WorldWideScience

Sample records for external fuel processor

  1. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    The Air Base Technologies Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a logistic fuel processor that removes the sulfur content of the fuel and in the process converts logistic fuel...

  2. Integrated fuel processor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed

  3. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  4. Summary report : universal fuel processor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Rice, Steven F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.; Miller, James Edward; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Pickett, Lyle M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2008-01-01

    The United States produces only about 1/3 of the more than 20 million barrels of petroleum that it consumes daily. Oil imports into the country are roughly equivalent to the amount consumed in the transportation sector. Hence the nation in general, and the transportation sector in particular, is vulnerable to supply disruptions and price shocks. The situation is anticipated to worsen as the competition for limited global supplies increases and oil-rich nations become increasingly willing to manipulate the markets for this resource as a means to achieve political ends. The goal of this project was the development and improvement of technologies and the knowledge base necessary to produce and qualify a universal fuel from diverse feedstocks readily available in North America and elsewhere (e.g. petroleum, natural gas, coal, biomass) as a prudent and positive step towards mitigating this vulnerability. Three major focus areas, feedstock transformation, fuel formulation, and fuel characterization, were identified and each was addressed. The specific activities summarized herein were identified in consultation with industry to set the stage for collaboration. Two activities were undertaken in the area of feedstock transformation. The first activity focused on understanding the chemistry and operation of autothermal reforming, with an emphasis on understanding, and therefore preventing, soot formation. The second activity was focused on improving the economics of oxygen production, particularly for smaller operations, by integrating membrane separations with pressure swing adsorption. In the fuel formulation area, the chemistry of converting small molecules readily produced from syngas directly to fuels was examined. Consistent with the advice from industry, this activity avoided working on improving known approaches, giving it an exploratory flavor. Finally, the fuel characterization task focused on providing a direct and quantifiable comparison of diesel fuel and JP-8.

  5. Onboard fuel processor for PEM fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Brian J.; Zhao, Jian L.; Ruffo, Michael; Khan, Rafey; Dattatraya, Druva; Dushman, Nathan [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc, 20 Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Beziat, Jean-Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien [Renault, Service 64240 - FR TCR GRA 0 75, Technocentre Renault - 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France)

    2007-07-15

    To lower vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, many automotive companies are exploring fuel cell technologies, which combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain issues, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells are developing an onboard fuel processor, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The fuel processor is now small enough and powerful enough for use on a vehicle. The catalysts and heat exchangers occupy 80 l and can be packaged with balance of plant controls components in a 150-l volume designed to fit under the vehicle. Recent systems can operate on gasoline, ethanol, and methanol with fuel inputs up to 200 kWth and hydrogen efficiencies above 77%. The startup time is now less than 4 min to lower the CO in the hydrogen stream to the target value for the fuel cell. (author)

  6. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  7. Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinskas, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the pin processor which receives metal alloy pins cast from recycled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel and prepares them for assembly into new IFR fuel elements. Either full length as-cast or precut pins are fed to the machine from a magazine, cut if necessary, and measured for length, weight, diameter and deviation from straightness. Accepted pins are loaded into cladding jackets located in a magazine, while rejects and cutting scraps are separated into trays. The magazines, trays, and the individual modules that perform the different machine functions are assembled and removed using remote manipulators and master-slaves

  8. A self-sustained, complete and miniaturized methanol fuel processor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Jiao, Fengjun; Li, Shulian; Li, Hengqiang; Chen, Guangwen

    2015-08-01

    A self-sustained, complete and miniaturized methanol fuel processor has been developed based on modular integration and microreactor technology. The fuel processor is comprised of one methanol oxidative reformer, one methanol combustor and one two-stage CO preferential oxidation unit. Microchannel heat exchanger is employed to recover heat from hot stream, miniaturize system size and thus achieve high energy utilization efficiency. By optimized thermal management and proper operation parameter control, the fuel processor can start up in 10 min at room temperature without external heating. A self-sustained state is achieved with H2 production rate of 0.99 Nm3 h-1 and extremely low CO content below 25 ppm. This amount of H2 is sufficient to supply a 1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The corresponding thermal efficiency of whole processor is higher than 86%. The size and weight of the assembled reactors integrated with microchannel heat exchangers are 1.4 L and 5.3 kg, respectively, demonstrating a very compact construction of the fuel processor.

  9. An intercomparison of Canadian external dosimetry processors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The five Canadian external dosimetry processors have participated in a two-stage intercomparison. The first stage involved dosimeters to known radiation fields under controlled laboratory conditions. The second stage involved exposing dosimeters to radiation fields in power reactor working environments. The results for each stage indicated the dose reported by each processor relative to an independently determined dose and relative to the others. The results of the intercomparisons confirm the original supposition: namely that the average differences in reported dose among five processors are much less than the uncertainty limits recommended by the ICRP. This report provides a description of the experimental methods as well as a discussion of the results for each stage. The report also includes a set of recommendations

  10. Shortcut model for water-balanced operation in fuel processor fuel cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Kramer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a fuel processor, a hydrocarbon or oxygenate fuel is catalytically converted into a mixture rich in hydrogen which can be fed to a fuel cell to generate electricity. In these fuel processor fuel cell systems (FPFCs), water is recovered from the exhaust gases and recycled back into the system. We

  11. Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir [Naperville, IL; Lee, Sheldon H. D. [Willowbrook, IL; Carter, John David [Bolingbrook, IL; Krumpelt, Michael [Naperville, IL; Myers, Deborah J [Lisle, IL

    2009-07-21

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  12. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  13. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The

  14. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  15. Diesel fuel processor for hydrogen production for 5 kW fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopena, D.; Melgar, A.; Briceno, Y. [Fundacion CIDAUT. Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo, P. 209, 47151 Boecillo (Valladolid) (Spain); Navarro, R.M.; Alvarez-Galvan, M.C. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco (Madrid) (Spain); Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera San Juan del Puerto-Matalascanas, km 33, 21130 Mazagon-Moguer (Huelva) (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The present paper describes a diesel fuel processor designed to produce hydrogen to feed a PEM fuel cell of 5 kW. The fuel processor includes three reactors in series: (1) oxidative steam reforming reactor; (2) one-step water gas shift reactor; and (3) a preferential oxidation reactor. The design of the system was accomplished by means of a one-dimensional model. A specific study of the fuel-air mixing chamber was carried out with Fluent by taking into account fuel evaporation and cool flame processes. The assembly of the installation allowed the characterisation of each component and the control of each working parameter. The first experimental results obtained in the reformer system using decaline and diesel fuels demonstrate the feasibility of the design to produce hydrogen suitable to feed a PEM fuel cell. (author)

  16. Unmixed fuel processors and methods for using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Parag Prakash; Cui, Zhe

    2010-08-24

    Disclosed herein are unmixed fuel processors and methods for using the same. In one embodiment, an unmixed fuel processor comprises: an oxidation reactor comprising an oxidation portion and a gasifier, a CO.sub.2 acceptor reactor, and a regeneration reactor. The oxidation portion comprises an air inlet, effluent outlet, and an oxygen transfer material. The gasifier comprises a solid hydrocarbon fuel inlet, a solids outlet, and a syngas outlet. The CO.sub.2 acceptor reactor comprises a water inlet, a hydrogen outlet, and a CO.sub.2 sorbent, and is configured to receive syngas from the gasifier. The regeneration reactor comprises a water inlet and a CO.sub.2 stream outlet. The regeneration reactor is configured to receive spent CO.sub.2 adsorption material from the gasification reactor and to return regenerated CO.sub.2 adsorption material to the gasification reactor, and configured to receive oxidized oxygen transfer material from the oxidation reactor and to return reduced oxygen transfer material to the oxidation reactor.

  17. Simulation of a 250 kW diesel fuel processor/PEM fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphlett, J. C.; Mann, R. F.; Peppley, B. A.; Roberge, P. R.; Rodrigues, A.; Salvador, J. P.

    Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems offer a potential power source for utility and mobile applications. Practical fuel cell systems use fuel processors for the production of hydrogen-rich gas. Liquid fuels, such as diesel or other related fuels, are attractive options as feeds to a fuel processor. The generation of hydrogen gas for fuel cells, in most cases, becomes the crucial design issue with respect to weight and volume in these applications. Furthermore, these systems will require a gas clean-up system to insure that the fuel quality meets the demands of the cell anode. The endothermic nature of the reformer will have a significant affect on the overall system efficiency. The gas clean-up system may also significantly effect the overall heat balance. To optimize the performance of this integrated system, therefore, waste heat must be used effectively. Previously, we have concentrated on catalytic methanol-steam reforming. A model of a methanol steam reformer has been previously developed and has been used as the basis for a new, higher temperature model for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Similarly, our fuel cell evaluation program previously led to the development of a steady-state electrochemical fuel cell model (SSEM). The hydrocarbon fuel processor model and the SSEM have now been incorporated in the development of a process simulation of a 250 kW diesel-fueled reformer/fuel cell system using a process simulator. The performance of this system has been investigated for a variety of operating conditions and a preliminary assessment of thermal integration issues has been carried out. This study demonstrates the application of a process simulation model as a design analysis tool for the development of a 250 kW fuel cell system.

  18. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  19. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation

  20. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Mizsey, P.; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B.; Roth, F. von; Schucan, Th.H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  1. A diesel fuel processor for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krekel, Daniel; Pasel, Joachim; Prawitz, Matthias; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    Producing a hydrogen-rich gas from diesel fuel enables the efficient generation of electricity in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in diesel reforming. One issue encountered is the stable operation of water-gas shift reactors with real reformates. A new fuel processor is developed using a commercial shift catalyst. The system is operated using optimized start-up and shut-down strategies. Experiments with diesel and kerosene fuels show slight performance drops in the shift reactor during continuous operation for 100 h. CO concentrations much lower than the target value are achieved during system operation in auxiliary power unit mode at partial loads of up to 60%. The regeneration leads to full recovery of the shift activity. Finally, a new operation strategy is developed whereby the gas hourly space velocity of the shift stages is re-designed. This strategy is validated using different diesel and kerosene fuels, showing a maximum CO concentration of 1.5% at the fuel processor outlet under extreme conditions, which can be tolerated by a high-temperature PEFC. The proposed operation strategy solves the issue of strong performance drop in the shift reactor and makes this technology available for reducing emissions in the transportation sector.

  2. JP-8 Catalytic Cracking for Compact Fuel Processors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    ...), kerosene, and diesel to produce hydrogen for fuel cell use, several issues arise. First, these fuels have high sulfur content, which can poison and deactivate components of the reforming process and the fuel cell stack...

  3. Development of 50 kW Fuel Processor for Stationary Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Stevens; Balaji Krishnamurthy; Paolina Atanassova; Kerry Spilker

    2007-08-29

    The objective of the project was to develop and test a fuel processor capable of producing high hydrogen concentration (>98%) with less than ppm quantities of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at lower capital cost and higher efficiency, compared to conventional natural gas reformers. It was intended that we achieve our objective by developing simple reactor/process design, and high durability CO2 absorbents, to replace pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or membrane separators. Cost analysis indicated that we would not meet DOE cost goals so the project was terminated before construction of the full scale fuel processor. The work on adsorbent development was focused on the development of calcium oxide-based reversible CO2 absorbents with various microstructures and morphologies to determine the optimum microstructure for long-term reversible CO2 absorption. The effect of powder production process variables was systematically studied including: the final target compositions, the reagents from which the final products were derived, the pore forming additives, the processing time and temperature. The sorbent materials were characterized in terms of their performance in the reversible reaction with CO2 and correlation made to their microstructure.

  4. BIOFEAT: Biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Study of the feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, M.; Bollito, G.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, S.

    An integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a 10 kW e integrated biodiesel fuel processor has been designed and is being developed. Auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and thermal cracking (TC) were considered for converting the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells. The fuel processor includes also a gas clean-up system that will reduce the carbon monoxide in the primary processor exit gas to below 10 ppm via a new heat-integrated CO clean-up unit, based on the assembly of catalytic heat exchange plates, so as to meet the operational requirements of a PEMFC stack. This article is devoted to the study and selection of the proper feed strategy for the primary fuel processor. Different pre-treatment and feed alternatives (e.g. based on nozzles or simple coils) were devised and tested for the ATR processors, which turned out to be the preferred primary processing route. A nozzle-based strategy was finally selected along with special recommendations about the constituent materials and the operating procedures to be adopted to avoid coking and nozzle corrosion as well as to allow a wide turn down ratio.

  5. The development of micro-fuel processor using low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yeena; Kim, Okyoun; Haam, Seungjoo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, Shinchondong Seodaemoonku, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Hong, Jong-Chul; Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Woo-Jae; Chung, Chan-Hwa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea)

    2006-10-15

    A micro-fuel processor system integrating steam reformer and partial oxidation reactor was manufactured using low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC). A CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst and Pt-based catalyst prepared by wet impregnation were used for steam reforming and partial oxidation, respectively. The performance of the LTCC micro-fuel processor was measured at various operating conditions such as the effect of the ratio of the feed flow rate, the ratio of H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 3}OH and the operating temperature on the LTCC reformer and the CO clean-up system. The hydrogen concentration and the methanol conversion were high and stable as a durable micro-fuel processor from the feasibility test which was operated continuously for 12h. The product gas was composed of 75% hydrogen, 25% carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (<50ppm) at 260{sup |}C, respectively. (author)

  6. Design and development of a cathode processor for electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsvold, A. R.; Roach, P. D.; Westphal, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    The electrometallurgical processing of spent fuel developed at Argonne National Laboratory produces a cathode which contains dendrites of heavy metal (principally U), salts, and residual cadmium. The cathode requires further treatment which is accomplished by loading it into a cathode processor to first purify and then consolidate the heavy metal. The principal steps in cathode processing are: the cathode is loaded into a crucible and both loaded into the cathode processor; the crucible is heated under vacuum to an intermediate temperature to distill the salt and cadmium from the crucible; the crucible is heated further to melt and consolidate the heavy metal; the crucible and charge are then cooled forming a heavy metal ingot in the crucible mold. The cathode processor development program has progressed through the design, fabrication, qualification, and demonstration phases. Two identical units were built. One (a prototype unit) has been installed at Argonne's site in Illinois and the other (the production unit) has been installed in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Argonne's Idaho site. Both units are presently in operation. The most recent activities completed in the FCF fuel processing project were the EBR-II driver fuel and blanket fuel demonstration phases. All of the cathode processor success criteria were met during these demonstration phases. These included finalizing the operation conditions applicable to irradiated fuel and process throughput criteria

  7. Design and development of a diesel and JP-8 logistic fuel processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Subir; Lyubovsky, Maxim; Walsh, D.; Chu, Deryn; Kallio, Erik

    The paper describes the design and performance of a breadboard prototype for a 5 kW fuel-processor for powering a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. The system was based on a small, modular catalytic Microlith auto-thermal (ATR) reactor with the versatility of operating on diesel, Jet-A or JP-8 fuels. The reforming reactor utilized Microlith substrates and catalyst technology (patented and trademarked). These reactors have demonstrated the capability of efficiently reforming liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels at exceptionally high power densities. The performance characteristics of the auto-thermal reactor (ATR) have been presented along with durability data. The fuel processor integrates fuel preparation, steam generation, sulfur removal, pumps, blowers and controls. The system design was developed via ASPEN ® Engineering Suite process simulation software and was analyzed with reference to system balance requirements. Since the fuel processor has not been integrated with a fuel cell, aspects of thermal integration with the stack have not been specifically addressed.

  8. Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  9. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  10. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  11. Advanced control system for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, L.D.; Randall, P.F.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized control system has been developed for the remotely-operated fuel pin processor used in the Integral Fast Reactor Program, Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The pin processor remotely shears cast EBR- reactor fuel pins to length, inspects them for diameter, straightness, length, and weight, and then inserts acceptable pins into new sodium-loaded stainless-steel fuel element jackets. Two main components comprise the control system: (1) a programmable logic controller (PLC), together with various input/output modules and associated relay ladder-logic associated computer software. The PLC system controls the remote operation of the machine as directed by the OCS, and also monitors the machine operation to make operational data available to the OCS. The OCS allows operator control of the machine, provides nearly real-time viewing of the operational data, allows on-line changes of machine operational parameters, and records the collected data for each acceptable pin on a central data archiving computer. The two main components of the control system provide the operator with various levels of control ranging from manual operation to completely automatic operation by means of a graphic touch screen interface

  12. Sizing an external-fueled in-core thermionic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, A. M.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    Parametric studies on sizing of external-fueled in-core thermionic reactors are presented. Reactor physics results obtained for a variety of fuel element designs are used as a basis for nuclear criticality, power distribution, and control worth design. Thermionic performance results for a single fuel element for several sets of operating conditions are presented. An algorithm combining the electrical and reactor physics results in a form amenable to preliminary systems analysis is presented.

  13. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  14. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Havstad, Mark A [Davis, CA

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  15. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general

  16. Vehicle Fuel-Efficiency Choices, Emission Externalities, and Urban Sprawl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon

    by the city residents. We first establish the well-known result that congestion externality is the source of market failure associated with excessive urban sprawl. We then claim that vehicle emissions are an additional source of market failure, which also leads to excessive urban sprawl. The source......This paper shows that the city where both congestion externalities and externalities from greenhouse gas emissions are corrected by efficient policies is more compact than the laissez-faire equilibrium city. Motivated by recent empirical studies showing a positive relationship between population...... of excessive sprawl arising from emission externalities is the uses of larger and less-fuel efficient vehicles by suburban residents, which is different from that of congestion externalities. We also analyze the effect of the Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) regulation on the urban spatial structure....

  17. Security of supply: a neglected fossil fuel externality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Various groups have attempted to set a monetary value on the externalities of fossil fuel usage based on damages caused by emissions of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and carbon. One externality that has been neglected in this type of analysis, however, is the cost of maintaining a secure supply of fossil fuels. Military expenditures for this purpose are relatively easy to quantify based on US Department of Defense and Office of Management and Budget figures, and amount to between $1 and more than $3 per million Btu, based on total fossil fuel consumption in the US. Open acknowledgment of such expenses would, at the very least, have a profound effect on the perceived competitiveness of all non-fossil fuel technologies. It should also provide a simple and easily comprehended rationale for an energy content (Btu) charge on all fossil fuels. (Author)

  18. Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

  19. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  20. Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The activities that produce electric power typically range from extracting and transporting a fuel, to its conversion into electric power, and finally to the disposition of residual by-products. This chain of activities is called a fuel cycle. A fuel cycle has emissions and other effects that result in unintended consequences. When these consequences affect third parties (i.e., those other than the producers and consumers of the fuel-cycle activity) in a way that is not reflected in the price of electricity, they are termed ''hidden'' social costs or externalities. They are the economic value of environmental, health and any other impacts, that the price of electricity does not reflect. How do you estimate the externalities of fuel cycles? Our previous report describes a methodological framework for doing so--called the damage function approach. This approach consists of five steps: (1) characterize the most important fuel cycle activities and their discharges, where importance is based on the expected magnitude of their externalities, (2) estimate the changes in pollutant concentrations or other effects of those activities, by modeling the dispersion and transformation of each pollutant, (3) calculate the impacts on ecosystems, human health, and any other resources of value (such as man-made structures), (4) translate the estimates of impacts into economic terms to estimate damages and benefits, and (5) assess the extent to which these damages and benefits are externalities, not reflected in the price of electricity. Each step requires a different set of equations, models and analysis. Analysts generally believe this to be the best approach for estimating externalities, but it has hardly been used. The reason is that it requires considerable analysis and calculation, and to this point in time, the necessary equations and models have not been assembled. Equally important, the process of identifying and estimating externalities leads to a number of complex issues

  1. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    The activities that produce electric power typically range from extracting and transporting a fuel, to its conversion into electric power, and finally to the disposition of residual by-products. This chain of activities is called a fuel cycle. A fuel cycle has emissions and other effects that result in unintended consequences. When these consequences affect third parties (i.e., those other than the producers and consumers of the fuel-cycle activity) in a way that is not reflected in the price of electricity, they are termed ''hidden'' social costs or externalities. They are the economic value of environmental, health and any other impacts, that the price of electricity does not reflect. How do you estimate the externalities of fuel cycles? Our previous report describes a methodological framework for doing so--called the damage function approach. This approach consists of five steps: (1) characterize the most important fuel cycle activities and their discharges, where importance is based on the expected magnitude of their externalities, (2) estimate the changes in pollutant concentrations or other effects of those activities, by modeling the dispersion and transformation of each pollutant, (3) calculate the impacts on ecosystems, human health, and any other resources of value (such as man-made structures), (4) translate the estimates of impacts into economic terms to estimate damages and benefits, and (5) assess the extent to which these damages and benefits are externalities, not reflected in the price of electricity. Each step requires a different set of equations, models and analysis. Analysts generally believe this to be the best approach for estimating externalities, but it has hardly been used! The reason is that it requires considerable analysis and calculation, and to this point in time, the necessary equations and models have not been assembled. Equally important, the process of identifying and estimating externalities leads to a number

  2. Tracing the External Origin of the AGN Gas Fueling Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Raimundo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared observations of the active galaxy MCG–6-30-15 provide strong evidence that its molecular gas fueling reservoir is of external origin. MCG–6-30-15 has a counter-rotating core of stars within its central 400 pc and a counter-rotating disc of molecular gas that extends as close as ~50–100 pc from the central black hole. The gas counter-rotation establishes that the gas reservoir in the center of the galaxy originates from a past external accretion event. In this contribution we discuss the gas and stellar properties of MCG–6-30-15, its past history and how the findings on this galaxy can be used to understand AGN fueling in S0 galaxies with counter-rotating structures.

  3. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems A Multidisciplinary Study of Modelling, Simulation, Fault Diagnosis and Advanced Control

    CERN Document Server

    Feroldi, Diego; Outbib, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    An apparently appropriate control scheme for PEM fuel cells may actually lead to an inoperable plant when it is connected to other unit operations in a process with recycle streams and energy integration. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems presents a control system design that provides basic regulation of the hydrogen production process with PEM fuel cells. It then goes on to construct a fault diagnosis system to improve plant safety above this control structure. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems is divided into two parts: the first covers fuel cells and the second discusses plants for hydrogen production from bio-ethanol to feed PEM fuel cells. Both parts give detailed analyses of modeling, simulation, advanced control, and fault diagnosis. They give an extensive, in-depth discussion of the problems that can occur in fuel cell systems and propose a way to control these systems through advanced control algorithms. A significant part of the book is also given over to computer-aid...

  4. Key issues in the microchemical systems-based methanol fuel processor: Energy density, thermal integration, and heat loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keyur; Besser, R. S.

    Microreactor technology is a promising approach in harnessing the high energy density of hydrocarbons and is being used to produce hydrogen-rich gases by reforming of methanol and other liquid hydrocarbons. However, on-demand H 2 generation for miniature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems has been a bottleneck problem, which has limited the development and demonstration of the PEMFC for high-performance portable power. A number of crucial challenges exist for the realization of practical portable fuel processors. Among these, the management of heat in a compact format is perhaps the most crucial challenge for portable fuel processors. In this study, a silicon microreactor-based catalytic methanol steam reforming reactor was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated in the context of complete thermal integration to understand this critical issue and develop a knowledge base required to rationally design and integrate the microchemical components of a fuel processor. Detailed thermal and reaction experiments were carried out to demonstrate the potential of microreactor-based on-demand H 2 generation. Based on thermal characterization experiments, the heat loss mechanisms and effective convective heat coefficients from the planar microreactor structure were determined and suggestions were made for scale up and implementation of packaging schemes to reduce different modes of heat losses.

  5. Flight design system level C requirements. Solid rocket booster and external tank impact prediction processors. [space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The prediction of the SRB and ET impact areas requires six separate processors. The SRB impact prediction processor computes the impact areas and related trajectory data for each SRB element. Output from this processor is stored on a secure file accessible by the SRB impact plot processor which generates the required plots. Similarly the ET RTLS impact prediction processor and the ET RTLS impact plot processor generates the ET impact footprints for return-to-launch-site (RTLS) profiles. The ET nominal/AOA/ATO impact prediction processor and the ET nominal/AOA/ATO impact plot processor generate the ET impact footprints for non-RTLS profiles. The SRB and ET impact processors compute the size and shape of the impact footprints by tabular lookup in a stored footprint dispersion data base. The location of each footprint is determined by simulating a reference trajectory and computing the reference impact point location. To insure consistency among all flight design system (FDS) users, much input required by these processors will be obtained from the FDS master data base.

  6. Performance evaluation and comparison of fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell based on steam or autothermal reforming and on CO preferential oxidation or selective methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercolino, Giuliana; Ashraf, Muhammad A.; Specchia, Vito; Specchia, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of different fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell stack. • Steam or autothermal reforming + CO selective methanation or preferential oxidation. • Reforming of different hydrocarbons: gasoline, light diesel oil, natural gas. • 5 kW e net systems comparison via energy efficiency and primary fuel rate consumed. • Highest net efficiency: steam reformer + CO selective methanation based system. - Abstract: The performances of four different auxiliary power unit (APU) schemes, based on a 5 kW e net proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) stack, are evaluated and compared. The fuel processor section of each APU is characterized by a reformer (autothermal ATR or steam SR), a non-isothermal water gas shift (NI-WGS) reactor and a final syngas catalytic clean-up step: the CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reactor or the CO selective methanation (SMET) one. Furthermore, three hydrocarbon fuels, the most commonly found in service stations (gasoline, light diesel oil and natural gas) are considered as primary fuels. The comparison is carried out examining the results obtained by a series of steady-state system simulations in Aspen Plus® of the four different APU schemes by varying the fed fuel. From the calculated data, the performance of CO-PROX is not very different compared to that of the CO-SMET, but the performance of the SR based APUs is higher than the scheme of the ATR based APUs. The most promising APU scheme with respect to an overall performance target is the scheme fed with natural gas and characterized by a fuel processor chain consisting of SR, NI-WGS and CO-SMET reactors. This processing reactors scheme together with the fuel cell section, notwithstanding having practically the same energy efficiency of the scheme with SR, NI-WGS and CO-PROX reactors, ensures a less complex scheme, higher hydrogen concentration in the syngas, lower air mass rate consumption, the absence of nitrogen in the syngas and higher potential

  7. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Oil fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.; Trukenmueller, A.; Gressmann, A.; Runte, K.-H.; Kortum, G.; Weltschev, M.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to health, forests, crops, natural ecosystems and the built environment. Traditional assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favor of technologies with significant environmental burdens. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the potential for long range atmospheric transport of certain pollutants was recognized. The effects of acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and greenhouse gases have caused particular concern. This is reflected in recent trends in economic thought, particularly the emphasis on sustainable development and the use of market mechanisms for environmental regulation. It has thus become increasingly clear that the external impacts of energy use are significant and should be considered by energy planners. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes has been generally agreed, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988), Ottinger et al. (1990) and Friedrich and Voss (1993) provide the background for such work, though they are of a somewhat preliminary nature. We need to improve the methods employed and the quality of models and data used so that planning decisions can be based at least partly on the results. It is particularly important that the site and project specificity of many impacts is recognized. In consequence of this a collaborative project between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current study has three

  8. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Lignite fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.; Trukenmueller, A.; Gressmann, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to health, forests, crops, natural ecosystems and the built environment. Traditional assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favor of technologies with significant environmental burdens. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the potential for long range atmospheric transport of certain pollutants was recognized. The effects of acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and greenhouse gases have caused particular concern. This is reflected in recent trends in economic thought, particularly the emphasis on sustainable development and the use of market mechanisms for environmental regulation. It has thus become increasingly clear that the external impacts of energy use are significant and should be considered by energy planners. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes has been generally agreed, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988] and Ottinger et al. [1990] provide the background for such work, though they are of a somewhat preliminary nature [Friedrich, Voss, 1993]. We need to improve the methods employed and the quality of models and data used so that planning decisions can be based at least partly on the results. If is particularly important that the site and project specificity of many impacts is recognized. In consequence of this a collaborative project between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current study has three

  9. Microbiological Characterization of the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly External Filter Assembly S/N 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark; Yoets, Airan; Yoets, Airan; Molina, Thomas; Bruce, Rebekah; Sitler, Glenn; Carter, Layne

    2012-01-01

    The External Filter Assembly (EFA) S/N 01 is a mesh screen filter with a pore size of approximately 300 micron that was installed in the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) between the Waste Tank and the Mostly Liquid Separator (MLS) on February 11, 2010 to protect clearances in the MLS solenoid valve SV_1121_3. A removal & replacement of the EFA Filter was performed on March 22, 2011 in response to increasing pressure across the Waste Tank solenoid valve SV_1121_1 and the EFA Filter. The EFA Filter was returned on ULF6 and received in the Boeing Huntsville Laboratory on June 13, 2011. The filter was aseptically removed from the housing, and the residual water was collected for enumeration and identification of bacteria and fungi. Swab samples of the filter surface were also collected for microbiological enumeration and identification. Sample analyses were performed by Boeing Huntsville Laboratory and NASA Johnson Space Center Microbiology for comparison. Photographic documentation of the EFA filter was performed using a stereo microscope and environmental scanning electron microscope. This paper characterizes the amount and types of microorganisms on the filter surface and in the residual water from the filter housing following 1 year of utilization in the ISS WPA.

  10. Fuel magnetization without external field coils (AutoMag)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen; Jennings, Christopher; Awe, Thomas; Shipley, Gabe; Lamppa, Derek; McBride, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) has produced fusion-relevant plasma conditions on the Z accelerator where the fuel was magnetized using external field coils. We present a novel concept that does not need external field coils. This concept (AutoMag) magnetizes the fuel during the early part of the drive current by using a composite liner with helical conduction paths separated by insulating material. The drive is designed so the current rises slowly enough to avoid electrical breakdown of the insulators until a sufficiently strong magnetic field is established. Then the current rises more quickly, which causes the insulators to break down allowing the drive current to follow an axial path and implode the liner. Low inductance magnetically insulated power feeds can be used with AutoMag to increase the drive current without interfering with diagnostic access. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

  12. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Coal fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.E.; Holland, M.R.; Watkiss, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Background to the ExternE Project Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors; The need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies. The need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. Increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy. The need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies. Major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good

  13. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Hydro fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrud, S.; Riise, J.; Strand, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the External Costs of Fuel Cycles (ExternE) study is to develop methods to measure and monetize all the externalities associated with incremental investments in electric power production, taking account of the different stages of the fuel cycles. Since fuel cycle externalities are characterised by being very site-specific, the impact pathway damage function approach, developed in ExternE, has been implemented in different European countries for each of the selected fuel cycles. This is done to demonstrate that this methodological framework can be used at different locations, to motivate further development of the methods, and to look at the sensitivity of the estimates to different locations. Electricite de France (EdF) in France and ENCO Environmental Consultants a.s. in Norway have taken on a joint responsibility for adapting the methodological framework for hydroelectric fuel cycle analyses in Europe. We report the first implementation of the hydroelectric fuel cycle within ExternE. Choice of reference site and technology Two stages of the hydroelectric fuel cycle have been identified: 1. Electricity generation 2. Transmission There are three phases of each of these stages: construction, operation and dismantling. We have assumed a construction period of 5 years (starting in 1990) and an operation period of 40 years. Dismantling after 40 years is not a realistic option. Therefore, we have focused on the construction and operation phases, of both electricity generation and transmission. The Sauda Hydroelectric Development Project (SHDP) was selected, because it illustrates upgrading and extention of an existing hydro power project. Such projects are likely to be the dominating strategy for future hydroelectric development in Norway, many other European countries and in the U.S., due to the lack of new sites available for development. SHDP consists of an extention of a previously developed area (Basis project) and six new diversion projects. The

  14. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Natural gas fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.; Berry, J.; Johnson, C.; Lee, D.

    1994-01-01

    This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the natural gas fuel cycle for electricity generation. The methodology developed in the ExternE Project is described in more detail elsewhere (European Commission, 1994a; 1995, in preparation). The reader is referred to these earlier reports for wider discussion of many of the issues underlying this type of work. The increased desire for economic assessment of environmental damage reflects growing awareness of problems such as global warming, ozone depletion and the acidification and nutrification of ecosystems. A wide range of receptors are affected, including human health, forests, crops, and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. At the political level there are a variety of reasons for the growing interest in the quantification of the environmental impacts of energy use and the related external costs. These include the need to integrate environmental concerns when selecting between different fuels and energy technologies and the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. These issues are reflected in European Union policy, through, for example, the Maastricht Treaty, the 5th Environmental Action Programme 'towards sustainability', the European Commission's White Paper 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and ways forward to the 21st century' and the establishment of the European Environmental Agency. The proposal for an Energy-Carbon tax is the first concrete proposal by the European Union for the direct use of economic instruments in environmental policy in the energy sector. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not

  15. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Wind fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include physical damage to natural and built environment as well as impacts on recreation, amenity, aesthetics and other contributors to individual utility. Traditional economic assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favour of technologies with significant environmental impacts. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from the major electricity generating fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the early 1970s. The impacts of acidifying pollutants and ozone precursors have been studied extensively. More recently, the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the consequential changes to the Earth's climate have caused even more concern. At the same time, the environmental problems of nuclear power - ionising radiation, catastrophic consequences of accidents and unresolved problems of storing highly active waste - have increasingly been recognised. Electricity generation based on renewable energy sources is generally considered to be more environmentally benign, because the major pollution effects of the fossil fuel and nuclear fuel cycles are avoided. However, even the renewables are not impact free, although the impacts tend to be more local in character. This report evaluates in detail the environmental impacts, and their costs, of one of those sources - wind energy. It is the first attempt at a comprehensive assessment of the monetary values of the environmental impacts of wind energy. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes is well understood, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988) and Ottinger et al (1990) are examples of attempts to calculate the environmental externalities of

  16. Analysis of the control structures for an integrated ethanol processor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biset, S.; Nieto Deglioumini, L.; Basualdo, M. [GIAIP-CIFASIS (UTN-FRRo-CONICET-UPCAM-UNR), BV. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Garcia, V.M.; Serra, M. [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, C. Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate which would be a good preliminary plantwide control structure for the process of Hydrogen production from bioethanol to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) accounting only steady-state information. The objective is to keep the process under optimal operation point, that is doing energy integration to achieve the maximum efficiency. Ethanol, produced from renewable feedstocks, feeds a fuel processor investigated for steam reforming, followed by high- and low-temperature shift reactors and preferential oxidation, which are coupled to a polymeric fuel cell. Applying steady-state simulation techniques and using thermodynamic models the performance of the complete system with two different control structures have been evaluated for the most typical perturbations. A sensitivity analysis for the key process variables together with the rigorous operability requirements for the fuel cell are taking into account for defining acceptable plantwide control structure. This is the first work showing an alternative control structure applied to this kind of process. (author)

  17. The external dose of lack fuel cask for analyses with MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liu; Qiu Xiaoping; Liao Lingyuan

    2009-01-01

    The transport vessel of lack fuel cask is a special facilities which is for reactor lack fuel transportation. MCNP4C is used to count the external dose rate of Westinghouse MC-10 lack fuel cask, it is based on mesh definition, to get the whole external dose rate of the cask, and in connection with the result from previous researcher Georgeta Radulescu, the outcome in consistency is good, using mesh causes long-playing machine hours and comes to some error, but it can get many data about external dose rate of the lack fuel cask roundly and at any rate. So it makes sense to the definition on the external dose rate of the lack fuel cask for missionary. (authors)

  18. The external costs of the nuclear fuel cycle: implementation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Margerie, H.

