WorldWideScience

Sample records for external factors including

  1. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  2. External Factors Influencing Interorganizational Collaboration: The Strategic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Golonka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to present the phenomenon of interorganizational collaboration from the strategic perspective, as a complex phenomenon, infl uenced by environmental factors, such as institutions � both formal and informal. Additional aims of the paper are: to present a model including all signifi cant elements and identifying important research gaps.Methodology: The paper presents the results of literature analyses as well as the fi ndings of the latest research studies in the fi eld of interorganizational collaboration, taking into account the environment of the organization.Conclusions: The external environment of the organization, in particular socio-cultural factors, has a significant impact on the formation, development, evolution and management of interorganizational collaboration. There are still many research gaps in this fi eld, and some of them have been presented in this paper.Research limitations: This paper is a theoretical and conceptual study. It forms an introduction to further empirical research.Originality: The paper presents the phenomenon of interorganizational collaboration in a broader context, taking into account the external environment as an element infl uencing such collaboration. Most of the works in this fi eld focus on organizations managing or coping with the environment. This paper presents a different approach. It indicates the external factors that infl uence interorganizational collaboration from a strategic perspective, and subsequently presents them in the form of a model.

  3. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  4. EXTERNAL FACTORS FOR THE MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Horatiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the effects that external (or exogenous) factors, defined as economic factors that cannot be controlled or influenced by the central bank, have on monetary policy and the monetary policy transmission mechanism. Adopting a theoretical research position, we aim at identifying the main external factors to monetary policy and discuss the ways in which these factors alter the economic environment and implicitly the monetary policy transmission mechanism. This is don...

  5. EXTERNAL FACTORS FOR THE MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Horatiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and analyzes the effects that external (or exogenous factors, defined as economic factors that cannot be controlled or influenced by the central bank, have on monetary policy and the monetary policy transmission mechanism. Adopting a theoretical research position, we aim at identifying the main external factors to monetary policy and discuss the ways in which these factors alter the economic environment and implicitly the monetary policy transmission mechanism. This is done by changing the way in which monetary transmission channels work and deliver monetary policy decisions throughout the economy, with the final goal of producing central bank desired outcomes with regard to economic variables like inflation, employment, or the production level. We will begin this article with a brief introduction on the topic of monetary policy, the monetary policy transmission mechanism and the potential external factors that may influence the monetary policy and the functioning of its transmission mechanism. The main external factors are identified as linked to fiscal policy, commodity prices, financial market volatility or other globalization related processes. After this introduction, we will proceed with the analysis of the nature and influences of each of the above mentioned external factors on monetary policy and its transmission, indentifying the potential ways in which they can change the structure and internal processes of the transmission channels. As we will see in the study and highlight in our conclusion, the external factors cause decisive changes in the way monetary policy is transmitted, and thus will strongly influence the decisions that central banks take in order to alter key economic variables. The profound understanding of how these non-central bank controlled factors influence the monetary policy transmission mechanism is a key requirement for central banks, as only by being able to predict, recognize and evaluate the

  6. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigants, Haralds; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results. Internal and external factors and indicators, which affect energy management potential in pellet production are analysed. Analysis of external factors is based on the state legal framework regulating the development of the energy sector. Methodology on the analysis of energy demand includes the internal energy management of an enterprise. The experimental results discussed in this paper show that particular steps, which are oriented to specific use of technological equipment, could play significant role in energy efficiency improvement in industry which is illustrated by the pre-milling process in the pellet production system using power.

  7. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.

  8. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  9. Alcohol-related genes show an enrichment of associations with a persistent externalizing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenhurst, James R; Harden, K Paige; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Research using twins has found that much of the variability in externalizing phenotypes-including alcohol and drug use, impulsive personality traits, risky sex, and property crime-is explained by genetic factors. Nevertheless, identification of specific genes and variants associated with these traits has proven to be difficult, likely because individual differences in externalizing are explained by many genes of small individual effect. Moreover, twin research indicates that heritable variance in externalizing behaviors is mostly shared across the externalizing spectrum rather than specific to any behavior. We use a longitudinal, "deep phenotyping" approach to model a general externalizing factor reflecting persistent engagement in a variety of socially problematic behaviors measured at 11 assessment occasions spanning early adulthood (ages 18 to 28). In an ancestrally homogenous sample of non-Hispanic Whites (N = 337), we then tested for enrichment of associations between the persistent externalizing factor and a set of 3,281 polymorphisms within 104 genes that were previously identified as associated with alcohol-use behaviors. Next, we tested for enrichment among domain-specific factors (e.g., property crime) composed of residual variance not accounted for by the common factor. Significance was determined relative to bootstrapped empirical thresholds derived from permutations of phenotypic data. Results indicated significant enrichment of genetic associations for persistent externalizing, but not for domain-specific factors. Consistent with twin research findings, these results suggest that genetic variants are broadly associated with externalizing behaviors rather than unique to specific behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  11. Markov model of the loan portfolio dynamics considering influence of management and external economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhalkina, Yana; Timofeeva, Galina

    2016-12-01

    Mathematical model of loan portfolio in the form of a controlled Markov chain with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that coefficients of migration matrix depend on corrective actions and external factors. Corrective actions include process of receiving applications, interaction with existing solvent and insolvent clients. External factors are macroeconomic indicators, such as inflation and unemployment rates, exchange rates, consumer price indices, etc. Changes in corrective actions adjust the intensity of transitions in the migration matrix. The mathematical model for forecasting the credit portfolio structure taking into account a cumulative impact of internal and external changes is obtained.

  12. External Factors Are Only one Element Contributing to Inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪红驹; 张晓晶

    2008-01-01

    Our paper first fully examines the stylized facts of the translation of global liquidity into other economic phenomena, transmission of international commodity prices into other forms, the contractionary effects of renminbi appreciation, and the factor price distortion enhanced by external shocks. It then uses the extension of Phillips curve and VAR model to test the impacts of external shocks on domestic inflation. The regression results indicate that: in the short run, world food price is the main reason for domestic inflation; the influence of world oil prices on inflation will take effect in the median and long term; renminbi appreciation is contractionary through a relatively long time; world interest rates have a certain impact on domestic prices; and the translation of global liquidity has no significant effects on domestic prices thanks to the central bank’s offset efforts. In sum, GDP growth is still the root cause of inflation and the external shocks are just one contributing factor. Therefore, the following policies would be vital to curbing inflation: maintaining a moderate rather than excessive growth rate, adjusting the distorted factor price to control investment demand, and increasing the flexibility of the exchange rate regime and making the independent monetary policy the first line of defense against external shocks.

  13. Impact of external factors on sperm motility of Sepiella maindroni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia; JIANG Xiamin; FENG Xiandong

    2011-01-01

    Sperm motility is important in reproductive biology. To understand the physiological ecology characteristics of sperm of Sepiella maindroni, we studied the activation rate, active time, and lifespan of sperm to evaluate the influence of external factors, including temperature, salinity, pH, glucose, NaC1, KC1, MgCl2, CaCl2, EDTA-2Na and artificial seawater on sperm motility. The results show that the appropriate activation and motility condition for sperm were: temperature 20-30掳C (optimum 25掳C), salinity 10.6-30.6 (optimum 15.9) and pH 8.0-8.6 (optimum 8.0-8.4). Sperm activity varied in different concentrations of glucose, NaCl, K.C1, MgCl2 and CaCl2. None of the selected concentrations of EDTA-2Na solution could activate the sperm. The activation rate in artificial seawater devoid of Ca+2, Mg+2 or HCO-3 was low. The results should help further studies on the preservation and activation of squid sperm.

  14. Influence of External Factors on the Taiwan Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Wen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the small market size and the low trading volume, emerging markets are, in general, shallow and easily affected by external factors such as the capital flows from foreign portfolio investment and the stock market fluctuations of their major trading partners. This study attempts to investigate how foreign portfolio investment and the trading partner’s equity market affect the local stock market and whether such impacts are persistent through time. Adopting the GARCH-EVT-Copula approac...

