletion is only transient. However, we do not know the guiding principle that determines the partial or complete recovery of the growth rate, the corresponding redistribution of the metabolic fluxes and the possible different phenotypes. In spite of this large variety in the observed metabolic adjustments, we show that responses of E. coli to several different perturbations can always be derived from a sequence of greedy and myopic resilencings. This simple mechanism provides a detailed explanation for the experimental dynamics both at cellular (proliferation rate) and molecular level (13C-determined fluxes), also in case of appearance of multiple phenotypes. As additional support, we identified an example of a simple network motif that is capable of implementing this myopic greediness in the regulation of the metabolism.

  12. 21 CFR 878.3800 - External aesthetic restoration prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. 878... External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external aesthetic restoration prosthesis... external prosthesis adhesive. The device is not intended to be implanted. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3500 - External assembled lower limb prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External assembled lower limb prosthesis. 890.3500... External assembled lower limb prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external assembled lower limb prosthesis... the lower extremity. Examples of external assembled lower limb prostheses are the following:...

  14. Civil Law Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    biological sex (as evidenced by the external anatomy of the persons involved) unless there are further findings that the member is not a homosexual or...stated that he or she is a homosexual or bisexual or has married or attempted to marry a person known to be of the same biological sex (as evidenced by...compared to the absence of such a statutory provision for lawyers and paralegals . Indeed, strong arguments could be made under the Feres Doctrine for

  15. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsy uses imaging ... Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsies are performed ...

  16. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times.

  17. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  18. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  19. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  20. SQL Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gennick, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    If you're a programmer or database administrator who uses SQL in your day-to-day work, this popular pocket guide is the ideal on-the-job reference. You'll find many examples that address the language's complexity, along with key aspects of SQL used in IBM DB2 Release 9.7, MySQL 5.1, Oracle Database 11g Release 2, PostgreSQL 9.0, and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Release 2. SQL Pocket Guide describes how these database systems implement SQL syntax for querying, managing transactions, and making changes to data. It also shows how the systems use SQL functions, regular expression syntax, and type c

  1. Publications desktop survival guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Purpose of this guide is to document and simplify the writing, reviewing, and production process for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) staff and to provide specific answers concerning the content, style, and format of UMTRA Project documents. Goal of the UMTRA Project document preparation process is to deliver to the US DOE high-quality documents that meet requirements (meets expressed client needs; accurate and consistent technical content; clear writing; well organized document; consistent style). A document review process has been established to ensure that TAC documents are accurate, consistent, and well organized. The editing process applies standard rules for style and format, spelling, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure to make the document consistent and easier to read. This guide sets forth the rules to be applied to UMTRA Project documents.

  2. Introductory guide to thatching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, K

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available information. In South Africa there is evidence that many home owners and potential home owners would welcome such information. This guide has been compiled partly from other published information but mainly from dixussions with craftsmen in South Africa...) - Albertinia and Rivendal districts of the Cape Hyparrhenia dregeana - Natal midlands and Berg area Hyparrheniofilipendula - Zululand coastal regions Thamnochortus erectus and 72amnochorrus speci~erus (Dekriet) - Cape coastal regions Chondropetolum...

  3. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip; Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Miller, Joel D.

    2017-04-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  4. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  5. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  6. Special Observance Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    guide are not inclusive in nature and can be modified as necessary to support the needs of project officers and established committees. It is suggested... inclusive . Based on specific needs and desires, organizations may recognize other observances and are not required to limit their special...states, mayors of cities, and heads of other instrumentalities of government, as well as leaders of industry, educational and religious groups, labor

  7. Guiding Economic Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three top Chinese officials responsible for guiding China’s macroeconomic policies expound on the state of the economy In Premier Wen Jiabao’s recent govern- ment work report,he said that the major task this year would be to prevent over- all prices from rising rapidly.Along with this,he accentuated a prudent fiscal policy and a tight monetary policy. Following the premier’s work report,

  8. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  9. 2012 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world.