    1995-08-01

    In 1991 the European Community and the US Department of Energy initiated a joint research project to assess the external costs of fuel cycles used to generate electricity. The intention of this project, called the EC-US External Costs of Fuel Cycles Project (ECFC), was to develop a conceptual approach, consistent methodology and identify future research in the assessment of the externalities. A second phase of the project continued in Europe (with a new name ''ExternE'') and expanded to include the implementation of the consistent methodology in various EC countries. This report presents the final results of the French Implementation for the nuclear fuel cycle. (author). 37 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs

  19. The external costs of the nuclear fuel cycle: implementation in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Margerie, H.

    1995-08-01

    In 1991 the European Community and the US Department of Energy initiated a joint research project to assess the external costs of fuel cycles used to generate electricity. The intention of this project, called the EC-US External Costs of Fuel Cycles Project (ECFC), was to develop a conceptual approach, consistent methodology and identify future research in the assessment of the externalities. A second phase of the project continued in Europe (with a new name ``ExternE``) and expanded to include the implementation of the consistent methodology in various EC countries. This report presents the final results of the French Implementation for the nuclear fuel cycle. (author). 37 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 1; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Logistics Fuel Processor 27 kWe Power System Demonstration for ARPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the successful testing of a 27 kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator fueled by natural gas and/or a fuel gas produced by a brassboard logistics fuel preprocessor (LFP). The test period began on May 24, 1995 and ended on February 26, 1996 with the successful completion of all program requirements and objectives. During this time period, this power system produced 118.2 MWh of electric power. No degradation of the generator's performance was measured after 5582 accumulated hours of operation on these fuels: local natural gas - 3261 hours, jet fuel reformate gas - 766 hours, and diesel fuel reformate gas - 1555 hours. This SOFC generator was thermally cycled from full operating temperature to room temperature and back to operating temperature six times, because of failures of support system components and the occasional loss of test site power, without measurable cell degradation. Numerous outages of the LFP did not interrupt the generator's operation because the fuel control system quickly switched to local natural gas when an alarm indicated that the LFP reformate fuel supply had been interrupted. The report presents the measured electrical performance of the generator on all three fuel types and notes the small differences due to fuel type. Operational difficulties due to component failures are well documented even though they did not affect the overall excellent performance of this SOFC power generator. The final two appendices describe in detail the LFP design and the operating history of the tested brassboard LFP.

  1. Potential External (non-DOE) Constraints on U.S. Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet

    2012-07-01

    The DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program will be conducting a screening of fuel cycle options in FY2013 to help focus fuel cycle R&D activities. As part of this screening, performance criteria and go/no-go criteria are being identified. To help ensure that these criteria are consistent with current policy, an effort was initiated to identify the status and basis of potentially relevant regulations, laws, and policies that have been established external to DOE. As such regulations, laws, and policies may be beyond DOE’s control to change, they may constrain the screening criteria and internally-developed policy. This report contains a historical survey and analysis of publically available domestic documents that could pertain to external constraints on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. “External” is defined as public documents outside DOE. This effort did not include survey and analysis of constraints established internal to DOE.

  2. The effect of real-time external resistance optimization on microbial fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R P; Srinivasan, B; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2011-02-01

    This work evaluates the impact of the external resistance (electrical load) on the long-term performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) and demonstrates the real-time optimization of the external resistance. For this purpose, acetate-fed MFCs were operated at external resistances, which were above, below, or equal to the internal resistance of a corresponding MFC. A perturbation/observation algorithm was used for the real-time optimal selection of the external resistance. MFC operation at the optimal external resistance resulted in increased power output, improved Coulombic efficiency, and low methane production. Furthermore, the efficiency of the perturbation/observation algorithm for maximizing long-term MFC performance was confirmed by operating an MFC fed with synthetic wastewater for over 40 days. In this test an average Coulombic efficiency of 29% was achieved. © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multithreaded Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    processor architecture. Venkat Arun is a 3rd year. BTech Computer Science student at IIT Guwahati. He is currently working on congestion control in computer networks. In this article, we describe the constraints faced by modern computer designers due to operating speed mismatch between processors and mem- ory units ...

  4. External costs of the nuclear fuel cycle. A scoping study to determine the external costs of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle in accordance with the EC/US methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the results of a scoping study to estimate the external costs of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle. This study was performed within the framework of the Commission of the European Community's External Costs of Fuel Cycles project. The external costs of a fuel cycle are those costs which are excluded from the standard calculation of the cost of electricity. These costs are borne by society as a whole and include, in particular, the health and environmental costs which result from the operation of the facilities involved in a given fuel cycle. At present the uranium enrichment, electricity generation and interim storage stages of the nuclear fuel cycle take place in the Netherlands. These stages of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle have been studied in detail and the external costs associated with thse stages estimated using up-to-date site specific data. The other stages of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle do not currently take place in the Netherlands. In general the external costs associated with these stages have been estimated using data from the literature. Relatively few transports of radioactive materials associated with the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle take place in the Netherlands and the external costs associated with all transports has been based on values in the literature. (orig.)

  5. Application of Digital Radiography to Weld Inspection for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussery, Warren

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of digital radiography to inspect the welds of the external tanks used to hold the cryogenic fuels for the Space Shuttle Main Engines. NASA has had a goal of replacing a significant portion of film used to inspect the welds, with digital radiography. The presentation reviews the objectives for converting to a digital system from film, the characteristics of the digital system, the Probability of detection study, the qualification and implementation of the system.

  6. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of an External-Fuel [UO2] Full-Length Thermionic Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred; Raab, B; Giorgio, F.

    1971-09-01

    The development of a double-ended full-core-length external-fuel converter, a prototypical fuel module for a 200- to 300-ekw thermionic reactor, is described. The converter design is based on a revolver-shaped tungsten emitter body, with six peripheral fuel chambers loaded with enriched UO2 pellets. The columbium collector is water-cooled through a sub-atmospheric adjustable-pressure helium gap. The converter employs graded metal-ceramic seals, and its double-ended construction is made possible by bellows to compensate for differential axial expansion. Fission gases are vented from the fuel chambers and collected in an accumulator designed for continuous monitoring of the pressure buildup. Component fabrication, assembly sequence, and joining methods are described; also the test procedures, and the converter load control. All tests are performed in vacuum. During inpile testing, the fuel is triply contained, with thermal insulation between the secondary and tertiary containers. Before insertion inpile, the fully fueled converter is qualification-tested by rf-induction heating using a specially developed high vacuum rf-feedthrough.

  7. Investigation of small scale sphere-pac fuel fabrication plant with external gelation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Yoshimura, Tadahiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Hoshino, Yasushi; Munekata, Hideki; Shimizu, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    In feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system, comprehensive system investigation and properties evaluation for candidate FBR cycle systems have been implemented through view point of safety, economics, environmental burden reduction, non-proliferation resistivity, etc. As part of these studies, an investigation of small scale sphere-pac fuel fabrication plant with external gelation process was conducted. Until last fiscal year, equipment layout in cells and overall layout design of the 200t-HM/y scale fuel fabrication plant were conducted as well as schematical design studies on main equipments in gelation and reagent recovery processes of the plant. System property data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was also acquired. In this fiscal year, the processes from vibropacking to fuel assemblies storage were added to the investigation range, and a conceptual design of whole fuel fabrication plant was studied as well as deepening the design study on main equipments. The conceptual design study was mainly conducted for small 50t-HM/y scale plant and a revising investigation was done for 200t-HM/y scale plant. Taking the planed comparative evaluation with pellet fuel fabrication system into account, design of equipments which should be equivalent with pellet system, especially in post-vibropacking processes, were standardized in each system. Based on these design studies, system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of the plant was also acquired. In comparison with existing design, the cell height was lowered on condition that plug type pneumatic system was adopted and fuel fabrication building was downsized by applying rationalized layout design of pellet system to post-vibropacking processes. Reduction of reagent usage at gelation process and rationalization of sintering and O/M controlling processes etc., are foremost tasks. (author)

  8. Adaptation to high current using low external resistances eliminates power overshoot in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Yiying

    2011-10-01

    One form of power overshoot commonly observed with mixed culture microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is doubling back of the power density curve at higher current densities, but the reasons for this type of overshoot have not been well explored. To investigate this, MFCs were acclimated to different external resistances, producing a range of anode potentials and current densities. Power overshoot was observed for reactors acclimated to higher (500 and 5000. Ω) but not lower (5 and 50. Ω) resistances. Acclimation of the high external resistance reactors for a few cycles to low external resistance (5. Ω), and therefore higher current densities, eliminated power overshoot. MFCs initially acclimated to low external resistances exhibited both higher current in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and higher levels of redox activity over a broader range of anode potentials (-0.4 to 0. V; vs. a Ag/AgCl electrode) based on first derivative cyclic voltammetry (DCV) plots. Reactors acclimated to higher external resistances produced lower current in CVs, exhibited lower redox activity over a narrower anode potential range (-0.4 to -0.2. V vs. Ag/AgCl), and failed to produce higher currents above ∼-0.3. V (vs. Ag/AgCl). After the higher resistance reactors were acclimated to the lowest resistance they also exhibited similar CV and DCV profiles. Our findings show that to avoid overshoot, prior to the polarization and power density tests the anode biofilm must adapt to low external resistances to be capable of higher currents. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) for dual mode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, John; Jacox, Michael; Zubrin, Robert

    1992-07-01

    The Small Externally Fueled Heat-Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) is described in the context of applications as a dual-mode nuclear power source for satellites. The SEHPTR is a thermionic power system based on a reactor with modular fuel elements around cylindrical thermionic heat-pipe modules with diodes for heat rejection. The SEHPTR concept is theorized to be suitable for directly heating hydrogen gas in the core to increase propulsion and reduce orbit-transfer times. The advantages of dual-mode operation of the SEHPTR are listed including enhanced mission safety and performance at relatively low costs. The SEHPTR could provide direct thermal thrust and an integrated stage that symbiotically utilizes electric power, direct thrust, and hydrogen arcjets. The system is argued to be more effective than a nuclear power system designed solely for electrical power production.

  10. Testing external surface of fuel element tubes for power nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naugol'nykh, O.G.; Nelyubin, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Optical methods are regarded perspective for discovery and detection of flaws of external surfaces of fuel element tubes. The TV method has highest information content among them. Two mock-ups of facilities based on the TV method using a ''dissector'' type TV device and a TV tube with charge accumulation (vidikon) have been developed. It is concluded that complex testing - combination of ultrasonic, photoelectric and TV methods in a facility is necessary for discovery and analysis of the whole variety of flaws, though sensitivity of the TV method is enough for disclosure of all the main defects

  11. Assessment of External Hazards at Radioactive Waste and Used Fuel Management Facilities - 13505

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerchikov, Mark; Schneider, Glenn; Khan, Badi; Alderson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    One of the key lessons from the Fukushima accident is the importance of having a comprehensive identification and evaluation of risks posed by external events to nuclear facilities. While the primary focus has been on nuclear power plants, the Canadian nuclear industry has also been updating hazard assessments for radioactive waste and used fuel management facilities to ensure that lessons learnt from Fukushima are addressed. External events are events that originate either physically outside the nuclear site or outside its control. They include natural events, such as high winds, lightning, earthquakes or flood due to extreme rainfall. The approaches that have been applied to the identification and assessment of external hazards in Canada are presented and analyzed. Specific aspects and considerations concerning hazards posed to radioactive waste and used fuel management operations are identified. Relevant hazard identification techniques are described, which draw upon available regulatory guidance and standard assessment techniques such as Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPs) and 'What-if' analysis. Consideration is given to ensuring that hazard combinations (for example: high winds and flooding due to rainfall) are properly taken into account. Approaches that can be used to screen out external hazards, through a combination of frequency and impact assessments, are summarized. For those hazards that cannot be screened out, a brief overview of methods that can be used to conduct more detailed hazard assessments is also provided. The lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident have had a significant impact on specific aspects of the approaches used to hazard assessment for waste management. Practical examples of the effect of these impacts are provided. (authors)

  12. Multithreaded Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Multithreaded Processors. Venkat Arun. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 844-855. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/09/0844-0855. Keywords.

  13. Study on transport safety of fresh MOX fuel. Performance of the cladding tube of fresh MOX fuel against external water pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    It is important to know the ability of the cladding tube for fresh MOX fuel against external water pressure when they were hypothetically sunk into the sea for unknown reasons. In order to evaluate the ability of cladding tubes for MOX fresh fuel against external water pressure, external water pressure tests were carried out. Resistible limit of cladding tubes against external water pressure is defined when cladding tubes are deformed largely due to buckling etc. The test results show cladding tube of BWR type can resist an external water pressure of 69 MPa (a depth of water of 7,000 m) and that of PWR type fuel can resist an external water pressure of 54 MPa (a depth of water of 5,500 m). Moreover, leak tightness is maintained at an external water pressure of 73 MPa (a depth of water of 7,400 m) for BWR type cladding tubes and at an external water pressure of 98 MPa (a depth of water of 10,000 m) for PWR type cladding tubes. (author)

  14. Post-processor for simulations of the ORIGEN program and calculation of the composition of the activity of a burnt fuel core by a BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval V, S.

    2006-01-01

    The composition calculation and the activity of nuclear materials subject to processes of burnt, irradiation and decay periods are of utility for diverse activities inside the nuclear industry, as they are it: the processes design and operations that manage radioactive material, the calculation of the inventory and activity of a core of burnt nuclear fuel, for studies of type Probabilistic Safety Analysis (APS), as well as for regulation processes and licensing of nuclear facilities. ORIGEN is a program for computer that calculates the composition and the activity of nuclear materials subject to periods of burnt, irradiation and decay. ORIGEN generates a great quantity of information whose processing and analysis are laborious, and it requires thoroughness to avoid errors. The automation of the extraction, conditioning and classification of that information is of great utility for the analyst. By means of the use of the post-processor presented in this work it is facilitated, it speeds up and wide the capacity of analysis of results, since diverse consultations with several classification options and filtrate of results can be made. As illustration of the utility of the post-processor, and as an analysis of interest for itself, it is also presented in this work the composition of the activity of a burned core in a BWR type reactor according to the following classification criteria: by type of radioisotope (fission products, activation products and actinides), by specie type (gassy, volatile, semi-volatile and not volatile), by element and by chemical group. The results show that the total activity of the studied core is dominated by the fission products and for the actinides, in proportion four to one, and that the gassy and volatile species conform a fifth part of the total activity of the core. (Author)

  15. External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Bongartz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology

  16. Tensile behavior of humid aged advanced composites for helicopter external fuel tank development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condruz Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of humid aging on tensile properties of two polymeric composites was studied. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the suitability of the materials for a naval helicopter external fuel tank. Due to the application, the humid environment was kerosene and saline solution to evaluate the sea water effect on the composite tensile strength. The composite samples were immersed in kerosene for 168 hours, respective 1752 hours and in saline solution for 168 hours. Tensile tests were performed after the immersion. The composite sample tensile tests showed that kerosene and saline solution had no influence on the elastic modulus of the materials, but it was observed a slight improvement of the tensile strength of the two polymeric composites.

  17. Investigation of thermoelastic stresses induced at high altitudes on aircraft external fuel tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Stephanie Lynn Steber

    As composite technology has grown over the past several decades, the use of composite materials in military applications has become more feasible and widely accepted. Although composite materials provide many benefits, including strength optimization and reduced weight, damage and repair of these materials creates an additional challenge, especially when operating in a marine environment, such as on a carrier deck. This is evident within the Navy, as excessive damage often leads to the scrapping of F/A-18 External Fuel Tanks. This damage comes in many forms, the most elusive of which is delamination. Often the delamination found on the tanks is beyond repairable limits and the cause unknown, making it difficult to predict and prevent. The purpose of this investigation was to study the structure of the Navy's 330 gallon External Fuel Tanks and investigate one potential cause of delamination, stresses induced at high altitudes by cold temperatures. A stress analysis was completed using finite element software, and validation of the model was accomplished through testing of a scale model specimen. Due to the difficulties in modeling and predicting delamination, such as unknown presence of voids and understanding failure criteria, delamination was not modeled in Abaqus, rather stresses were observed and characteristics were studied to understand the potential for delamination within the layup. In addition, studies were performed to understand the effect of material properties and layup sequence on the stress distribution within the tank. Alternative design solutions are presented which could reduce the radial stresses within the tank, and recommendations are made for further study to understand the trade-offs between stress, cost, and manufacturability.

  18. Externality costs of the coal-fuel cycle: The case of Kusile Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonophile P. Nkambule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal-based electricity is an integral part of daily life in South Africa and globally. However, the use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. We developed a model based on a system dynamics approach for understanding the measurable and quantifiable coal-fuel cycle burdens and externality costs, over the lifespan of a supercritical coal-fired power station that is fitted with a flue-gas desulfurisation device (i.e. Kusile Power Station. The total coal-fuel cycle externality cost on both the environment and humans over Kusile's lifespan was estimated at ZAR1 449.9 billion to ZAR3 279 billion or 91c/kWh to 205c/kWh sent out (baseline: ZAR2 172.7 billion or 136c/kWh. Accounting for the life-cycle burdens and damages of coal-derived electricity conservatively, doubles to quadruples the price of electricity, making renewable energy sources such as wind and solar attractive alternatives. Significance: The use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. The estimation of social costs is particularly important to the electric sector because of non-differentiation of electricity prices produced from a variety of sources with potentially very dissimilar environmental and human health costs. Because all electricity generation technologies are associated with undesirable side effects in their fuelcycle and lifespan, comprehensive comparative analyses of life-cycle costs of all power generation technologies is indispensable to guide the development of future energy policies in South Africa.

  19. Assessment of the external costs of the coal fuel cycle and the wind energy cycle in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, P.; Montes, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    This study is part of the ExternE Project, a joint effort of the European Commission and the US Dept. of Energy to assess the externalities of different fuel cycles, and quantify them in monetary terms, as kWh price adders. For Spain, this assessment has been carried out for a coal plant hypothetically sited in Valdecaballeros, in Southwestern Spain, and for an existing farm in Cabo Villano, in the Northwestern corner. In this first stage, only environmental externalities have been assessed. The first section contains a description of the methodology used in the European project, based mostly on a damage function approach, and its adaptation to Spanish conditions. In the last section, this methodology has been applied to the fuel cycles mentioned. The impacts assessed have been, for the coal fuel cycle, health effects, agricultural and forest production losses, and global warming. For wind energy, the main impacts considered have been noise, loss of visual amenity, accidents and global warning. The results obtained can only be considered as underestimates, as there are still impacts that have not been assessed or quantified, specially for the coal fuel cycle. Thus, further research is needed for a complete assessment

  20. Robot for measuring at a distance the external diameter and the defects in an irradiated fuel pin clads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashov, B.A.; Leshchinskii, A.G.

    1987-11-01

    At the NIIAR Institute, in a hot cell of the complex, is settled a robot for measuring, at a distance, the external diameter and the defects of an irradiated fuel pin clad. The principle diagram is given in this document [fr

  1. Reliability study of a small-scale fuel processor system (STUR-10 kWH{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    During 2003, Catator AB finalized the development of an atmospheric ultra compact hydrogen generator (close to 1 Nm{sup 3}/h of produced H{sub 2} per liter gross volume), Ultraformer or Single-Train Ultraformer Reactor (abbreviated STUR). The overarching goal of this work was to present a compact and scalable reactor design including fuel processing and CO purification in order to reach low temperature fuel cell quality (i.e. < 20 ppm CO). The unit can run on a variety of feed stocks, i.e. biogas, natural gas, LPG, alcohols and heavier hydrocarbons. It also has a wide turndown ratio (about 1:10), a high thermal efficiency (80%), and enables a rapid start-up. The evaluation of a fully integrated 30 kWH{sub 2} STUR unit showed that the characteristics listed above could be reached. This work is a following-up study of the previously concluded work. The project was administrated by the Swedish Gas Centre AB (SGC), and was financed by the companies Sydkraft Gas AB, Foersvarets Materialverk, the Swedish Energy Agency, Catator AB and OptiCat International AB. The work has involved the development and the construction of an optimized STUR-system designed for the nominal capacity of 10 kWH{sub 2} (i.e. 3 Nm{sup 3}/h H{sub 2(g)}). Compared to the earlier evaluated 30 kWH{sub 2} unit, this system has been optimized with respect to the design of the integrated catalytic burner, from which heat is supplied to the steam reforming reaction, and with respect to the overall heat recovery of the system. The project included a risk analysis of the system and implementation of a security system for enable fully automatic, partly non-supervised, long term testing. The latter was for enabling a reliability study of the STUR-system during a longer period of continuous operation time ({approx}500 h). The feed stock used throughout this evaluation work was natural gas. The overall scope of the long time operation test was to identify any existing degradation phenomena and weaknesses of

  2. Estimating fuel cycle externalities: Analytical methods and issues. Report number 2 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: A study by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC) 'on the externalities of fuel cycles.' Part I illustrates the use of the atmospheric dispersion and transformation modeling that this study recommends for airborne pollutants in the coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas fuel cycles. Part II of this volume contains a paper which reviews the scientific literature on ecological impacts associated with power plant discharges. Part III contains papers summarizing the relevant health effects literature. Part IV contains papers on methods of economic evaluation. Part V contains four papers on various issues related to the estimation of externalities and their use in public policy. The final part is Part VI, and it contains a paper which describes a system for summarizing analysts' assessments of the quality of the information that an analysis uses to estimate externalities. This system allows analysts to provide information, not only on their best estimates, but also on a range of estimates, on uncertainty, on the quality of the data, and on other factors that better reflect the full dimension of making estimates under uncertainty. The system has broad applicability beyond fuel cycle externalities, as well

  3. Electrosorption driven by microbial fuel cells to remove phenol without external power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhou, Minghua; Zhao, Yingying; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Youshuang

    2013-12-01

    This work studied the operating parameters (pH, electrolyte concentration, initial phenol concentration, MFCs connection numbers and mode), adsorption isotherms and kinetics of a novel electrosorption driven by microbial fuel cells (MFC-Sorption) to remove phenol without external electric grid energy supply. It proved that high electrolyte concentration and low solution pH promoted the performance of phenol removal. 3 MFCs connections in series achieved a adsorption capacity of 1.76 mmol/g, which was much higher than that in parallel connection (1.46 mmol/g). Well fitted with Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity by MFC-Sorption and electrosorption was observed 48% and 65% higher than that by conventional adsorption. The phenol removal by MFC-Sorption was supposed to be more suitable for a pseudo-second-order kinetics, and with the increase of initial phenol concentration from 20 mg/L to 300 mg/L, the initial adsorption rate increased 26.99-fold. It concluded that the MFC-Sorption system could cost-effectively remove pollutant of phenol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. XL-100S microprogrammable processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Guzik, Z.; Sutulin, V.A.; Forytski, A.

    1983-01-01

    The XL-100S microprogrammable processor providing the multiprocessor operation mode in the XL system crate is described. The processor meets the EUR 6500 CAMAC standards, address up to 4 Mbyte memory, and interacts with 7 CAMAC branchas. Eight external requests initiate operations preset by a sequence of microcommands in a memory of the capacity up to 64 kwords of 32-Git. The microprocessor architecture allows one to emulate commands of the majority of mini- or micro-computers, including floating point operations. The XL-100S processor may be used in various branches of experimental physics: for physical experiment apparatus control, fast selection of useful physical events, organization of the of input/output operations, organization of direct assess to memory included, etc. The Am2900 microprocessor set is used as an elementary base. The device is made in the form of a single width CAMAC module

  5. The LASS hardware processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of data analysis with hardware processors are reviewed and a description is given of a programmable processor. This processor, the 168/E, has been designed for use in the LASS multi-processor system; it has an execution speed comparable to the IBM 370/168 and uses the subset of IBM 370 instructions appropriate to the LASS analysis task. (Auth.)

  6. Open external circuit for microbial fuel cell sensor to monitor the nitrate in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donglin; Liang, Peng; Jiang, Yong; Liu, Panpan; Miao, Bo; Hao, Wen; Huang, Xia

    2018-07-15

    This study employed an open external circuit, rather than a closed circuit applied in previous studies, to operate an microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor for real-time nitrate monitoring, and achieved surprisingly greater sensitivity (4.42 ± 0.3-6.66 ± 0.4 mV/(mg/L)) when the nitrate was at a concentration of 10-40 mg/L, compared to that of the MFC sensor with a closed circuit (0.8 ± 0.05-1.6 ± 0.1 mV/(mg/L)). The MFC sensor operated in open circuit (O-MFC sensor) delivered much more stable performance than that operated in closed circuit (C-MFC sensor) when affected by organic matter (NaAc). The sensitivity of O-MFC sensor was twice that of C-MFC sensor at a low background concentration of organic matter. When organic matter reached a high concentration, the sensitivity of O-MFC sensor remained at an acceptable level, while that of C-MFC sensor dropped to almost zero. Challenged by a combined shock of organic matter and nitrate, O-MFC sensor delivered evident electrical signals for nitrate warning, while C-MFC failed. Another novel feature of this study lies in a new mathematical model to examine the bioanode process of nitrate monitoring. It revealed that lower capacitance of the bioanode in O-MFC was the major contributor to the improved sensitivity of the device. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The probabilistic risk analysis of external hazards of an interim storage for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukka, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Due to natural disasters occurred in the world and the experiences perceived of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the particular knowledge of the role and influence of external hazards in the safety of interim storage of spent nuclear fuel has been emphasized. For that reason it is substantial that they are included in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the interim storage facility. This is also required by the Regulatory Guides issued by The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK. To enhance safety culture and nuclear safety in Olkiluoto, The Finnish utility Teollisuuden Voima Oyj has recently completed an analysis of external natural (seismic events are studied as a separate analysis) and unintentional human-induced risks associated with the spent fuel pool cooling and decay heat removal systems as part of the full-scope PRA study for the interim storage of spent fuel (KPA store). The analysis had four goals to achieve: (1) to determine the definition of an initiating event in the context of the KPA store, (2) to identify all potential external hazards and hazard combinations, (3) to perform a qualitative screening analysis based on frequency-strength analysis and detailed plant responses analysis and (4) to model the hazards passed the screening analysis so that model can be used as a risk analysis tool in the risk informed decision making and operating procedures. The assessment carried out included the analysis of operation procedures of decay heat removal, the study of external hazards related initiating events included in the PRA of the OL1 and OL2 nuclear power plants and their dependencies on the initiating events of the KPA store. All external hazards related initiating events were modeled using fault tree linking method. The main result and conclusion of this study was that using the screening analysis, initiating events caused by external hazards that could lead to leakage of the spent fuel pools or that could pose a threat to the

  8. Testing and operating a multiprocessor chip with processor redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E; Douskey, Steven M; Haring, Rudolf A; McManus, Moyra K; Ohmacht, Martin; Schmunkamp, Dietmar; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Weatherford, Bryan J

    2014-10-21

    A system and method for improving the yield rate of a multiprocessor semiconductor chip that includes primary processor cores and one or more redundant processor cores. A first tester conducts a first test on one or more processor cores, and encodes results of the first test in an on-chip non-volatile memory. A second tester conducts a second test on the processor cores, and encodes results of the second test in an external non-volatile storage device. An override bit of a multiplexer is set if a processor core fails the second test. In response to the override bit, the multiplexer selects a physical-to-logical mapping of processor IDs according to one of: the encoded results in the memory device or the encoded results in the external storage device. On-chip logic configures the processor cores according to the selected physical-to-logical mapping.

  9. Modeling the burnout of solid polydisperse fuel under the conditions of external heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorik, I. A.; Goldobin, Yu. M.; Tolmachev, E. M.; Gal'perin, L. G.

    2013-11-01

    A self-similar burnout mode of solid polydisperse fuel is considered taking into consideration heat transfer between fuel particles, gases, and combustion chamber walls. A polydisperse composition of fuel is taken into account by introducing particle distribution functions by radiuses obtained for the kinetic and diffusion combustion modes. Equations for calculating the temperatures of particles and gases are presented, which are written for particles average with respect to their distribution functions by radiuses taking into account the fuel burnout ratio. The proposed equations take into consideration the influence of fuel composition, air excess factor, and gas recirculation ratio. Calculated graphs depicting the variation of particle and gas temperatures, and the fuel burnout ratio are presented for an anthracite-fired boiler.

  10. Analysis of pressure distribution originated over the external plate window of the RA-10 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, M A; Garcia, J.C

    2012-01-01

    The RA10 is a pool type multipurpose research reactor. The core consists of a rectangular array of MTR fuel type. The refrigeration system at full power and normal operations conditions is carried out by an ascendant flow through the core. To ensure the refrigeration in the sub-channel formed between two adjacent fuels, there is a window orifice over the outer fuel plate. Part of the coolant flow that gets into the fuel will be derived by the window orifice to the sub-channel. Due to the change in the coolant flow direction is necessary to establish the pressure distribution originated over the window In order to achieve this goal a CFD commercial code (FLUENT v6.3.26) was used to perform numerical simulations to obtain the pressure distribution over the window. A quarter of the fuel was modeled using proper symmetry and boundaries conditions (author)

  11. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  12. Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1995-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypcial converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests.

  13. Fabrication and testing of full-length single-cell externally fueled converters for thermionic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1994-01-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO 2 -fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO 2 -fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The tests measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm 2 at an efficiency of 11.5%

  14. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project `Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland`. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people`s otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  15. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project 'Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland'. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people's otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  16. Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO(subscript 2)-fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO (subscript 2)-fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The test measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm (superscript 2) at an efficiency of 11.5%. There are three copies in the file. Cross-Reference a copy FSC-ESD-217-94-529 in the ESD files with a CID #8574.

  17. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurov, B.P. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA - Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  18. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  19. Multithreading in vector processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Kim, Changhoan; Nair, Ravi

    2018-01-16

    In one embodiment, a system includes a processor having a vector processing mode and a multithreading mode. The processor is configured to operate on one thread per cycle in the multithreading mode. The processor includes a program counter register having a plurality of program counters, and the program counter register is vectorized. Each program counter in the program counter register represents a distinct corresponding thread of a plurality of threads. The processor is configured to execute the plurality of threads by activating the plurality of program counters in a round robin cycle.

  20. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...running on JP-8 / diesel fuel & 250W RMFC Aspen : 5kWe integrated desulfurizer and JP-8 / diesel fuel processor Altex: 2-kWe integrated desulfurizer...and JP-8 / diesel fuel processor Precision Combustion : 5-kWt integrated desulfurizer and JP-8 and diesel fuel processor Customers Partners Army

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL MIXTURE FORMATION STRATEGY IN HYDROGEN-FUELED ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kamil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Kamil1, M. M. Rahman2 and Rosli A. Bakar2Hydrogen induction strategy in an internal combustion engine plays a vital role in increasing the power density and prohibiting combustion anomalies. This paper inspects the performance characteristics of cylinder hydrogen-fueled engine with port injection feeding strategy. To that end, a one-dimensional gas dynamic model has been built to represent the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine. The governing equations are introduced followed by the performance parameters and model description. Air-fuel ratio was varied from a stoichiometric limit to a lean limit. The rotational speed of the engine was also changed from 1000 to 4500 RPM. The injector location was fixed in the mid-point of the intake port. The general behavior of the hydrogen engine was similar to that of a gasoline engine, apart from a reduction in the power density, which was due to a decrease in the volumetric efficiency. This emphasizes the ability of retrofitting traditional engines for hydrogen fuel with minor modifications. The decrease in the volumetric efficiency needs to be rectified.