  15. External Contamination Environment at ISS Included: Selected Results from Payloads Contamination Mapping Delivery 3 Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randy; Huang, Alvin; Steagall, Courtney; Kohl, Nathaniel; Koontz, Steve; Worthy, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  16. Factors Associated With External and Internal Lymphedema in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jie, E-mail: jie.deng@vanderbilt.edu [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Ridner, Sheila H. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Dietrich, Mary S. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Murphy, Barbara A. [Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: The sample included 81 patients {>=}3 months after HNC treatment. Physical and endoscopic examinations were conducted to determine if participants had external, internal, and/or combined head-and-neck lymphedema. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. Results: The following factors were statistically significantly associated with presence of lymphedema: (1) location of tumor associated with presence of external (P=.009) and combined lymphedema (P=.032); (2) time since end of HNC treatment associated with presence of external (P=.004) and combined lymphedema (P=.005); (3) total dosage of radiation therapy (P=.010) and days of radiation (P=.017) associated with the presence of combined lymphedema; (4) radiation status of surgical bed was associated with the presence of internal lymphedema, including surgery with postoperative radiation (P=.030) and (salvage) surgery in the irradiated field (P=.008); and (5) number of treatment modalities associated with external (P=.002), internal (P=.039), and combined lymphedema (P=.004). No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample. Conclusions: Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC.

  17. Model for external influences on cellular signal transduction pathways including cytosolic calcium oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichwald, C.; Kaiser, F. [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Experiments on the effects of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields on cells of the immune system, T-lymphocytes in particular, suggest that the external field interacts with the cell at the level of intracellular signal transduction pathways. These are directly connected with changes in the calcium-signaling processes of the cell. Based on these findings, a theoretical model for receptor-controlled cytosolic calcium oscillations and for external influences on the signal transduction pathway is presented. The authors discuss the possibility that the external field acts on the kinetics of the signal transduction between the activated receptors at the cell membrane and the G-proteins. It is shown that, depending on the specific combination of cell internal biochemical and external physical parameters, entirely different responses of the cell can occur. The authors compare the effects of a coherent (periodic) modulation and of incoherent perturbations (noise). The model and the calculations are based on the theory of self-sustained, nonlinear oscillators. It is argued that these systems form an ideal basis for information-encoding processes in biological systems.

  18. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  19. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  20. Influence of External Environmental Factors on the Success of Public Housing Projects in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    External environmental factors, which include political environment, economic environment and social environment, affect the success of public housing projects in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to establish the effect of these factors on public housing project success using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques.  The study was conducted in Nigeria by means of interviews, a pilot study and a main survey. Five hundred and fifty (550) questionnaires were administered...

  1. Crystal structure of HIV-1 gp41 including both fusion peptide and membrane proximal external regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Buzon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env composed of the receptor binding domain gp120 and the fusion protein subunit gp41 catalyzes virus entry and is a major target for therapeutic intervention and for neutralizing antibodies. Env interactions with cellular receptors trigger refolding of gp41, which induces close apposition of viral and cellular membranes leading to membrane fusion. The energy released during refolding is used to overcome the kinetic barrier and drives the fusion reaction. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2 A resolution of the complete extracellular domain of gp41 lacking the fusion peptide and the cystein-linked loop. Both the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR and the membrane proximal external region (MPER form helical extensions from the gp41 six-helical bundle core structure. The lack of regular coiled-coil interactions within FPPR and MPER splay this end of the structure apart while positioning the fusion peptide towards the outside of the six-helical bundle and exposing conserved hydrophobic MPER residues. Unexpectedly, the section of the MPER, which is juxtaposed to the transmembrane region (TMR, bends in a 90 degrees-angle sideward positioning three aromatic side chains per monomer for membrane insertion. We calculate that this structural motif might facilitate the generation of membrane curvature on the viral membrane. The presence of FPPR and MPER increases the melting temperature of gp41 significantly in comparison to the core structure of gp41. Thus, our data indicate that the ordered assembly of FPPR and MPER beyond the core contributes energy to the membrane fusion reaction. Furthermore, we provide the first structural evidence that part of MPER will be membrane inserted within trimeric gp41. We propose that this framework has important implications for membrane bending on the viral membrane, which is required for fusion and could provide a platform for epitope and lipid bilayer recognition for broadly

  2. The High Velocity Galaxy Problem of $\\Lambda$CDM in the Local Group $-$ Including External Perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Banik, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    We recently used an axisymmetric model of the Local Group (LG) to show that the observed positions and velocities of galaxies inside it are difficult to reconcile with the standard cosmological model, $\\Lambda$CDM (MNRAS, 459, 2237). We now extend this investigation using a 3D model of the LG. This makes it feasible to directly include several other mass concentrations within and just outside the LG e.g. M33 and IC 342, respectively. As before, LG dwarf galaxies are treated as test particles. Although our best-fitting 3D model yields different velocity predictions for individual galaxies, the overall picture remains unchanged. In particular, observed radial velocities (RVs) tend to exceed $\\Lambda$CDM model predictions. The typical mismatch is slightly higher than in our earlier axisymmetric analysis, with a root mean square value of $\\sim$50 km/s. \\emph{Our main finding is that including the 3D distribution of massive perturbing dark matter halos is unlikely to help greatly with the high velocity galaxy prob...

  3. Analysis of the Internal and External Factors Involved in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲艳春

    2009-01-01

    Materialist dialectics holds that internal causes are the basis of change and the external causes are the condition of change, and that external causes become operative through internal causes. This law can be applied into SLA. The internal causes and external causes influence SLA gready. This paper mainly discusses the factors involved in SLA process.

  4. The Effect of External Factors on Consumption Electricity Loads Forecasting using Fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno Kang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Dwi Santika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applied Fuzzy Inference System Sugeno to forecast electrical load by considering the external factors. To see the accuracy of forecasting using Fuzzy Inference System Sugeno, then a comparison between the forecasting results of Fuzzy Inference System Sugeno using historical data with Fuzzy Inference System Sugeno using external factors was done. By using external factors method, resulted the smallest RMSE of 0762 and using historical data obtained error (RMSE of 1028. The results of the study came to the conclusion that Fuzzy Inference System Sugeno method using external factors to forecast the consumption of electrical load gives a better result than Fuzzy Inference System Sugeno using only historical data.

  5. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  6. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  7. EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCE ON INFLATION: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

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    Ihnatov Iulian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to assess the main external determinants of inflation dynamics in Romania. The literature in the field of measuring inflation dynamics is wealthy and various. There are many developing country - level studies that examine inflation dynamics: Blavy (2004 - Guinea, Duma (2008 - Sri Lanka, Gottschalk et al (2008 - Sierra Leone, Moriyama (2008 - Sudan, Mwase (2006 - Tanzania, Williams and Adedeji (2004 - Dominican Republic, Hossain (2005 - Indonesia, Almounsor (2010 - Yemen. The issue of Romanian inflation dynamics is present in many and various studies, like Hammermann (2007, Pelinescu and Dospinescu (2006, Budina et al (2006 etc. There are no other recent studies that analyze the external determinants on Romanian inflation dynamics. In our paper we estimate an OLS single equation model, using a methodology derived from Almounsor (2010. The empirical analysis uses monthly data from August 2005 to January 2011. The start point of the data series is the moment of a major change in the National Bank of Romania (NBR monetary policy: adoption of the inflation targeting regime. The independent variables used in our research are: harmonized consumer price index of EU-25 countries, EUR/RON exchange rate, crude oil price index (for analyzing the external shocks effect and M2 monetary aggregate (intermediate money supply as a control variable. The outcomes suggest that inflation in Romania is driven mainly by international price shocks - harmonized consumer price index of EU-25 countries. The EUR/RON exchange rate depreciation has a small influence on domestic inflation. In the short run, the effect of the international oil price is insignificant. Money supply, used here as a control variable, is shown to have a very small effect on inflation in Romania when using OLS regressions. The results show that 66% of the domestic inflation variance is explained by the independent variables in our model.