  10. Follow the guide

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The general public’s interest in CERN is growing all the time. You too could help to satisfy its curiosity by becoming a guide. Would you like to share your passion for your job and for science with others, meet visitors and contribute to the Laboratory’s communication drive? Well you can, by becoming an official CERN guide. Every year CERN organises over 900 visits, welcoming some 26,000 visitors in the Laboratory’s four most commonly used languages: English, French, German and Italian. For the last two years, in response to demand, visits have also been given in other languages, such as Finnish, Greek, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish. Becoming a guide can be an exciting experience, offering the opportunity to get out and meet visitors of all ages and nationalities. "As well as coming into contact with all kinds of people, you get to know the Laboratory extremely well", says Dominique Bertola, who is in charge of the Visits Ser...

  11. Uncertainty analysis guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, T.H

    2002-05-01

    This guide applies to the estimation of uncertainty in quantities calculated by scientific, analysis and design computer programs that fall within the scope of AECL's software quality assurance (SQA) manual. The guide weaves together rational approaches from the SQA manual and three other diverse sources: (a) the CSAU (Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty) evaluation methodology; (b) the ISO Guide,for the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement; and (c) the SVA (Systems Variability Analysis) method of risk analysis. This report describes the manner by which random and systematic uncertainties in calculated quantities can be estimated and expressed. Random uncertainty in model output can be attributed to uncertainties of inputs. The propagation of these uncertainties through a computer model can be represented in a variety of ways, including exact calculations, series approximations and Monte Carlo methods. Systematic uncertainties emerge from the development of the computer model itself, through simplifications and conservatisms, for example. These must be estimated and combined with random uncertainties to determine the combined uncertainty in a model output. This report also addresses the method by which uncertainties should be employed in code validation, in order to determine whether experiments and simulations agree, and whether or not a code satisfies the required tolerance for its application. (author)

  12. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  13. Repdigits in -Lucas Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jhon J J Bravo; Florian Luca

    2014-05-01

    For an integer ≥ 2, let $(L_n^{(k)})_n$ be the -Lucas sequence which starts with $0,\\ldots,0,2,1$ ( terms) and each term afterwards is the sum of the preceding terms. In 2000, Luca (Port. Math. 57(2) 2000 243-254) proved that 11 is the largest number with only one distinct digit (the so-called repdigit) in the sequence $(L_n^{(2)})_n$. In this paper, we address a similar problem in the family of -Lucas sequences. We also show that the -Lucas sequences have similar properties to those of -Fibonacci sequences and occur in formulae simultaneously with the latter.

  14. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  15. External Periodic Force Control of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Vibroimpact System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyue Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-degree-of-freedom mechanical model of vibro-impact system is established. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are revealed with the time history diagram, phase trajectory map, and Poincaré map. According to the bifurcation and chaos of the actual vibro-impact system, the paper puts forward external periodic force control strategy. The method of controlling chaos by external periodic force feedback controller is developed to guide chaotic motions towards regular motions. The stability of the control system is also analyzed especially by theory. By selecting appropriate feedback coefficients, the unstable periodic orbits of the original chaotic orbit can be stabilized to the stable periodic orbits. The effectiveness of this control method is verified by numerical simulation.

  16. On Maximal Green Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.

  17. Variables that affect the satisfaction of Brazilian women with external breast prostheses after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso; Gravena, Angela Andreia França; Lopes, Tiara Cristina Romeiro; Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina Rocha; de Oliveira Demitto, Marcela; Dell Agnolo, Catia Millene; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2014-01-01