  2. A 75-kW methanol reforming fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiqiang; Wang, Shudong; Li, Xiangyi; Hou, Ming; Yuan, Zhongshan; Li, Deyi; Pan, Liwei; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jingkai; Ming, Pingwen; Yi, Baolian [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2006-11-22

    A 75-kW methanol reforming fuel cell system, which consists of a fuel cell system and a methanol auto-thermal reforming fuel processor has been developed at Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The core of the fuel cell system is a group of CO tolerant PEMFC stacks with a double layer composite structured anode. The fuel cell stacks show good CO tolerance even though 140ppm CO was present in the reformate stream during transients. The auto-thermal reforming (ATR) fuel cell processor could adiabatically produce a suitable reformate without external energy consumption. The output of hydrogen-rich reformate was approximately 120Nm{sup 3}h{sup -1} with a H{sub 2} content near 53% and the CO concentrations generally were under 30ppm. The fuel cell system was integrated with the methanol reforming fuel processor and the peak power output of the fuel cell system exceeded 75kW in testing. The hydrogen utilization approached 70% in the fuel cell system. (author)

  3. Scientific, commercial, and space construction uses of Shuttle External Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Ware, Randolph H.

    Recent progress in planning the scientific and commercial use of Shuttle External Tanks (ETs) is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the development of unique payload modules and thrusters which can be attached to ETs and which will efficiently adapt ETs for low-cost use in space. It is concluded that the ET, a currently underutilized national space asset, has many potential scientific, commercial, and programmatic applications. It is feasible to use the ETs for suborbital and orbital purposes. ET attachment modules are currently being developed, and commercial bases through which companies, universities, and foreign governments may obtain an access to ETs in space are being prepared.

  4. In-reactor fuel cladding external corrosion measurement process and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazet, J.; Musante, Y.; Pigelet, J.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the zirconium alloy cladding behaviour calls for an on-site corrosion measurement device. In the 80's, a FISCHER probe was used and allowed oxide layer measurements to be taken along the outer generating lines of the peripheral fuel rods. In order to allow measurements on inner rods, a thin Eddy current probe called SABRE was developed by FRAMATOME. The SABRE is a blade equipped with two E.C coils is moved through the assembly rows. A spring allows the measurement coil to be clamped on each of the generating lines of the scanned rods. By inserting this blade on all four assembly faces, measurements can also be performed along several generating lines of the same rod. Standard rings are fitted on the device and allow on-line calibration for each measured row. Signal acquisition and processing are performed by LAGOS, a dedicated software program developed by FRAMATOME. The measurements are generally taken at the cycle outage, in the spent fuel pool. On average, data acquisition calls for one shift per assembly (eight hours): this corresponds to more than 2500 measurement points. These measurements are processed statistically by the utility program SAN REMO. All the results are collected in a database for subsequent behaviour analysis: examples of investigated parameters are the thermal/hydraulic conditions of the reactors, the irradiation history, the cladding material, the water chemistry This analysis can be made easier by comparing the behaviour measurement and prediction by means of the COROS-2 corrosion code. (author)

  5. Summary report of already published guidance on L2 PSA for external hazards, shutdown states, spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, Gerben; Sauvage, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    This report (deliverable D40.2 of the project ASAMPSA-E) proposes a review of the existing guidance with relevance to ASAMPSA-E PSA Level 2 topics (external hazards, shutdown states, spent fuel pool). As a complement of this task, the deliverable D40.2 tries to identify any potential missing guidance for the development of an extended PSA level 2, and any sources of knowledge beyond existing guidance which might help generating extended PSA level 2. Based on this approach the last section provides a summary compilation which identifies possibilities for completing existing guidelines (especially the guidance developed in the previous ASAMPSA2 project) and/or creating new guidelines for extended PSA Level 2. (authors)

  6. External CO2 and water supplies for enhancing electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, So; Fujiki, Itto; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-07

    Alkalization on the cathode electrode limits the electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and thus external proton supply to the cathode electrode is essential to enhance the electrical power generation. In this study, the effects of external CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode on the electrical power generation were investigated, and then the relative contributions of CO2 and water supplies to the total proton consumption were experimentally evaluated. The CO2 supply decreased the cathode pH and consequently increased the power generation. Carbonate dissolution was the main proton source under ambient air conditions, which provides about 67% of total protons consumed for the cathode reaction. It is also critical to adequately control the water content on the cathode electrode of air-cathode MFCs because the carbonate dissolution was highly dependent on water content. On the basis of these experimental results, the power density was increased by 400% (143.0 ± 3.5 mW/m(2) to 575.0 ± 36.0 mW/m(2)) by supplying a humid gas containing 50% CO2 to the cathode chamber. This study demonstrates that the simultaneous CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode were effective to increase the electrical power generation of air-cathode MFCs for the first time.

  7. Experimental investigation of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of biodiesel fuel with external mixture formation in a CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, D; Nagarajan, G; Ganesan, S

    2014-01-01

    In parallel to the interest in renewable fuels, there has also been increased interest in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. HCCI engines are being actively developed because they have the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low emissions. Even though HCCI has been researched extensively, few challenges still exist. These include controlling the combustion at higher loads and the formation of a homogeneous mixture. To obtain better homogeneity, in the present investigation external mixture formation method was adopted, in which the fuel vaporiser was used to achieve excellent HCCI combustion in a single cylinder air-cooled direct injection diesel engine. In continuation of our previous works, in the current study a vaporised jatropha methyl ester (JME) was mixed with air to form a homogeneous mixture and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke to analyze the combustion, emission and performance characteristics. To control the early ignition of JME vapor-air mixture, cooled (30 °C) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technique was adopted. The experimental result shows 81% reduction in NOx and 72% reduction in smoke emission.

  8. Graphics Processor Units (GPUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will include information about Graphics Processor Units (GPUs) technology, NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) tasks, The test setup, test parameter considerations, lessons learned, collaborations, a roadmap, NEPP partners, results to date, and future plans.

  9. Adaptive signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 ..mu..sec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed.

  10. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  11. 3081/E processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.; Gravina, M.; Oxoby, G.

    1984-04-01

    The 3081/E project was formed to prepare a much improved IBM mainframe emulator for the future. Its design is based on a large amount of experience in using the 168/E processor to increase available CPU power in both online and offline environments. The processor will be at least equal to the execution speed of a 370/168 and up to 1.5 times faster for heavy floating point code. A single processor will thus be at least four times more powerful than the VAX 11/780, and five processors on a system would equal at least the performance of the IBM 3081K. With its large memory space and simple but flexible high speed interface, the 3081/E is well suited for the online and offline needs of high energy physics in the future

  12. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  13. Functional unit for a processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a functional unit for a processor, such as a Very Large Instruction Word Processor. The invention further relates to a processor comprising at least one such functional unit. The invention further relates to a functional unit and processor capable of mitigating the effect of

  14. Development of fuel cycles with new fuel with 8.9 mm external diameter for VVER-440. Preliminary assessment of operating efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagarinskiy, Alexey [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-15

    Since the introduction of VVERs-440, their fuel assemblies are subject to ongoing improvements. Until now, the basic structural parameters of fuel, such as rod diameter of 9.1 mm, have never changed. This paper focuses on computational estimates of basic neutronic parameters of the fuel cycle that involves assemblies consisting of fuel rods with diameter reduced to 8.9 mm.

  15. Millimeter Wave Detection of Localized Anomalies in the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Insulating Foam and Acreage Heat Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic accident emphasizes the growing need for developing and applying effective, robust and life-cycle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for inspecting the shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and its protective acreage heat tiles. Millimeter wave NDT techniques were one of the methods chosen for evaluating their potential for inspecting these structures. Several panels with embedded anomalies (mainly voids) were produced and tested for this purpose. Near-field and far-field millimeter wave NDT methods were used for producing millimeter wave images of the anomalies in SOFI panel and heat tiles. This paper presents the results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting localized anomalies in two SOFI panels and a set of heat tiles. To this end, reflectometers at a relatively wide range of frequencies (Ka-band (26.5 - 40 GHz) to W-band (75 - 110 GHz)) and utilizing different types of radiators were employed. The results clearly illustrate the utility of these methods for this purpose.

  16. 40 CFR 80.840 - What requirements apply to transmix processors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.840 What requirements apply to transmix processors? Any transmix processor who produces gasoline or gasoline blendstock from transmix, or recovers gasoline or gasoline blendstock from transmix...

  17. 3081//sub E/ processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.; Gravina, M.; Oxoby, G.; Trang, Q.; Fucci, A.; Jacobs, D.; Martin, B.; Storr, K.

    1983-03-01

    Since the introduction of the 168//sub E/, emulating processors have been successful over an amazingly wide range of applications. This paper will describe a second generation processor, the 3081//sub E/. This new processor, which is being developed as a collaboration between SLAC and CERN, goes beyond just fixing the obvious faults of the 168//sub E/. Not only will the 3081//sub E/ have much more memory space, incorporate many more IBM instructions, and have much more memory space, incorporate many more IBM instructions, and have full double precision floating point arithmetic, but it will also have faster execution times and be much simpler to build, debug, and maintain. The simple interface and reasonable cost of the 168//sub E/ will be maintained for the 3081//sub E/

  18. Universal hybrid quantum processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    A quantum processor (the programmable gate array) is a quantum network with a fixed structure. A space of states is represented as tensor product of data and program registers. Different unitary operations with the data register correspond to 'loaded' programs without any changing or 'tuning' of the network itself. Due to such property and undesirability of entanglement between program and data registers, universality of quantum processors is a subject of rather strong restrictions. Universal 'stochastic' quantum gate arrays were developed by different authors. It was also proved that 'deterministic' quantum processors with finite-dimensional space of states may be universal only in approximate sense. In the present paper it is shown that, using a hybrid system with continuous and discrete quantum variables, it is possible to suggest a design of strictly universal quantum processors. It is also shown that 'deterministic' limit of specific programmable 'stochastic' U(1) gates (probability of success becomes a unit for the infinite program register), discussed by other authors, may be essentially the same kind of hybrid quantum systems used here

  19. Beyond processor sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Aalto; U. Ayesta (Urtzi); S.C. Borst (Sem); V. Misra; R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWhile the (Egalitarian) Processor-Sharing (PS) discipline offers crucial insights in the performance of fair resource allocation mechanisms, it is inherently limited in analyzing and designing differentiated scheduling algorithms such as Weighted Fair Queueing and Weighted Round-Robin.

  20. Automobile Crash Sensor Signal Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    The crash sensor signal processor described interfaces between an automobile-installed doppler radar and an air bag activating solenoid or equivalent electromechanical device. The processor utilizes both digital and analog techniques to produce an ou...

  1. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  2. An external peer review of the U.S. Department of Energy's assessment of ''damages and benefits of the fuel cycles: Estimation methods, impacts, and values''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The need for better assessments of the ''external'' benefits and costs of environmental effects of various fuel cycles was identified during the development of the National Energy Strategy. The growing importance of this issue was emphasized by US Department of Energy (DOE) management because over half of the states were already pursuing some form of social costing in electricity regulation and a well-established technical basis for such decisions was lacking. This issue was identified as a major area of controversy--both scientifically and politically--in developing energy policies at the state and national level. In 1989, the DOE's Office of Domestic and International Energy Policy commissioned a study of the external environmental damages and benefits of the major fuel cycles involved in electric power generation. Over the next 3-year period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Resources for the Future conducted the study and produced a series of documents (fuel cycle documents) evaluating the costs of environmental damages of the coal, oil, natural gas, biomass, hydroelectric, and nuclear fuel cycles, as well as the Background Document on methodological issues. These documents described work that took almost 3 years and $2.5 million to complete and whose implications could be far reaching. In 1992, the Secretary of Energy sought advice on the overall concepts underlying the studies and the means employed to estimate environmental externalities. He asked the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board to undertake a peer review of the fuel cycle studies and encouraged the Board to turn to outside expertise, as needed

  3. Processor register error correction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.

    2016-12-27

    Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.

  4. The Molen Polymorphic Media Processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanov, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address high performance media processing based on a tightly coupled co-processor architectural paradigm. More specifically, we introduce a reconfigurable media augmentation of a general purpose processor and implement it into a fully operational processor prototype. The

  5. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  6. Direct video acquisition by digital signal processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Luis A. S. V.; Silva, Vitor M.; Silvestre, Joao C.

    1992-08-01

    Almost any frame grabber system has a special controller circuit to transfer data from the video analog to digital converter (ADC) to the system memory. This controller which normally includes a locked phase loop (PLL) and several counters has to fulfill three main functions: the generation of a pixel clock synchronized with the incoming video signal the command of the ADC and memory addressing for the storage of the digitized video. This paper shows how a digital signal processor (DSP) can simplify the design of a video acquisition system by reading the video ADC and writing to its memory at video rates. An example is given with the TM5320C30 processor which supports simultaneous read and write operations on its two external buses. In the case of the CCJR 601 video format the processor runs at 27 MHz. Modern versions of the TMS32OC3O running at as fast as 40 MHz can acquire up to 1066 samples per line. Also the 32-bit wide buses of the processor allows colour acquisition using this technique. In order to build a so simple circuit the DSP needs to be synchronized to the incoming video signal which can be neatly done by using the TMS32OC3O internal timer as part of the PLL. By changing the programming of the internal timer any video format can be grabbed. In addition the DSP can be used as a powerful image

  7. 77 FR 72746 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel Sulfur Programs AGENCY... Fuel Standard (``RFS'') program under section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act. The direct final rule also... marine diesel fuel produced by transmix processors, and the fuel marker requirements for 500 ppm sulfur...

  8. Multimode power processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  9. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  10. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  11. Distributed processor allocation for launching applications in a massively connected processors complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2008-11-18

    A compute processor allocator architecture for allocating compute processors to run applications in a multiple processor computing apparatus is distributed among a subset of processors within the computing apparatus. Each processor of the subset includes a compute processor allocator. The compute processor allocators can share a common database of information pertinent to compute processor allocation. A communication path permits retrieval of information from the database independently of the compute processor allocators.

  12. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  13. Video frame processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.M.; Agashe, Alok; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides technical description regarding the Video Frame Processor (VFP) developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The instrument provides capture of video images available in CCIR format. Two memory planes each with a capacity of 512 x 512 x 8 bit data enable storage of two video image frames. The stored image can be processed on-line and on-line image subtraction can also be carried out for image comparisons. The VFP is a PC Add-on board and is I/O mapped within the host IBM PC/AT compatible computer. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 19 photographs

  14. Optical Finite Element Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Taylor, Bradley K.

    1986-01-01

    A new high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) with many advantageous features is described. It achieves floating point accuracy, handles bipolar data by sign-magnitude representation, performs LU decomposition using only one channel, easily partitions and considers data flow. A new application (finite element (FE) structural analysis) for OLAPs is introduced and the results of a case study presented. Error sources in encoded OLAPs are addressed for the first time. Their modeling and simulation are discussed and quantitative data are presented. Dominant error sources and the effects of composite error sources are analyzed.

  15. Command and Data Handling Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Perschy, James

    1996-01-01

    This command and data handling processor is designed to perform mission critical functions for the NEAR and ACE spacecraft. For both missions the processor formats telemetry and executes real-time, delayed and autonomy-rule commands. For the ACE mission the processor also performs spin stabilized attitude control. The design is based on the Harris RTX2010 microprocessor and the UTMC Summit MIL-STD-1553 bus controller. Fault tolerant features added include error detection, correction and write...

  16. AMD's 64-bit Opteron processor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    This talk concentrates on issues that relate to obtaining peak performance from the Opteron processor. Compiler options, memory layout, MPI issues in multi-processor configurations and the use of a NUMA kernel will be covered. A discussion of recent benchmarking projects and results will also be included.BiographiesDavid RichDavid directs AMD's efforts in high performance computing and also in the use of Opteron processors...

  17. Analog processor for electroluminescent detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analog processor for spectrometric channel of soft X-ray radiation electroluminescent detector is described. Time internal spectrometric measurer (TIM) with 1 ns/chan quick action serves as signal analyzer. Analog processor restores signals direct component, integrates detector signals and generates control pulses on the TIM input, provides signal discrimination by amplitude and duration, counts number of input pulses per measuring cycle. Flowsheet of analog processor and its man characteristics are presented. Analog processor dead time constitutes 0.5-5 ms. Signal/noise relation is ≥ 500. Scale integral nonlinearity is < 2%

  18. Spaceborne Processor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Schatzel, Donald V.; Whitaker, William D.; Sterling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Spaceborne Processor Array in Multifunctional Structure (SPAMS) can lower the total mass of the electronic and structural overhead of spacecraft, resulting in reduced launch costs, while increasing the science return through dynamic onboard computing. SPAMS integrates the multifunctional structure (MFS) and the Gilgamesh Memory, Intelligence, and Network Device (MIND) multi-core in-memory computer architecture into a single-system super-architecture. This transforms every inch of a spacecraft into a sharable, interconnected, smart computing element to increase computing performance while simultaneously reducing mass. The MIND in-memory architecture provides a foundation for high-performance, low-power, and fault-tolerant computing. The MIND chip has an internal structure that includes memory, processing, and communication functionality. The Gilgamesh is a scalable system comprising multiple MIND chips interconnected to operate as a single, tightly coupled, parallel computer. The array of MIND components shares a global, virtual name space for program variables and tasks that are allocated at run time to the distributed physical memory and processing resources. Individual processor- memory nodes can be activated or powered down at run time to provide active power management and to configure around faults. A SPAMS system is comprised of a distributed Gilgamesh array built into MFS, interfaces into instrument and communication subsystems, a mass storage interface, and a radiation-hardened flight computer.

  19. The valuation of air emission externalities of vehicles: a comparison between fossil fuels and ethanol in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.S.L.; Zylbersztain, D.

    1997-01-01

    The National Alcohol Program, Proalcool has had an important strategic role as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, Proalcool has faced economic difficulties that endanger the Program's future. From the environmental point of view, the introduction of hydrated ethanol as an automobile fuel was beneficial because initially it reduced vehicle emissions. The lack of investment in technology for a neat-alcohol vehicle has delayed further development of an alcohol engine relative to the gasoline engine, which is reflected in current exhaust gas emissions. This paper discusses the evolution of ethanol vehicle emissions and the monetary effect of these emissions in the urban area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. (author)

  20. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  1. Embedded Processor Oriented Compiler Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUKIC, M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research of special compiler techniques and algorithms for embedded processors broaden the knowledge of how to achieve better compiler performance in irregular processor architectures. However, industrial strength compilers, besides ability to generate efficient code, must also be robust, understandable, maintainable, and extensible. This raises the need for compiler infrastructure that provides means for convenient implementation of embedded processor oriented compiler techniques. Cirrus Logic Coyote 32 DSP is an example that shows how traditional compiler infrastructure is not able to cope with the problem. That is why the new compiler infrastructure was developed for this processor, based on research. in the field of embedded system software tools and experience in development of industrial strength compilers. The new infrastructure is described in this paper. Compiler generated code quality is compared with code generated by the previous compiler for the same processor architecture.

  2. Solid cancer mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure at the French atomic energy commission and nuclear fuel company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2011-07-01

    Studies of nuclear workers make it possible to directly quantify the risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates. Studies of the CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique) and AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) cohort, currently the most informative such group in France, describe the long-term risk to nuclear workers associated with external exposure. Our aim is to assess the risk of mortality from solid cancers among CEA and AREVA NC nuclear workers and its association with external radiation exposure. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and internal Poisson regressions were conducted, controlling for the main confounding factors [sex, attained age, calendar period, company and socioeconomic status (SES)]. During the period 1968-2004, there were 2,035 solid cancers among the 36,769 CEA-AREVA NC workers. Cumulative external radiation exposure was assessed for the period 1950-2004, and the mean cumulative dose was 12.1 mSv. Mortality rates for all causes and all solid cancers were both significantly lower in this cohort than in the general population. A significant excess of deaths from pleural cancer, not associated with cumulative external dose, was observed, probably due to past asbestos exposure. We observed a significant excess of melanoma, also unassociated with dose. Although cumulative external dose was not associated with mortality from all solid cancers, the central estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv of 0.46 for solid cancer mortality was higher than the 0.26 calculated for male Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors 50 years or older and exposed at the age of 30 years or older. The modification of our results after stratification for SES demonstrates the importance of this characteristic in occupational studies, because it makes it possible to take class-based lifestyle differences into account, at least partly. These results show the great potential of a further joint international study of

  3. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...

  4. Reformate fuel cell system durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Uribe, F. A. (Francisco A.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the factors limiting the durability of fuel cells and fuel processors. This includes identifying PEM fuel cell durability issues for operating on pure hydrogen, and those that arise from the fuel processing of liquid hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline) as a function of fuel composition and impurity content. Benchmark comparisons with the durability of fuel cells operating on pure hydrogen are used to identify limiting factors unique to fuel processing. We describe the design, operation and operational results of the durability system, including the operating conditions for the system, fuel processor sub-section operation over 1000 hours, post-mortem characterization of the catalysts in the fuel processor, and single cell operation.

  5. Distributed processor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharov, B.

    1976-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency in high-energy physics and in other fields to solve computational problems by distributing tasks among the resources of inter-coupled processing devices and associated system elements. This trend has gained further momentum more recently with the increased availability of low-cost processors and with the development of the means of data distribution. In two lectures, the broad question of distributed computing systems is examined and the historical development of such systems reviewed. An attempt is made to examine the reasons for the existence of these systems and to discern the main trends for the future. The components of distributed systems are discussed in some detail and particular emphasis is placed on the importance of standards and conventions in certain key system components. The ideas and principles of distributed systems are discussed in general terms, but these are illustrated by a number of concrete examples drawn from the context of the high-energy physics environment. (Auth.)

  6. Fuel processing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K [Burr Ridge, IL; Ahmed, Shabbir [Naperville, IL; Lee, Sheldon H. D. [Willowbrook, IL

    2011-08-02

    An improved fuel processor for fuel cells is provided whereby the startup time of the processor is less than sixty seconds and can be as low as 30 seconds, if not less. A rapid startup time is achieved by either igniting or allowing a small mixture of air and fuel to react over and warm up the catalyst of an autothermal reformer (ATR). The ATR then produces combustible gases to be subsequently oxidized on and simultaneously warm up water-gas shift zone catalysts. After normal operating temperature has been achieved, the proportion of air included with the fuel is greatly diminished.

  7. Meteorological Processors and Accessory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface and upper air data, provided by NWS, are important inputs for air quality models. Before these data are used in some of the EPA dispersion models, meteorological processors are used to manipulate the data.

  8. A* Algorithm for Graphics Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Inam, Rafia; Cederman, Daniel; Tsigas, Philippas

    2010-01-01

    Today's computer games have thousands of agents moving at the same time in areas inhabited by a large number of obstacles. In such an environment it is important to be able to calculate multiple shortest paths concurrently in an efficient manner. The highly parallel nature of the graphics processor suits this scenario perfectly. We have implemented a graphics processor based version of the A* path finding algorithm together with three algorithmic improvements that allow it to work faster and ...

  9. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  10. 7 CFR 926.13 - Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processor. 926.13 Section 926.13 Agriculture... Processor. Processor means any person who receives or acquires fresh or frozen cranberries or cranberries in the form of concentrate from handlers, producer-handlers, importers, brokers or other processors and...

  11. 40 CFR 791.45 - Processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Processors. 791.45 Section 791.45...) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.45 Processors. (a) Generally, processors will be... processors will have a responsibility to provide reimbursement directly to those paying for the testing: (1...

  12. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  13. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    separation of functions between stack convention and fuel processing, i.e. external reforming using low-cost, non-catalytic under-oxidized burners. Even for fuel cell technologies capable of internal reforming, the separation of functions offers the advantage of separate optimization of the fuel cell stack and fuel processor, leading to fuel flexibility and lower systems costs. The combination of small size fuel cells, high market values, low development and demonstration costs, low market entry costs, and availability of off-the-shelf balance-of-system components, provides a low financial and technical risk scenario for fuel cell commercialization.

  14. Catalysts for improved fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Inbody, M.A. [and others

    2000-09-01

    This report covers our technical progress on fuel processing catalyst characterization for the specific purpose of hydrogen production for proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These development efforts support DOE activities in the development of compact, transient capable reformers for on-board hydrogen generation starting from candidate fuels. The long-term objective includes increased durability and lifetime, in addition to smaller volume, improved performance, and other specifications required meeting fuel processor goals. The technical barriers of compact fuel processor size, transient capability, and compact, efficient thermal management all are functions of catalyst performance. Significantly, work at LANL now tests large-scale fuel processors for performance and durability, as influenced by fuels and fuel constituents, and complements that testing with micro-scale catalyst evaluation which is accomplished under well controlled conditions.

  15. Determination of Optimized Parameters for the Flexible Operation of a Biomass-Fueled, Microscale Externally Fired Gas Turbine (EFGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathhar Bdour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is a promising solution for current problems in energy supply. Olive waste is considered as an interesting option, especially for Mediterranean countries. Within this paper, a microscale externally fired gas turbine (EFGT technology is presented as a decentralized power plant, within the range of 15 kWth, based on olive residues. It was modeled by Aspen Plus 8.6 software to provide a sufficient technical study for such a plant. Optimized parameters for pressure ratio and turbine air-mass flow have been mapped for several loads to provide information for process control. For all cases, mechanical output, efficiency curves, and back-work ratio have been calculated. Using this information, typical plant sizes and an example of power production are discussed. Additionally, achievable energy production from olive waste is estimated on the basis of this data. The results of this study show that such a plant has an electrical efficiency of 5%–17%. This variation is due to the examination being performed under several combustion temperatures, actual load, heat exchanger temperatures, and heat transfer efficiency. A cost estimation of the discussed system showed an estimated capital cost of 33,800 to 65,300 € for a 15 kWth system.

  16. Deployable Fuel Cell Power Generator - Multi-Fuel Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    alcohol 99%+ pure 2. Distilled water 3. Phenolphthalein solution Materials for Washing: 1. Vinegar 2. Water Manufacturing Process 1...until all of the oil dissolves in the alcohol and the mixture turns clear. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein solution. Using a burette, add 0.1% KOH...solution drop by drop to the oil alcohol phenolphthalein solution while stirring, until the solution stays pink (magenta) for 10 seconds. Take the

  17. Parallel processing of dose calculation for external photon beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Etsuo; Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Ito, Hisao; Kubo, Atsushi

    1994-01-01

    We implemented external photon beam dose calculation programs into a parallel processor system consisting of Transputers, 32-bit processors especially suitable for multi-processor configuration. Two network conformations, binary-tree and pipeline, were evaluated for rectangular and irregular field dose calculation algorithms. Although computation speed increased in proportion to the number of CPU, substantial overhead caused by inter-processor communication occurred when a smaller computation load was delivered to each processor. On the other hand, for irregular field calculation, which requires more computation capability for each calculation point, the communication overhead was still less even when more than 50 processors were involved. Real-time responses could be expected for more complex algorithms by increasing the number of processors. (author)

  18. Libera Electron Beam Position Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Ursic, Rok

    2005-01-01

    Libera is a product family delivering unprecedented possibilities for either building powerful single station solutions or architecting complex feedback systems in the field of accelerator instrumentation and controls. This paper presents functionality and field performance of its first member, the electron beam position processor. It offers superior performance with multiple measurement channels delivering simultaneously position measurements in digital format with MHz kHz and Hz bandwidths. This all-in-one product, facilitating pulsed and CW measurements, is much more than simply a high performance beam position measuring device delivering micrometer level reproducibility with sub-micrometer resolution. Rich connectivity options and innate processing power make it a powerful feedback building block. By interconnecting multiple Libera electron beam position processors one can build a low-latency high throughput orbit feedback system without adding additional hardware. Libera electron beam position processor ...

  19. Java Processor Optimized for RTSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Shiliang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the preeminent work of the real-time specification for Java (RTSJ, Java is increasingly expected to become the leading programming language in real-time systems. To provide a Java platform suitable for real-time applications, a Java processor which can execute Java bytecode is directly proposed in this paper. It provides efficient support in hardware for some mechanisms specified in the RTSJ and offers a simpler programming model through ameliorating the scoped memory of the RTSJ. The worst case execution time (WCET of the bytecodes implemented in this processor is predictable by employing the optimization method proposed in our previous work, in which all the processing interfering predictability is handled before bytecode execution. Further advantage of this method is to make the implementation of the processor simpler and suited to a low-cost FPGA chip.

  20. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  1. Optical Array Processor: Laboratory Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Jackson, James; Vaerewyck, Gerard

    1987-01-01

    A Space Integrating (SI) Optical Linear Algebra Processor (OLAP) is described and laboratory results on its performance in several practical engineering problems are presented. The applications include its use in the solution of a nonlinear matrix equation for optimal control and a parabolic Partial Differential Equation (PDE), the transient diffusion equation with two spatial variables. Frequency-multiplexed, analog and high accuracy non-base-two data encoding are used and discussed. A multi-processor OLAP architecture is described and partitioning and data flow issues are addressed.

  2. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performan...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  3. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  4. 77 FR 75868 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to the Transmix Provisions Under the Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... transmix does not contain gasoline, a finished distillate fuel from the transmix can be produced without...) diesel fuel produced by transmix processors and pipeline facilities. These amendments will reinstate the ability of locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced from transmix by transmix processors and pipeline...

  5. Seal performance of thermal aged metal gasket of dual purpose metal cask for interim spent fuel storage after external impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Yokoyama; Masami Kato; Satoshi Itooka

    2005-01-01

    As for interim storage for spent nuclear fuels using dual purpose dry metal cask in Japan, we recognize one of the important technical issues that there is a possibility for the cask with degraded metal gasket during storage to apply to transportation. In our study until 2003 focused on degradation of important components for the cask safety performance during storage and application to transportation, for metal gasket, we conducted property tests for degradation and influence of lid movement on seal performance, and furthermore verification tests. From the results, we developed the method to evaluate leak rate from lid with degraded metal gasket at accidents during transportation and in addition, we found as follows: Lid would hardly move and leak rate would not increase seriously during fire event. Leak rate from lid with degraded metal gasket could be evaluated by using results of leak rate trend depending on horizontal displacement of lid by external impact load. So, with regard to influence of lid movement on seal performance, we conducted additional test for extending horizontal displacement in lid moving in 2004. In addition, seal performance was discussed from the results, both previous and latest test. (authors)

  6. FUEL PROCESSING FOR FUEL CELLS: EFFECTS ON CATALYST DURABILITY AND CARBON FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. BORUP; M. INBODY; B. MORTON; L. BROWN

    2001-05-01

    On-board production of hydrogen for fuel cells for automotive applications is a challenging developmental task. The fuel processor must show long term durability and under challenging conditions. Fuel processor catalysts in automotive fuel processors will be exposed to large thermal variations, vibrations, exposure to uncontrolled ambient conditions, and various impurities from ambient air and from fuel. For the commercialization of fuel processors, the delineation of effects on catalyst activity and durability are required. We are studying fuels and fuel constituent effects on the fuel processor system as part of the DOE Fuel Cells for Transportation program. Pure fuel components are tested to delineate the fuel component effect on the fuel processor and fuel processor catalysts. Component blends are used to simulate ''real fuels'', with various fuel mixtures being examined such as reformulated gasoline and naptha. The aliphatic, napthenic, olefin and aromatic content are simulated to represent the chemical kinetics of possible detrimental reactions, such as carbon formation, during fuel testing. Testing has examined the fuel processing performance of different fuel components to help elucidate the fuel constituent effects on fuel processing performance and upon catalyst durability. Testing has been conducted with vapor fuels, including natural gas and pure methane. The testing of pure methane and comparable testing with natural gas (97% methane) have shown some measurable differences in performance in the fuel processor. Major gasoline fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared for their effect on the fuel processing performance. Experiments have been conducted using high-purity compounds to observe the fuel processing properties of the individual components and to document individual fuel component performance. The relative carbon formation of different fuel constituents have been measured by

  7. The L0(muon) processor

    CERN Document Server

    Aslanides, Elie; Le Gac, R; Menouni, M; Potheau, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    1999-01-01

    99-008 In this note we review the Marseille implementation for the L0(muon) processor. We describe the data flow, hardware implementation, synchronization issue as well as our first ideas on debugging and monitoring procedure. We also present the performance of the proposed architecture with an estimate of its cost.

  8. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  9. A Course on Reconfigurable Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoufan, Abdulhadi; Huss, Sorin A.

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable computing is an established field in computer science. Teaching this field to computer science students demands special attention due to limited student experience in electronics and digital system design. This article presents a compact course on reconfigurable processors, which was offered at the Technische Universitat Darmstadt,…

  10. GENERALIZED PROCESSOR SHARING (GPS) TECHNIQUES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olumide

    popular technique, Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS), provided an effective and efficient utilization of the available resources at the face of stringent and varied QoS requirements. This paper, therefore, presents the comparison of two GPS techniques –. PGPS and CDGPS – based on performance with limited resources ...

  11. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    memory stage. The fetch stage fetches instructions from the cache. In this stage, current day processors (like the IA-64) also incorporate a branch prediction unit. The branch prediction unit predicts the direction of branch instructions and speculatively fetches instructions from the predicted path. This is necessary to keep the ...

  12. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 12. Very Long Instruction Word Processors. S Balakrishnan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2001 pp 61-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/12/0061-0068 ...

  13. Cassava processors' awareness of occupational and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) is not without hazards both to the environment, the processors, and even the consumers. This study, therefore, investigated cassava processors' awareness of occupational and environmental hazards associated with and factors affecting ...

  14. Deterministic chaos in the processor load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbiniak, Zbigniew; Jozwiak, Ireneusz J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present the results of research whose purpose was to identify the phenomenon of deterministic chaos in the processor load. We analysed the time series of the processor load during efficiency tests of database software. Our research was done on a Sparc Alpha processor working on the UNIX Sun Solaris 5.7 operating system. The conducted analyses proved the presence of the deterministic chaos phenomenon in the processor load in this particular case

  15. 7 CFR 1215.14 - Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processor. 1215.14 Section 1215.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Processor. Processor means a person engaged in the preparation of unpopped popcorn for the market who owns...

  16. 7 CFR 989.13 - Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processor. 989.13 Section 989.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.13 Processor. Processor means any person who receives...

  17. 7 CFR 927.14 - Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processor. 927.14 Section 927.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.14 Processor. Processor means any person who as owner, agent...