  8. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

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    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  9. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  10. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  11. The Effect of External Factors on Consumption Electricity Loads Forecasting using Fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno Kang

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gayatri Dwi Santika; wayan f mahmudy

    2017-01-01

    .... The results of the study came to the conclusion that Fuzzy Inference System Sugeno method using external factors to forecast the consumption of electrical load gives a better result than Fuzzy...

  12. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  13. Towards a Classification of Architecture Initiatives: Outlining the External Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    environment in which the company and the future product program is operating. The outlining of the factors are based on the conviction that no one-fits-all exists, when it comes to architecture initiatives, and the notion that it is impossible to truly evaluate whether an architecture initiative is good...

  14. Internal and external factors in child second language acquisition: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unsworth, S.; Hulk, A.; Marinis, T.

    2011-01-01

    An introduction to the journal is presented in which the editor discusses various articles published within the issue including one on morphosyntactic development and vocabulary, one on acquisition of grammatical gender, and one on the importance of the low proficiency in immigrant families..

  15. THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF STUDENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SPEAKING ACTIVITY AT SMP PROGRESIF BUMI SHALAWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Nurul Haikal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to know what factors that influence the students’ involvement in speaking activity in order to practice their speaking skill and what strategies that the teacher used to encourage those external factors. This research uses descriptive qualitative method. There are two instruments used for this research, namely, class observation and interview. Based on the results of class observation and interview, the researcher concludes that teacher factor gives the greatest impact on students’ involvement and the appropriate strategies can support those external factors.

  16. Holes localized in nanostructures in an external magnetic field: g-factor and mixing of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semina, M. A.; Suris, R. A., E-mail: suris@theory.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    The energy spectrum and wave functions of holes in the valence band in semiconductor nanosystems, including quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, in an external magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The dependence of Zeeman splitting of the hole ground state upon variation in the size-quantization parameters with regard to the complex structure of the valence band and magnetic field-induced mixing of hole states is traced. Analytical formulas for describing the Zeeman effect in the valence band in the limiting cases of a quantum disk, spherically symmetric quantum dot, and quantum wire are presented. It is demonstrated that the g-factor of a hole is extremely sensitive to the hole-state composition (heavy or light hole) and, consequently, to the geometry of the size-quantization potential.

  17. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Ethiopia: The Impact of External Factors on the Security of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Záhořík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Ethiopia witnesses so far unseen economic growth while the transformation to democracy more or less failed. Due to the fact that the Horn of Africa belongs to the most unstable regions in Africa, external factors play a significant role in shaping and reshaping of internal politics of each state. In this study, we will focus on an analysis of external factors and their impact on security and politics in Ethiopia. As we argue, it is these factors that have a substantial impact on Ethiopian politics and security.

  19. An Investigation of Relationships between Internal and External Factors Affecting Technology Integration in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Shannon, David; Wolf, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affecting technology integration have been identified, but little research has examined the relationships between factors, especially internal and external ones, and whether they directly or indirectly influenced each other. To fill this research gap, this study examined the significance and relationships of five factors…

  20. An Investigation of Relationships between Internal and External Factors Affecting Technology Integration in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Shannon, David; Wolf, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affecting technology integration have been identified, but little research has examined the relationships between factors, especially internal and external ones, and whether they directly or indirectly influenced each other. To fill this research gap, this study examined the significance and relationships of five factors…

  1. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    and insulation has to be fulfilled. Based on a given design of the tapered insulation the total heat loss coefficient of the roof can be calculated using formulae in EN ISO 6946 for typical segments of the tapered insulation. Performing design and calculations for large roofs with numerous different segments can...... for design of flat roofs and a pc-program that can be used for calculating the total heat loss coefficient of externally insulated roofs with insulation in tapered layers, taking into account thermal bridges in the roof construction.......In order to achieve durability of flat roofs with external insulation, it is necessary to secure proper drainage of the roof, i.e. to avoid water leaking into the insulation. The design of the tapered insulation of the roof is quite difficult as requirements with respect to both drainage...

  2. Research on the Relationships between Chinese Journal Impact Factors and External Web Link Counts and Web Impact Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lu; Qiu, Junping

    2004-01-01

    Journal impact factors (JIFs) as determined by the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information of China (ISTIC) of forty-two Chinese engineering journals were compared with external Web link counts, obtained from Lycos, and Web Impact Factors (WIFs) of corresponding journal Web sites to determine if any significant correlation existed…

  3. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    be quite tedious, and therefore a method to generate and optimize solutions has been developed and implemented in a program that also takes into account the effects of different types of thermal bridges, i.e. roof windows, insulation fasteners, roof/wall joints etc. This paper describes a new method...... for design of flat roofs and a pc-program that can be used for calculating the total heat loss coefficient of externally insulated roofs with insulation in tapered layers, taking into account thermal bridges in the roof construction....

  4. Individual differences in very young children’s English acquisition in China : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Tendeiro, Jorge; de Bot, Kees

    This study assesses the impact of internal and external factors on very young EFL learners in an instructional setting. 71 child English learners in China (onset age: 2;0 - 5;6) were involved: their receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary and receptive grammar were taken as outcome variables,

  5. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing

  6. Campus Life: The Impact of External Factors on Emotional Health of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dalena

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the perceptions of students at a university campus in Gauteng South Africa on external factors that may contribute to their emotional (psychological) and academic functioning. During a preliminary investigation, three students at a residential university voluntary came for psychological counseling sessions because of stress…

  7. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing machines with a volume of 50 l were us

  8. School-External Factors in Finnish Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Sophie; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the English language competence of Finnish bilingual pupils and school-external factors such as parental expectations, home involvement, and exposure to English outside the classroom. Data on the pupils' language competence was collected from n?=?122 6th graders in bilingual education, and compared…

  9. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing machine

  10. Individual differences in very young children’s English acquisition in China : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Tendeiro, Jorge; de Bot, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of internal and external factors on very young EFL learners in an instructional setting. 71 child English learners in China (onset age: 2;0 - 5;6) were involved: their receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary and receptive grammar were taken as outcome variables, an

  11. Individual differences in very young children’s English acquisition in China : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Tendeiro, Jorge; de Bot, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of internal and external factors on very young EFL learners in an instructional setting. 71 child English learners in China (onset age: 2;0 - 5;6) were involved: their receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary and receptive grammar were taken as outcome variables, an

  12. Divergent composition of algal-bacterial biofilms developing under various external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barranguet, C.; Veuger, B.; van Beusekom, S.A.M.; Marvan, P.; Sinke, J.J.; Admiraal, W.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of external factors other than nutrients on biofilm development and composition was studied with a combination of optical (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PAM fluorometry) and chemical methods (EPS extraction, HPLC, TOC determination). The development of algal-bacterial biofilms wa

  13. The Effects of Demographic, Internal and External University Environment Factors on Faculty Job Satisfaction in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Quang

    2016-01-01

    University faculty members with higher job satisfaction are more productive, creative and positive attitude towards their job. Even less is known about university faculty job satisfaction in developing countries like Vietnam. This study examines the effects of demographic, internal and external university environment factors on faculty job…

  14. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, pHaiti and similar resource-limited settings.