    : In 2012, the breast cancer estimate worldwide stood at 1.67 million new cases, these accounting for 25% of all types of cancer diagnosed in women. For 2014, 57,120 new cases are expected, with a risk estimated at 56.1 cases for every 100,000 women. The objective of this study was to analyze the satisfaction regarding the use of external breast prostheses by women undergoing mastectomy. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 76 women who used an external breast prosthesis (EBP), registered in the services of the Cuiaba Center for Comprehensive Rehabilitation, Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected from the records of women who had requested the opening of a process of external breast prosthesis concession. Satisfaction with the EBP was identified in 56.6% of the women. Those satisfied with the EBP reported that its weight was not annoying (plife has demonstrated that even though the women have reported the possibility of displacements, they are satisfied with the EBP. The satisfaction with the use of external breast prosthesis did not affect the sexuality of the women with mastectomy. Learning the specificities of the EBP, taking into consideration the satisfaction of its use, allows the rehabilitation team, by listening to their clientele more attentively, following up this woman throughout her life journey, supporting and guiding the best way of use, with an eye to her personal, emotional and social life, as well as to her self-esteem.

  18. The automatic neutron guide optimizer guide_bot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Mads

    2017-09-01

    The guide optimization software guide_bot is introduced, the main purpose of which is to reduce the time spent programming when performing numerical optimization of neutron guides. A limited amount of information on the overall guide geometry and a figure of merit describing the desired beam is used to generate the code necessary to solve the problem. A generated McStas instrument file performs the Monte Carlo ray-tracing, which is controlled by iFit optimization scripts. The resulting optimal guide is thoroughly characterized, both in terms of brilliance transfer from an idealized source and on a more realistic source such as the ESS Butterfly moderator. Basic MATLAB knowledge is required from the user, but no experience with McStas or iFit is necessary. This paper briefly describes how guide_bot is used and some important aspects of the code. A short validation against earlier work is performed which shows the expected agreement. In addition a scan over the vertical divergence requirement, where individual guide optimizations are performed for each corresponding figure of merit, provides valuable data on the consequences of this parameter. The guide_bot software package is best suited for the start of an instrument design project as it excels at comparing a large amount of different guide alternatives for a specific set of instrument requirements, but is still applicable in later stages as constraints can be used to optimize more specific guides.

  19. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors, prenatal and perinatal risks, and their interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Aken, M.A. van; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a rich and varied interplay between persons and their environments, which strongly suggests that this involves gene-environment correlations and interactions. We investigated whether familial risk (FR) to externalizing behaviors and prenatal

  20. NEGLECTED POSTERIOR KNEE DISLOCATION TREATED WITH CLOSED MANIPULATION AND UNIPLANAR EXTERNAL FIXATOR : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neglected traumatic posterior knee dislocations were rare in orthopaedic literature more so after a surgical intervention . Majority of the injuries are associated with vascular trauma and distal or proximal fractures and complete disruption of anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and nerve traction injuries. Traumatic knee dislocations are therefore treated as an orthopaedic emergency. There were no definitive guide lines to open reduction as well as conservative methods of treatment. The end results of functional recovery are still controversial with residual posterior subluxation. Here we present a case of neglected posterior knee dislocation treated with closed manipulation and uni planar external fixator

  1. School Discipline and Self-Discipline: A Practical Guide to Promoting Prosocial Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.

    2010-01-01

    How can schools create safe, well-supervised classroom environments while also teaching students skills for managing their behavior on their own? This invaluable guide presents a framework for achieving both of these crucial goals. It shows how to balance external reinforcements such as positive behavior supports with social-emotional learning…

  2. AREVA sustainable development indicators guidelines; Guide methodologique des indicateurs developpement durable AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    These guidelines set out the procedures used to measure and report the sustainable development and continuous progress data and indicators used within the Areva Group. It defines the scope of the guide, the list of indicators, the measurement and calculation procedures, the internal and external audits. (A.L.B.)

  3. Cleaning MEG artifacts using external cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, I; Abeles, M

    2013-07-15

    Using EEG, ECoG, MEG, and microelectrodes to record brain activity is prone to multiple artifacts. The main power line (mains line), video equipment, mechanical vibrations and activities outside the brain are the most common sources of artifacts. MEG amplitudes are low, and even small artifacts distort recordings. In this study, we show how these artifacts can be efficiently removed by recording external cues during MEG recordings. These external cues are subsequently used to register the precise times or spectra of the artifacts. The results indicate that these procedures preserve both the spectra and the time domain wave-shapes of the neuromagnetic signal, while successfully reducing the contribution of the artifacts to the target signals without reducing the rank of the data.