  18. Real-time trajectory optimization on parallel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    A parallel algorithm has been developed for rapidly solving trajectory optimization problems. The goal of the work has been to develop an algorithm that is suitable to do real-time, on-line optimal guidance through repeated solution of a trajectory optimization problem. The algorithm has been developed on an INTEL iPSC/860 message passing parallel processor. It uses a zero-order-hold discretization of a continuous-time problem and solves the resulting nonlinear programming problem using a custom-designed augmented Lagrangian nonlinear programming algorithm. The algorithm achieves parallelism of function, derivative, and search direction calculations through the principle of domain decomposition applied along the time axis. It has been encoded and tested on 3 example problems, the Goddard problem, the acceleration-limited, planar minimum-time to the origin problem, and a National Aerospace Plane minimum-fuel ascent guidance problem. Execution times as fast as 118 sec of wall clock time have been achieved for a 128-stage Goddard problem solved on 32 processors. A 32-stage minimum-time problem has been solved in 151 sec on 32 processors. A 32-stage National Aerospace Plane problem required 2 hours when solved on 32 processors. A speed-up factor of 7.2 has been achieved by using 32-nodes instead of 1-node to solve a 64-stage Goddard problem.

  19. A CNN-Specific Integrated Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Suleyman; Spaanenburg, Lambert

    2009-12-01

    Integrated Processors (IP) are algorithm-specific cores that either by programming or by configuration can be re-used within many microelectronic systems. This paper looks at Cellular Neural Networks (CNN) to become realized as IP. First current digital implementations are reviewed, and the memoryprocessor bandwidth issues are analyzed. Then a generic view is taken on the structure of the network, and a new intra-communication protocol based on rotating wheels is proposed. It is shown that this provides for guaranteed high-performance with a minimal network interface. The resulting node is small and supports multi-level CNN designs, giving the system a 30-fold increase in capacity compared to classical designs. As it facilitates multiple operations on a single image, and single operations on multiple images, with minimal access to the external image memory, balancing the internal and external data transfer requirements optimizes the system operation. In conventional digital CNN designs, the treatment of boundary nodes requires additional logic to handle the CNN value propagation scheme. In the new architecture, only a slight modification of the existing cells is necessary to model the boundary effect. A typical prototype for visual pattern recognition will house 4096 CNN cells with a 2% overhead for making it an IP.

  20. A CNN-Specific Integrated Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Malki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Processors (IP are algorithm-specific cores that either by programming or by configuration can be re-used within many microelectronic systems. This paper looks at Cellular Neural Networks (CNN to become realized as IP. First current digital implementations are reviewed, and the memoryprocessor bandwidth issues are analyzed. Then a generic view is taken on the structure of the network, and a new intra-communication protocol based on rotating wheels is proposed. It is shown that this provides for guaranteed high-performance with a minimal network interface. The resulting node is small and supports multi-level CNN designs, giving the system a 30-fold increase in capacity compared to classical designs. As it facilitates multiple operations on a single image, and single operations on multiple images, with minimal access to the external image memory, balancing the internal and external data transfer requirements optimizes the system operation. In conventional digital CNN designs, the treatment of boundary nodes requires additional logic to handle the CNN value propagation scheme. In the new architecture, only a slight modification of the existing cells is necessary to model the boundary effect. A typical prototype for visual pattern recognition will house 4096 CNN cells with a 2% overhead for making it an IP.

  1. Emissions variability processor (EMVAP): design, evaluation, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Robert; Szembek, Carlos; Heinold, David; Knipping, Eladio; Kumar, Naresh

    2014-12-01

    Emissions of pollutants such as SO2 and NOx from external combustion sources can vary widely depending on fuel sulfur content, load, and transient conditions such as startup, shutdown, and maintenance/malfunction. While monitoring will automatically reflect variability from both emissions and meteorological influences, dispersion modeling has been typically conducted with a single constant peak emission rate. To respond to the need to account for emissions variability in addressing probabilistic 1-hr ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NO2, we have developed a statistical technique, the Emissions Variability Processor (EMVAP), which can account for emissions variability in dispersion modeling through Monte Carlo sampling from a specified frequency distribution of emission rates. Based upon initial AERMOD modeling of from 1 to 5 years of actual meteorological conditions, EMVAP is used as a postprocessor to AERMOD to simulate hundreds or even thousands of years of concentration predictions. This procedure uses emissions varied hourly with a Monte Carlo sampling process that is based upon the user-specified emissions distribution, from which a probabilistic estimate can be obtained of the controlling concentration. EMVAP can also accommodate an advanced Tier 2 NO2 modeling technique that uses a varying ambient ratio method approach to determine the fraction of total oxides of nitrogen that are in the form of nitrogen dioxide. For the case of the 1-hr National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, established for SO2 and NO2), a "critical value" can be defined as the highest hourly emission rate that would be simulated to satisfy the standard using air dispersion models assuming constant emissions throughout the simulation. The critical value can be used as the starting point for a procedure like EMVAP that evaluates the impact of emissions variability and uses this information to determine an appropriate value to use for a longer-term (e.g., 30-day) average

  2. Communications systems and methods for subsea processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Pereira, Luis

    2016-04-26

    A subsea processor may be located near the seabed of a drilling site and used to coordinate operations of underwater drilling components. The subsea processor may be enclosed in a single interchangeable unit that fits a receptor on an underwater drilling component, such as a blow-out preventer (BOP). The subsea processor may issue commands to control the BOP and receive measurements from sensors located throughout the BOP. A shared communications bus may interconnect the subsea processor and underwater components and the subsea processor and a surface or onshore network. The shared communications bus may be operated according to a time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme.

  3. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  4. Post-processor for simulations of the ORIGEN program and calculation of the composition of the activity of a burnt fuel core by a BWR type reactor; Post-procesador para simulaciones del programa ORIGEN y calculo de la composicion de la actividad de un nucleo de combustible quemado por un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S. [IIE, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: sandoval@iie.org.mx

    2006-07-01

    The composition calculation and the activity of nuclear materials subject to processes of burnt, irradiation and decay periods are of utility for diverse activities inside the nuclear industry, as they are it: the processes design and operations that manage radioactive material, the calculation of the inventory and activity of a core of burnt nuclear fuel, for studies of type Probabilistic Safety Analysis (APS), as well as for regulation processes and licensing of nuclear facilities. ORIGEN is a program for computer that calculates the composition and the activity of nuclear materials subject to periods of burnt, irradiation and decay. ORIGEN generates a great quantity of information whose processing and analysis are laborious, and it requires thoroughness to avoid errors. The automation of the extraction, conditioning and classification of that information is of great utility for the analyst. By means of the use of the post-processor presented in this work it is facilitated, it speeds up and wide the capacity of analysis of results, since diverse consultations with several classification options and filtrate of results can be made. As illustration of the utility of the post-processor, and as an analysis of interest for itself, it is also presented in this work the composition of the activity of a burned core in a BWR type reactor according to the following classification criteria: by type of radioisotope (fission products, activation products and actinides), by specie type (gassy, volatile, semi-volatile and not volatile), by element and by chemical group. The results show that the total activity of the studied core is dominated by the fission products and for the actinides, in proportion four to one, and that the gassy and volatile species conform a fifth part of the total activity of the core. (Author)

  5. Implementation of kernels on the Maestro processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jinwoo; Kang, D. I. D.; Crago, S. P.

    Currently, most microprocessors use multiple cores to increase performance while limiting power usage. Some processors use not just a few cores, but tens of cores or even 100 cores. One such many-core microprocessor is the Maestro processor, which is based on Tilera's TILE64 processor. The Maestro chip is a 49-core, general-purpose, radiation-hardened processor designed for space applications. The Maestro processor, unlike the TILE64, has a floating point unit (FPU) in each core for improved floating point performance. The Maestro processor runs at 342 MHz clock frequency. On the Maestro processor, we implemented several widely used kernels: matrix multiplication, vector add, FIR filter, and FFT. We measured and analyzed the performance of these kernels. The achieved performance was up to 5.7 GFLOPS, and the speedup compared to single tile was up to 49 using 49 tiles.

  6. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs

  7. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  8. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  9. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...... of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...... are identified, based on results of earlier studies and some identified of specific relevance for Denmark. Importance is attached to the quantification of impacts for each of the three fuel cycles and to monetisation of the externalities....

  10. Online track processor for the CDF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, C.; Gertenslager, J.; Hoftiezer, J.

    1999-01-01

    A trigger track processor is being designed for the CDF upgrade. This processor identifies high momentum (P T > 1.5 GeV/c) charged tracks in the new central outer tracking chamber for CDF II. The track processor is called the Extremely Fast Tracker (XFT). The XFT design is highly parallel to handle the input rate of 183 Gbits/sec and output rate of 44 Gbits/sec. The processor is pipelined and reports the results for a new event every 132 ns. The processor uses three stages, hit classification, segment finding, and segment linking. The pattern recognition algorithms for the three stages are implemented in programmable logic devices (PLDs) which allow for in-situ modification of the algorithm at any time. The PLDs reside on three different types of modules. Prototypes of each of these modules have been designed and built, and are presently undergoing testing. An overview of the track processor and results of testing are presented

  11. Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and

  12. Method for operating a combustor in a fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfant, Robert W.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of operating a combustor to heat a fuel processor in a fuel cell system, in which the fuel processor generates a hydrogen-rich stream a portion of which is consumed in a fuel cell stack and a portion of which is discharged from the fuel cell stack and supplied to the combustor, and wherein first and second streams are supplied to the combustor, the first stream being a hydrocarbon fuel stream and the second stream consisting of said hydrogen-rich stream, the method comprising the steps of monitoring the temperature of the fuel processor; regulating the quantity of the first stream to the combustor according to the temperature of the fuel processor; and comparing said quantity of said first stream to a predetermined value or range of predetermined values.

  13. Design Principles for Synthesizable Processor Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; McKee, Sally A.; Karlsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    As FPGAs get more competitive, synthesizable processor cores become an attractive choice for embedded computing. Currently popular commercial processor cores do not fully exploit current FPGA architectures. In this paper, we propose general design principles to increase instruction throughput...... through the use of micro-benchmarks that our principles guide the design of a processor core that improves performance by an average of 38% over a similar Xilinx MicroBlaze configuration....

  14. Accuracies Of Optical Processors For Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of accuracies and requirements concerning accuracies of optical linear-algebra processors (OLAP's) in adaptive-optics imaging systems. Much faster than digital electronic processor and eliminate some residual distortion. Question whether errors introduced by analog processing of OLAP overcome advantage of greater speed. Paper addresses issue by presenting estimate of accuracy required in general OLAP that yields smaller average residual aberration of wave front than digital electronic processor computing at given speed.

  15. Digital Signal Processor For GPS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. B.; Meehan, T. K.; Srinivasan, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Three innovative components combined to produce all-digital signal processor with superior characteristics: outstanding accuracy, high-dynamics tracking, versatile integration times, lower loss-of-lock signal strengths, and infrequent cycle slips. Three components are digital chip advancer, digital carrier downconverter and code correlator, and digital tracking processor. All-digital signal processor intended for use in receivers of Global Positioning System (GPS) for geodesy, geodynamics, high-dynamics tracking, and ionospheric calibration.

  16. Data register and processor for multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpukhin, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A data register and a processor for data receiving and processing from drift chambers of a device for investigating relativistic positroniums are described. The data are delivered to the register input in the form of the Grey 8 bit code, memorized and transformed to a position code. The register information is delivered to the KAMAK trunk and to the front panel plug. The processor selects particle tracks in a horizontal plane of the facility. ΔY maximum coordinate divergence and minimum point quantity on the track are set from the processor front panel. Processor solution time is 16 μs maximum quantity of simultaneously analyzed coordinates is 16

  17. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  18. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  19. Producing chopped firewood with firewood processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, K.; Jouhiaho, A.

    2009-01-01

    The TTS Institute's research and development project studied both the productivity of new, chopped firewood processors (cross-cutting and splitting machines) suitable for professional and independent small-scale production, and the costs of the chopped firewood produced. Seven chopped firewood processors were tested in the research, six of which were sawing processors and one shearing processor. The chopping work was carried out using wood feeding racks and a wood lifter. The work was also carried out without any feeding appliances. Altogether 132.5 solid m 3 of wood were chopped in the time studies. The firewood processor used had the most significant impact on chopping work productivity. In addition to the firewood processor, the stem mid-diameter, the length of the raw material, and of the firewood were also found to affect productivity. The wood feeding systems also affected productivity. If there is a feeding rack and hydraulic grapple loader available for use in chopping firewood, then it is worth using the wood feeding rack. A wood lifter is only worth using with the largest stems (over 20 cm mid-diameter) if a feeding rack cannot be used. When producing chopped firewood from small-diameter wood, i.e. with a mid-diameter less than 10 cm, the costs of chopping work were over 10 EUR solid m -3 with sawing firewood processors. The shearing firewood processor with a guillotine blade achieved a cost level of 5 EUR solid m -3 when the mid-diameter of the chopped stem was 10 cm. In addition to the raw material, the cost-efficient chopping work also requires several hundred annual operating hours with a firewood processor, which is difficult for individual firewood entrepreneurs to achieve. The operating hours of firewood processors can be increased to the required level by the joint use of the processors by a number of firewood entrepreneurs. (author)

  20. Fuel options for the fuel cell vehicle: hydrogen, methanol or gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles can be powered directly by hydrogen or, with an onboard chemical processor, other liquid fuels such as gasoline or methanol. Most analysts agree that hydrogen is the preferred fuel in terms of reducing vehicle complexity, but one common perception is that the cost of a hydrogen infrastructure would be excessive. According to this conventional wisdom, the automobile industry must therefore develop complex onboard fuel processors to convert methanol, ethanol or gasoline to hydrogen. We show here, however, that the total fuel infrastructure cost to society including onboard fuel processors may be less for hydrogen than for either gasoline or methanol, the primary initial candidates currently under consideration for fuel cell vehicles. We also present the local air pollution and greenhouse gas advantages of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to those powered by gasoline or methanol. (Author)

  1. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  2. The communication processor of TUMULT-64

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Tumult (Twente University MULTi-processor system) is a modular extendible multi-processor system designed and implemented at the Twente University of Technology in co-operation with Oce Nederland B.V. and the Dr. Neher Laboratories (Dutch PTT). Characteristics of the hardware are: MIMD type,

  3. Models of Communication for Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Sparsø, Jens

    2015-01-01

    To efficiently use multicore processors we need to ensure that almost all data communication stays on chip, i.e., the bits moved between tasks executing on different processor cores do not leave the chip. Different forms of on-chip communication are supported by different hardware mechanism, e...

  4. Towards a Process Algebra for Shared Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Andersen, Jacob; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    We present initial work on a timed process algebra that models sharing of processor resources allowing preemption at arbitrary points in time. This enables us to model both the functional and the timely behaviour of concurrent processes executed on a single processor. We give a refinement relation...

  5. An interactive parallel processor for data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mong, J.; Logan, D.; Maples, C.; Rathbun, W.; Weaver, D.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel array of eight minicomputers has been assembled in an attempt to deal with kiloparameter data events. By exporting computer system functions to a separate processor, the authors have been able to achieve computer amplification linearly proportional to the number of executing processors

  6. Vector and parallel processors in computational science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, I.S.; Reid, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. These concern hardware and software for vector and parallel processors, numerical methods and algorithms for the computation on such processors, as well as applications of such methods to different fields of physics and related sciences. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  7. A Study of Communication Processor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    by S . The processor and manually controlled switches mp Skp enable a link between each processor and controllers (K io) which in turn allow access to... proceso i S thle base leel wh Ichl scans all LIines And Initiates all non--interrut drvn rcsse0s . The voice switching functioni Is performed by one

  8. The TM3270 Media-processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waerdt, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    I n this thesis, we present the TM3270 VLIW media-processor, the latest of TriMedia processors, and describe the innovations with respect to its prede- cessor: the TM3260. We describe enhancements to the load/store unit design, such as a new data prefetching technique, and architectural

  9. Deep geological disposal system development; mechanical structural stability analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under the internal/external pressure variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwen, Y. J.; Kang, S. W.; Ha, Z. Y. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This work constitutes a summary of the research and development work made for the design and dimensioning of the canister for nuclear fuel disposal. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for spent fuel disposal should be securred. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. The canister construction type introduced here is a solid structure with a cast iron insert and a corrosion resistant overpack, which is designed for spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock, which entails an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from undergroundwater and high pressure from swelling of bentonite buffer. Hence, the canister must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. Many design variables may affect the structural strength of the canister. In this study, among those variables array type of inner baskets and thicknesses of outer shell and lid and bottom are tried to be determined through the mechanical linear structural analysis, thicknesses of outer shell is determined through the nonlinear structural analysis, and the bentonite buffer analysis for the rock movement is conducted through the of nonlinear structural analysis Also the thermal stress effect is computed for the cast iron insert. The canister types studied here are one for PWR fuel and another for CANDU fuel. 23 refs., 60 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  10. SCAN secure processor and its biometric capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannavara, Raghudeep; Mertoguno, Sukarno; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the design of the SCAN secure processor and its extended instruction set to enable secure biometric authentication. The SCAN secure processor is a modified SparcV8 processor architecture with a new instruction set to handle voice, iris, and fingerprint-based biometric authentication. The algorithms for processing biometric data are based on the local global graph methodology. The biometric modules are synthesized in reconfigurable logic and the results of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) synthesis are presented. We propose to implement the above-mentioned modules in an off-chip FPGA co-processor. Further, the SCAN-secure processor will offer a SCAN-based encryption and decryption of 32 bit instructions and data.

  11. A fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Li, Ming; Guzzon, Robert S.; Norberg, Erik J.; Parker, John S.; Lu, Mingzhi; Coldren, Larry A.; Yao, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    Photonic signal processing has been considered a solution to overcome the inherent electronic speed limitations. Over the past few years, an impressive range of photonic integrated signal processors have been proposed, but they usually offer limited reconfigurability, a feature highly needed for the implementation of large-scale general-purpose photonic signal processors. Here, we report and experimentally demonstrate a fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor based on an InP-InGaAsP material system. The proposed photonic signal processor is capable of performing reconfigurable signal processing functions including temporal integration, temporal differentiation and Hilbert transformation. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the injection currents to the active components of the signal processor. Our demonstration suggests great potential for chip-scale fully programmable all-optical signal processing.

  12. Design of a dedicated processor for AC motor control implemented in a low cost FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Matzen, Torben N.

    2008-01-01

    Motor control for small series sometimes requires specialized control logic, requiring rewiring if new logic needs to be added. This paper describes a different approach to hardware and software co-design, namely designing a softcore processor with an instruction set to fit the purpose of control...... of drives. Furthermore the softcore processor is designed with a system for plug in of external logic. Doing so shortens development time, since functionality is simply added to or removed from the softcore. The designer can then choose between resource usage on the FPGA and execution speed in more degrees...

  13. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shiv P; Das, Indra J

    2012-01-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d(max.), 10 × 10 cm(2), 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4-40.6°C (85-105°F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.

    2012-01-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d max. , 10 × 10 cm 2 , 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4–40.6°C (85–105°F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

  15. Enabling Future Robotic Missions with Multicore Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Wesley A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wilmot, Jonathan; Some, Raphael; Gostelow, Kim P.; Reeves, Glenn; Doyle, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent commercial developments in multicore processors (e.g. Tilera, Clearspeed, HyperX) have provided an option for high performance embedded computing that rivals the performance attainable with FPGA-based reconfigurable computing architectures. Furthermore, these processors offer more straightforward and streamlined application development by allowing the use of conventional programming languages and software tools in lieu of hardware design languages such as VHDL and Verilog. With these advantages, multicore processors can significantly enhance the capabilities of future robotic space missions. This paper will discuss these benefits, along with onboard processing applications where multicore processing can offer advantages over existing or competing approaches. This paper will also discuss the key artchitecural features of current commercial multicore processors. In comparison to the current art, the features and advancements necessary for spaceflight multicore processors will be identified. These include power reduction, radiation hardening, inherent fault tolerance, and support for common spacecraft bus interfaces. Lastly, this paper will explore how multicore processors might evolve with advances in electronics technology and how avionics architectures might evolve once multicore processors are inserted into NASA robotic spacecraft.

  16. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  17. The GF-3 SAR Data Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Ding, Chibiao; Zhong, Lihua; Liu, Jiayin; Qiu, Xiaolan; Hu, Yuxin; Lei, Bin

    2018-03-10

    The Gaofen-3 (GF-3) data processor was developed as a workstation-based GF-3 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing system. The processor consists of two vital subsystems of the GF-3 ground segment, which are referred to as data ingesting subsystem (DIS) and product generation subsystem (PGS). The primary purpose of DIS is to record and catalogue GF-3 raw data with a transferring format, and PGS is to produce slant range or geocoded imagery from the signal data. This paper presents a brief introduction of the GF-3 data processor, including descriptions of the system architecture, the processing algorithms and its output format.

  18. Making CSB+-Tree Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...

  19. Hardware trigger processor for the MDT system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)757787; The ATLAS collaboration; Hazen, Eric; Butler, John; Black, Kevin; Gastler, Daniel Edward; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Taffard, Anyes; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Ishino, Masaya; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a low-latency hardware trigger processor for the Monitored Drift Tube system in the Muon spectrometer. The processor will fit candidate Muon tracks in the drift tubes in real time, improving significantly the momentum resolution provided by the dedicated trigger chambers. We present a novel pure-FPGA implementation of a Legendre transform segment finder, an associative-memory alternative implementation, an ARM (Zynq) processor-based track fitter, and compact ATCA carrier board architecture. The ATCA architecture is designed to allow a modular, staged approach to deployment of the system and exploration of alternative technologies.

  20. Development of Innovative Design Processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.S.; Park, C.O.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear design analysis requires time-consuming and erroneous model-input preparation, code run, output analysis and quality assurance process. To reduce human effort and improve design quality and productivity, Innovative Design Processor (IDP) is being developed. Two basic principles of IDP are the document-oriented design and the web-based design. The document-oriented design is that, if the designer writes a design document called active document and feeds it to a special program, the final document with complete analysis, table and plots is made automatically. The active documents can be written with ordinary HTML editors or created automatically on the web, which is another framework of IDP. Using the proper mix-up of server side and client side programming under the LAMP (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) environment, the design process on the web is modeled as a design wizard style so that even a novice designer makes the design document easily. This automation using the IDP is now being implemented for all the reload design of Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) type PWRs. The introduction of this process will allow large reduction in all reload design efforts of KSNP and provide a platform for design and R and D tasks of KNFC. (authors)

  1. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  2. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  3. Data register and processor for multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpukhin, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A data register and processor for acquisition and processing of data from drift chambers if apparatus for studying relativistic positrona are described. Data are input to the register in eight-bit Gray code, stored, and converted to position code. Data are output from the register to a CAMAC highway and to a front-panel connector. The processor selects the tracks of particles that lie in the horizontal plane of the apparatus. The maximum coordinate spread delta Y and the minimum number of points on a track are set from the front panel of the processor. The resolving time of the processor is 16 microsec and the maximum number of simultaneously analyzable coordinates is 16

  4. Probabilistic implementation of universal quantum processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, Mark; Buzek, Vladimir; Ziman, Mario

    2002-01-01

    We present a probabilistic quantum processor for qudits on a single qudit of dimension N. The processor itself is represented by a fixed array of gates. The input of the processor consists of two registers. In the program register the set of instructions (program) is encoded. This program is applied to the data register. The processor can perform any operation on a single qudit of dimension N with a certain probability. For a general unitary operation, the probability is 1/N 2 , but for more restricted sets of operators the probability can be higher. In fact, this probability can be independent of the dimension of the qudit Hilbert space of the qudit under some conditions

  5. Heterogeneous Multicore Processor Technologies for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uchiyama, Kunio; Kasahara, Hironori; Nojiri, Tohru; Noda, Hideyuki; Tawara, Yasuhiro; Idehara, Akio; Iwata, Kenichi; Shikano, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the higher requirements of digitally converged embedded systems, this book describes heterogeneous multicore technology that uses various kinds of low-power embedded processor cores on a single chip. With this technology, heterogeneous parallelism can be implemented on an SoC, and greater flexibility and superior performance per watt can then be achieved. This book defines the heterogeneous multicore architecture and explains in detail several embedded processor cores including CPU cores and special-purpose processor cores that achieve highly arithmetic-level parallelism. The authors developed three multicore chips (called RP-1, RP-2, and RP-X) according to the defined architecture with the introduced processor cores. The chip implementations, software environments, and applications running on the chips are also explained in the book. Provides readers an overview and practical discussion of heterogeneous multicore technologies from both a hardware and software point of view; Discusses a new, high-p...

  6. Limit characteristics of digital optoelectronic processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobrodov, V. G.; Tymchik, G. S.; Kolobrodov, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the limiting characteristics of a digital optoelectronic processor are explored. The limits are defined by diffraction effects and a matrix structure of the devices for input and output of optical signals. The purpose of a present research is to optimize the parameters of the processor's components. The developed physical and mathematical model of DOEP allowed to establish the limit characteristics of the processor, restricted by diffraction effects and an array structure of the equipment for input and output of optical signals, as well as to optimize the parameters of the processor's components. The diameter of the entrance pupil of the Fourier lens is determined by the size of SLM and the pixel size of the modulator. To determine the spectral resolution, it is offered to use a concept of an optimum phase when the resolved diffraction maxima coincide with the pixel centers of the radiation detector.

  7. Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab develops, tests and evaluates high speed fiber optic network components as well as network protocols. In addition, this...

  8. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  9. Real time monitoring of electron processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Kneeland, D.R.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    A real time radiation monitor (RTRM) has been developed for monitoring the dose rate (current density) of electron beam processors. The system provides continuous monitoring of processor output, electron beam uniformity, and an independent measure of operating voltage or electron energy. In view of the device's ability to replace labor-intensive dosimetry in verification of machine performance on a real-time basis, its application to providing archival performance data for in-line processing is discussed. (author)

  10. Matrix Manipulation Algorithms for Hasse Processor Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Hahanov, Vladimir; Dahiri, Farid

    2014-01-01

    The processor is implemented in software-hardware modules, which are based on the use of programming languages: C ++, Verilog, Python 2.7 and platforms: Microsoft Windows, X Window (in Unix and Linux) and Macintosh OS X. HDL-code generator makes it possible to automatically synthesize HDL-code of the processor structure from 1 to 16 bits for parallel processing corresponding number of input vectors or words.

  11. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Imaging of the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Spray on Foam Insulation (SOFI) using Synthetic Aperture Focusing Techniques (SAFT}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, J. T.; Robbins, J.; Kharkivskiy, S.; Hepburn, F.; Zoughi, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia s catastrophic failure is thought to have been caused by a dislodged piece of external tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) striking the left wing of the orbiter causing significant damage to some of the reinforced carbodcarbon leading edge wing panels. Microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive evaluation methods have shown great potential for inspecting SOFI for the purpose of detecting anomalies such as small air voids that may cause separation of the SOFI from the external tank during a launch. These methods are capable of producing relatively high-resolution images of the interior of SOFI particularly when advanced imaging algorithms are incorporated into the overall system. To this end, synthetic aperture focusing techniques (SAFT) are being developed. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of this investigation using SAFT-based methods and microwave holography at relatively low frequencies illustrating their potential capabilities for operation at millimeter wave frequencies.

  12. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Imaging of the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Spray on Foam Insulation (SOFI) Using Synthetic Aperture Focusing Techniques (SAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, J. T.; Robbins, J.; Kharkovsky, S.; Hepburn, F.; Zoughi, R.

    2006-03-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure is thought to have been caused by a dislodged piece of external tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) striking the left wing of the orbiter causing significant damage to some of the reinforced carbon/carbon leading edge wing panels. Microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive evaluation methods have shown great potential for inspecting SOFI for the purpose of detecting anomalies such as small air voids that may cause separation of the SOFI from the external tank during a launch. These methods are capable of producing relatively high-resolution images of the interior of SOFI particularly when advanced imaging algorithms are incorporated into the overall system. To this end, synthetic aperture focusing techniques (SAFT) are being developed. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of this investigation using SAFT-based methods and microwave holography at relatively low frequencies illustrating their potential capabilities for operation at millimeter wave frequencies.

  13. Optimal processor assignment for pipeline computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.; Simha, Rahul; Choudhury, Alok N.; Narahari, Bhagirath

    1991-01-01

    The availability of large scale multitasked parallel architectures introduces the following processor assignment problem for pipelined computations. Given a set of tasks and their precedence constraints, along with their experimentally determined individual responses times for different processor sizes, find an assignment of processor to tasks. Two objectives are of interest: minimal response given a throughput requirement, and maximal throughput given a response time requirement. These assignment problems differ considerably from the classical mapping problem in which several tasks share a processor; instead, it is assumed that a large number of processors are to be assigned to a relatively small number of tasks. Efficient assignment algorithms were developed for different classes of task structures. For a p processor system and a series parallel precedence graph with n constituent tasks, an O(np2) algorithm is provided that finds the optimal assignment for the response time optimization problem; it was found that the assignment optimizing the constrained throughput in O(np2log p) time. Special cases of linear, independent, and tree graphs are also considered.

  14. Accuracy Limitations in Optical Linear Algebra Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen Gordon

    1990-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in applying optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) to real-world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication and addition operations, noise from spatial variations across arrays, and from crosstalk. In this dissertation, we propose a second-order statistical model for an OLAP which incorporates all these system noise sources. We now apply this knowledge to determining upper and lower bounds on the achievable accuracy. This is accomplished by first translating the standard definition of accuracy used in electronic digital processors to analog optical processors. We then employ our second-order statistical model. Having determined a general accuracy equation, we consider limiting cases such as for ideal and noisy components. From the ideal case, we find the fundamental limitations on improving analog processor accuracy. From the noisy case, we determine the practical limitations based on both device and system noise sources. These bounds allow system trade-offs to be made both in the choice of architecture and in individual components in such a way as to maximize the accuracy of the processor. Finally, by determining the fundamental limitations, we show the system engineer when the accuracy desired can be achieved from hardware or architecture improvements and when it must come from signal pre-processing and/or post-processing techniques.

  15. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person who... term fluid milk processor shall not include in each of the respective fiscal periods those persons who...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.310 - Sharing processors' allocations with producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sharing processors' allocations with producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.310 Sharing processors' allocations with producers. (a) Every sugar beet and sugarcane processor must provide CCC a certification that: (1) The processor...

  17. 21 CFR 120.25 - Process verification for certain processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process verification for certain processors. 120... Pathogen Reduction § 120.25 Process verification for certain processors. Each juice processor that relies... covered by this section, processors shall take subsamples according to paragraph (a) of this section for...

  18. A lock circuit for a multi-core processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An integrated circuit comprising a multiple processor cores and a lock circuit that comprises a queue register with respective bits set or reset via respective, connections dedicated to respective processor cores, whereby the queue register identifies those among the multiple processor cores...... that are enqueued in the queue register. Furthermore, the integrated circuit comprises a current register and a selector circuit configured to select a processor core and identify that processor core by a value in the current register. A selected processor core is a prioritized processor core among the cores...... that have a bit that is set in the queue register. The processor cores are connected to receive a signal from the current register. Correspondingly: a method of synchronizing access to software and/or hardware resources by a core of a multi-core processor by means of a lock circuit; a multi-core processor...

  19. Externalities of energy. Swedish implementation of the ExternE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Gullberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The growing interest for developing economic instruments for efficient environmental policies has opened up a large area of multi-disciplinary research. ExternE is an example of this research, combining disciplines such as engineering, ecology, immunology and economics expertise to create new knowledge about how environmental pressures from energy production affect our nature and society. The ExternE Project aims to identify and, as far as possible quantify the externalities of energy production in Europe. The Stockholm Environment Institute has carried out a preliminary aggregation: -Coal Fuel Cycle: centred around Vaesteraas Kraftvaermeverk, Vaesteraas. This is the largest co-generation plant in Sweden, with four blocks and a maximum co-generation output of 520 MW electricity and 950 MW heat. The analysis is carried out on boiler B4. -Biomass Fuel Cycle: centred around Haendeloeverket, Norrkoeping. This plant predominately burns forestry residues, but a variety of fuels are combusted. Haendeloeverket has an installed capacity of 100 MW electricity and 375 MW heat, in a total of three boilers and two back-pressure turbines. The analysis is carried out on boiler P13. -Hydro Fuel Cycle: Klippens Kraftstation, Storuman. Built in 1990-1994, it is the youngest hydro power station in Sweden. It has been designed and built with significant efforts to account for and protect environmental values. Installed capacity is 28 MW. The environmental impact assessment from the construction of this plant is carried out, but the evaluation is still not finalized. The preliminary aggregation aimed to test whether ExternE results could be used to make estimates for the entire Swedish electricity production system. Hence, national results as well as results from other partner countries in ExternE has been applied

  20. Architectural design and analysis of a programmable image processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyal, M.Y.; Chowdhry, B.S.; Rajput, A.Q.K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an architectural design and analysis of a programmable image processor, nicknamed Snake. The processor was designed with a high degree of parallelism to speed up a range of image processing operations. Data parallelism found in array processors has been included into the architecture of the proposed processor. The implementation of commonly used image processing algorithms and their performance evaluation are also discussed. The performance of Snake is also compared with other types of processor architectures. (author)

  1. Onboard Data Processor for Change-Detection Radar Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chien, Steve A.; Saatchi, Sasan S.; Clark, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A computer system denoted a change-detection onboard processor (CDOP) is being developed as a means of processing the digitized output of a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) apparatus aboard an aircraft or spacecraft to generate images showing changes that have occurred in the terrain below between repeat passes of the aircraft or spacecraft over the terrain. When fully developed, the CDOP is intended to be capable of generating SAR images and/or SAR differential interferograms in nearly real time. The CDOP is expected to be especially useful for understanding some large-scale natural phenomena and/or mitigating natural hazards: For example, it could be used for near-real-time observation of surface changes caused by floods, landslides, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, glaciers, and sea ice movements. It could also be used to observe such longer-term surface changes as those associated with growth of vegetation (relevant to estimation of wildfire fuel loads). The CDOP is, essentially, an interferometric SAR processor designed to operate aboard a radar platform.