  15. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit board: a study on external factor and a robust design for optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shibing; Wu, Jiang; Qin, Yufei; Xu, Zhenming

    2010-07-01

    Electrostatic separation is an effective and environmentally friendly method for recycling waste printed circuit board (PCB) by several kinds of electrostatic separators. However, some notable problems have been detected in its applications and cannot be efficiently resolved by optimizing the separation process. Instead of the separator itself, these problems are mainly caused by some external factors such as the nonconductive powder (NP) and the superficial moisture of feeding granule mixture. These problems finally lead to an inefficient separation. In the present research, the impacts of these external factors were investigated and a robust design was built to optimize the process and to weaken the adverse impact. A most robust parameter setting (25 kv, 80 rpm) was concluded from the experimental design. In addition, some theoretical methods, including cyclone separation, were presented to eliminate these problems substantially. This will contribute to efficient electrostatic separation of waste PCB and make remarkable progress for industrial applications.

  17. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AT THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Sargsyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of the external environment, which have a key influence on the economic activities of organizations in the food industry, are discussed in the article. The influence of certain external environment factors is examined by the example of the Republic of Armenia with taking into account the characteristics of the industry. The rates of development, the leading market indicators are analysed, as well as the key components that form the socio-economic system of the industry are considered.

  18. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiqiang; Guo, Huifang; Yang, Yilong; Sun, Baozhi

    2015-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout. Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy. Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers' PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers.

  19. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqiang Guo

    Full Text Available Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS. Effort-reward imbalance (ERI, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout.Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy.Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers' PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers.

  20. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68 who worked in centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18 in Croatia. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. RESULTS: The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  1. TAM-based external factors related to ERP solutions acceptance in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zabukovsek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ERP solutions use, understanding of critical success factors of ERP solutions assimilation in organizations is crucial. The technology acceptance model (TAM proposed by Davis (1989 has been the most widely used model for researching user acceptance and usage of IT/IS. The purpose of this paper is to extend the original TAM with groups of external factors which impact actual ERP system use. First, we focus on ERP system use in companies’ maturity phase. Second, we expose and examine three groups of external factors which influence ERP usage. The model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of ERP users in 44 organizations. Survey data have been collected from ERP users who have been exposed to an ERP system which has operated for more than one year. The proposed research model was analyzed using the PLS approach.

  2. The influence of external factors on the credit risk in leasing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Farsad Amanollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk consists of probability of non-return, which may be in the form of bankruptcy or a decrease in financial and credit situation of the lessee. The variables are extracted from the Central Bank. In this study the independent variables are measured with six factors that are called external factors. The external factors are size of leasing, ownership interest rate, foreign exchange, inflation, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The present study uses related observations from 31 leasing companies from 2008 to 2013 to find out the determinants of the credit risk. The combined evidences suggest that internal factors such as upfront prepayment, credit insurance contract, security deposits, time and period contract, collateral and guarantees, contract amount, as well as external factors such as interest rate, inflation, foreign exchange, Gross Domestic Product infrastructure, and credit risk are determinants in the policy-making process involving the industrial leasing. Furthermore, the empirical results indicate the size of leasing and ownership are not the significant determinants of credit risk. The results of this dissertation provide several implications for policy-makers in the leasing industry. Policy-makers will be better off employing different procedures for leasing activities in the leasing industry.

  3. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-08-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons have been calculated for approximately 500 radionuclides of potential importance in environmental radiological assessments. The dose-rate factors were obtained using the DOSFACTER computer code. The results given in this report incorporate calculation of electron dose-rate factors for radiosensitive tissues of the skin, improved estimates of organ dose-rate factors for photons, based on organ doses for monoenergetic sources at the body surface of an exposed individual, and the spectra of scattered photons in air from monoenergetic sources in an infinite, uniformly contaminated atmospheric cloud, calculation of dose-rate factors for other radionuclides in addition to those of interest in the nuclear fuel cycle, and incorporation of updated radioactive decay data for all radionuclides. Dose-rate factors are calculated for three exposure modes - immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and exposure at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface. The report presents the equations used to calculate the external dose-rate factors for photons and electrons, documentation of the revised DOSFACTER computer code, and a complete tabulation of the calculated dose-rate factors. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  5. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  6. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M J; de Groot, Christianne J; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the Netherlands. With the data of this trial, we performed a cohort study among women attempting vaginal delivery after successful ECV. We evaluated whether maternal age, gestational age, parity, time interval between ECV and delivery, birth weight, neonatal gender, and induction of labor were predictive for a vaginal delivery on one hand or a CS or instrumental vaginal delivery on the other hand. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among 301 women who attempted vaginal delivery after a successful external cephalic version attempt, the cesarean section rate was 13% and the instrumental vaginal delivery rate 6%, resulting in a combined instrumental delivery rate of 19%. Nulliparity increased the risk of cesarean section (OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-6.1)) and instrumental delivery (OR 4.2 (95% CI 2.1-8.6)). Maternal age, gestational age at delivery, time interval between external cephalic version and delivery, birth weight and neonatal gender did not contribute to the prediction of failed spontaneous vaginal delivery. In our cohort of 301 women with a successful external cephalic version, nulliparity was the only one of seven factors that predicted the risk for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery.

  7. Is climate change an unforeseen, irresistible and external factor - A force majeure in marine environmental law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Roxanne; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Several environmental laws include provisions on natural causes or force majeure, which except States from their commitments if it can be proven that the failure to meet the commitment is due to factors outside their control. The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has a pivotal role in managing EU marine waters. This paper analyses natural causes and force majeure provisions of the MFSD and other marine legislation, and addresses their interaction with climate change and its consequences, especially the effect on the obligation of ensuring seas are in Good Environmental Status. Climate change is an exogenic unmanaged pressure in that it emanates from outside the area being managed but in which the management authority has to respond to the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and temperature elevation, rather than its causes. It is suggested that a defence by a Member State of force majeure may be accepted if an event was proven to be due to an externality of control, irresistible and unforeseeable. The analysis contends that countering such a legal defence would centre on the fact that climate change is a well-accepted phenomenon, is foreseen with an accepted level of confidence and probability and is due to human actions. However, as yet, this has not been legally tested.

  8. Theory of Reasoned Action and the role of external factors in organic food purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Myresten, Emma; Setterhall, Mikaela

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a current phenomenon and behavioural shift amongst consumers’, namely the accelerating growth of organic food sales in Sweden. By combining the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), with the logic of value co-creation, an appropriate research tool has been developed stemmed from two related sub-studies. Based on TRA’s argument that additional factors, referred to as external, only can influence behavioural intention indirectly, combined with the proposed impact of value co-crea...

  9. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. Materials and Methods This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatme...

  10. The effect of external factors on dielectric permittivity of Rochelle salt: humidity, annealing, stresses, electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.Slivka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of external factors, such as dessicating/wetting, thermal annealing, uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure, on the dielectric permittivity of Rochelle salt crystals is investigated. The obtained results are compared with the available literature data and analyzed within the phenomenological Landau approach. A significant effect of the internal polar point defects in crystals and storage conditions on the dielectric permittivity is shown.

  11. The role of internal and external factors on management students’ subject choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AL Coldwell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate undergraduates’ perceptions of the comparative worth/utility of studying Business Science disciplines at a prominent South African University in terms of: (i internal factors comprising  aptitudes, values and interests; and (ii external factors comprising job attractiveness (job prospects, earning potential, non-salary benefits and work-life balance, and (iii university and discipline academic reputations. The study utilises a specifically designed instrument to measure internal and external factors impinging on career choice. A purposive non-random sample, consisting of 130 second and third year students in Human Resource Management (HRM and Management, is used. Findings suggest that, while perceptions of aspects of careers, such as job and career prospects generally dominate the choice of major subjects, students studying HRM majors hold community orientated values that distinguish them from their peers. Many students are found to make choices primarily on the basis of their perceptions of ‘external factors’, rather than their interests. The findings are discussed in terms of extant theory and potential practical outcomes.

  12. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  13. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants.