  4. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron C Y; Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Singh, Mansher; Caterson, Edward J; Eriksson, Elof; Sørensen, Jens A

    2015-01-01

    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment methods that directly alter the features of the external wound microenvironment indirectly affect the internal wound microenvironment due to the exchange between the two compartments. In this review, we focus on the effects of temperature, pressure (positive and negative), hydration, gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), pH, and anti-microbial treatment on the wound. These factors are well described in the literature and can be modified with treatment methods available in the clinic. Understanding the roles of these factors in wound pathophysiology is of central importance in wound treatment. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  5. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  6. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  7. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    When building up competences, a subsidiary of a multinational corporation (MNC) may rely onexternal knowledge sources like customers, suppliers, competitors or local science centers. Internalsourcing is also available through knowledge offered by headquarters or other affiliates. Thequestion...... is whether the two kinds of sources are mutual exclusive. A dilemma or organizationaltrade-off is foreseeable, since the more the subsidiary adapts its knowledge creation processes tohost country institutions, the less it will be able to utilize internal knowledge sources due to theinstitutional distance...... between the external and internal networks. However, newer organizationalforms, like the concept of the `differentiated MNC', imply a relatively smooth flow of knowledgeinside the MNC, indicating that we should not expect an organizational trade-off between internaland external sources. The subsidiary...

  8. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has attracted considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. The CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CE...

  9. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spacial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential $A_\\mu$ are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general $A_\\mu$, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of $A_\\mu$ w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  10. External jugular venous aneurysm: A clinical curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Tandon, Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Jugular venous aneurysm is an extremely rare condition. The patients presented with a painless swelling in the neck that appears while coughing, straining, bending, or breath holding. Detection of a soft and compressible swelling in the course of an external jugular vein (EJV) superficial to the sternomastoid muscle, non-filling on compression of the EJV during Valsalva maneuver clinches the diagnosis of EJV aneurysm. Color Doppler ultrasound allows precise delineation of the lesion and is considered the gold standard for confirming the diagnosis. Surgical excision is indicated mostly for cosmetic reasons and symptomatic aneurysms. We, herein, report a patient with saccular external jugular venous aneurysm to highlight the typical clinical presentation and diagnosis of this rare entity. PMID:23633867

  11. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts, having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has raised considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CERN fo...

  12. External ionization mechanisms for advanced thermionic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziprokopiou, M. E.

    Ion generation and recombination mechanisms in the cesium plasma were investigated as they pertain to the advanced mode thermionic energy converters. The changes in plasma density and temperature within the converter were studied under the influence of several promising auxiliary ionization candidate sources. Three novel approaches of external cesium ion generation were investigated in some detail, namely vibrationally excited N2 as an energy source of ionization of Cs ions in a DC discharge, microwave power as a means of resonant sustenance of the cesium plasma, and ion generation in a pulse N2-Cs mixture. The experimental data obtained and discussed in this work show that all three techniques--i.e. the non-LTE high-voltage pulsing, the energy transfer from vibrationally excited diatomic gases, and the external pumping with a microwave power--have considerable promise as schemes in auxiliary ion generation applicable to the advanced thermionic energy converter.

  13. [Progressive external ophthalmoplegia and distal myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, C

    1993-01-01

    A patient, 58 years old, presents progressive blepharoptosis, in both eyes and external ophthalmoplegia. The general somatic examination, shows, at the level of the higher limbs, distal myopathy with muscular hypotony and articular deformities fibrosis and tendinous retraction. On examining the eye bottom we found colloid degeneration in the muscle region. Within the same family a ten-year-old nephew presents congenital ptosis. The muscular biopsy from the levator palpebrae shows muscular degenerative lesions with the reduction of nuclei and the proliferation of conjunctive tissue. It is shown that progressive external ophthalmoplegia must be interpreted as an ocular myopathy. The association with the distal myopathy at the level of the higher limbs, in the presented observation, upholds this pathogeny.