  2. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.; Charleton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Biddulph, P.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.F.; Landon, M.; Robinson, D.; Oliver, J.; Sumorok, K.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (orig.)

  3. Programmable DNA-Mediated Multitasking Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qi-Wen; Yong, Kian-Yan; Shao, Fangwei; Lee, Kee Jin

    2015-04-30

    Because of DNA appealing features as perfect material, including minuscule size, defined structural repeat and rigidity, programmable DNA-mediated processing is a promising computing paradigm, which employs DNAs as information storing and processing substrates to tackle the computational problems. The massive parallelism of DNA hybridization exhibits transcendent potential to improve multitasking capabilities and yield a tremendous speed-up over the conventional electronic processors with stepwise signal cascade. As an example of multitasking capability, we present an in vitro programmable DNA-mediated optimal route planning processor as a functional unit embedded in contemporary navigation systems. The novel programmable DNA-mediated processor has several advantages over the existing silicon-mediated methods, such as conducting massive data storage and simultaneous processing via much fewer materials than conventional silicon devices.

  4. Intrusion Detection Architecture Utilizing Graphics Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Madoš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the thriving technology and the great increase in the usage of computer networks, the risk of having these network to be under attacks have been increased. Number of techniques have been created and designed to help in detecting and/or preventing such attacks. One common technique is the use of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS. Today, number of open sources and commercial IDS are available to match enterprises requirements. However, the performance of these systems is still the main concern. This paper examines perceptions of intrusion detection architecture implementation, resulting from the use of graphics processor. It discusses recent research activities, developments and problems of operating systems security. Some exploratory evidence is presented that shows capabilities of using graphical processors and intrusion detection systems. The focus is on how knowledge experienced throughout the graphics processor inclusion has played out in the design of intrusion detection architecture that is seen as an opportunity to strengthen research expertise.

  5. Embedded processor extensions for image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, Mathieu; Paindavoine, Michel; Letellier, Laurent; Heyrman, Barthélémy

    2008-04-01

    The advent of camera phones marks a new phase in embedded camera sales. By late 2009, the total number of camera phones will exceed that of both conventional and digital cameras shipped since the invention of photography. Use in mobile phones of applications like visiophony, matrix code readers and biometrics requires a high degree of component flexibility that image processors (IPs) have not, to date, been able to provide. For all these reasons, programmable processor solutions have become essential. This paper presents several techniques geared to speeding up image processors. It demonstrates that a gain of twice is possible for the complete image acquisition chain and the enhancement pipeline downstream of the video sensor. Such results confirm the potential of these computing systems for supporting future applications.

  6. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements § 229.217 Fuel tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum...

  7. Software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples.

  8. Time Manager Software for a Flight Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to highlight useful information and suggest conclusions. Accurate timestamps and a timeline of vehicle events are needed to analyze flight data. By moving the timekeeping to the flight processor, there is no longer a need for a redundant time source. If each flight processor is initially synchronized to GPS, they can freewheel and maintain a fairly accurate time throughout the flight with no additional GPS time messages received. How ever, additional GPS time messages will ensure an even greater accuracy. When a timestamp is required, a gettime function is called that immediately reads the time-base register.

  9. Parallel processor for fast event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Current maximum data rates from the Spin Spectrometer of approx. 5000 events/s (up to 1.3 MBytes/s) and minimum analysis requiring at least 3000 operations/event require a CPU cycle time near 70 ns. In order to achieve an effective cycle time of 70 ns, a parallel processing device is proposed where up to 4 independent processors will be implemented in parallel. The individual processors are designed around the Am2910 Microsequencer, the AM29116 μP, and the Am29517 Multiplier. Satellite histogramming in a mass memory system will be managed by a commercial 16-bit μP system

  10. Study on Korean Pine Nut Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hag Mo; Choi, Soo Im; Sato, Noriko; Kim, Hyun; 佐藤, 宣子

    2012-01-01

    In the results of survey on operating state of pine nut processors located in Gapyeong–gun, Gyeonggi–do and Hongcheon–gun, Gangwon–do, representative pine nut producing area, the total purchasing amount of pine nuts with a cone of Gapyeong–gun, Gyeonggi–do was 500~4,000 bags (1 bag is 80 kg), of which average amount per processor was 2000 bags. The price range per bag of pine nuts was 470~620 thousand won and the average price was 550 thousand won. Total purchase price of pine nuts with a con...

  11. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The ORIGNATE processor for ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. ORIGNATE is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel depletion and decay cases. ORIGNATE generates an input file that may be used to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGNATE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  12. Comparison of Processor Performance of SPECint2006 Benchmarks of some Intel Xeon Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem PARCHUR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High performance is a critical requirement to all microprocessors manufacturers. The present paper describes the comparison of performance in two main Intel Xeon series processors (Type A: Intel Xeon X5260, X5460, E5450 and L5320 and Type B: Intel Xeon X5140, 5130, 5120 and E5310. The microarchitecture of these processors is implemented using the basis of a new family of processors from Intel starting with the Pentium 4 processor. These processors can provide a performance boost for many key application areas in modern generation. The scaling of performance in two major series of Intel Xeon processors (Type A: Intel Xeon X5260, X5460, E5450 and L5320 and Type B: Intel Xeon X5140, 5130, 5120 and E5310 has been analyzed using the performance numbers of 12 CPU2006 integer benchmarks, performance numbers that exhibit significant differences in performance. The results and analysis can be used by performance engineers, scientists and developers to better understand the performance scaling in modern generation processors.

  13. Fuel composition effects on transportation fuel cell reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rod L.; Inbody, Michael A.; Semelsberger, Troy A.; Tafoya, Jose I.; Guidry, Dennis R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-11, MS J579, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-01-30

    This work examines the effect of various hydrocarbons on fuel processor light-off and reforming. Major hydrocarbon fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared with the fuel processing performance of blended fuel components and reformulated gasoline to examine synergistic or detrimental effects the fuel components have in a real fuel blend. Short chained aliphatic hydrocarbons tend to have favorable light-off and reforming characteristics for catalytic autothermal reforming compared with longer-chained and aromatic components. Oxygenated hydrocarbons have lower light-off requirements than do pure hydrocarbons. Gas phase oxidation favors higher cetane number fuels, which tend to be longer chained hydrocarbons. Energy consumption during the start-up process shows a large fuel effect. Methanol and dimethylether (DME) show lower start-up energy demands for the fuel processor start-up than do high temperature reforming hydrocarbon fuels such as methane, gasoline and ethanol. Aromatics and longer chained hydrocarbons show a higher tendency for carbon formation, increasing the amount of carbon formed during the light-off phase while the addition of oxygenates tends to lower the carbon formed during the start-up process.

  14. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  15. CERN Technical Training: Signal Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    A new training is going to be held at CERN on the ADSP SHARC Family. The "System Development and Programming with the Analog Devices’ SHARC Family" course is a 3.5-day hands-on training on Analog Devices SHARC DSPs, focusing on the latest ‘368/9 and 37x families. General DSP architecture, peripherals available, booting up process and DSP code development will be covered. Hardware tools, debugging and hardware design guidelines will be introduced as well. The course id designed for System Designers needing to make informed decisions on design tradeoffs, Hardware Designers needing to develop external interfaces, and Code Developers needing to know how to get the highest performance from their algorithms. The course will take place, in English, from 31 March to 4 April in the CERN Technical Training Center. Few places are still available. Registrations are opened on the Technical Training page. More information on our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your que...

  16. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  17. A post-processor for Gurmukhi OCR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. A post-processing system for OCR of Gurmukhi script has been devel- oped. Statistical information of Punjabi language syllable combinations, corpora look-up and certain heuristics based on Punjabi grammar rules have been com- bined to design the post-processor. An improvement of 3% in recognition rate, ...

  18. Monotonicity in the limited processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Nuyens; W. van der Weij (Wemke)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a processor sharing queue with a limited number of service positions and an infinite buffer. The occupied service positions share an underlying resource. We prove that for service times with a decreasing failure rate, the queue length is stochastically decreasing in the number

  19. Noise limitations in optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, S G; Jong, T L; Walkup, J F; Krile, T F

    1990-05-10

    A general statistical noise model is presented for optical linear algebra processors. A statistical analysis which includes device noise, the multiplication process, and the addition operation is undertaken. We focus on those processes which are architecturally independent. Finally, experimental results which verify the analytical predictions are also presented.

  20. Report of the trigger processor subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    1993-01-01

    This is a summary report of a small group of people who met one afternoon to discuss trigger processors. The trigger processor group spent much of its time discussing new architecture's for high rate experiments. There was an attempt to differentiate between data driven architectures and the more conventional systems where triggers are divided into a series of levels. This was not too successful because most people felt that there were elements of the data driven architecture in almost all trigger systems -- particularly at the front end. There are, however, broad divisions that are present in almost every trigger system. The typical trigger levels are defined as: level 1 - This is the section of the trigger that is truly dead timeless. The data is pipelined with enough buffers so that no crossing (event in fixed target) is lost. A trigger decision is generated at every crossing (but delayed by the length of the pipeline); level 3 - Processor farm with one complete event per processor; level 2 - Everything in between

  1. A high-speed analog neural processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masa, P.; Masa, Peter; Hoen, Klaas; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Targeted at high-energy physics research applications, our special-purpose analog neural processor can classify up to 70 dimensional vectors within 50 nanoseconds. The decision-making process of the implemented feedforward neural network enables this type of computation to tolerate weight

  2. A post-processor for Gurmukhi OCR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /sadh/027/01/0099-0111 ... Statistical information of Punjabi language syllable combinations, corpora look-up and certain heuristics based on Punjabi grammar rules have been combined to design the post-processor. An improvement of 3% in ...

  3. Globe hosts launch of new processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Launch of the quadecore processor chip at the Globe. On 14 November, in a series of major media events around the world, the chip-maker Intel launched its new 'quadcore' processor. For the regions of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, the day-long launch event took place in CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation, with over 30 journalists in attendance, coming from as far away as Johannesburg and Dubai. CERN was a significant choice for the event: the first tests of this new generation of processor in Europe had been made at CERN over the preceding months, as part of CERN openlab, a research partnership with leading IT companies such as Intel, HP and Oracle. The event also provided the opportunity for the journalists to visit ATLAS and the CERN Computer Centre. The strategy of putting multiple processor cores on the same chip, which has been pursued by Intel and other chip-makers in the last few years, represents an important departure from the more traditional improvements in the sheer speed of such chips. ...

  4. Simplifying cochlear implant speech processor fitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willeboer, C.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional fittings of the speech processor of a cochlear implant (CI) rely to a large extent on the implant recipient's subjective responses. For each of the 22 intracochlear electrodes the recipient has to indicate the threshold level (T-level) and comfortable loudness level (C-level) while

  5. Vector and parallel processors in computational science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, I.S.; Reid, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which reviewed the new developments in parallel and vector processing. Topics considered at the conference included hardware (array processors, supercomputers), programming languages, software aids, numerical methods (e.g., Monte Carlo algorithms, iterative methods, finite elements, optimization), and applications (e.g., neutron transport theory, meteorology, image processing)

  6. ARTS III/Parallel Processor Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    It was the purpose of this design study to investigate the feasibility, suitability, and cost-effectiveness of augmenting the ARTS III failsafe/failsoft multiprocessor system with a form of parallel processor to accomodate a large growth in air traff...

  7. A post-processor for Gurmukhi OCR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The word dictionary is partitioned in order to reduce the search space besides preventing forced match to incorrect words. Word size and the envelop information of words are taken as the main partitioning features. In this paper we describe a post-processor for improving the recognition rate of an OCR of Gurmukhi script.

  8. Performance evaluation of throughput computing workloads using multi-core processors and graphics processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Gaurav P.; Sureshkumar, N.; Blessy Trencia Lincy, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    Current trend in processor manufacturing focuses on multi-core architectures rather than increasing the clock speed for performance improvement. Graphic processors have become as commodity hardware for providing fast co-processing in computer systems. Developments in IoT, social networking web applications, big data created huge demand for data processing activities and such kind of throughput intensive applications inherently contains data level parallelism which is more suited for SIMD architecture based GPU. This paper reviews the architectural aspects of multi/many core processors and graphics processors. Different case studies are taken to compare performance of throughput computing applications using shared memory programming in OpenMP and CUDA API based programming.

  9. Array processors based on Gaussian fraction-free method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.; Sedukhin, S. [Aizu Univ., Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Sedukhin, I.

    1998-03-01

    The design of algorithmic array processors for solving linear systems of equations using fraction-free Gaussian elimination method is presented. The design is based on a formal approach which constructs a family of planar array processors systematically. These array processors are synthesized and analyzed. It is shown that some array processors are optimal in the framework of linear allocation of computations and in terms of number of processing elements and computing time. (author)

  10. Fabrication Security and Trust of Domain-Specific ASIC Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-30

    1 Fabrication Security and Trust of Domain-Specific ASIC Processors Michael Vai, Karen Gettings, and Theodore Lyszczarz MIT Lincoln Laboratory...specific ASIC processor architecture, which we showed to be effective in protecting IP and mitigating the expense and inflexibility associated with using...practicality in ensuring the trust and security of the processor when it is fabricated. The result is a processor architecture that incorporates

  11. Data collection from FASTBUS to a DEC UNIBUS processor through the UNIBUS-Processor Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larwill, M.; Barsotti, E.; Lesny, D.; Pordes, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the use of the UNIBUS Processor Interface, an interface between FASTBUS and the Digital Equipment Corporation UNIBUS. The UPI was developed by Fermilab and the University of Illinois. Details of the use of this interface in a high energy physics experiment at Fermilab are given. The paper includes a discussion of the operation of the UPI on the UNIBUS of a VAX-11, and plans for using the UPI to perform data acquisition from FASTBUS to a VAX-11 Processor

  12. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used to...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Automated tissue processor. (a) Identification. An automated tissue processor is an automated system used to...

  14. gFEX, the ATLAS Calorimeter Level 1 Real Time Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shaochun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The global feature extractor (gFEX) is a component of the Level-1Calorimeter trigger Phase-I upgrade for the ATLAS experiment. It is intended to identify patterns of energy associated with the hadronic decays of high momentum Higgs, W, & Z bosons, top quarks, and exotic particles in real time at the LHC crossing rate. The single processor board will be packaged in an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) module and implemented as a fast reconfigurable processor based on three Xilinx Ultra-scale FPGAs. The board will receive coarse-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters on 264 optical fibers with the data transferred at the 40 MHz LHC clock frequency. The gFEX will be controlled by a single system-on-chip processor, ZYNQ, that will be used to configure all the processor FPGAs, monitor board health, and interface to external signals. Now, the pre-prototype board which includes one ZYNQ and one Vertex-7 FPGA has been designed for testing and verification. The performance ...

  15. gFEX, the ATLAS Calorimeter Level-1 Real Time Processor

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)759889; The ATLAS collaboration; Begel, Michael; Chen, Hucheng; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Wu, Weihao

    2015-01-01

    The global feature extractor (gFEX) is a component of the Level-1 Calorimeter trigger Phase-I upgrade for the ATLAS experiment. It is intended to identify patterns of energy associated with the hadronic decays of high momentum Higgs, W, & Z bosons, top quarks, and exotic particles in real time at the LHC crossing rate. The single processor board will be packaged in an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) module and implemented as a fast reconfigurable processor based on three Xilinx Vertex Ultra-scale FPGAs. The board will receive coarse-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters on 276 optical fibers with the data transferred at the 40 MHz Large Hadron Collider (LHC) clock frequency. The gFEX will be controlled by a single system-on-chip processor, ZYNQ, that will be used to configure all the processor Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs), monitor board health, and interface to external signals. Now, the pre-prototype board which includes one ZYNQ and one Vertex-7 FPGA ...

  16. Cache Energy Optimization Techniques For Modern Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Modern multicore processors are employing large last-level caches, for example Intel's E7-8800 processor uses 24MB L3 cache. Further, with each CMOS technology generation, leakage energy has been dramatically increasing and hence, leakage energy is expected to become a major source of energy dissipation, especially in last-level caches (LLCs). The conventional schemes of cache energy saving either aim at saving dynamic energy or are based on properties specific to first-level caches, and thus these schemes have limited utility for last-level caches. Further, several other techniques require offline profiling or per-application tuning and hence are not suitable for product systems. In this book, we present novel cache leakage energy saving schemes for single-core and multicore systems; desktop, QoS, real-time and server systems. Also, we present cache energy saving techniques for caches designed with both conventional SRAM devices and emerging non-volatile devices such as STT-RAM (spin-torque transfer RAM). We present software-controlled, hardware-assisted techniques which use dynamic cache reconfiguration to configure the cache to the most energy efficient configuration while keeping the performance loss bounded. To profile and test a large number of potential configurations, we utilize low-overhead, micro-architecture components, which can be easily integrated into modern processor chips. We adopt a system-wide approach to save energy to ensure that cache reconfiguration does not increase energy consumption of other components of the processor. We have compared our techniques with state-of-the-art techniques and have found that our techniques outperform them in terms of energy efficiency and other relevant metrics. The techniques presented in this book have important applications in improving energy-efficiency of higher-end embedded, desktop, QoS, real-time, server processors and multitasking systems. This book is intended to be a valuable guide for both

  17. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  18. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swathirajan, S. [General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  19. Fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gerhard J.

    1990-01-01

    TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

  20. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  1. Multi-Core Processor Memory Contention Benchmark Analysis Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tyler; McGalliard, James

    2009-01-01

    Multi-core processors dominate current mainframe, server, and high performance computing (HPC) systems. This paper provides synthetic kernel and natural benchmark results from an HPC system at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that illustrate the performance impacts of multi-core (dual- and quad-core) vs. single core processor systems. Analysis of processor design, application source code, and synthetic and natural test results all indicate that multi-core processors can suffer from significant memory subsystem contention compared to similar single-core processors.

  2. Multiple core computer processor with globally-accessible local memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalf, John; Donofrio, David; Oliker, Leonid

    2016-09-20

    A multi-core computer processor including a plurality of processor cores interconnected in a Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture, a plurality of caches, each of the plurality of caches being associated with one and only one of the plurality of processor cores, and a plurality of memories, each of the plurality of memories being associated with a different set of at least one of the plurality of processor cores and each of the plurality of memories being configured to be visible in a global memory address space such that the plurality of memories are visible to two or more of the plurality of processor cores.

  3. Ssip-a processor interconnection simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaux, P.; Weber, R.; Prezzi, J.; Tazza, M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent growing interest in multiple processor architectures has given rise to the study of procesor-memory interconnections for the determination of better architectures. This paper concerns the development of the SSIP-sistema simulador de interconexao de processadores (processor interconnection simulating system) which allows the evaluation of different interconnection structures comparing its performance in order to provide parameters which would help the designer to define an architcture. A wide spectrum of systems may be evaluated, and their behaviour observed due to the features incorporated into the simulator program. The system modelling and the simulator program implementation are described. Some results that can be obtained are shown, along with the discussion of their usefulness. 12 references.

  4. Design of Processors with Reconfigurable Microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mokhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy becomes a dominating factor for a wide spectrum of computations: from intensive data processing in “big data” companies resulting in large electricity bills, to infrastructure monitoring with wireless sensors relying on energy harvesting. In this context it is essential for a computation system to be adaptable to the power supply and the service demand, which often vary dramatically during runtime. In this paper we present an approach to building processors with reconfigurable microarchitecture capable of changing the way they fetch and execute instructions depending on energy availability and application requirements. We show how to use Conditional Partial Order Graphs to formally specify the microarchitecture of such a processor, explore the design possibilities for its instruction set, and synthesise the instruction decoder using correct-by-construction techniques. The paper is focused on the design methodology, which is evaluated by implementing a power-proportional version of Intel 8051 microprocessor.

  5. Parallel processor programs in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, P. B.; Austin, D.; Squires, S. L.; Lehmann, J.; Mizell, D.; Wallgren, K.

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, a report dealing with the nation's research needs in high-speed computing called for increased access to supercomputing resources for the research community, research in computational mathematics, and increased research in the technology base needed for the next generation of supercomputers. Since that time a number of programs addressing future generations of computers, particularly parallel processors, have been started by U.S. government agencies. The present paper provides a description of the largest government programs in parallel processing. Established in fiscal year 1985 by the Institute for Defense Analyses for the National Security Agency, the Supercomputing Research Center will pursue research to advance the state of the art in supercomputing. Attention is also given to the DOE applied mathematical sciences research program, the NYU Ultracomputer project, the DARPA multiprocessor system architectures program, NSF research on multiprocessor systems, ONR activities in parallel computing, and NASA parallel processor projects.

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  7. Network to transmit prioritized subtask pockets to dedicated processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neches, P.M.

    1989-03-21

    A multiprocessor system distributing a workload among individual processors and operating with low usage of executive software and inter-processor communication to provide an overall workload processing function divisible into parallel processing subtasks is described, comprising: at least one processor system providing tasks for processing in the form of task messages; means coupled to receive the task messages from the processor system and including means to transform the task messages into subtask request packets including information as to one or more appropriate recipients; processor modules, each having assigned responsibilities with respect to the workload and each including means to determine whether the subtask is appropriate therefor, means for executing an appropriate subtask and means for providing a responsive task result packet after executing the subtask, the task result packet competing for priority with task result packets from at least one other processor module and with the subtask request packets from the interface processor means; and means coupling the interface processor means to the processor modules and the processor modules to each other and including means for concurrently receiving the packets and for determining priority between contending packets and distributing each packet having priority concurrently to all processor modules.

  8. Multi-processor network implementations in Multibus II and VME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.

    1992-01-01

    ACNET (Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network), a proprietary network protocol, is implemented in a multi-processor configuration for both Multibus II and VME. The implementations are contrasted by the bus protocol and software design goals. The Multibus II implementation provides for multiple processors running a duplicate set of tasks on each processor. For a network connected task, messages are distributed by a network round-robin scheduler. Further, messages can be stopped, continued, or re-routed for each task by user-callable commands. The VME implementation provides for multiple processors running one task across all processors. The process can either be fixed to a particular processor or dynamically allocated to an available processor depending on the scheduling algorithm of the multi-processing operating system. (author)

  9. Debugging in a multi-processor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) consists of nine 32-bit minicomputers arranged in a tightly coupled distributed computer system utilizing a share memory as the data exchange medium. Debugging of more than one program in the multi-processor environment is a difficult process. This paper describes what new tools were developed and how the testing of software is performed in the SCDS for the MFTF project

  10. CoNNeCT Baseband Processor Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Clifford K; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Goodpasture, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    A document describes the CoNNeCT Baseband Processor Module (BPM) based on an updated processor, memory technology, and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The BPM was developed from a requirement to provide sufficient computing power and memory storage to conduct experiments for a Software Defined Radio (SDR) to be implemented. The flight SDR uses the AT697 SPARC processor with on-chip data and instruction cache. The non-volatile memory has been increased from a 20-Mbit EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read only memory) to a 4-Gbit Flash, managed by the RTAX2000 Housekeeper, allowing more programs and FPGA bit-files to be stored. The volatile memory has been increased from a 20-Mbit SRAM (static random access memory) to a 1.25-Gbit SDRAM (synchronous dynamic random access memory), providing additional memory space for more complex operating systems and programs to be executed on the SPARC. All memory is EDAC (error detection and correction) protected, while the SPARC processor implements fault protection via TMR (triple modular redundancy) architecture. Further capability over prior BPM designs includes the addition of a second FPGA to implement features beyond the resources of a single FPGA. Both FPGAs are implemented with Xilinx Virtex-II and are interconnected by a 96-bit bus to facilitate data exchange. Dedicated 1.25- Gbit SDRAMs are wired to each Xilinx FPGA to accommodate high rate data buffering for SDR applications as well as independent SpaceWire interfaces. The RTAX2000 manages scrub and configuration of each Xilinx.

  11. Simplifying cochlear implant speech processor fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Willeboer, C.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional fittings of the speech processor of a cochlear implant (CI) rely to a large extent on the implant recipient's subjective responses. For each of the 22 intracochlear electrodes the recipient has to indicate the threshold level (T-level) and comfortable loudness level (C-level) while stimulated with pulse trains. Obtaining these behavioral measurements is a time-consuming task. It requires cooperation and considerable effort of the CI recipient. Especially in adults that have been ...

  12. Pausing and activating thread state upon pin assertion by external logic monitoring polling loop exit time condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Satterfield, David L; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2013-05-21

    A system and method for enhancing performance of a computer which includes a computer system including a data storage device. The computer system includes a program stored in the data storage device and steps of the program are executed by a processer. The processor processes instructions from the program. A wait state in the processor waits for receiving specified data. A thread in the processor has a pause state wherein the processor waits for specified data. A pin in the processor initiates a return to an active state from the pause state for the thread. A logic circuit is external to the processor, and the logic circuit is configured to detect a specified condition. The pin initiates a return to the active state of the thread when the specified condition is detected using the logic circuit.

  13. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  14. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 4. Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  15. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, D.P. [Analytic Power Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  16. Merged ozone profiles from four MIPAS processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeng, Alexandra; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Dudhia, Anu; Raspollini, Piera; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Sofieva, Viktoria; Froidevaux, Lucien; Walker, Kaley A.; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) was an infrared (IR) limb emission spectrometer on the Envisat platform. Currently, there are four MIPAS ozone data products, including the operational Level-2 ozone product processed at ESA, with the scientific prototype processor being operated at IFAC Florence, and three independent research products developed by the Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (ISAC-CNR)/University of Bologna, Oxford University, and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research/Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (KIT-IMK/IAA). Here we present a dataset of ozone vertical profiles obtained by merging ozone retrievals from four independent Level-2 MIPAS processors. We also discuss the advantages and the shortcomings of this merged product. As the four processors retrieve ozone in different parts of the spectra (microwindows), the source measurements can be considered as nearly independent with respect to measurement noise. Hence, the information content of the merged product is greater and the precision is better than those of any parent (source) dataset. The merging is performed on a profile per profile basis. Parent ozone profiles are weighted based on the corresponding error covariance matrices; the error correlations between different profile levels are taken into account. The intercorrelations between the processors' errors are evaluated statistically and are used in the merging. The height range of the merged product is 20-55 km, and error covariance matrices are provided as diagnostics. Validation of the merged dataset is performed by comparison with ozone profiles from ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). Even though the merging is not supposed to remove the biases of the parent datasets, around the ozone volume mixing ratio peak the merged product is found to have a smaller (up to 0.1 ppmv

  17. MULTI-CORE AND OPTICAL PROCESSOR RELATED APPLICATIONS RESEARCH AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Kerekes, Ryan A.; St Charles, Jesse Lee; Buckner, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    performs the matrix-vector multiplications, where the nominal matrix size is 256x256. The system clock is 125MHz. At each clock cycle, 128K multiply-and-add operations per second (OPS) are carried out, which yields a peak performance of 16 TeraOPS. IBM Cell Broadband Engine. The Cell processor is the extraordinary resulting product of 5 years of sustained, intensive R and D collaboration (involving over $400M investment) between IBM, Sony, and Toshiba. Its architecture comprises one multithreaded 64-bit PowerPC processor element (PPE) with VMX capabilities and two levels of globally coherent cache, and 8 synergistic processor elements (SPEs). Each SPE consists of a processor (SPU) designed for streaming workloads, local memory, and a globally coherent direct memory access (DMA) engine. Computations are performed in 128-bit wide single instruction multiple data streams (SIMD). An integrated high-bandwidth element interconnect bus (EIB) connects the nine processors and their ports to external memory and to system I/O. The Applied Software Engineering Research (ASER) Group at the ORNL is applying the Cell to a variety of text and image analysis applications. Research on Cell-equipped PlayStation3 (PS3) consoles has led to the development of a correlation-based image recognition engine that enables a single PS3 to process images at more than 10X the speed of state-of-the-art single-core processors. NVIDIA Graphics Processing Units. The ASER group is also employing the latest NVIDIA graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate clustering of thousands of text documents using recently developed clustering algorithms such as document flocking and affinity propagation.

  18. MULTI-CORE AND OPTICAL PROCESSOR RELATED APPLICATIONS RESEARCH AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barhen, Jacob [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; ST Charles, Jesse Lee [ORNL; Buckner, Mark A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    performs the matrix-vector multiplications, where the nominal matrix size is 256x256. The system clock is 125MHz. At each clock cycle, 128K multiply-and-add operations per second (OPS) are carried out, which yields a peak performance of 16 TeraOPS. IBM Cell Broadband Engine. The Cell processor is the extraordinary resulting product of 5 years of sustained, intensive R&D collaboration (involving over $400M investment) between IBM, Sony, and Toshiba. Its architecture comprises one multithreaded 64-bit PowerPC processor element (PPE) with VMX capabilities and two levels of globally coherent cache, and 8 synergistic processor elements (SPEs). Each SPE consists of a processor (SPU) designed for streaming workloads, local memory, and a globally coherent direct memory access (DMA) engine. Computations are performed in 128-bit wide single instruction multiple data streams (SIMD). An integrated high-bandwidth element interconnect bus (EIB) connects the nine processors and their ports to external memory and to system I/O. The Applied Software Engineering Research (ASER) Group at the ORNL is applying the Cell to a variety of text and image analysis applications. Research on Cell-equipped PlayStation3 (PS3) consoles has led to the development of a correlation-based image recognition engine that enables a single PS3 to process images at more than 10X the speed of state-of-the-art single-core processors. NVIDIA Graphics Processing Units. The ASER group is also employing the latest NVIDIA graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate clustering of thousands of text documents using recently developed clustering algorithms such as document flocking and affinity propagation.

  19. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  20. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs

  1. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Automated External Defibrillator Automated External Defibrillator Also known as What Is An automated external ... in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking ...

  2. Use of multiple pinhole external scintigraphy to monitor tablet disintegration in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, M.C.; Devous, M.D.; Simpson, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    External scintigraphy is useful for observing the disintegration of capsules and tablets in the gastro-intestinal tract of man and animals. The sites of disintegration, completeness of disintegration, effectiveness of coatings and rate of transition through the intestinal tract can be investigated by this technique. Gamma cameras are coupled to a digital data processor, video image processor and image magnifier, for increased resolution. Disintegration times in vitro and in vivo are compared. (U.K.)

  3. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  4. Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

  5. Guidance for Industry: Food Producers, Processors, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... สํานักงานอาหารและยาได้ตีพิมพ์เอกสารไว้สองฉบับประกอบคําแนะนําเรื่องความปลอดภัย ของอาหารชื่อ "Food Producers, Processors, and Transporters: Food ...

  6. Lattice gauge theory using parallel processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.; Chou, K.C.; Zichichi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The book's contents include: Lattice Gauge Theory Lectures: Introduction and Current Fermion Simulations; Monte Carlo Algorithms for Lattice Gauge Theory; Specialized Computers for Lattice Gauge Theory; Lattice Gauge Theory at Finite Temperature: A Monte Carlo Study; Computational Method - An Elementary Introduction to the Langevin Equation, Present Status of Numerical Quantum Chromodynamics; Random Lattice Field Theory; The GF11 Processor and Compiler; and The APE Computer and First Physics Results; Columbia Supercomputer Project: Parallel Supercomputer for Lattice QCD; Statistical and Systematic Errors in Numerical Simulations; Monte Carlo Simulation for LGT and Programming Techniques on the Columbia Supercomputer; Food for Thought: Five Lectures on Lattice Gauge Theory

  7. The design of a graphics processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, M.; Thorne, A.R.

    1975-12-01

    The design of a graphics processor is described which takes into account known and anticipated user requirements, the availability of cheap minicomputers, the state of integrated circuit technology, and the overall need to minimise cost for a given performance. The main user needs are the ability to display large high resolution pictures, and to dynamically change the user's view in real time by means of fast coordinate processing hardware. The transformations that can be applied to 2D or 3D coordinates either singly or in combination are: translation, scaling, mirror imaging, rotation, and the ability to map the transformation origin on to any point on the screen. (author)

  8. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 3. Coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Lee, D.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy; the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  9. A Real Time Digital Coincidence Processor for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, H.M.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    A Real Time Digital Coincidence Processor has been developed for use in the Positron Emission Tomograph (PET) ECAT scanners manufactured by Computer Technology and Imaging, Inc. (CTI). The primary functions of the Coincidence Processor include: receive from the BGO detector modules serial data, which includes timing information and detector identification; process the received data to form coincidence detector pairs; and present the coincidence pair data to a Real Time Sorter. The primary design emphasis was placed on the Coincidence Processor being able to process the detector data into coincidence pairs at real time rates. This paper briefly describes the Coincidence Processor and some of the considerations that went into its design

  10. Implementation of quantum maps by programmable quantum processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, Mark; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    A quantum processor is a device with a data register and a program register. The input to the program register determines the operation, which is a completely positive linear map, that will be performed on the state in the data register. We develop a mathematical description for these devices, and apply it to several different examples of processors. The problem of finding a processor that will be able to implement a given set of mappings is also examined, and it is shown that, while it is possible to design a finite processor to realize the phase-damping channel, it is not possible to do so for the amplitude-damping channel

  11. Special processor for in-core control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanov, M.N.; Duma, V.R.; Levin, G.L.; Mel'nikov, A.V.; Polikanin, A.V.; Filatov, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    The BUTs-20 special processor is discussed, designed to control the units of the in-core control equipment which are incorporated into the VECTOR communication channel, and to provide preliminary data processing prior to computer calculations. A set of instructions and flowsheet of the processor, organization of its communication with memories and other units of the system are given. The processor components: a control unit and an arithmetic logical unit are discussed. It is noted that the special processor permits more effective utilization of the computer time

  12. Reconfigurable Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, Miroslav N.

    2015-01-01

    Future NASA missions will depend on radiation-hardened, power-efficient processing systems-on-a-chip (SOCs) that consist of a range of processor cores custom tailored for space applications. Aries Design Automation, LLC, has developed a processing SOC that is optimized for software-defined radio (SDR) uses. The innovation implements the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) RazorII voltage management technique, a microarchitectural mechanism that allows processor cores to self-monitor, self-analyze, and selfheal after timing errors, regardless of their cause (e.g., radiation; chip aging; variations in the voltage, frequency, temperature, or manufacturing process). This highly automated SOC can also execute legacy PowerPC 750 binary code instruction set architecture (ISA), which is used in the flight-control computers of many previous NASA space missions. In developing this innovation, Aries Design Automation has made significant contributions to the fields of formal verification of complex pipelined microprocessors and Boolean satisfiability (SAT) and has developed highly efficient electronic design automation tools that hold promise for future developments.