  14. External and internal factors influencing self-directed online learning of physiotherapy undergraduate students in Sweden: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Nilsson, Maria H; Gummesson, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Online courses have become common in health sciences education. This learning environment can be designed using different approaches to support student learning. To further develop online environment, it is important to understand how students perceive working and learning online. The aim of this study is to identify aspects influencing students' learning processes and their adaptation to self-directed learning online. Thirty-four physiotherapy students with a mean age of 25 years (range, 21 to 34 years) participated. Qualitative content analysis and triangulation was used when investigating the students' self-reflections, written during a five week self-directed, problem-oriented online course. Two categories emerged: 'the influence of the structured framework' and 'communication and interaction with teachers and peers.' The learning processes were influenced by external factors, e.g., a clear structure including a transparent alignment of assignments and assessment. Important challenges to over-come were primarily internal factors, e.g., low self-efficacy, difficulties to plan the work effectively and adapting to a new environment. The analyses reflected important perspectives targeting areas which enable further course development. The influences of external and internal factors on learning strategies and self-efficacy are important aspects to consider when designing online courses. Factors such as pedagogical design, clarity of purpose, goals, and guidelines were important as well as continuous opportunities for communication and collaboration. Further studies are needed to understand and scaffold the motivational factors among students with low self-efficacy.

  15. Dynamical History Of The Local Group In ΛCDM slowromancapii@ - Including External Perturbers In 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indranil; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    We attempt to fit the observed radial velocities (RVs) of ˜ 30 Local Group (LG) galaxies using a 3D dynamical model of it and its immediate environment within the context of the standard cosmological paradigm, ΛCDM. This extends and confirms the basic results of our previous axisymmetric investigation of the LG (MNRAS, 459, 2237). We find that there remains a tendency for observed RVs to exceed those predicted by our best-fitting model. The typical mismatch is slightly higher than in our 2D model, with a root mean square value of ˜ 50 km/s. Our main finding is that including the 3D distribution of massive perturbing dark matter halos is unlikely to help greatly with the high velocity galaxy problem. Nonetheless, the 2D and 3D results differ in several other ways such as which galaxies' RVs are most problematic and the preferred values of parameters common to both models. The anomalously high RVs of several LG dwarfs may be better explained if the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) were once moving much faster than in our models. This would allow LG dwarfs to gain very high RVs via gravitational slingshot encounters with a massive fast-moving galaxy. Such a scenario is possible in some modified gravity theories, especially those which require the MW and M31 to have previously undergone a close flyby. In a ΛCDM context, however, this scenario is not feasible as the resulting dynamical friction would cause a rapid merger.

  16. Investigation of occupational health and safety application using the internal and external factor assessment matrix: SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Material and Method: IIn this study, the threats, opportunities, weaknesses and strengths were evaluated by one of the tools named SWOT, in one of the assembly industries company in Iran, in order to controlling the operations in this company considering to safety and health standard (OHSAS18001. A comparison of the company’s performance in implementing the safety and health standards was done between years 1387 and 1388 contain in the Company considered, and weighted scoring weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities using the matrix of internal factors (strengths and weaknesses and external factors (treats and opportunities then, the importance of each factor were determined in the company’s implementation and enforcement of those standards. . Result: Focusing on the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, some strategies to improve the implementation were presented. Any points were weighted based on the most important weaknesses identified as the lack of monitoring contractors, lack of management commitment for implementation of OHSAS18001, no attempt to identify the risks of change, lack of training needs assessment, main strengths identified in the context of adequate budget health and safety, environmental efforts, identify risk for abnormal conditions, the most important threats for immediate delivery customer orders and the opportunity to support the safety and health plans, were determined. . Conclusion: Sum of the weighted scores in year 87 were obtained for the external factors (opportunities and threats, 2.16 and internal factors (strengths and weaknesses 1.66. Both of these scores were less than 2.5 (minimum amount of the acceptable rate so, the company has been poor performance in the implementation of this standard for the year 87 and a weak reaction in the use of opportunities and the minimize threats has. In case of internal factors, it was worse than external one and the situation was more bold of the weaknesses companies to

  17. Bio-Medical Factors and External Hazards in Space Station Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olling, Edward H.

    1966-01-01

    The design of space-station configurations is influenced by many factors, Probably the most demanding and critical are the biomedical and external hazards requirements imposed to provide the proper environment and supporting facilities for the crew and the adequate protective measures necessary to provide a configuration in which the crew can live and work efficiently in relative comfort and safety. The major biomedical factors, such as physiology, psychology, nutrition, personal hygiene, waste management, and recreation, all impose their own peculiar requirements. The commonality and integration of these requirements demand the utmost ingenuity and inventiveness be exercised in order to achieve effective configuration compliance. The relationship of biomedical factors for the internal space-station environment will be explored with respect to internal atmospheric constituency, atmospheric pressure levels, oxygen positive pressure, temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, and atmospheric contamination. The range of these various parameters and the recommended levels for design use will be analyzed. Requirements and criteria for specific problem areas such as zero and artificial gravity and crew private quarters will be reviewed and the impact on the design of representative solutions will be presented. In the areas of external hazards, the impact of factors such as meteoroids, radiation, vacuum, temperature extremes, and cycling on station design will be evaluated. Considerations with respect to operational effectiveness and crew safety will be discussed. The impact of such factors on spacecraft design to achieve acceptable launch and reentry g levels, crew rotation intervals, etc., will be reviewed. Examples of configurations, subsystems, and internal a arrangement and installations to comply with such biomedical factor requirements will ber presented. The effects of solutions to certain biomedical factors on configuration weight, operational convenience, and

  18. An investigation of most important internal and external organizational factors effect on new product performance in food industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid raza Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New products are critical and undeniable factors for companies that operate in a competitive and changing environment. Many researchers have sought to identify factors that affect the success of new product. This research seeks to identify and categorize the most important factors which influenced on the performance of new products in food industries. After reading several researches, these factors were classified into two categories: internal and external factors. The most important internal factors that, addressed in this research include: entrepreneurial orientation, organizational learning and new product development process, and the most important external factors are: the predictability of customers demands, technological turbulence, market turbulence and intensity of competition. Statistical society of this study is 66 food companies of Mazandaran province, with at least 2 years work experience, that released at least one new product within last year. In this study, hypothesis were tested by structural equation tests, correlation, and hierarchical and multiple regressions, and data analysis software SPSS16 and Visual PLS was used. The findings of this research indicate that entrepreneurial orientation, new product development process and predictability of customer demand has a direct and meaningful impact, and technological turbulence, market turbulence and competitive intensity have a significant moderating effect on the performance of new products in food industries. But it didn’t demonstrate a significant impact of organizational learning on new product performance. The study of indirect effect of organizational learning on new product performance shows that, organizational learning may increase the performance of new products when, a new product development process acts as a mediating variable. Determining suitability of the model by GOF indices shows that the modified model of new product model of new product development process

  19. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  20. Relationships between road safety, safety measures and external factors : a scan of the literature in view of model development and topics for further research.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature scan is to examine where literature on the effect of external factors and road safety measures on road safety exists and where it is lacking. This scan will help us to decide which factors to include in a comprehensive road safety model as SWOV is working on, and at the same time identifies promising future research topics. The report is divided into two main road safety topics; firstly, the external influences which are not directly related to road safety manag...