  14. Renal transplantation using external continent urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, A M; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Pestana, J O; Arap, S

    1994-02-01

    A 29-year-old man born with bladder exstrophy presented with end stage renal failure many years after ileal conduit diversion. Bilateral nephrectomy and continent external urinary diversion were performed, and 1.5 months later a cadaveric kidney was grafted into the right iliac fossa. The patient was well at 18 months with a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg./dl. and he was completely dry with 4 or 5 daily catheterizations. Although followup is still short, renal transplantation with drainage into an external continent urinary diversion permits excellent quality of life and good renal function. Therefore, this alternative is worth consideration whenever other reconstructive alternatives are not possible in candidates for renal transplantation.

  15. Composite Vector Particles in External Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can be additionally obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasi-static response of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within t...

  16. Experiments with Externally Prestressed Continuous Composite Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel-concrete composite girders have attractive potentials when applied in bridge construction. The serviceability performance of continuous composite girders is becoming more and more a deterministic parameter in the design of this type of structures. An effective method for improving this performance is to apply prestressing to control or completely eliminate concrete deck cracking caused by static and time dependent actions. Little literature has been found addressing the experimental analysis of continuous girders prestressed by means of external deviated tendons. The current research aims to investigate the behavior of a double-span steel composite beam externally prestressed by means of continuous tendons in terms of cracking characteristics, load deflection response, and load carrying capacity. The efficiency of prestressing is evaluated by comparing the results to those of a non-prestressed beam with similar cross sections and spans.

  17. Vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, M

    2001-01-01

    Active stabilisation showed a relative locked linewidth of approx 3 kHz. Coarse tuning over 7 nm was achieved using a 3-plate birefingent filter plate while fine-tuning using cavity length change allowed tuning over 250 MHz. Vertical external cavity semiconductor lasers have emerged as an interesting technology based on current vertical cavity semiconductor laser knowledge. High power output into a single transverse mode has attracted companies requiring good fibre coupling for telecommunications systems. The structure comprises of a grown semiconductor Bragg reflector topped with a multiple quantum well gain region. This is then included in an external cavity. This device is then optically pumped to promote laser action. Theoretical modelling of AIGaAs based VECSEL structures was undertaken, showing the effect of device design on laser characteristics. A simple 3-mirror cavity was constructed to assess the static characteristics of the structure. Up to 153 mW of output power was achieved in a single transver...

  18. Imaging findings in external snapping hip syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Narayanan, Unni [The Hospital for Sick Children, Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We describe a case of external snapping hip diagnosed by dynamic sonography. The case prompted us to retrospectively review the imaging findings of children who clinically had presented with snapping hip. From this review we identified the features on MRI and CT of either thickening of the iliotibial band or thickening of the anterior edge of the gluteus maximus muscle as the cause of snapping and atrophy of the bulk of gluteus maximus muscle as an important secondary sign associated with snapping. (orig.)

  19. External Performance in Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Prati; Luca A Ricci; Lone Engbo Christiansen; Stephen Tokarick; Thierry Tressel

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poorer nations. This paper uses a large database, unique in the set of indicators and number of countries it covers, to estimate the relationship in low-income countries between a set of fundamentals in the medium to long term and the real effective exchange rate, the current account, ...

  20. The MNC as an Externally Embedded Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

    2011-01-01

    MNCs have been conceptualized as differentiated networks that, in turn, are embedded in external networks. Previous research has predominantly focused on the embeddedness of established subsidiaries into their local environment, omitting to shed light on the phenomenon of headquarters linkages to...... more overlapping network ties when subsidiaries are high performers, hold important resources, operate in turbulent environments, and are closely connected to multinational actors as opposed to purely domestic firms....