  13. A 135-mW Fully Integrated Data Processor for Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Chung; Chang, Chia-Hua; Hung, Jui-Hung; Yang, Chia-Hsiang

    2017-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables high-throughput sequencing, in which short DNA fragments can be sequenced in a massively parallel fashion. However, the essential algorithm behind the succeeding NGS data analysis, DNA mapping, is still excessively time consuming. DNA mapping can be partitioned into two parts: suffix array (SA) sorting and backward searching. Dedicated hardware designs for the less-complex backward searching have been proposed, but feasible hardware for the most complicated part, SA sorting, has never been explored. Based on the memory-efficient sBWT algorithm, this work is the first integrated NGS data processor for the entire DNA mapping. The -ordered Ferragina and Manzini index used in the sBWT algorithm is leveraged to improve storage capacity and reduce hardware complexity. The proposed NGS data processor realizes the sBWT algorithm through bucket sorting, suffix grouping, and suffix sorting circuits. Key design parameters are analyzed to achieve the optimal performance with respect to hardware cost and execution time. Fabricated in 40-nm CMOS, the NGS data processor dissipates 135 mW at 200 MHz from a 0.9-V supply. With 1-GB external memory, the chip can analyze human DNA within 10 min. This work achieves 43 065 and 8 971 [3208 and 402 ] higher energy efficiency (throughput-to-area ratio) than the high-end CPU and GPU solutions, respectively.

  14. On-board hydrogen generation for transport applications: the HotSpot™ methanol processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Neil; Ellis, Suzanne R.; Frost, Jonathan C.; Golunski, Stanislaw E.; van Keulen, Arjan N. J.; Lindewald, Nicklas G.; Reinkingh, Jessica G.

    In the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure, development of effective on-board fuel processors is likely to be critical to the commercialisation of fuel-cell cars. The HotSpot™ reactor converts methanol, water and air in a single compact catalyst bed into a reformate containing mainly CO2 and hydrogen (and unreacted nitrogen). The process occurs by a combination of exothermic partial oxidation and endothermic steam reforming of methanol, to produce 750 l of hydrogen per hour from a 245-cm3 reactor. The relative contribution of each reaction can be tuned to match the system requirements at a given time. Scale-up is achieved by the parallel combination of the required number of individual HotSpot reactors, which are fed from a central manifold. Using this modular design, the start-up and transient characteristics of a large fuel-processor are identical to that of a single reactor. When vaporised liquid feed and air are introduced into cold reactors, 100% output is achieved in 50 s; subsequent changes in throughput result in instantaneous changes in output. Surplus energy within the fuel-cell powertrain can be directed to the manifold, where it can be used to vaporise the liquid feeds and so promote steam reforming, resulting in high system efficiency. The small amount of CO that is produced by the HotSpot reactions is attenuated to <10 ppm by a catalytic clean-up unit. The HotSpot concept and CO clean-up strategy are not limited to the processing of methanol, but are being applied to other organic fuels.

  15. Lipsi: Probably the Smallest Processor in the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2018-01-01

    , in dedicated hardware, usually as a state machine or a combination of communicating state machines, these functionalities may also be implemented by a small processor. In this paper, we present Lipsi, a very tiny processor to make it possible to implement classic finite state machine logic in software...

  16. Assessment of Processors and Marketers of Sheabutter ( Vitellaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the processing and marketing of Shea butter in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria to identify the socioeconomic characteristics of Shea butter processors and marketers, the average cost and return of Shea butter processors and marketers and the determinant variables of profitability ...

  17. ACP/R3000 processors in data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppe, J.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.

    1989-02-01

    We describe ACP/R3000 processor based data acquisition systems for high energy physics. This VME bus compatible processor board, with a computational power equivalent to 15 VAX 11/780s or better, contains 8 Mb of memory for event buffering and has a high speed secondary bus that allows data gathering from front end electronics. 2 refs., 3 figs

  18. Improving the performance of probabilistic programmable quantum processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, Mark; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of how one can improve performance of probabilistic programmable quantum processors. We generalize a simple Vidal-Masanes-Cirac processor that realizes U(1) rotations on a qubit with the phase of the rotation encoded in a state of the program register. We show how the probability of success of the probabilistic processor can be enhanced by using the processor in loops. In addition we show that the same strategy can be utilized for a probabilistic implementation of nonunitary transformations on qubits. In addition, we show that an arbitrary SU(2) transformation of qubits can be encoded in program state of a universal programmable probabilistic quantum processor. The probability of success of this processor can be enhanced by a systematic correction of errors via conditional loops. Finally, we show that all our results can be generalized also for qudits. In particular, we show how to implement SU(N) rotations of qudits via programmable quantum processor and how the performance of the processor can be enhanced when it is used in loops

  19. Message Passing on a Time-predictable Multicore Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable computing platforms. For a multicore processor to be time-predictable, communication between processor cores needs to be time-predictable as well. This paper presents a time-predictable message-passing library for such a platform. We show how to build up...

  20. Excavator-based processor operator productivity and cost analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operator impact on productivity and cost using similar processor machines was addressed in this case study. The study had two objectives: (1) determine the extent of operator productivity variation between six processor operators in a harvesting operation; and (2) determine potential cost implications associated with ...

  1. Biomass is beginning to threaten the wood-processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this issue an exploitation of biomass in Slovak Republic is analysed. Some new projects of constructing of the stoke-holds for biomass processing are published. The grants for biomass are ascending the prices of wood raw material, which is thus becoming less accessible for the wood-processors. An excessive wood export threatens the domestic processors

  2. Digital image processing software system using an array processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, R.J.; Portnoff, M.R.; Journeay, C.H.; Twogood, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile array processor-based system for general-purpose image processing was developed. At the heart of this system is an extensive, flexible software package that incorporates the array processor for effective interactive image processing. The software system is described in detail, and its application to a diverse set of applications at LLNL is briefly discussed. 4 figures, 1 table

  3. Bank switched memory interface for an image processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, M.; Downward, J.

    1980-09-01

    A commercially available image processor is interfaced to a PDP-11/45 through an 8K window of memory addresses. When the image processor was not in use it was desired to be able to use the 8K address space as real memory. The standard method of accomplishing this would have been to use UNIBUS switches to switch in either the physical 8K bank of memory or the image processor memory. This method has the disadvantage of being rather expensive. As a simple alternative, a device was built to selectively enable or disable either an 8K bank of memory or the image processor memory. To enable the image processor under program control, GEN is contracted in size, the memory is disabled, a device partition for the image processor is created above GEN, and the image processor memory is enabled. The process is reversed to restore memory to GEN. The hardware to enable/disable the image and computer memories is controlled using spare bits from a DR-11K output register. The image processor and physical memory can be switched in or out on line with no adverse affects on the system's operation

  4. Temporal Partitioning and Multi-Processor Scheduling for Reconfigurable Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popp, Andreas; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter

    This poster presentation outlines a proposed framework for handling mapping of signal processing applications to heterogeneous reconfigurable architectures. The methodology consists of an extension to traditional multi-processor scheduling by creating a separate HW track for generation of groups...... of tasks that are handled similarly to SW processes in a traditional multi-processor scheduling context....

  5. Evaluation of the Intel Sandy Bridge-EP server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by CERN openlab when comparing an 8-core “Sandy Bridge-EP” processor with Intel’s previous microarchitecture, the “Westmere-EP”. The Intel marketing names for these processors are “Xeon E5-2600 processor series” and “Xeon 5600 processor series”, respectively. Both processors are produced in a 32nm process, and both platforms are dual-socket servers. Multiple benchmarks were used to get a good understanding of the performance of the new processor. We used both industry-standard benchmarks, such as SPEC2006, and specific High Energy Physics benchmarks, representing both simulation of physics detectors and data analysis of physics events. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following features: processor frequency, overclocking via Turbo mode, the number of physical cores in use, the use of logical cores ...

  6. Recursive Matrix Inverse Update On An Optical Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Baranoski, Edward J.

    1988-02-01

    A high accuracy optical linear algebraic processor (OLAP) using the digital multiplication by analog convolution (DMAC) algorithm is described for use in an efficient matrix inverse update algorithm with speed and accuracy advantages. The solution of the parameters in the algorithm are addressed and the advantages of optical over digital linear algebraic processors are advanced.

  7. Digital Signal Processor System for AC Power Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available DSP (Digital Signal Processor is the bestsolution for motor control systems to make possible thedevelopment of advanced motor drive systems. The motorcontrol processor calculates the required motor windingvoltage magnitude and frequency to operate the motor atthe desired speed. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulationcircuit controls the on and off duty cycle of the powerinverter switches to vary the magnitude of the motorvoltages.

  8. Automated Sequence Processor: Something Old, Something New

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffert, Barbara; Schrock, Mitchell; Fisher, Forest; Himes, Terry

    2012-01-01

    High productivity required for operations teams to meet schedules Risk must be minimized. Scripting used to automate processes. Scripts perform essential operations functions. Automated Sequence Processor (ASP) was a grass-roots task built to automate the command uplink process System engineering task for ASP revitalization organized. ASP is a set of approximately 200 scripts written in Perl, C Shell, AWK and other scripting languages.. ASP processes/checks/packages non-interactive commands automatically.. Non-interactive commands are guaranteed to be safe and have been checked by hardware or software simulators.. ASP checks that commands are non-interactive.. ASP processes the commands through a command. simulator and then packages them if there are no errors.. ASP must be active 24 hours/day, 7 days/week..

  9. Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2016-05-05

    The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.

  10. Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471

  11. Aspects of computation on asynchronous parallel processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing availability of asynchronous parallel processors has provided opportunities for original and useful work in scientific computing. However, the field of parallel computing is still in a highly volatile state, and researchers display a wide range of opinion about many fundamental questions such as models of parallelism, approaches for detecting and analyzing parallelism of algorithms, and tools that allow software developers and users to make effective use of diverse forms of complex hardware. This volume collects the work of researchers specializing in different aspects of parallel computing, who met to discuss the framework and the mechanics of numerical computing. The far-reaching impact of high-performance asynchronous systems is reflected in the wide variety of topics, which include scientific applications (e.g. linear algebra, lattice gauge simulation, ordinary and partial differential equations), models of parallelism, parallel language features, task scheduling, automatic parallelization techniques, tools for algorithm development in parallel environments, and system design issues

  12. Face feature processor on mobile service robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho Seok; Park, Myoung Soo; Na, Jin Hee; Choi, Jin Young

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, many mobile service robots have been developed. These robots are different from industrial robots. Service robots were confronted to unexpected changes in the human environment. So many capabilities were needed to service mobile robot, for example, the capability to recognize people's face and voice, the capability to understand people's conversation, and the capability to express the robot's thinking etc. This research considered face detection, face tracking and face recognition from continuous camera image. For face detection module, it used CBCH algorithm using openCV library from Intel Corporation. For face tracking module, it used the fuzzy controller to control the pan-tilt camera movement smoothly with face detection result. A PCA-FX, which adds class information to PCA, was used for face recognition module. These three procedures were called face feature processor, which were implemented on mobile service robot OMR to verify.

  13. Processor-in-memory-and-storage architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedictis, Erik

    2018-01-02

    A method and apparatus for performing reliable general-purpose computing. Each sub-core of a plurality of sub-cores of a processor core processes a same instruction at a same time. A code analyzer receives a plurality of residues that represents a code word corresponding to the same instruction and an indication of whether the code word is a memory address code or a data code from the plurality of sub-cores. The code analyzer determines whether the plurality of residues are consistent or inconsistent. The code analyzer and the plurality of sub-cores perform a set of operations based on whether the code word is a memory address code or a data code and a determination of whether the plurality of residues are consistent or inconsistent.

  14. Multiple Embedded Processors for Fault-Tolerant Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Gary; Watson, Robert; Katanyoutanant, Sunant; Burke, Gary; Wang, Mandy

    2005-01-01

    A fault-tolerant computer architecture has been conceived in an effort to reduce vulnerability to single-event upsets (spurious bit flips caused by impingement of energetic ionizing particles or photons). As in some prior fault-tolerant architectures, the redundancy needed for fault tolerance is obtained by use of multiple processors in one computer. Unlike prior architectures, the multiple processors are embedded in a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). What makes this new approach practical is the recent commercial availability of FPGAs that are capable of having multiple embedded processors. A working prototype (see figure) consists of two embedded IBM PowerPC 405 processor cores and a comparator built on a Xilinx Virtex-II Pro FPGA. This relatively simple instantiation of the architecture implements an error-detection scheme. A planned future version, incorporating four processors and two comparators, would correct some errors in addition to detecting them.

  15. Acoustooptic linear algebra processors - Architectures, algorithms, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.

    1984-01-01

    Architectures, algorithms, and applications for systolic processors are described with attention to the realization of parallel algorithms on various optical systolic array processors. Systolic processors for matrices with special structure and matrices of general structure, and the realization of matrix-vector, matrix-matrix, and triple-matrix products and such architectures are described. Parallel algorithms for direct and indirect solutions to systems of linear algebraic equations and their implementation on optical systolic processors are detailed with attention to the pipelining and flow of data and operations. Parallel algorithms and their optical realization for LU and QR matrix decomposition are specifically detailed. These represent the fundamental operations necessary in the implementation of least squares, eigenvalue, and SVD solutions. Specific applications (e.g., the solution of partial differential equations, adaptive noise cancellation, and optimal control) are described to typify the use of matrix processors in modern advanced signal processing.

  16. Simulation of a processor switching circuit with APLSV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilcher, H.

    1979-01-01

    The report describes the simulation of a processor switching circuit with APL. Furthermore an APL function is represented to simulate a processor in an assembly like language. Both together serve as a tool for studying processor properties. By means of the programming function it is also possible to program other simulated processors. The processor is to be used in the processing of data in real time analysis that occur in high energy physics experiments. The data are already offered to the computer in digitalized form. A typical data rate is at 10 KB/ sec. The data are structured in blocks. The particular blocks are 1 KB wide and are independent from each other. Aprocessor has to decide, whether the block data belong to an event that is part of the backround noise and can therefore be forgotten, or whether the data should be saved for a later evaluation. (orig./WB) [de

  17. Experimental testing of the noise-canceling processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael D; Baer, Ralph N; Simpson, Harry J

    2011-09-01

    Signal-processing techniques for localizing an acoustic source buried in noise are tested in a tank experiment. Noise is generated using a discrete source, a bubble generator, and a sprinkler. The experiment has essential elements of a realistic scenario in matched-field processing, including complex source and noise time series in a waveguide with water, sediment, and multipath propagation. The noise-canceling processor is found to outperform the Bartlett processor and provide the correct source range for signal-to-noise ratios below -10 dB. The multivalued Bartlett processor is found to outperform the Bartlett processor but not the noise-canceling processor. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  18. APRON: A Cellular Processor Array Simulation and Hardware Design Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. W. Barr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a software environment for the efficient simulation of cellular processor arrays (CPAs. This software (APRON is used to explore algorithms that are designed for massively parallel fine-grained processor arrays, topographic multilayer neural networks, vision chips with SIMD processor arrays, and related architectures. The software uses a highly optimised core combined with a flexible compiler to provide the user with tools for the design of new processor array hardware architectures and the emulation of existing devices. We present performance benchmarks for the software processor array implemented on standard commodity microprocessors. APRON can be configured to use additional processing hardware if necessary and can be used as a complete graphical user interface and development environment for new or existing CPA systems, allowing more users to develop algorithms for CPA systems.

  19. Static and dynamic modeling of a diesel fed fuel cell power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrenko, D.; Hissel, D.; Pera, M.C. [FCLAB, Femto-ST, UMR 6174, University of Franche-Comte, Techn' hom, Rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort (France); Lecoq, S.; Herail, E. [N-GHY, Site Industriel Saint Antoine - ZI Montplaisir, 51 rue Isaac Newton, 81000 Albi (France)

    2010-02-15

    Fuel cell supplied auxiliary power units could ease the development of fuel cell systems in transportation application if they are fed by conventional hydrocarbons like diesel. Then a fuel processor has to be used to convert the hydrocarbon in a hydrogen rich gas mixture with a low rate of contaminant. The temperatures of the fuel processor modules and the mass flows have to be controlled. The energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is a causal, graphic modeling tool for complex multi-domain systems that can be used for the design of the control structure through the inversion of model. In this work EMR is used to model a diesel supplied low temperature fuel cell unit including the fuel processor, the fuel cell stack (HTPEM) as well as the supply system of the mass flows. The presented fuel processor and HTPEM models are validated against experimental results. The structure of the temperature and mass flow controls in the fuel processor and supply system are derived. Both the model and the control are implemented in Matlab/Simulink trademark and validated. (author)

  20. A Fully Automatic Burnt Area Mapping Processor Based on AVHRR Imagery—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Plank

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The German Aerospace Center’s (DLR TIMELINE project (“Time Series Processing of Medium Resolution Earth Observation Data Assessing Long-Term Dynamics in our Natural Environment” aims to develop an operational processing and data management environment to process 30 years of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA—Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR raw data into Level (L 1b, L2, and L3 products. This article presents the current status of the fully automated L3 burnt area mapping processor, which is based on multi-temporal datasets. The advantages of the proposed approach are (I the combined use of different indices to improve the classification result, (II the provision of a fully automated processor, (III the generation and usage of an up-to-date cloud-free pre-fire dataset, (IV classification with adaptive thresholding, and (V the assignment of five different probability levels to the burnt areas detected. The results of the AVHRR data-based burn scar mapping processor were validated with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS burnt area product MCD64 at four different European study sites. In addition, the accuracy of the AVHRR-based classification and that of the MCD64 itself were assessed by means of Landsat imagery.

  1. Launching applications on compute and service processors running under different operating systems in scalable network of processor boards with routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, James L [Albuquerque, NM; Camp, William J [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-03-17

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure also permits easy physical scalability of the computing apparatus. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  2. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  3. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  4. First-level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.; Talaga, R.L.; Burr, G.W.; Laird, R.J.; Smith, W.; Lackey, J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the first-level trigger processor for the Zeus calorimeter is discussed. This processor accepts data from the 13,000 photomultipliers of the calorimeter, which is topologically divided into 16 regions, and after regional preprocessing performs logical and numerical operations that cross regional boundaries. Because the crossing period at the HERA collider is 96 ns, it is necessary that first-level trigger decisions be made in pipelined hardware. One microsecond is allowed for the processor to perform the required logical and numerical operations, during which time the data from ten crossings would be resident in the processor while being clocked through the pipelined hardware. The circuitry is implemented in 100K emitter-coupled logic (ECL), advanced CMOS discrete devices and programmable gate arrays, and operates in a VME environment. All tables and registers are written/read from VME, and all diagnostic codes are executed from VME. Preprocessed data flows into the processor at a rate of 5.2 Gbyte/s, and processed data flows from the processor to the global first-level trigger at a rate of 70 Mbyte/s. The system allows for subsets of the logic to be configured by software and for various important variables to be histogrammed as they flow through the processor

  5. A dedicated line-processor as used at the SHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, A.V.; Hatley, R.W.; Price, D.R.; Rankin, P.

    1985-01-01

    A hardwired trigger processor was used at the SLAC Hybrid Facility to find evidence for charged tracks originating from the fiducial volume of a 40'' rapidcycling bubble chamber. Straight-line projections of these tracks in the plane perpendicular to the applied magnetic field were searched for using data from three sets of proportional wire chambers (PWC). This information was made directly available to the processor by means of a special digitizing card. The results memory of the processor simulated read-only memory in a 168/E processor and was accessible by it. The 168/E controlled the issuing of a trigger command to the bubble chamber flash tubes. The same design of digitizer card used by the line processor was incorporated into the 168/E, again as read only memory, which allowed it access to the raw data for continual monitoring of trigger integrity. The design logic of the trigger processor was verified by running real PWC data through a FORTRAN simulation of the hardware. This enabled the debugging to become highly automated since a step by step, computer controlled comparison of processor registers to simulation predictions could be made

  6. Estimation of Externalities for Juragua Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, H. R.; Carbonell, L. T.

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of externalities allows taking into account environmental impacts due to any activity in total costs calculation. In the present work, the external costs of electricity generation from nuclear energy were calculated considering three scenarios: normal operation (routine releases), accident situation and solid waste disposal. A comparison between these results and those obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuels was made. IAEA proposals of Simplified methodologies were used for externality calculations. The Juragua project was selected as a study case; it is based in two energetic blocks both PWR, VVER 440/318 type with a plant capacity of 417 MWe each. Four impact ways were considered for all scenarios: (1) Inhalation of radionuclides in the air, (2) External irradiation from radionuclides immersed in clouds, (3) External irradiation from deposited radionuclides and (4) Ingestion of radionuclides in agricultural products. Besides, two impact categories (local and regional) for all scenarios were considered. The total cost of externalities was 0.01425 c/kWh, value smaller than the one obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuel (0.256 c/kWh). For the normal operation scenario, the external cost calculated was 0.00112 c/kWh, for accident situation 0.01103 c/kWh, and for the solid wastes management scenario 0.0021 c/kWh. The high value obtained for solid waste disposal scenario is due to repository placement features. (author)

  7. Ethernet-Enabled Power and Communication Module for Embedded Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The power and communications module is a printed circuit board (PCB) that has the capability of providing power to an embedded processor and converting Ethernet packets into serial data to transfer to the processor. The purpose of the new design is to address the shortcomings of previous designs, including limited bandwidth and program memory, lack of control over packet processing, and lack of support for timing synchronization. The new design of the module creates a robust serial-to-Ethernet conversion that is powered using the existing Ethernet cable. This innovation has a small form factor that allows it to power processors and transducers with minimal space requirements.

  8. Interfacing a processor core in FPGA to an audio system

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos, José Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    The thesis project consists on developing an interface for a Nios II processor integrated in a board of Altera (UP3- 2C35F672C6 Cyclone II). The main goal is show how the Nios II processor can interact with the other components of the board.The Quartus II software has been used to create to vhdl code of the interfaces, compile it and download it into the board. The Nios II IDE tool is used to build the C/C++ files and download them into the processor. It has been prepared an application for t...

  9. Median and Morphological Specialized Processors for a Real-Time Image Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Wiatr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the considerations on selecting a multiprocessor MISD architecture for fast implementation of the vision image processing. Using the author′s earlier experience with real-time systems, implementing of specialized hardware processors based on the programmable FPGA systems has been proposed in the pipeline architecture. In particular, the following processors are presented: median filter and morphological processor. The structure of a universal reconfigurable processor developed has been proposed as well. Experimental results are presented as delays on LCA level implementation for median filter, morphological processor, convolution processor, look-up-table processor, logic processor and histogram processor. These times compare with delays in general purpose processor and DSP processor.

  10. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  11. Multipurpose silicon photonics signal processor core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Crudgington, Lee; Thomson, David J; Khokhar, Ali Z; Li, Ke; Cao, Wei; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Capmany, José

    2017-09-21

    Integrated photonics changes the scaling laws of information and communication systems offering architectural choices that combine photonics with electronics to optimize performance, power, footprint, and cost. Application-specific photonic integrated circuits, where particular circuits/chips are designed to optimally perform particular functionalities, require a considerable number of design and fabrication iterations leading to long development times. A different approach inspired by electronic Field Programmable Gate Arrays is the programmable photonic processor, where a common hardware implemented by a two-dimensional photonic waveguide mesh realizes different functionalities through programming. Here, we report the demonstration of such reconfigurable waveguide mesh in silicon. We demonstrate over 20 different functionalities with a simple seven hexagonal cell structure, which can be applied to different fields including communications, chemical and biomedical sensing, signal processing, multiprocessor networks, and quantum information systems. Our work is an important step toward this paradigm.Integrated optical circuits today are typically designed for a few special functionalities and require complex design and development procedures. Here, the authors demonstrate a reconfigurable but simple silicon waveguide mesh with different functionalities.

  12. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  13. Element Load Data Processor (ELDAP) Users Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John K., Jr.; Ramsey, John K., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    Often, the shear and tensile forces and moments are extracted from finite element analyses to be used in off-line calculations for evaluating the integrity of structural connections involving bolts, rivets, and welds. Usually the maximum forces and moments are desired for use in the calculations. In situations where there are numerous structural connections of interest for numerous load cases, the effort in finding the true maximum force and/or moment combinations among all fasteners and welds and load cases becomes difficult. The Element Load Data Processor (ELDAP) software described herein makes this effort manageable. This software eliminates the possibility of overlooking the worst-case forces and moments that could result in erroneous positive margins of safety and/or selecting inconsistent combinations of forces and moments resulting in false negative margins of safety. In addition to forces and moments, any scalar quantity output in a PATRAN report file may be evaluated with this software. This software was originally written to fill an urgent need during the structural analysis of the Ares I-X Interstage segment. As such, this software was coded in a straightforward manner with no effort made to optimize or minimize code or to develop a graphical user interface.

  14. Project Report: Automatic Sequence Processor Software Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) element of Multi-Mission Ground System and Services (MGSS) provides space missions with multi-purpose software to plan spacecraft activities, sequence spacecraft commands, and then integrate these products and execute them on spacecraft. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently is flying many missions. The processes for building, integrating, and testing the multi-mission uplink software need to be improved to meet the needs of the missions and the operations teams that command the spacecraft. The Multi-Mission Sequencing Team is responsible for collecting and processing the observations, experiments and engineering activities that are to be performed on a selected spacecraft. The collection of these activities is called a sequence and ultimately a sequence becomes a sequence of spacecraft commands. The operations teams check the sequence to make sure that no constraints are violated. The workflow process involves sending a program start command, which activates the Automatic Sequence Processor (ASP). The ASP is currently a file-based system that is comprised of scripts written in perl, c-shell and awk. Once this start process is complete, the system checks for errors and aborts if there are any; otherwise the system converts the commands to binary, and then sends the resultant information to be radiated to the spacecraft.

  15. The ATLAS fast tracker processor design

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; Albicocco, Pietro; Alison, John; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Anderson, James; Andari, Nansi; Andreani, Alessandro; Andreazza, Attilio; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Asbah, Needa; Atkinson, Markus; Baines, J; Barberio, Elisabetta; Beccherle, Roberto; Beretta, Matteo; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Blair, R E; Bogdan, Mircea; Boveia, Antonio; Britzger, Daniel; Bryant, Partick; Burghgrave, Blake; Calderini, Giovanni; Camplani, Alessandra; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Philip; Cheng, Yangyang; Citraro, Saverio; Citterio, Mauro; Crescioli, Francesco; Dawe, Noel; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Drake, G; Gadomski, Szymon; Gatta, Mauro; Gentsos, Christos; Giannetti, Paola; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gramling, Johanna; Howarth, James William; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ilic, Nikolina; Jiang, Zihao; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kasten, Michael; Kawaguchi, Yoshimasa; Kim, Young Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kolb, Mathis; Kordas, K; Krizka, Karol; Kubota, T; Lanza, Agostino; Li, Ho Ling; Liberali, Valentino; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liu, Lulu; Love, Jeremy; Luciano, Pierluigi; Luongo, Carmela; Magalotti, Daniel; Maznas, Ioannis; Meroni, Chiara; Mitani, Takashi; Nasimi, Hikmat; Negri, Andrea; Neroutsos, Panos; Neubauer, Mark; Nikolaidis, Spiridon; Okumura, Y; Pandini, Carlo; Petridou, Chariclia; Piendibene, Marco; Proudfoot, James; Rados, Petar Kevin; Roda, Chiara; Rossi, Enrico; Sakurai, Yuki; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Saxon, James; Schmitt, Stefan; Schoening, Andre; Shochet, Mel; Shoijaii, Jafar; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Sotiropoulou, Calliope-Louisa; Stabile, Alberto; Swiatlowski, Maximilian J; Tang, Fukun; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Testa, Marianna; Tompkins, Lauren; Vercesi, V; Wang, Rui; Watari, Ryutaro; Zhang, Jianhong; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zou, Rui; Bertolucci, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The extended use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC is crucial for the trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) system to fulfill its task. Precise and fast tracking is important to identify specific decay products of the Higgs boson or new phenomena, as well as to distinguish the contributions coming from the many collisions that occur at every bunch crossing. However, track reconstruction is among the most demanding tasks performed by the TDAQ computing farm; in fact, complete reconstruction at full Level-1 trigger accept rate (100 kHz) is not possible. In order to overcome this limitation, the ATLAS experiment is planning the installation of a dedicated processor, the Fast Tracker (FTK), which is aimed at achieving this goal. The FTK is a pipeline of high performance electronics, based on custom and commercial devices, which is expected to reconstruct, with high resolution, the trajectories of charged-particle tracks with a transverse momentum above 1 GeV, using the ATLAS inner tracker info...

  16. Optical symbolic processor for expert system execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Aloke

    1987-11-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a concept for an optical computer architecture for symbolic computing by defining a computation model of a high level language, examining the possible devices for the ultimate construction of a processor, and by defining required optical operations. This quarter we investigated the implementation alternatives for an optical shuffle exchange network (SEN). Work in previous quarter had led to the conclusion that the SEN was most appropriate optical interconnection network topology for the symbolic processing architecture (SPARO). A more detailed analysis was therefore conducted to examine implementation possibilities. It was determined that while the shuffle connection of the SEN was very feasible in optics using passive devices, a full-scale exchange switch which handles conflict resolution among competing messages is much more difficult. More emphasis was therefore given to the exchange switch design. The functionalities required for the exchange switch and its controls were analyzed. These functionalities were then assessed for optical implementation. It is clear that even the basic exchange switch, that is, an exchange without the controls for conflict resolution, delivery, etc..., is quite a difficult problem in optics. We have proposed a number of optical techniques that appear to be good candidates for realizing the basic exchange switch. A reasonable approach appears to be to evaluate these techniques.

  17. KIDNEY DISEASE VISUALIZED ON DIGITAL PROCESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiological methods of examination in diagnosis of pathological conditions and diseases of urinary system are numerous and various, reliable and dominant. They became indispensable and without competition, among other diagnostic methods, using the digital techniques. The aim of this paper was to present the radiological image of pathological conditions and diseases of urinary system diagnosed by intravenous urography using digital techniques and to show the diagnostic possibilities and importance of digital techniques in diagnostic radiology. The paper analyzes pathological conditions and diseases of the kidney in a series of 3100 intravenous urographies (IVU performed at the Radiology Center, Clinical Center Niš, during the period 2009-2012. Radiographic examination was performed on X-ray device with a TV chain Schimadzu. IVU was performed according to the standard protocol. Contrast media: Ultravist 370®. X-ray images were digitally processed in Agfa CR-30 digital processor. The results are shown illustratively, by urographic images - anomalies, calculosis, hydronephrosis, tumors and other pathological conditions and diseases of the urinary system. This paper presents numerous and various pathological conditions and diseases of the urinary system. Among the valuable radiological examination methods IVU has maintained a leading position. The usage of digital techniques made IVU faster, easy and efficient method of examination, while the obtained urograms are of satisfactory quality and adequate contrast visualization of the urinary system.

  18. Slime mould processors, logic gates and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, A

    2015-07-28

    A heterotic, or hybrid, computation implies that two or more substrates of different physical nature are merged into a single device with indistinguishable parts. These hybrid devices then undertake coherent acts on programmable and sensible processing of information. We study the potential of heterotic computers using slime mould acting under the guidance of chemical, mechanical and optical stimuli. Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a gigantic single cell visible to the unaided eye. The cell shows a rich spectrum of behavioural morphological patterns in response to changing environmental conditions. Given data represented by chemical or physical stimuli, we can employ and modify the behaviour of the slime mould to make it solve a range of computing and sensing tasks. We overview results of laboratory experimental studies on prototyping of the slime mould morphological processors for approximation of Voronoi diagrams, planar shapes and solving mazes, and discuss logic gates implemented via collision of active growing zones and tactile responses of P. polycephalum. We also overview a range of electronic components--memristor, chemical, tactile and colour sensors-made of the slime mould. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific Computing Kernels on the Cell Processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Samuel W.; Shalf, John; Oliker, Leonid; Kamil, Shoaib; Husbands, Parry; Yelick, Katherine

    2007-04-04

    The slowing pace of commodity microprocessor performance improvements combined with ever-increasing chip power demands has become of utmost concern to computational scientists. As a result, the high performance computing community is examining alternative architectures that address the limitations of modern cache-based designs. In this work, we examine the potential of using the recently-released STI Cell processor as a building block for future high-end computing systems. Our work contains several novel contributions. First, we introduce a performance model for Cell and apply it to several key scientific computing kernels: dense matrix multiply, sparse matrix vector multiply, stencil computations, and 1D/2D FFTs. The difficulty of programming Cell, which requires assembly level intrinsics for the best performance, makes this model useful as an initial step in algorithm design and evaluation. Next, we validate the accuracy of our model by comparing results against published hardware results, as well as our own implementations on a 3.2GHz Cell blade. Additionally, we compare Cell performance to benchmarks run on leading superscalar (AMD Opteron), VLIW (Intel Itanium2), and vector (Cray X1E) architectures. Our work also explores several different mappings of the kernels and demonstrates a simple and effective programming model for Cell's unique architecture. Finally, we propose modest microarchitectural modifications that could significantly increase the efficiency of double-precision calculations. Overall results demonstrate the tremendous potential of the Cell architecture for scientific computations in terms of both raw performance and power efficiency.