  1. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. Materials and Methods The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. Results The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (poverjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. Conclusion These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration. PMID:23071964

  2. Evolving Adjustments to External (Gamma) Slope Factors for CERCLA Risk and Dose Assessments - 12290

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Stuart [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    2012-07-01

    To model the external exposure pathway in risk and dose assessments of radioactive contamination at Superfund sites, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses slope factors (SFs), also known as risk coefficients, and dose conversion factors (DCFs). Without any adjustment these external radiation exposure pathways effectively assumes that an individual is exposed to a source geometry that is effectively an infinite slab. The concept of an 'infinite slab' means that the thickness of the contaminated zone and its aerial extent are so large that it behaves as if it were infinite in its physical dimensions. EPA has been making increasingly complex adjustments to account for the extent of the contamination and its corresponding radiation field to provide more accurate risk and dose assessment modeling when using its calculators. In most instances, the more accurate modeling results derived from these gamma adjustments are less conservative. The notable exception are for some radionuclides in rooms with contaminated walls, ceiling, and floors, and the receptor is in location of the room with the highest amount of radiation exposure, usually the corner of small rooms and the center of large conference rooms. (authors)

  3. Cholesteatoma of the external ear canal: etiological factors, symptoms and clinical findings in a series of 48 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael Lyhne

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate symptoms, clinical findings, and etiological factors in external ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC). METHOD: Retrospective evaluation of clinical records of all consecutive patients with EECC in the period 1979 to 2005 in a tertiary referral centre. Main outcome...... measures were incidence rates, classification according to causes, symptoms, extensions in the ear canal including adjacent structures, and possible etiological factors. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were identified with 48 EECC. Overall incidence rate was 0.30 cases per year per 100,000 inhabitants. Twenty...... into nearby structures. Whereas the aetiology of secondary EECC can be explained, the origin of primary EECC remains uncertain; smoking and minor trauma of the ear canal may predispose....

  4. The interaction of internal and external factors in the transformation of employment patterns in Yucatán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Méndez Navarro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residents in rural Yucatan, Mexico, have experienced dramatic employment changes from one generation to the next: most older men are farmers, while young men work in manufacturing and services. Young women engage informal employment much more than their mothers. We examine several factors originating outside the territory,including international markets and Mexican public policies, to see how they interact with social, political and cultural processes within the territory in the development of these occupational transformations. Attention to the role gender plays in external factors as well as in territorial processes drives our analysis of a key territorial process: the implementation of national legislation for sustainable rural development.

  5. External and internal factors influencing self-directed online learning of physiotherapy undergraduate students in Sweden: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Online courses have become common in health sciences education. This learning environment can be designed using different approaches to support student learning. To further develop online environment, it is important to understand how students perceive working and learning online. The aim of this study is to identify aspects influencing students’ learning processes and their adaptation to self-directed learning online. Methods: Thirty-four physiotherapy students with a mean age of 25 years (range, 21 to 34 years participated. Qualitative content analysis and triangulation was used when investigating the students’ self-reflections, written during a five week self-directed, problem-oriented online course. Results: Two categories emerged: ‘the influence of the structured framework’ and ‘communication and interaction with teachers and peers.’ The learning processes were influenced by external factors, e.g., a clear structure including a transparent alignment of assignments and assessment. Important challenges to over-come were primarily internal factors, e.g., low self-efficacy, difficulties to plan the work effectively and adapting to a new environment. Conclusion: The analyses reflected important perspectives targeting areas which enable further course development. The influences of external and internal factors on learning strategies and self-efficacy are important aspects to consider when designing online courses. Factors such as pedagogical design, clarity of purpose, goals, and guidelines were important as well as continuous opportunities for communication and collaboration. Further studies are needed to understand and scaffold the motivational factors among students with low self-efficacy.

  6. Computation of External Quality Factors for RF Structures by Means of Model Order Reduction and a Perturbation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.

  7. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangzheng; Zhang, Fen; Li, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Liang, Junhui; Mei, Yuting; Cheng, Wenwen; Qian, Yun

    2017-02-27

    Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities) contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing's green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization.

  8. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangzheng; Zhang, Fen; Li, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Liang, Junhui; Mei, Yuting; Cheng, Wenwen; Qian, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities) contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing’s green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization. PMID:28264451

  9. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing’s green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization.

  10. Externalizing behavior through the lens of the five-factor model: a focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Jones, Shayne

    2008-03-01

    We examined relations between the Five-factor model (FFM) domains and facets of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, hypothesized behavioral manifestations of these traits (e.g., social information processing and delay discounting), and externalizing behaviors in an undergraduate sample. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were differentially related to the externalizing behaviors and the laboratory tasks, which in turn evinced significant relations with externalizing behaviors. The personality facets displayed evidence of modest incremental validity over the broader domains and were related to the externalizing behaviors even when controlling for the social information processing and behavioral discounting variables. In general, the results support the validity of the FFM domains and facets, particularly Agreeableness, in the prediction of a variety of externalizing behaviors.

  11. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  12. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  13. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  14. Different patterns of boys' externalizing behavior and their relation to risk factors: a longitudinal study of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, M; Lösel, F

    2010-01-01

    Childrens' externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and impulsivity are serious problems in many societies. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems (anxiety, depression etc.). The present study addressed these two groups in a prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the previous descriptive findings remained stable over time and, in particular, whether the two types differed in important risk factors for antisocial behavior. The sample consisted of 198 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study. The first assessment took place in kindergarten and the second 3.4 years later in elementary school. The behavior problems were assessed by ratings of kindergarten teachers and elementary school teachers using the Social Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ). The risk factors were low socio-economic status of the family, birth complications, physical punishment in parenting behavior, difficult temperament, low intelligence, and aggression-prone social information processing of the child. Approximately 15% of the boys revealed externalizing behavior problems. A variable-oriented analysis showed significant stability over time. In a person-oriented Configural Frequency Analysis the 'externalizing only' and the 'combined externalizing and internalizing' pattern could be replicated. For five of the six risk factors we found significant differences between the boys with behavior problems and a non-deviant group. However, the two different patterns of externalizing problems differed only in intelligence (lower for the group with combined problems). The results confirm models of cumulative biological, psychological and social risks for antisocial behavior over time. Furthermore, specified analyses of the two types and their relation to proactive and reactive

  15. Sabellariidae from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, including a new species of Lygdamis and notes on external morphology of the median organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, María; Faroni-Perez, Larisse; Hutchings, Pat

    2015-09-18

    We document herein the occurrence of three species of Sabellariidae at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, including a new Lygdamis species. Sabellaria lungalla, described from Northern Territory, is reported for Queensland for the first time. The genus Gesaia, represented by a planktonic larva collected in shallow waters of the Archipelago, is a new record for Australia. Lygdamis nasutus n. sp. is characterised by one of the most conspicuous median organ described in the family (cylindrical, distally pigmented and is provided with a flattened, teardrop corona), its paleae morphology (with straight paleae, outer ones with asymmetrical pointed tips and subtle thecal sculpture and inner paleae with blunt tips and smooth surface), three lateral lobes on chaetiger 2, abdominal chaetigers with two type of neurochaetae, and notopodial uncini with 1-4 longitudinal rows of teeth. Comparison of the external morphology of the medial organ and median ridge of several species has been undertaken. Even though its function remains uncertain, the median organ morphology seems species specific and may provide relevant information about the evolutionary history and adaptations of sabellariids.

  16. Do iatrogenic factors bias the placement of external ventricular catheters?--a single institute experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woernle, Christoph M; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bellut, David; Krayenbuehl, Niklaus; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Placement of external ventricular drainage (EVD) catheters is the gold standard for managing acute hydrocephalus, but the range of complications varies in different studies. The objective of this present single institute study is to analyze iatrogenic factors, which may influence the EVD device placement and the patient's outcome. A total of 137 EVD placements in 120 patients at the University Hospital Zurich were analyzed retrospectively. Discriminative findings between the pre- and postoperative imaging were obtained and evaluated in detail with regards to the postoperative course, ventriculostomy-related infection, and acute neurological deterioration directly related to the EVD placement. These findings were correlated to iatrogenic factors including education level of the neurosurgeon and surgical setting. Overall EVD-related complication rate was 16.1%, including infection rate of 10.2%, catheter malplacement rate of 2.2%, and hemorrhage rate of 3.6%. Although not statistically significant, catheter-associated hemorrhages and malplacements were found mostly in primary EVD surgery, with a higher complication rate associated with junior residents as the performing surgeon. In contrast, ventriculostomy-related infection was most likely present in patients with more than one EVD placement and in patients treated by more experienced physicians. Complications related to EVD are common. The rate and character of the complication depends on the education level of the surgeon.

  17. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  18. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  19. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  20. Critical Causes and Consequences of Construction Project Interruption: Client, Contractor, Consultant and External Factors Standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbasirah Mohamed Alias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It should be pointed out that the dilemma of interruption and stoppage in the construction industry is a large-scale trend. Construction interruption and stoppage is considered one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry. Construction Interruption and stoppage is always measured as costly to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth of construction sector. The objective of the research work that underpins this paper was to investigate the Factors and Consequences of construction projects on local contractors. A construction project is commonly acknowledged as successful when the aim of the project is achieved in terms of predetermined objectives that are mainly completed the project on time, within budget and specified quality in accordance with the specifications and to stakeholders’ satisfaction. One of the most important problems that may arise in the construction project is delays and the magnitude of these delays varies considerably from project to project. According to delay categories that were contractor related, client related, consultant related, labour related and external related, the study revealed the six major effects of delay that were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, total abandonment, and litigation.

  1. Need for Cognition and False Memory: Can One's Natural Processing Style Be Manipulated by External Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootan, Samantha S; Leding, Juliana K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to provide an enhanced understanding of need for cognition (NFC) and its influence on one's memory accuracy. People who are high in NFC tend to put more cognitive effort into their mental processes than their low-NFC counterparts. To determine whether one's natural processing tendencies, as determined by NFC, can be influenced by external factors, manipulations to levels of processing were added. Participants viewed word lists from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and were instructed to process half of the DRM lists deeply and the other half shallowly. After all the lists were presented, participants completed 3 successive recall tests. The deep processing condition produced higher rates of false memories for both NFC groups than the shallow processing condition. In addition, the high-NFC group produced higher rates of target recall in both the deep and shallow conditions than the low-NFC group. However, the high-NFC group also produced higher rates of false recall for the shallowly processed lists. These data indicate that high-NFC people exhibit enhanced target recall for word lists, which may come at the expense of overall accuracy due to the increase of false recall.

  2. Specifics of heat and mass transfer in spherical dimples under the effect of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, A. V.; Il'inkov, A. V.; Takmovtsev, V. V.; Khabibullin, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    The specifics are examined of heat transfer enhancement with spherical dimples under the effect of factors important for practice and characteristic of cooling systems of gas-turbine engines and power units. This experimental investigation deals with the effect of the following factors on the flow in a channel with hemispherical dimples: continuous air swirl in an annulus with dimples on its concave wall, dimples on the convex or concave wall of a curved rectangular channel, imposition of regular velocity fluctuations on the external flow in a straight rectangular channel, and adverse or favorable pressure gradient along the flow direction. The flow is turbulent. Reynolds numbers based on the channel hydraulic diameter are on the order of 104. Results of the investigation of a model of a two-cavity diffuser dimple proposed by the authors are presented. It has been found that results for channels with spherical dimples and for smooth channels differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, if the effect of centrifugal mass forces on convex and concave surfaces with hemispherical dimples and in a smooth channel is almost the same (quantitative and qualitative indicators are identical), the pressure gradient in the flow direction brings about the drastically opposite results. At the same time, the quantitative contribution to a change in heat transfer in hemispherical dimples is different and depends on the impact type. The results are discussed with the use of physical models created on the basis of the results of flow visualization studies and data on the turbulence intensity, pressure coefficient, etc. Results of the investigations suggest that application of spherical dimples under nonstandard conditions requires the calculated heat transfer to be corrected to account for one or another effect.

  3. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  4. Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Five Years by Child and Parental Factors in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K.; Tamminen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4-10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks…

  5. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  6. Pair correlations and structure factor of the J1-J2 square lattice Ising model in an external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alejandra I.; Stariolo, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    We compute the structure factor of the J1-J2 Ising model in an external field on the square lattice within the Cluster Variation Method. We use a four point plaquette approximation, which is the minimal one able to capture phases with broken orientational order in real space, like the recently reported Ising-nematic phase in the model. The analysis of different local maxima in the structure factor allows us to track the different phases and phase transitions against temperature and external field. Although the nematic susceptibility is not directly related to the structure factor, we show that because of the close relationship between the nematic order parameter and the structure factor, the latter shows unambiguous signatures of the presence of a nematic phase, in agreement with results from direct minimization of a variational free energy. The disorder variety of the model is identified and the possibility that the CVM four point approximation be exact on the disorder variety is discussed.

  7. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  8. Influential internal and external factors in German policy towards Turkey’s EU membership: more than ‘privileged partnership’; less than full membership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcen ÖNER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the internal and external factors that influence Germany’s policy concerning Turkey’s EU membership bid. Firstly, it explains the theoretical framework and historical background of Germany’s policies regarding Turkey’s EU membership. Secondly, it analyses the role of internal and external factors related to the EU as well as external factors related to Turkey. The internal factors include the integration problems of Turkish immigrants and the rise of Islamophobia in Europe. Their influence on the role of the German public opinion is analysed. Then, the perceptions of Germany’s political elites and civil society are discussed, based on face-to-face, in-depth interviews conducted by the author with representatives of several politicians from different political parties in the German federal parliament. Additional interviews were conducted with representatives of several foundations and business organisations in Berlin and one German-Turkish business organisation in Istanbul. Finally, the article argues that Germany has been trying to develop a policy which is in between the idea of a ‘privileged partnership’ and the full membership of Turkey and tries to evaluate the reasons behind that.

  9. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  10. CLINICAL, HISTOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE PULP-DENTIN COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giuroiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assesssing – by clinical, histological and radiological investigations – the influence of some external factors on the pulp-dentin complex, and at providing a causal interpretation of the structural changes observed. Materials and methods. Clinical and radiological exams were performed on 65 old patients with ages between 60-75, and also on 40 young patients with ages between 20-35, presenting different dental-periodontal pathologies. The pulp-dentin complex was submitted to a morphopathological examination, to highlight the structural changes observed at microscopic level. Fragments of dental pulp were imersed in a 4% formaldehyde solution with phosphate buffer 0.1 M., pH 7.2, for 12 -14 hours, at a temperature of 4ºC, and 3-5 µm thick slices were prepared. The slices were coloured with hematoxylin-eosine (HE, by the trichromic technique – Masson. Photographies were taken with a Zeiss microscope, with Kodak 200 ASA. Results. Significant differences were observed, between the two groups of patients, as to the external factors that produce structural changes on pulp-dentin organ. In the group of young patients dental caries and coronal fillings prevailed, while the group of old patients was mostly associated with atrition and chronic marginal periodontitis. Out of the 40 young patients, 30 presented chronic dental caries (75%, while, among the 65 old patients, only 24 presented dental caries (36.9%. The percentages of coronary fillings between the two study groups were close, which could be considered as one of the causes producing changes in the pulp-dentin organ, following aggresive preparation of cavities, the action of materials used for the protection of pulp-dentin complex or of the materials used for coronry fillings. Conclusions. Dental pulp has a remarkable ability to counteract the action of harmful factors, producing a mineral barrier and stimulating the reparatory processes. Changes in the endodontic

  11. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  12. Factors of the European Economies' Vulnerability to External Shocks - An Empirical Analysis. The Example of 2008-2009 Crisis Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domańska Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the factors determining the vulnerability of the European countries to external shocks taking the example of the global 2008-2009 economic slowdown (also called the subprime crisis2 and its impact on economies in Europe. The particular attention is attached to factors related to the fundamentals of the economy, i.e. the GDP growth, fiscal and monetary stability and external stability. Attempting to level of the gap existing in the Polish literature in the empirical research on that problem, the hereby article also refers to wider problems of the macroeconomic factors enhancing economies' capabilities to meet the challenges of global crises and strengthening their competitiveness afterwards. The special attention in the paper was attached to the role of financial and trade openness.