  20. A Methodology Proposal to Calculate the Externalities of Liquid Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalities associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalities from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalities are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalities is also presented. The report reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExternE and ExternE-transport projects related the externalities of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs.

  1. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  2. High-Performance Linear Algebra Processor using FPGA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, J

    2004-01-01

    With recent advances in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) technology it is now feasible to use these devices to build special purpose processors for floating point intensive applications that arise in scientific computing...

  3. Complexity of scheduling multiprocessor tasks with prespecified processor allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.; Veltman, Bart

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of scheduling multiprocessor tasks with prespecified processor allocations. We consider two criteria: minimizing schedule length and minimizing the sum of the task completion times. In addition, we investigate the complexity of problems when precedence

  4. A Shared Memory Module for Asynchronous Arrays of Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeuwsen MichaelJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A shared memory module connecting multiple independently clocked processors is presented. The memory module itself is independently clocked, supports hardware address generation, mutual exclusion, and multiple addressing modes. The architecture supports independent address generation and data generation/consumption by different processors which increases efficiency and simplifies programming for many embedded and DSP tasks. Simultaneous access by different processors is arbitrated using a least-recently-serviced priority scheme. Simulations show high throughputs over a variety of memory loads. A standard cell implementation shares an 8 K-word SRAM among four processors, and can support a 64 K-word SRAM with no additional changes. It cycles at 555 MHz and occupies 1.2 mm2 in 0.18 μm CMOS.

  5. Fault Mitigation Schemes for Future Spaceflight Multicore Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Rafi; Gostelow, Kim P.; Lai, John; Reder, Leonard; Alexander, James; Clement, Brad

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to achieve fail-operational and graceful-degradation behavior in realistic flight mission scenarios, of multicore processors such as Mars Entry-Descent-Landing (EDL) and Primitive Body proximity operations.

  6. Nanofilm processors controlled by electrolyte flows of femtoliter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Marius; Knoll, Meinhard

    2013-06-25

    Nanofilm processors are a new kind of smart system based on the lateral self-oxidation of nanoscale aluminum films. The time dependency of these devices is controlled by electrolyte flows of femtoliter volume which can be modulated by different mechanisms. In this paper, we provide a deeper investigation of the electrolyte transport in the nanofilm processor and the different possibilities to control the aluminum oxidation velocity. A method for the in situ investigation of the acidic characteristic of the channel electrolyte is demonstrated. The obtained results form a set of instruments for constructing more complex electrolyte circuits and should allow the creation of nanofilm processors of arbitrary time dependence. Because the nanofilm processor combines different functional blocks and can operate in a self-sustained manner, without requiring batteries, this smart system may serve as a basis for many potential applications.

  7. Reconfigurable VLIW Processor for Software Defined Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will design and formally verify a VLIW processor that is radiation-hardened, and where the VLIW instructions consist of predicated RISC instructions from the...

  8. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  9. Reconfigurable VLIW Processor for Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will design and formally verify a VLIW processor that is radiation-hardened, and where the VLIW instructions consist of predicated RISC instructions from the...

  10. 2009 Survey of Gulf of Mexico Dockside Seafood Processors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey gathered and analyze economic data from seafood processors throughout the states in the Gulf region. The survey sought to collect financial variables...

  11. Particle simulation on a distributed memory highly parallel processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ikesaka, Morio

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes parallel molecular dynamics simulation of atoms governed by local force interaction. The space in the model is divided into cubic subspaces and mapped to the processor array of the CAP-256, a distributed memory, highly parallel processor developed at Fujitsu Labs. We developed a new technique to avoid redundant calculation of forces between atoms in different processors. Experiments showed the communication overhead was less than 5%, and the idle time due to load imbalance was less than 11% for two model problems which contain 11,532 and 46,128 argon atoms. From the software simulation, the CAP-II which is under development is estimated to be about 45 times faster than CAP-256 and will be able to run the same problem about 40 times faster than Fujitsu's M-380 mainframe when 256 processors are used. (author)

  12. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  14. Joint Experiment on Scalable Parallel Processors (JESPP) Parallel Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    thousand entities to a WAN including multiple Beowulf clusters and hundreds of processors simulating hundreds of thousands of entities. An...support larger simulations on Beowulf clusters ISI implemented a distributed logger. Data is logged locally on each processor running a simulator...development and execution effort (Lucas, 2003). Common SPPs include the IBM SP, SGI Origin, Cray T3E, and the “ Beowulf ” Linux clusters. Traditionally

  15. GA103: A microprogrammable processor for online filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzas, A.; Danon, G.; Bouquet, B.

    1981-01-01

    GA 103 is a 16 bit microprogrammable processor which emulates the PDP 11 instruction set. It is based on the Am 2900 slices. It allows user-implemented microinstructions and addition of hardwired processors. It will perform on-line filtering tasks in the NA 14 experiment at CERN, based on the reconstruction of transverse momentum of photons detected in a lead glass calorimeter. (orig.)

  16. On the Distribution of Control in Asynchronous Processor Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Rebello, Vinod

    1997-01-01

    The effective performance of computer systems is to a large measure determined by the synergy between the processor architecture, the instruction set and the compiler. In the past, the sequencing of information within processor architectures has normally been synchronous: controlled centrally by a clock. However, this global signal could possibly limit the future gains in performance that can potentially be achieved through improvements in implementation technology. T...

  17. Fast parallel computation of polynomials using few processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiant, Leslie; Skyum, Sven

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any multivariate polynomial that can be computed sequentially in C steps and has degree d can be computed in parallel in 0((log d) (log C + log d)) steps using only (Cd)0(1) processors.......It is shown that any multivariate polynomial that can be computed sequentially in C steps and has degree d can be computed in parallel in 0((log d) (log C + log d)) steps using only (Cd)0(1) processors....

  18. Fast Parallel Computation of Polynomials Using Few Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiant, Leslie G.; Skyum, Sven; Berkowitz, S.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that any multivariate polynomial of degree $d$ that can be computed sequentially in $C$ steps can be computed in parallel in $O((\\log d)(\\log C + \\log d))$ steps using only $(Cd)^{O(1)} $ processors.......It is shown that any multivariate polynomial of degree $d$ that can be computed sequentially in $C$ steps can be computed in parallel in $O((\\log d)(\\log C + \\log d))$ steps using only $(Cd)^{O(1)} $ processors....

  19. UA1 upgrade first-level calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Charlton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.; Landon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new first-level trigger processor has been built for the UA1 experiment on the Cern SppS Collider. The processor exploits the fine granularity of the new UA1 uranium-TMP calorimeter to improve the selectivity of the trigger. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electromagnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented. (orig.)

  20. High-Speed General Purpose Genetic Algorithm Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini Alinodehi, Seyed Pourya; Moshfe, Sajjad; Saber Zaeimian, Masoumeh; Khoei, Abdollah; Hadidi, Khairollah

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ultrafast steady-state genetic algorithm processor (GAP) is presented. Due to the heavy computational load of genetic algorithms (GAs), they usually take a long time to find optimum solutions. Hardware implementation is a significant approach to overcome the problem by speeding up the GAs procedure. Hence, we designed a digital CMOS implementation of GA in [Formula: see text] process. The proposed processor is not bounded to a specific application. Indeed, it is a general-purpose processor, which is capable of performing optimization in any possible application. Utilizing speed-boosting techniques, such as pipeline scheme, parallel coarse-grained processing, parallel fitness computation, parallel selection of parents, dual-population scheme, and support for pipelined fitness computation, the proposed processor significantly reduces the processing time. Furthermore, by relying on a built-in discard operator the proposed hardware may be used in constrained problems that are very common in control applications. In the proposed design, a large search space is achievable through the bit string length extension of individuals in the genetic population by connecting the 32-bit GAPs. In addition, the proposed processor supports parallel processing, in which the GAs procedure can be run on several connected processors simultaneously.

  1. PixonVision real-time video processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetter, R. C.; Hier, R. G.

    2007-09-01

    PixonImaging LLC and DigiVision, Inc. have developed a real-time video processor, the PixonVision PV-200, based on the patented Pixon method for image deblurring and denoising, and DigiVision's spatially adaptive contrast enhancement processor, the DV1000. The PV-200 can process NTSC and PAL video in real time with a latency of 1 field (1/60 th of a second), remove the effects of aerosol scattering from haze, mist, smoke, and dust, improve spatial resolution by up to 2x, decrease noise by up to 6x, and increase local contrast by up to 8x. A newer version of the processor, the PV-300, is now in prototype form and can handle high definition video. Both the PV-200 and PV-300 are FPGA-based processors, which could be spun into ASICs if desired. Obvious applications of these processors include applications in the DOD (tanks, aircraft, and ships), homeland security, intelligence, surveillance, and law enforcement. If developed into an ASIC, these processors will be suitable for a variety of portable applications, including gun sights, night vision goggles, binoculars, and guided munitions. This paper presents a variety of examples of PV-200 processing, including examples appropriate to border security, battlefield applications, port security, and surveillance from unmanned aerial vehicles.

  2. A UNIX-based prototype biomedical virtual image processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahy, J.B.; Kim, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed a multiprocess virtual image processor for the IBM PC/AT, in order to maximize image processing software portability for biomedical applications. An interprocess communication scheme, based on two-way metacode exchange, has been developed and verified for this purpose. Application programs call a device-independent image processing library, which transfers commands over a shared data bridge to one or more Autonomous Virtual Image Processors (AVIP). Each AVIP runs as a separate process in the UNIX operating system, and implements the device-independent functions on the image processor to which it corresponds. Application programs can control multiple image processors at a time, change the image processor configuration used at any time, and are completely portable among image processors for which an AVIP has been implemented. Run-time speeds have been found to be acceptable for higher level functions, although rather slow for lower level functions, owing to the overhead associated with sending commands and data over the shared data bridge

  3. Review of trigger and on-line processors at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    The role of trigger and on-line processors in reducing data rates to manageable proportions in e + e - physics experiments is defined not by high physics or background rates, but by the large event sizes of the general-purpose detectors employed. The rate of e + e - annihilation is low, and backgrounds are not high; yet the number of physics processes which can be studied is vast and varied. This paper begins by briefly describing the role of trigger processors in the e + e - context. The usual flow of the trigger decision process is illustrated with selected examples of SLAC trigger processing. The features are mentioned of triggering at the SLC and the trigger processing plans of the two SLC detectors: The Mark II and the SLD. The most common on-line processors at SLAC, the BADC, the SLAC Scanner Processor, the SLAC FASTBUS Controller, and the VAX CAMAC Channel, are discussed. Uses of the 168/E, 3081/E, and FASTBUS VAX processors are mentioned. The manner in which these processors are interfaced and the function they serve on line is described. Finally, the accelerator control system for the SLC is outlined. This paper is a survey in nature, and hence, relies heavily upon references to previous publications for detailed description of work mentioned here. 27 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  4. Reconfigurable signal processor designs for advanced digital array radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Hernan; Zhang, Yan (Rockee); Yu, Xining

    2017-05-01

    The new challenges originated from Digital Array Radar (DAR) demands a new generation of reconfigurable backend processor in the system. The new FPGA devices can support much higher speed, more bandwidth and processing capabilities for the need of digital Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). This study focuses on using the latest Altera and Xilinx devices in an adaptive beamforming processor. The field reprogrammable RF devices from Analog Devices are used as analog front end transceivers. Different from other existing Software-Defined Radio transceivers on the market, this processor is designed for distributed adaptive beamforming in a networked environment. The following aspects of the novel radar processor will be presented: (1) A new system-on-chip architecture based on Altera's devices and adaptive processing module, especially for the adaptive beamforming and pulse compression, will be introduced, (2) Successful implementation of generation 2 serial RapidIO data links on FPGA, which supports VITA-49 radio packet format for large distributed DAR processing. (3) Demonstration of the feasibility and capabilities of the processor in a Micro-TCA based, SRIO switching backplane to support multichannel beamforming in real-time. (4) Application of this processor in ongoing radar system development projects, including OU's dual-polarized digital array radar, the planned new cylindrical array radars, and future airborne radars.

  5. 7 CFR 160.50 - Reports to be made by accredited processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports to be made by accredited processors. 160.50... made by accredited processors. Each accredited processor shall furnish the Administrator such reports... processor to keep such records as may be necessary for him to submit correct reports, or failure by the...

  6. Pattern-Recognition Processor Using Holographic Photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Cammack, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    proposed joint-transform optical correlator (JTOC) would be capable of operating as a real-time pattern-recognition processor. The key correlation-filter reading/writing medium of this JTOC would be an updateable holographic photopolymer. The high-resolution, high-speed characteristics of this photopolymer would enable pattern-recognition processing to occur at a speed three orders of magnitude greater than that of state-of-the-art digital pattern-recognition processors. There are many potential applications in biometric personal identification (e.g., using images of fingerprints and faces) and nondestructive industrial inspection. In order to appreciate the advantages of the proposed JTOC, it is necessary to understand the principle of operation of a conventional JTOC. In a conventional JTOC (shown in the upper part of the figure), a collimated laser beam passes through two side-by-side spatial light modulators (SLMs). One SLM displays a real-time input image to be recognized. The other SLM displays a reference image from a digital memory. A Fourier-transform lens is placed at its focal distance from the SLM plane, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) image detector is placed at the back focal plane of the lens for use as a square-law recorder. Processing takes place in two stages. In the first stage, the CCD records the interference pattern between the Fourier transforms of the input and reference images, and the pattern is then digitized and saved in a buffer memory. In the second stage, the reference SLM is turned off and the interference pattern is fed back to the input SLM. The interference pattern thus becomes Fourier-transformed, yielding at the CCD an image representing the joint-transform correlation between the input and reference images. This image contains a sharp correlation peak when the input and reference images are matched. The drawbacks of a conventional JTOC are the following: The CCD has low spatial resolution and is not an ideal square

  7. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means is cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The bimetallic spacer means in one embodiment of the invention includes a space grid formed, at least principally, of zircaloy to the external surface of which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. In another embodiment the strips are attached to fuel pins. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. (author)

  8. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration; Luciano, Pierluigi; Magalotti, Daniel; Rossi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS experiment silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of FTK and is mainly based on the use of ASICs (AM chips) designed on purpose to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. It finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problems inside FTK, multiple board and chip designs have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. We report on the performance of the intermedia...

  9. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration; Luciano, Pierluigi; Magalotti, Daniel; Rossi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS experiment silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of FTK and is mainly based on the use of ASICs (AM chips) designed to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. The AM system finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problems inside FTK, multiple board and chip designs have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 828 2 Gbit/s serial links for a total in/out bandwidth of 56 Gb/s. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. ...

  10. The Serial Link Processor for the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, R; Beretta, M; Cipriani, R; Citraro, S; Citterio, M; Colombo, A; Crescioli, F; Dimas, D; Donati, S; Giannetti, P; Kordas, K; Lanza, A; Liberali, V; Luciano, P; Magalotti, D; Neroutsos, P; Nikolaidis, S; Piendibene, M; Sakellariou, A; Shojaii, S; Sotiropoulou, C-L; Stabile, A

    2014-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the FTK processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of the FTK and it finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. To solve the very challenging data traffic problems inside the FTK, multiple designs and tests have been performed. The currently proposed solution is named the “Serial Link Processor” and is based on an extremely powerful network of 2 Gb/s serial links. This paper reports on the design of the Serial Link Processor consisting of the AM chip, an ASIC designed and optimized to perform pattern matching, and two types of boards, the Local Associative Memory Board (LAMB), a mezzanine where the AM chips are mounted, and the Associative Memory Board (AMB), a 9U VME board which holds and exercises four LAMBs. Special relevance will be given to the AMchip design that includes two custom cells optimized for low consumption. We repo...

  11. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  12. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  13. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A. [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  14. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health......Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...

  15. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  16. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  17. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  18. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  19. The External Nasal Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Grant S

    2017-05-01

    The external nasal valve is a complex entity comprised of multiple structures and tissue types. As such, there is no single operation that can address all problems of the external valve. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, pathologic conditions, and treatments for external nasal valve dysfunction, including a detailed review of the nasal muscles and their contribution to external nasal valve patency. Surgical and nonsurgical options for treatment and the evidence supporting the importance of proper external nasal valve function on quality-of-life measures are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. THOR Fields and Wave Processor - FWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Jan; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Ahlen, Lennart; Balikhin, Michael; Carr, Christopher; Dekkali, Moustapha; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lan, Radek; Magnes, Werner; Morawski, Marek; Nakamura, Rumi; Uhlir, Ludek; Yearby, Keith; Winkler, Marek; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    If selected, Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) will become the first spacecraft mission dedicated to the study of plasma turbulence. The Fields and Waves Processor (FWP) is an integrated electronics unit for all electromagnetic field measurements performed by THOR. FWP will interface with all THOR fields sensors: electric field antennas of the EFI instrument, the MAG fluxgate magnetometer, and search-coil magnetometer (SCM), and perform signal digitization and on-board data processing. FWP box will house multiple data acquisition sub-units and signal analyzers all sharing a common power supply and data processing unit and thus a single data and power interface to the spacecraft. Integrating all the electromagnetic field measurements in a single unit will improve the consistency of field measurement and accuracy of time synchronization. The scientific value of highly sensitive electric and magnetic field measurements in space has been demonstrated by Cluster (among other spacecraft) and THOR instrumentation will further improve on this heritage. Large dynamic range of the instruments will be complemented by a thorough electromagnetic cleanliness program, which will prevent perturbation of field measurements by interference from payload and platform subsystems. Taking advantage of the capabilities of modern electronics and the large telemetry bandwidth of THOR, FWP will provide multi-component electromagnetic field waveforms and spectral data products at a high time resolution. Fully synchronized sampling of many signals will allow to resolve wave phase information and estimate wavelength via interferometric correlations between EFI probes. FWP will also implement a plasma resonance sounder and a digital plasma quasi-thermal noise analyzer designed to provide high cadence measurements of plasma density and temperature complementary to data from particle instruments. FWP will rapidly transmit information about magnetic field vector and spacecraft potential to the

  1. SCHEDULING PROBLEMS OF STATIONARY OBJECTS WITH THE PROCESSOR IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dunichkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the mathematical model in which an operating processor serves the set of the stationary objects positioned in a one-dimensional working zone. The processor performs two voyages between the uttermost points of the zone: the forward or direct one, where certain objects are served, and the return one, where remaining objects are served. Servicing of the object cannot start earlier than its ready date. The individual penalty function is assigned to every object, the function depending on the servicing completion time. Minimized criteria of schedule quality are assumed to be total service duration and total penalty. We formulate and study optimization problems with one and two criteria. Proposed algorithms are based on dynamic programming and Pareto principle, the implementations of these algorithms are demonstrated on numerical examples. We show that the algorithm for the problem of processing time minimization is polynomial, and that the problem of total penalty minimization is NP-hard. Correspondingly, the bicriteria problem with the mentioned evaluation criteria is fundamentally intractable, computational complexity of the schedule structure algorithm is exponential. The model describes the fuel supply processes to the diesel-electrical dredgers which extract non-metallic building materials (sand, gravel in large-scale areas of inland waterways. Similar models and optimization problems are important, for example, in applications like the control of satellite group refueling and regular civil aircraft refueling.The article is published in the author’s wording.

  2. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  3. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  4. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA bus data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1993-01-01

    A generic CAMAC trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of ADC data, has been designed. This module has been realised using complex programmable gate arrays (LCAs from XILINX). The gate arrays have been connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using the module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter, however is primarily used for setup and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADCs can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules, processing ADC data with pipe-line arithmetics producing the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision will be transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was originally developed for the proposed neutral particle search experiment at CERN, NUMASS. There it was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass-cut would then deliver the trigger decision. More complex triggers were also considered. (orig.)

  5. Quality assurance in the use of automatic processor equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kyung Mo; Cheung, Hwan

    1986-01-01

    In recent years the concept of quality assurance in radiology has become as popular as the apple pie. Unfortunately, however, the concept means different things to different people. Furthermore, the methods proposed are very many and diversified. The present article will focus on the quality assurance in the use of the automatic processor equipment. With automatic film processors, there are many factors which can cause a reduction in image quality, but they center on the following: (1) chemical solutions, (2) mechanical parts of the equipment, and (3) faults in processing and its management, which are discussed in some detail. Quality assurance helps to ensure satisfactory performance of the automatic processor equipment for high image quality. The following record keeping is required: - For equipment quality control: 1) daily maintenance record, 2) weekly maintenance record. 3) monthly main tenancy record, and 4) ph value record based on tests with litmus paper. - Training of the personal is required in the following subjects: 1) safety in processing operation, 2) management of the automatic processor equipment (a manual will be used), 3) acquisition and absorption of latest information on the automatic processor equipment system. - The procedures described above are considered necessary for efficient processing operations which will give high and uniform image quality

  6. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA bus data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of ADC data, has been designed. This module has been realised using complex programmable gate arrays (LCAs from XILINX). The gate arrays have been connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter, however, is primarily used for set-up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADCs can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules, processing ADC data with pipe-line arithmetics producing the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision will be transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was originally developed for the proposed neutral particle search experiment at CERN, NUMASS. There it was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision. More complex triggers were also considered. (au)

  7. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG) 36 refs.

  8. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG)

  9. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... reciprocating engines manufactured by Lycoming Engines that incorporate externally mounted fuel injection lines.... (3) This AD is not applicable to engines having internally mounted fuel injection lines, which are... Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  11. Stepping motor control processor reference manual. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, F.W.; VanArsdall, P.J.; Suski, G.J.; Gant, R.G.; Rash, M.

    1980-06-06

    This manual is intended to serve several purposes. The first goal is to describe the capabilities and operation of the SMC processor package from an operator or user point of view. Secondly, the manual will describe in some detail the basic hardware elements and how they can be used effectively to implement a step motor control system. Practical information on the use, installation and checkout of the hardware set is presented in the following sections along with programming suggestions. Available related system software is described in this manual for reference and as an aid in understanding the system architecture. Section two presents an overview and operations manual of the SMC processor describing its composition and functional capabilities. Section three contains hardware descriptions in some detail for the LLL-designed hardware used in the SMC processor. Basic theory of operation and important features are explained.

  12. Safety-Critical Java on a Time-predictable Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan Erbs; Schoeberl, Martin; Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    For real-time systems the whole execution stack needs to be time-predictable and analyzable for the worst-case execution time (WCET). This paper presents a time-predictable platform for safety-critical Java. The platform consists of (1) the Patmos processor, which is a time-predictable processor......; (2) a C compiler for Patmos with support for WCET analysis; (3) the HVM, which is a Java-to-C compiler; (4) the HVM-SCJ implementation which supports SCJ Level 0, 1, and 2 (for both single and multicore platforms); and (5) a WCET analysis tool. We show that real-time Java programs translated to C...... and compiled to a Patmos binary can be analyzed by the AbsInt aiT WCET analysis tool. To the best of our knowledge the presented system is the second WCET analyzable real-time Java system; and the first one on top of a RISC processor....

  13. Safety-critical Java on a time-predictable processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan E.; Schoeberl, Martin; Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    For real-time systems the whole execution stack needs to be time-predictable and analyzable for the worst-case execution time (WCET). This paper presents a time-predictable platform for safety-critical Java. The platform consists of (1) the Patmos processor, which is a time-predictable processor......; (2) a C compiler for Patmos with support for WCET analysis; (3) the HVM, which is a Java-to-C compiler; (4) the HVM-SCJ implementation which supports SCJ Level 0, 1, and 2 (for both single and multicore platforms); and (5) a WCET analysis tool. We show that real-time Java programs translated to C...... and compiled to a Patmos binary can be analyzed by the AbsInt aiT WCET analysis tool. To the best of our knowledge the presented system is the second WCET analyzable real-time Java system; and the first one on top of a RISC processor....

  14. Processor farming in two-level analysis of historical bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, T.; Kruis, J.; Koudelka, T.; Šejnoha, M.

    2017-11-01

    This contribution presents a processor farming method in connection with a multi-scale analysis. In this method, each macro-scopic integration point or each finite element is connected with a certain meso-scopic problem represented by an appropriate representative volume element (RVE). The solution of a meso-scale problem provides then effective parameters needed on the macro-scale. Such an analysis is suitable for parallel computing because the meso-scale problems can be distributed among many processors. The application of the processor farming method to a real world masonry structure is illustrated by an analysis of Charles bridge in Prague. The three-dimensional numerical model simulates the coupled heat and moisture transfer of one half of arch No. 3. and it is a part of a complex hygro-thermo-mechanical analysis which has been developed to determine the influence of climatic loading on the current state of the bridge.

  15. First Results of an “Artificial Retina” Processor Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenci, Riccardo; Bedeschi, Franco; Marino, Pietro; Morello, Michael J.; Ninci, Daniele; Piucci, Alessio; Punzi, Giovanni; Ristori, Luciano; Spinella, Franco; Stracka, Simone; Tonelli, Diego; Walsh, John

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of a specialized processor capable of reconstructing charged particle tracks in a realistic LHC silicon tracker detector, at the same speed of the readout and with sub-microsecond latency. The processor is based on an innovative pattern-recognition algorithm, called “artificial retina algorithm”, inspired from the vision system of mammals. A prototype of the processor has been designed, simulated, and implemented on Tel62 boards equipped with high-bandwidth Altera Stratix III FPGA devices. The prototype is the first step towards a real-time track reconstruction device aimed at processing complex events of high-luminosity LHC experiments at 40 MHz crossing rate

  16. A Josephson systolic array processor for multiplication/addition operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Li, F.Q.; Tobita, M.; Kaneko, S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel Josephson systolic array processor to perform multiplication/addition operations is proposed. The systolic array processor proposed here consists of a set of three kinds of interconnected cells of which main circuits are made by using SQUID gates. A multiplication of 2 bits by 2 bits is performed in the single cell at a time and an addition of three data with two bits is simultaneously performed in an another type of cell. Furthermore, information in this system flows between cells in a pipeline fashion so that a high performance can be achieved. In this paper the principle of Josephson systolic array processor is described in detail and the simulation results are illustrated for the multiplication/addition of (4 bits x 4 bits + 8 bits). The results show that these operations can be executed in 330ps

  17. Embedded Processor Based Automatic Temperature Control of VLSI Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Murthy Yayavaram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents embedded processor based automatic temperature control of VLSI chips, using temperature sensor LM35 and ARM processor LPC2378. Due to the very high packing density, VLSI chips get heated very soon and if not cooled properly, the performance is very much affected. In the present work, the sensor which is kept very near proximity to the IC will sense the temperature and the speed of the fan arranged near to the IC is controlled based on the PWM signal generated by the ARM processor. A buzzer is also provided with the hardware, to indicate either the failure of the fan or overheating of the IC. The entire process is achieved by developing a suitable embedded C program.

  18. Optimal partitioning of random programs across two processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.

    1989-01-01

    The optimal partitioning of random-distributed programs is discussed. It is concluded that the optimal partitioning of a homogeneous random program over a homogeneous distributed system either assigns all modules to a single processor, or distributes the modules as evenly as possible among all processors. The analysis rests heavily on the approximation which equates the expected maximum of a set of independent random variables with the set's maximum expectation. The results are strengthened by providing an approximation-free proof of this result for two processors under general conditions on the module execution time distribution. It is also shown that use of this approximation causes two of the previous central results to be false.

  19. Token-Aware Completion Functions for Elastic Processor Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan K. Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a formal verification procedure to check that elastic pipelined processor designs correctly implement their instruction set architecture (ISA specifications. The notion of correctness we use is based on refinement. Refinement proofs are based on refinement maps, which—in the context of this problem—are functions that map elastic processor states to states of the ISA specification model. Data flow in elastic architectures is complicated by the insertion of any number of buffers in any place in the design, making it hard to construct refinement maps for elastic systems in a systematic manner. We introduce token-aware completion functions, which incorporate a mechanism to track the flow of data in elastic pipelines, as a highly automated and systematic approach to construct refinement maps. We demonstrate the efficiency of the overall verification procedure based on token-aware completion functions using six elastic pipelined processor models based on the DLX architecture.

  20. Modal Processor Effects Inspired by Hammond Tonewheel Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt James Werner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this design study, we introduce a novel class of digital audio effects that extend the recently introduced modal processor approach to artificial reverberation and effects processing. These pitch and distortion processing effects mimic the design and sonics of a classic additive-synthesis-based electromechanical musical instrument, the Hammond tonewheel organ. As a reverb effect, the modal processor simulates a room response as the sum of resonant filter responses. This architecture provides precise, interactive control over the frequency, damping, and complex amplitude of each mode. Into this framework, we introduce two types of processing effects: pitch effects inspired by the Hammond organ’s equal tempered “tonewheels”, “drawbar” tone controls, vibrato/chorus circuit, and distortion effects inspired by the pseudo-sinusoidal shape of its tonewheels and electromagnetic pickup distortion. The result is an effects processor that imprints the Hammond organ’s sonics onto any audio input.

  1. Stepping motor control processor reference manual. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, F.W.; VanArsdall, P.J.; Suski, G.J.; Gant, R.G.; Rash, M.

    1980-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve several purposes. The first goal is to describe the capabilities and operation of the SMC processor package from an operator or user point of view. Secondly, the manual will describe in some detail the basic hardware elements and how they can be used effectively to implement a step motor control system. Practical information on the use, installation and checkout of the hardware set is presented in the following sections along with programming suggestions. Available related system software is described in this manual for reference and as an aid in understanding the system architecture. Section two presents an overview and operations manual of the SMC processor describing its composition and functional capabilities. Section three contains hardware descriptions in some detail for the LLL-designed hardware used in the SMC processor. Basic theory of operation and important features are explained

  2. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, Ralf; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP) combines information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). In addition to the event-selection decision, the CTP also provides trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and the data acquisition system. It further provides accumulated and bunch-by-bunch scaler data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The CTP is presented and results are shown from tests with the calorimeter adn muon trigger processors connected to detectors in a particle beam, as well as from stand-alone full-system tests in the laboratory which were used to validate the CTP.

  3. An ultra-low-power programmable analog bionic ear processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul; Salthouse, Christopher; Sit, Ji-Jon; Baker, Michael W; Zhak, Serhii M; Lu, Timothy K T; Turicchia, Lorenzo; Balster, Stephanie

    2005-04-01

    We report a programmable analog bionic ear (cochlear implant) processor in a 1.5-microm BiCMOS technology with a power consumption of 211 microW and 77-dB dynamic range of operation. The 9.58 mm x 9.23 mm processor chip runs on a 2.8 V supply and has a power consumption that is lower than state-of-the-art analog-to-digital (A/D)-then-DSP designs by a factor of 25. It is suitable for use in fully implanted cochlear-implant systems of the future which require decades of operation on a 100-mAh rechargeable battery with a finite number of charge-discharge cycles. It may also be used as an ultra-low-power spectrum-analysis front end in portable speech-recognition systems. The power consumption of the processor includes the 100 microW power consumption of a JFET-buffered electret microphone and an associated on-chip microphone front end. An automatic gain control circuit compresses the 77-dB input dynamic range into a narrower internal dynamic range (IDR) of 57 dB at which each of the 16 spectral channels of the processor operate. The output bits of the processor are scanned and reported off chip in a format suitable for continuous-interleaved-sampling stimulation of electrodes. Power-supply-immune biasing circuits ensure robust operation of the processor in the high-RF-noise environment typical of cochlear implant systems.

  4. Satellite on-board real-time SAR processor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Harnisch, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Marchese, Linda; Bourqui, Pascal; Desnoyers, Nicholas; Legros, Mathieu; Guillot, Ludovic; Mercier, Luc; Châteauneuf, François

    2017-11-01

    A Compact Real-Time Optronic SAR Processor has been successfully developed and tested up to a Technology Readiness Level of 4 (TRL4), the breadboard validation in a laboratory environment. SAR, or Synthetic Aperture Radar, is an active system allowing day and night imaging independent of the cloud coverage of the planet. The SAR raw data is a set of complex data for range and azimuth, which cannot be compressed. Specifically, for planetary missions and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with limited communication data rates this is a clear disadvantage. SAR images are typically processed electronically applying dedicated Fourier transformations. This, however, can also be performed optically in real-time. Originally the first SAR images were optically processed. The optical Fourier processor architecture provides inherent parallel computing capabilities allowing real-time SAR data processing and thus the ability for compression and strongly reduced communication bandwidth requirements for the satellite. SAR signal return data are in general complex data. Both amplitude and phase must be combined optically in the SAR processor for each range and azimuth pixel. Amplitude and phase are generated by dedicated spatial light modulators and superimposed by an optical relay set-up. The spatial light modulators display the full complex raw data information over a two-dimensional format, one for the azimuth and one for the range. Since the entire signal history is displayed at once, the processor operates in parallel yielding real-time performances, i.e. without resulting bottleneck. Processing of both azimuth and range information is performed in a single pass. This paper focuses on the onboard capabilities of the compact optical SAR processor prototype that allows in-orbit processing of SAR images. Examples of processed ENVISAT ASAR images are presented. Various SAR processor parameters such as processing capabilities, image quality (point target analysis), weight and

  5. Benchmarking NWP Kernels on Multi- and Many-core Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakes, J.; Vachharajani, M.

    2008-12-01

    Increased computing power for weather, climate, and atmospheric science has provided direct benefits for defense, agriculture, the economy, the environment, and public welfare and convenience. Today, very large clusters with many thousands of processors are allowing scientists to move forward with simulations of unprecedented size. But time-critical applications such as real-time forecasting or climate prediction need strong scaling: faster nodes and processors, not more of them. Moreover, the need for good cost- performance has never been greater, both in terms of performance per watt and per dollar. For these reasons, the new generations of multi- and many-core processors being mass produced for commercial IT and "graphical computing" (video games) are being scrutinized for their ability to exploit the abundant fine- grain parallelism in atmospheric models. We present results of our work to date identifying key computational kernels within the dynamics and physics of a large community NWP model, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. We benchmark and optimize these kernels on several different multi- and many-core processors. The goals are to (1) characterize and model performance of the kernels in terms of computational intensity, data parallelism, memory bandwidth pressure, memory footprint, etc. (2) enumerate and classify effective strategies for coding and optimizing for these new processors, (3) assess difficulties and opportunities for tool or higher-level language support, and (4) establish a continuing set of kernel benchmarks that can be used to measure and compare effectiveness of current and future designs of multi- and many-core processors for weather and climate applications.

  6. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  7. A fast processor for di-lepton triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Kostarakis, P; Barsotti, E; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Enagonio, J; Haldeman, M; Haynes, W; Katsanevas, S; Kerns, C; Lebrun, P; Smith, H; Soszyniski, T; Stoffel, J; Treptow, K; Turkot, F; Wagner, R

    1981-01-01

    As a new application of the Fermilab ECL-CAMAC logic modules a fast trigger processor was developed for Fermilab experiment E-537, aiming to measure the higher mass di-muon production by antiprotons. The processor matches the hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, to find candidate muon tracks and determine their directions and momenta. The tracks are then paired to compute an invariant mass: when the computed mass falls within the desired range, the event is accepted. The process is accomplished in times of 5 to 10 microseconds, while achieving a trigger rate reduction of up to a factor of ten. (5 refs).

  8. Matrix preconditioning: a robust operation for optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Paparao, P

    1987-07-15

    Analog electrooptical processors are best suited for applications demanding high computational throughput with tolerance for inaccuracies. Matrix preconditioning is one such application. Matrix preconditioning is a preprocessing step for reducing the condition number of a matrix and is used extensively with gradient algorithms for increasing the rate of convergence and improving the accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we describe a simple parallel algorithm for matrix preconditioning, which can be implemented efficiently on a pipelined optical linear algebra processor. From the results of our numerical experiments we show that the efficacy of the preconditioning algorithm is affected very little by the errors of the optical system.

  9. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

  10. Use of emulating processors in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    The needs for data processing in high energy physics is growing at a rate that exceeds the data processing capabilities of traditional computers. The use of emulating processors is one method to fill this growing gap. This paper will analyze the data processing requirements from the point of view of program development and data production. Needs in both off-line and on-line environments will be considered. It will be shown that emulating processors fulfill most of the requirements at a reasonable cost. (Auth.)

  11. Ring-array processor distribution topology for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ha, Berlin; Wang, Ting; Wang, Sunyu; Katz, A.; Lu, X. J.; Kanterakis, E.

    1992-01-01

    The existing linear and rectangular processor distribution topologies for optical interconnects, although promising in many respects, cannot solve problems such as clock skews, the lack of supporting elements for efficient optical implementation, etc. The use of a ring-array processor distribution topology, however, can overcome these problems. Here, a study of the ring-array topology is conducted with an aim of implementing various fast clock rate, high-performance, compact optical networks for digital electronic multiprocessor computers. Practical design issues are addressed. Some proof-of-principle experimental results are included.

  12. Parallel Processor for 3D Recovery from Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Hugo Barron-Zambrano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D recovery from motion has received a major effort in computer vision systems in the recent years. The main problem lies in the number of operations and memory accesses to be performed by the majority of the existing techniques when translated to hardware or software implementations. This paper proposes a parallel processor for 3D recovery from optical flow. Its main feature is the maximum reuse of data and the low number of clock cycles to calculate the optical flow, along with the precision with which 3D recovery is achieved. The results of the proposed architecture as well as those from processor synthesis are presented.

  13. Embedded Data Processor and Portable Computer Technology testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Goforth, Andre; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to current activities in the Embedded Data Processor and Portable Computer Technology testbed configurations that are part of the Advanced Data Systems Architectures Testbed at the Information Sciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center. The Embedded Data Processor Testbed evaluates advanced microprocessors for potential use in mission and payload applications within the Space Station Freedom Program. The Portable Computer Technology (PCT) Testbed integrates and demonstrates advanced portable computing devices and data system architectures. The PCT Testbed uses both commercial and custom-developed devices to demonstrate the feasibility of functional expansion and networking for portable computers in flight missions.

  14. Digital control card based on digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shigang; Yin Zhiguo; Xia Le

    2008-01-01

    A digital control card based on digital signal processor was developed. Two Freescale DSP-56303 processors were utilized to achieve 3 channels proportional- integral-differential regulations. The card offers high flexibility for 100 MeV cyclotron RF system development. It was used as feedback controller in low level radio frequency control prototype, with the feedback gain parameters continuously adjustable. By using high precision analog to digital converter with 500 kHz sampling rate, a regulation bandwidth of 20 kHz was achieved. (authors)

  15. Graphics processor efficiency for realization of rapid tabular computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnik, V.A.; Kudryavtsev, V.I.; Us, S.A.; Shestakov, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Capabilities of graphics processing units (GPU) and central processing units (CPU) have been investigated for realization of fast-calculation algorithms with the use of tabulated functions. The realization of tabulated functions is exemplified by the GPU/CPU architecture-based processors. Comparison is made between the operating efficiencies of GPU and CPU, employed for tabular calculations at different conditions of use. Recommendations are formulated for the use of graphical and central processors to speed up scientific and engineering computations through the use of tabulated functions

  16. FASTBUS Standard Routines implementation for Fermilab embedded processor boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pangburn, J.; Patrick, J.; Kent, S.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Votava, M.; Heyes, G.; Watson, W.A. III

    1992-10-01

    In collaboration with CEBAF, Fermilab's Online Support Department and the CDF experiment have produced a new implementation of the IEEE FASTBUS Standard Routines for two embedded processor FASTBUS boards: the Fermilab Smart Crate Controller (FSCC) and the FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC). Features of this implementation include: portability (to other embedded processor boards), remote source-level debugging, high speed, optional generation of very high-speed code for readout applications, and built-in Sun RPC support for execution of FASTBUS transactions and lists over the network

  17. Reconfigurable lattice mesh designs for programmable photonic processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Soref, Richard A

    2016-05-30

    We propose and analyse two novel mesh design geometries for the implementation of tunable optical cores in programmable photonic processors. These geometries are the hexagonal and the triangular lattice. They are compared here to a previously proposed square mesh topology in terms of a series of figures of merit that account for metrics that are relevant to on-chip integration of the mesh. We find that that the hexagonal mesh is the most suitable option of the three considered for the implementation of the reconfigurable optical core in the programmable processor.

  18. Post-silicon and runtime verification for modern processors

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to survey the state of the art and evolving directions in post-silicon and runtime verification. The authors start by giving an overview of the state of the art in verification, particularly current post-silicon methodologies in use in the industry, both for the domain of processor pipeline design and for memory subsystems. They then dive into the presentation of several new post-silicon verification solutions aimed at boosting the verification coverage of modern processors, dedicating several chapters to this topic. The presentation of runtime verification solution

  19. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  20. A VAX-FPS Loosely-Coupled Array of Processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosdidier, G.

    1987-03-01

    The main features of a VAX-FPS Loosely-Coupled Array of Processors (LCAP) set-up and the implementation of a High Energy Physics tracking program for off-line purposes will be described. This LCAP consists of a VAX 11/750 host and two FPS 64 bit attached processors. Before analyzing the performances of this LCAP, its characteristics will be outlined, especially from a user's point of vue, and will be briefly compared to those of the IBM-FPS LCAP

  1. REVIEW: Optical logic elements for high-throughput optical processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. B.

    1990-12-01

    An analysis is made of the current state and problems as well as prospects of the development of optical logic elements and threshold light amplifiers for high-throughput computing. An analysis is made of the specific case of a variant of an optical processor capable of 1013-1014 arithmetic operations per second under conditions of pipelined processing of two-dimensional arrays of multidigit binary operands. The basic requirements which must be satisfied by parameters and characteristics of optical logic elements in such a processor are identified.

  2. The associative memory system for the FTK processor at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Magalotti, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Donati, S; Luciano, P; Piendibene, M; Giannetti, P; Lanza, A; Verzellesi, G; Sakellariou, Andreas; Billereau, W; Combe, J M

    2014-01-01

    In high energy physics experiments, the most interesting processes are very rare and hidden in an extremely large level of background. As the experiment complexity, accelerator backgrounds, and instantaneous luminosity increase, more effective and accurate data selection techniques are needed. The Fast TracKer processor (FTK) is a real time tracking processor designed for the ATLAS trigger upgrade. The FTK core is the Associative Memory system. It provides massive computing power to minimize the processing time of complex tracking algorithms executed online. This paper reports on the results and performance of a new prototype of Associative Memory system.

  3. Language processor construction: The case for YOOCC and TROOPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avotins, J.; Maughan, G.; Mingins, C. [Monash Univ., Caulfield East (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Enhancing the ISE Eiffel Parse library enabled as to develop YOOCC (Yes! An OO Compiler Compiler) and TROOPER (Truly Reusable OO Parser for Eiffel Re-engineering) written entirely in Eiffel. It is concluded that not only do these tools allow typical users to develop processors without being concerned with the intricacies behind processor construction, but they significantly contribute towards bringing the ISE Eiffel Parse libraries to their full realisation. We demonstrate this by applying YOOCC and TroopeR to a diverse range of realistic domains.

  4. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  5. OLYMPUS system and development of its pre-processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masao; Takeda, Tatsuoki; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Asai, Kiyoshi; Nakano, Koh.

    1977-08-01

    The OLYMPUS SYSTEM developed by K. V. Roverts et al. was converted and introduced in computer system FACOM 230/75 of the JAERI Computing Center. A pre-processor was also developed for the OLYMPUS SYSTEM. The OLYMPUS SYSTEM is very useful for development, standardization and exchange of programs in thermonuclear fusion research and plasma physics. The pre-processor developed by the present authors is not only essential for the JAERI OLYMPUS SYSTEM, but also useful in manipulation, creation and correction of program files. (auth.)

  6. The Danish real-time SAR processor: first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Jørn Hjelm; Netterstrøm, Anders

    1993-01-01

    . The processor is capable of focusing the entire swath of the raw SAR data into full resolution, and depending on the choice made by the on-board operator, either a high resolution one-look zoom image or a spatially multilooked overview image is displayed. After a brief design review, the paper addresses various......A real-time processor (RTP) for the Danish airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been designed and constructed at the Electromagnetics Institute. The implementation was completed in mid 1992, and since then the RTP has been operated successfully on several test and demonstration flights...

  7. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  8. MOTOR FUEL TAXES AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2011-01-01

    Motor fuel taxes are primarily revenue-raising taxes. However, due to high fuel consumption these taxes can be quite an efficient source of general budget revenue in many countries. It seems that the taxes on motor fuels may also be useful instruments for environmental policy or climate change policy. Environmental objectives can be achieved through change of behavior of drivers. The paper presents theoretical basis for taxes levied on motor fuels. Attention is paid to the problem of external...

  9. Controlling fuel crossover and hydration in ultrathin proton exchange membrane-based fuel cells using Pt-nanosheet catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Rujie; Zhang, Wenjing (Angela); He, Gaohong

    2014-01-01

    a combination of desirable properties for the development of affordable and durable hydrogen fuel cell technology, including better mechanical properties, higher open-circuit voltage, lower ohmic resistance and enhanced water management in a hydrogen fuel cell without external humidification....

  10. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  11. CERN Technical Training: Digital Signal Processors

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    A new training is going to be held at CERN on the ADSP SHARC Family. The “System Development and Programming with the Analog Devices' SHARC Family” course is a 3.5-day hands-on training on Analog Devices SHARC DSPs, focusing on the latest ‘368/9 and 37x families. General DSP architecture, peripherals available, booting up process and DSP code development will be covered. Hardware tools, debugging and hardware design guidelines will be introduced as well. The course id designed for System Designers needing to make informed decisions on design tradeoffs, Hardware Designers needing to develop external interfaces, and Code Developers needing to know how to get the highest performance from their algorithms. The course will take place, in English, from 31 March to 4 April in the CERN Technical Training Center. Few places are still available. Registrations are opened on the Technical Training page. More information on our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or conta...

  12. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...... instruments. However, solving the open-access externality problem also affects CO2 emissions. By using a bio-economic model covering Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands, it is shown that regulations of the open-access externality problem have a large effect on both economic performance...... and CO2 emissions, while an additional CO2 regulation only has minor effects. The second-best solution achieved by only regulating open access reduces emissions by approximately 50% compared to current fisheries, with the exception of Iceland, which already has a well-developed fisheries management...

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  14. Fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooie, D. T.; Harrington, B. C., III; Mayfield, M. J.; Parsons, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The primary objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Fuel Cell program is to fund the development of key fuel cell technologies in a manner that maximizes private sector participation and in a way that will give contractors the opportunity for a competitive posture, early market entry, and long-term market growth. This summary includes an overview of the Fuel Cell program, an elementary explanation of how fuel cells operate, and a synopsis of the three major fuel cell technologies sponsored by the DOE/Fossil Energy Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell program, and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell program.

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  16. Review of SR-Can: Evaluation of SKB's handling of spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, Mike; Jegou, Christophe; Brown, Paul; Meinrath, Guenther; Nitsche, Heino; Ekberg, Christian

    2008-03-01

    SR-Can covers the containment phase of the KBS-3 barriers as well as the consequences of releases of radionuclides to the rock and eventually the biosphere (after complete containment within fuel canisters has partially failed). The aim of this report is to provide a range of review comments with respect to those parameters related to spent fuel performance as well as radionuclide chemistry and transport. These parameter values are used in the quantification of consequences due to release of radionuclides from potentially leaking canisters. The report does not cover modelling approaches used for quantification of consequences. However, modelling used to derive parameter values is to some extent addressed (such as calculation of maximum radionuclide concentration due to formation of solubility limiting phases). The following are the key highlights and comments generated in the course of the review: Inconsistencies exist between recommendations provided in technical reports and those quoted in the Data Report. One of the reasons for such inconsistencies has been the timing of different pieces of research. It is hoped that the timing of contributions to SR-Site will be such that these inconsistencies can be avoided. Sensitivity analyses need to be carried out and reported in a number of areas to support some of the assumptions or decisions made in the assessment calculations. The likelihood is that SKB has performed many of the sensitivity analyses identified in different parts of this report, but these need to be reported, preferably to complement the recommendations provided

  17. DESDynI Quad First Stage Processor - A Four Channel Digitizer and Digital Beam Forming Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chung-Lun; Shaffer, Scott; Smythe, Robert; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Li, Samuel; Liao, Eric; Lim, Chester; Morfopolous, Arin; Veilleux, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Deformation, Eco-Systems, and Dynamics of Ice Radar (DESDynI-R) L-band SAR instrument employs multiple digital channels to optimize resolution while keeping a large swath on a single pass. High-speed digitization with very fine synchronization and digital beam forming are necessary in order to facilitate this new technique. The Quad First Stage Processor (qFSP) was developed to achieve both the processing performance as well as the digitizing fidelity in order to accomplish this sweeping SAR technique. The qFSP utilizes high precision and high-speed analog to digital converters (ADCs), each with a finely adjustable clock distribution network to digitize the channels at the fidelity necessary to allow for digital beam forming. The Xilinx produced FX130T Virtex 5 part handles the processing to digitally calibrate each channel as well as filter and beam form the receive signals. Demonstrating the digital processing required for digital beam forming and digital calibration is instrumental to the viability of the proposed DESDynI instrument. The qFSP development brings this implementation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. This paper will detail the design and development of the prototype qFSP as well as the preliminary results from hardware tests.

  18. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  19. Impact of externalities on various power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubow, L.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis develops and compares the cost of electricity of the envisioned nuclear power plant at Belene1 (with approximately 2000 MW of installed capacity), with the cost of electricity from alternate generation sources, with a view toward the Bulgarian economy. The logical alternate generating sources are: New Lignite fueled Thermal Electric Power Plants (TEPPs) New Coal fueled TEPPs (based on imported coal), and New Natural gas fueled TEPPs. The developed economic cost of electricity considers the internalized costs such as capital, fuel and operating costs, as well as the external costs, such as health and environmental impacts, to the extent possible

  20. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1999-01-01

    . The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologiesfor assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report......During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology thathas been used to assess the externalities...... on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs.Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated...

  1. A post-processor for the PEST code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priesche, S.; Manickam, J.; Johnson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new post-processor has been developed for use with output from the PEST tokamak stability code. It allows us to use quantities calculated by PEST and take better advantage of the physical picture of the plasma instability which they can provide. This will improve comparison with experimentally measured quantities as well as facilitate understanding of theoretical studies

  2. PVM Enhancement for Beowulf Multiple-Processor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A recent version of the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) computer program has been enhanced to enable use of multiple processors in a single node of a Beowulf system (a cluster of personal computers that runs the Linux operating system). A previous version of PVM had been enhanced by addition of a software port, denoted BEOLIN, that enables the incorporation of a Beowulf system into a larger parallel processing system administered by PVM, as though the Beowulf system were a single computer in the larger system. BEOLIN spawns tasks on (that is, automatically assigns tasks to) individual nodes within the cluster. However, BEOLIN does not enable the use of multiple processors in a single node. The present enhancement adds support for a parameter in the PVM command line that enables the user to specify which Internet Protocol host address the code should use in communicating with other Beowulf nodes. This enhancement also provides for the case in which each node in a Beowulf system contains multiple processors. In this case, by making multiple references to a single node, the user can cause the software to spawn multiple tasks on the multiple processors in that node.

  3. The Operational Semantics of a Java Secure Processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Butler, M.J.; Levy, M.; Alves-Foss, J.

    1999-01-01

    A formal specification of a Java Secure Processor is presented, which is mechanically checked for type consistency, well formedness and operational conservativity. The specification is executable and it is used to animate and study the behaviour of sample Java programs. The purpose of the semantics

  4. 50 CFR 648.6 - Dealer/processor permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of incorporation if the business is a corporation, and a copy of the partnership agreement and the names and addresses of all partners, if the business is a partnership, name of at-sea processor vessel... the fishing year to an applicant, unless the applicant fails to submit a completed application. An...

  5. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  6. Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D; Ghosh, A

    1985-06-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  7. Timing organization of a real-time multicore processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Real-time systems need a time-predictable computing platform. Computation, communication, and access to shared resources needs to be time-predictable. We use time division multiplexing to statically schedule all computation and communication resources, such as access to main memory or message pas......-predictable multicore processor where we can statically analyze the worst-case execution time of tasks....

  8. Decimal Engine for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Prior work demonstrated the use of specialized processors, or accelerators, be energy-efficient for binary floatingpoint (BFP) division and square root, and for decimal floatingpoint (DFP) operations. In the dark silicon era, where not all the circuits on the die can be powered simultaneously, we...

  9. Support for RESTOR, EMIST, and CHREC Space Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Bradley Franklin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide support for three different projects including RESTOR, CHREC Space Processor, and EMIST. LabVIEW software was written to verify tags in an excel spreadsheet, testing preparation was accomplished for CHREC, and full payload integration was completed for EMIST. All of these projects will contribute to advanced exploration in space and provide valuable experience.

  10. Processor operated correlator with applications to laser Doppler signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, C.; Johnsen, B.; Hassager, Ole

    1984-01-01

    A 64-channel correlator is designed with application to the processing of laser Doppler anemometry signals in the range 200 Hz to 250 kHz. The correlator is processor operated to enable the consecutive sampling of 448 correlation functions at a rate up to 500 Hz. Software is described to identify...

  11. Efficient Multicriteria Protein Structure Comparison on Modern Processor Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolakos, Elias S.

    2015-01-01

    Fast increasing computational demand for all-to-all protein structures comparison (PSC) is a result of three confounding factors: rapidly expanding structural proteomics databases, high computational complexity of pairwise protein comparison algorithms, and the trend in the domain towards using multiple criteria for protein structures comparison (MCPSC) and combining results. We have developed a software framework that exploits many-core and multicore CPUs to implement efficient parallel MCPSC in modern processors based on three popular PSC methods, namely, TMalign, CE, and USM. We evaluate and compare the performance and efficiency of the two parallel MCPSC implementations using Intel's experimental many-core Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC) as well as Intel's Core i7 multicore processor. We show that the 48-core SCC is more efficient than the latest generation Core i7, achieving a speedup factor of 42 (efficiency of 0.9), making many-core processors an exciting emerging technology for large-scale structural proteomics. We compare and contrast the performance of the two processors on several datasets and also show that MCPSC outperforms its component methods in grouping related domains, achieving a high F-measure of 0.91 on the benchmark CK34 dataset. The software implementation for protein structure comparison using the three methods and combined MCPSC, along with the developed underlying rckskel algorithmic skeletons library, is available via GitHub. PMID:26605332

  12. Using a Multicore Processor for Rover Autonomous Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Benjamin; Estlin, Tara; Clement, Bradley; Springer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Multicore processing promises to be a critical component of future spacecraft. It provides immense increases in onboard processing power and provides an environment for directly supporting fault-tolerant computing. This paper discusses using a state-of-the-art multicore processor to efficiently perform image analysis onboard a Mars rover in support of autonomous science activities.

  13. Writing Teaching and the Word Processor. A Computer Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, R. D., Ed.

    Designed for use by elementary school teachers, this discussion paper discusses the use of the word processor in the teaching of writing. The paper examines both the positive and negative aspects of computer use. After comparing the writing process with the problem solving process, the newsletter provides articles relating teachers' experiences…

  14. Integrated approach to optimization of an ultrasonic processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moholkar, V.S.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2003-01-01

    In an ultrasonic processor, the input electrical energy undergoes many transformations before getting converted into the cavitation energy, which is dissipated in the medium to bring out the physical/chemical change. An investigation of the influence of free and dissolved gas content of the system

  15. Digital signal array processor for NSLS booster power supply upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplied for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole have been installed. This paper will outline the design and function of the digital signal processor used as the primary control element in the power supply control system

  16. An optimal speech processor for efficient human speech ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our experimental findings suggest that the auditory filterbank in human ear functions as a near-optimal speech processor for achieving efficient speech communication between humans. Keywords. Human speech communication; articulatory gestures; auditory filterbank; mutual information. 1. Introduction. Speech is one of ...

  17. Hardware Synchronization for Embedded Multi-Core Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoif, Christian; Schoeberl, Martin; Liccardi, Benito

    2011-01-01

    -core systems, using an FPGA-development board with two hard PowerPC processor cores. Best- and worst-case results, together with intensive benchmarking of all synchronization primitives implemented, show the expected superiority of the hardware solutions. It is also shown that dual-ported memory outperforms...

  18. Random access quantum information processors using multimode circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, R K; Leung, N; Chakram, S; Groszkowski, Peter; Lu, Y; Earnest, N; McKay, D C; Koch, Jens; Schuster, D I

    2017-12-04

    Qubit connectivity is an important property of a quantum processor, with an ideal processor having random access-the ability of arbitrary qubit pairs to interact directly. This a challenge with superconducting circuits, as state-of-the-art architectures rely on only nearest-neighbor coupling. Here, we implement a random access superconducting quantum information processor, demonstrating universal operations on a nine-qubit memory, with a Josephson junction transmon circuit serving as the central processor. The quantum memory uses the eigenmodes of a linear array of coupled superconducting resonators. We selectively stimulate vacuum Rabi oscillations between the transmon and individual eigenmodes through parametric flux modulation of the transmon frequency. Utilizing these oscillations, we perform a universal set of quantum gates on 38 arbitrary pairs of modes and prepare multimode entangled states, all using only two control lines. We thus achieve hardware-efficient random access multi-qubit control in an architecture compatible with long-lived microwave cavity-based quantum memories.

  19. Processors' training needs on modern shea butter processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for continual production of high quality shea butter in Nigeria through the use of modern processing technologies necessitated this study. The study was carried out to ascertain training needs of shea butter processors on modern processing technologies in North Central Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Primary ...

  20. State-based Communication on Time-predictable Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    of tasks on other cores. Assuming a specific time-predictable multicore processor, we evaluate how the read and write primitives of the five algorithms contribute to the worst-case execution time of the communicating tasks. Each of the five algorithms has specific capabilities that make them suitable...

  1. Experiences with Compiler Support for Processors with Exposed Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Schleuniger, Pascal; Hindborg, Andreas Erik

    2015-01-01

    Field programmable gate arrays, FPGAs, have become an attractive implementation technology for a broad range of computing systems. We recently proposed a processor architecture, Tinuso, which achieves high performance by moving complexity from hardware to the compiler tool chain. This means...

  2. Maintenance document Dieka PreProcessor for Extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, Kasper

    2000-01-01

    This is the maintenance document belonging to the Dieka-PreProcessor. The first version of the preprocessor was written by Wenhua Cao. The preprocessor was revised and expanded by Kasper Valkering. It acts as the interface between Pro/Engineer and Dieka, and makes it possible to draw and mesh

  3. Processing PHARUS Data with the Generic SAR Processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, M.P.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Generic SAR Processor (GSP) is a SAR processing environment created to process airborne and spaceborne SAR data with a maximum amount of flexibility, while at the same time providing a user friendly and powerful environment for handling and analyzing SAR, including polarimetric calibiation.

  4. The study of image processing of parallel digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzes the basic characteristic of parallel DSP (digital signal processor) TMS320C80 and proposes related optimized image algorithm and the parallel processing method based on parallel DSP. The realtime for many image processing can be achieved in this way

  5. Evaluation of the Intel Westmere-EP server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by CERN openlab when comparing the 6-core “Westmere-EP” processor with Intel’s previous generation of the same microarchitecture, the “Nehalem-EP”. The former is produced in a new 32nm process, the latter in 45nm. Both platforms are dual-socket servers. Multiple benchmarks were used to get a good understanding of the performance of the new processor. We used both industry-standard benchmarks, such as SPEC2006, and specific High Energy Physics benchmarks, representing both simulation of physics detectors and data analysis of physics events. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following features: processor frequency, overclocking via Turbo mode, the number of physical cores in use, the use of logical cores via Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT), the cache sizes available, the memory configuration installed, as well...

  6. Evaluation of the Intel Nehalem-EX server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by the CERN openlab by comparing the 4-socket, 32-core Intel Xeon X7560 server with the previous generation 4-socket server, based on the Xeon X7460 processor. The Xeon X7560 processor represents a major change in many respects, especially the memory sub-system, so it was important to make multiple comparisons. In most benchmarks the two 4-socket servers were compared. It should be underlined that both servers represent the “top of the line” in terms of frequency. However, in some cases, it was important to compare systems that integrated the latest processor features, such as QPI links, Symmetric multithreading and over-clocking via Turbo mode, and in such situations the X7560 server was compared to a dual socket L5520 based system with an identical frequency of 2.26 GHz. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following ...

  7. Elementary function calculation programs for the central processor-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrolyubov, L.V.; Ovcharenko, G.A.; Potapova, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Subprograms of elementary functions calculations are given for the central processor (CP AS-6). A procedure is described to obtain calculated formulae which represent the elementary functions as a polynomial. Standard programs for random numbers are considered. All the programs described are based upon the algorithms of respective programs for BESM computer

  8. Detailed algorithmic description of a processor: a recipe for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work is to design a processor with which a simple developed compiler could generate the code of a simple programming language. The work was motivated by the fact that every programming language always has a compiler that generates object codes from its source language. It should be noted that ...

  9. The hardware track finder processor in CMS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    1997-01-01

    The work covers the design of the Track Finder Processor in the high energy experiment CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid, planned for 2005) at CERN/Geneva. The task of this processor is to identify muons and measure their transverse momentum. The track finder processor makes it possible to determine the physical relevance of each high energetic collision and to forward only interesting data to the data an alysis units. Data of more than two hundred thousand detector cells are used to determine the location of muons and measure their transverse momentum. Each 25 ns a new data set is generated. Measurem ent of location and transverse momentum of the muons can be terminated within 350 ns by using an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit). A pipeline architecture processes new data sets with th e required data rate of 40 MHz to ensure dead time free operation. In the framework of this study specifications and the overall concept of the track finder processor were worked out in detail. Simul ations were performed...

  10. FPGA Based Intelligent Co-operative Processor in Memory Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaki; Sotudeh, Reza; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2011-01-01

    In a continuing effort to improve computer system performance, Processor-In-Memory (PIM) architecture has emerged as an alternative solution. PIM architecture incorporates computational units and control logic directly on the memory to provide immediate access to the data. To exploit the potentia...

  11. Digital signal processor and processing method for GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jr., Jess B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A digital signal processor and processing method therefor for use in receivers of the NAVSTAR/GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) employs a digital carrier down-converter, digital code correlator and digital tracking processor. The digital carrier down-converter and code correlator consists of an all-digital, minimum bit implementation that utilizes digital chip and phase advancers, providing exceptional control and accuracy in feedback phase and in feedback delay. Roundoff and commensurability errors can be reduced to extremely small values (e.g., less than 100 nanochips and 100 nanocycles roundoff errors and 0.1 millichip and 1 millicycle commensurability errors). The digital tracking processor bases the fast feedback for phase and for group delay in the C/A, P.sub.1, and P.sub.2 channels on the L.sub.1 C/A carrier phase thereby maintaining lock at lower signal-to-noise ratios, reducing errors in feedback delays, reducing the frequency of cycle slips and in some cases obviating the need for quadrature processing in the P channels. Simple and reliable methods are employed for data bit synchronization, data bit removal and cycle counting. Improved precision in averaged output delay values is provided by carrier-aided data-compression techniques. The signal processor employs purely digital operations in the sense that exactly the same carrier phase and group delay measurements are obtained, to the last decimal place, every time the same sampled data (i.e., exactly the same bits) are processed.

  12. Assessment of food safety practices among cassava processors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food safety assessment is an effective means of discovering knowledge and data gaps that limit effective risk analysis and at the same time providing information to develop public policies on food safety management. The study assessed the cassava food safety practices among cassava processors in selected rural ...

  13. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  14. Rapid-Prototyping of Application Specific Signal Processors (RASSP) Education and Facilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gadient, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    The Rapid-Prototyping of Application Specific Signal Processors (RASSP) program was a major DARPA/Tri-Service initiative to reinvent the process by which embedded digital signal processors were developed...

  15. Tokenless Biometric Electronic Transactions Using an Audio Signature to Identify the Transaction Processor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Ned

    2002-01-01

    ... for conducting an electronic transaction by the user. A stored audio signature is associated with a transaction processor entity, which the transaction processor entity is responsible for conducting the electronic transaction...

  16. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process

  17. External costs and taxes in heat supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Aasa; Gustavsson, Leif

    2003-01-01

    A systems approach was used to compare different heating systems from a consumer perspective. The whole energy system was considered from natural resources to the required energy services. District heating, electric heat pumps, electric boilers, natural-gas-, oil- or pellet-fired local boilers were considered when supplying heat to a detached house. The district heat production included wood-chip-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants. Electricity other than cogenerated electricity was produced in wood-chip- and natural-gas-fired stand-alone power plants. The analysis includes four tax scenarios, as well as the external cost of environmental and health damage arising from energy conversion emission based on the ExternE study of the European Commission. The most cost-efficient systems were the natural-gas and oil boiler systems, followed by the heat pump and district heating systems, when the external cost and taxes were excluded. When including the external costs of CO 2 emission, the wood-fuel-based systems were much more cost efficient than the fossil-fuel-based systems, also when CO 2 capture and storage were applied. The external costs are, however, highly uncertain. Taxes steer towards lowering energy use and lowering CO 2 emission if they are levied solely on all the fossil-fuel-related emission and fuel use in the systems. If consumer electricity and heat taxes are used, the taxes have an impact on the total cost, regardless of the fuel used, thereby benefiting fuel-based local heating systems. The heat pump systems were the least affected by taxes, due to their high energy efficiency. The electric boiler systems were the least cost-efficient systems, also when the external cost and taxes were included

  18. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  19. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  20. HTGR core seismic analysis using an array processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatoff, H.; Charman, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    A Floating Point Systems array processor performs nonlinear dynamic analysis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core with significant time and cost savings. The graphite HTGR core consists of approximately 8000 blocks of various shapes which are subject to motion and impact during a seismic event. Two-dimensional computer programs (CRUNCH2D, MCOCO) can perform explicit step-by-step dynamic analyses of up to 600 blocks for time-history motions. However, use of two-dimensional codes was limited by the large cost and run times required. Three-dimensional analysis of the entire core, or even a large part of it, had been considered totally impractical. Because of the needs of the HTGR core seismic program, a Floating Point Systems array processor was used to enhance computer performance of the two-dimensional core seismic computer programs, MCOCO and CRUNCH2D. This effort began by converting the computational algorithms used in the codes to a form which takes maximum advantage of the parallel and pipeline processors offered by the architecture of the Floating Point Systems array processor. The subsequent conversion of the vectorized FORTRAN coding to the array processor required a significant programming effort to make the system work on the General Atomic (GA) UNIVAC 1100/82 host. These efforts were quite rewarding, however, since the cost of running the codes has been reduced approximately 50-fold and the time threefold. The core seismic analysis with large two-dimensional models has now become routine and extension to three-dimensional analysis is feasible. These codes simulate the one-fifth-scale full-array HTGR core model. This paper compares the analysis with the test results for sine-sweep motion