  13. STUDY ON DYNAMIC STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS OF DISK WITH A RADIAL EDGE CRACK SUBJECTED TO EXTERNAL IMPULSIVE PRESSURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Aijun

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic weight function method is presented for dynamic stress intensity factors of circular disk with a radial edge crack under external impulsive pressure. The dynamic stresses in a circular disk are solved under abrupt step external pressure using the eigenfunction method.The solution consists of a quasi-static solution satisfying inhomogeneous boundary conditions and a dynamic solution satisfying homogeneous boundary conditions. By making use of FourierBessel series expansion, the history and distribution of dynamic stresses in the circular disk are derived. Furthermore, the equation for stress intensity factors under uniform pressure is used as the reference case, the weight function equation for the circular disk containing an edge crack is worked out, and the dynamic stress intensity factor equation for the circular disk containing a radial edge crack can be given. The results indicate that the stress intensity factors under sudden step external pressure vary periodically with time, and the ratio of the maximum value of dynamic stress intensity factors to the corresponding static value is about 2.0.

  14. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation.

  15. The evaluation of the environmental impact and the external factors of urban transport in Constanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, C.; Stîngă, V. G.; Georgescu, S.; Cupşa, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    Transport activities are known to have a substantial negative environmental impact especially when referring to the urban transport. Studies have shown that external costs (as accidents, congestion, air emissions, climate change or noise) are an important subject of the European Union, that is why were carried out several research projects. This paper will highlight the current requirements and methodologies used by the European Union regarding the impact of the external costs of urban transport in most of the growth poles of Europe. Taking into consideration that Constanta is considered to be one of the seven major growth poles of Romania for the 2014-2020 period, this study aims at analyzing how the results of similar studies made in others centers of the European Union can be applied in Constanta, showing different methodologies and evaluations regarding the external costs and their impact. We will analyze how the conclusions obtained in previous projects are applicable to data collected by us throughout a field research on the technical description of the means of transport used it this city. As methodology, we will use one that was adopted by the European Union regarding the estimation of urban external costs, taking into consideration that each externality has a different method for estimating it. The results of this study may be useful in developing the sustainable urban mobility plan for Constanta, as a strategic plan design to reduce the impact of urban transport for a better quality of life at present and in the future. Through this paper we will get an insight into the urban transport in Constanta, but also data on external costs generated by the urban transport, given that road transport is considered to be the most polluting transport mode.

  16. A Cognitive Modeling Method of the Life Quality Indicators in Terms of External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Massel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a potential use of the methods of cognitive modeling in the field of quality of life. The quality of life, as a universal indicator of human self-perception to feel his sense of satisfaction from various parts of his life, is difficult to assess by strictly mathematical methods, so the authors suggest using the cognitive modeling. The quality of life in his estimation for the convenience of research activity is divided into components - indicators of the quality of life. The widespread indicator "quality of life" and the complexity of the development of its assessment methods lead to high relevance of the authors-proposed method.The introduction provides an overview of current approaches to assessing the quality of life. Among all these approaches the most advantageous is an objectively subjective one. The paper gives a brief assessment of cognitive modeling methods, which are, essentially, a way of graphic and structural elements of reflection and relationships in complex systems. As a result of the analysis of existing research in this area, was found the potential for creating cognitive models of the quality of life and its indicators and was defined the place of the proposed method, among others. The paper presents the method itself, as a series of steps, and focuses on the promising opportunities for researchers of the quality of life from its using.Among the possible lines to use cognitive modeling of the life quality indicators can be three main ones: implementation of new methods to assess the quality of life; choice of the most appropriate technique for a particular study among available methods; realization of the cognitive model and numerical experiment, which allows seeing the effect of external factors on the individual indicators of the quality of life. Thus, due to the high relevance and significant benefits from the use of the proposed method, the article is of interest to researchers of the quality of life

  17. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  18. Both external and internal factors as an explanation of depopulation of cities on the area of Poland

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    Kantor-Pietraga Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an attempt of explanation basic factors of depopulation in case of cities in Poland in the 20st and in the beginning of 21st century. Author takes into consideration only large urban centers with population more than 50 thousands inhabitants. Population changes are described according to historical periods: 1900-1946 (including World War II, postwar period (1946-1989 and period socio-economic and political changes in Poland (1990-2010. A key question is basic thesis that different determinants of depopulation have two sources: internal as well as external ones. Some of them arise only in defined periods and social-economic conditions. The most important have been underlined in this paper. It has been highlighted that is visible different between simply depopulation of cities as consequence of military operations, for example and contemporary urban shrinkage as an effect of compound social-economic background. Paper gives some reflections on different possibilities for defense of cities not only against consequences of the second demographic transition but also functional changes, especially in case of larger post-industrial centers. Important question that have been underlined in paper is problem of urban shrinkage as contemporary dimension of depopulation. Presented information clearly shows that in demographic terms process of contemporary shrinkage is comparable with urban demographic decline of the WW2 period.

  19. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  20. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  1. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  2. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  3. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  4. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  6. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  7. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Piontek Marlena; Lechów Hanna

    2014-01-01

    A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter) Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  8. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Marlena; Lechów, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter) Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  9. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontek Marlena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  10. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Temporomandibular joint involvement as a positive clinical prognostic factor in necrotising external otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeheskeli, E; Eta, R Abu; Gavriel, H; Kleid, S; Eviatar, E

    2016-05-01

    Necrotising otitis externa is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. This study investigated whether temporomandibular joint involvement had any prognostic effect on the course of necrotising otitis externa in patients who had undergone hyperbaric oxygen therapy after failed medical and sometimes surgical therapy. A retrospective case series was conducted of patients in whom antibiotic treatment and surgery had failed, who had been hospitalised for further treatment and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Twenty-three patients with necrotising otitis externa were identified. The temporomandibular joint was involved in four patients (17 per cent); these patients showed a constant gradual improvement in C-reactive protein and were eventually discharged free of disease, except one patient who was lost to follow up. Four patients (16 per cent) without temporomandibular joint involvement died within 90 days of discharge, while all patients with temporomandibular joint involvement were alive. Three patients (13 per cent) without temporomandibular joint involvement needed recurrent hospitalisation including further hyperbaric oxygen therapy; no patients with temporomandibular joint involvement required such treatment. Patients with temporomandibular joint involvement had lower rates of recurrent disease and no mortality. Therefore, we suggest considering temporomandibular joint involvement as a positive prognostic factor in necrotising otitis externa management.

  13. Geostatistical simulations for radon indoor with a nested model including the housing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, C; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M

    2016-01-01

    The radon prone areas definition is matter of many researches in radioecology, since radon is considered a leading cause of lung tumours, therefore the authorities ask for support to develop an appropriate sanitary prevention strategy. In this paper, we use geostatistical tools to elaborate a definition accounting for some of the available information about the dwellings. Co-kriging is the proper interpolator used in geostatistics to refine the predictions by using external covariates. In advance, co-kriging is not guaranteed to improve significantly the results obtained by applying the common lognormal kriging. Here, instead, such multivariate approach leads to reduce the cross-validation residual variance to an extent which is deemed as satisfying. Furthermore, with the application of Monte Carlo simulations, the paradigm provides a more conservative radon prone areas definition than the one previously made by lognormal kriging.

  14. Rules and regulations as potential moderator on the relationship between organizational internal and external factors with effective construction risk management in Nigerian construction companies: A proposed framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, A. Q.; Bahaudin, A. Y.; Kamaruddeen, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Certain organizational internal and external factors have been found to influence effective construction risk management within the construction company which has contributed to massive risk occurrence on the projects. Yet, the influence of the organizational factors such as effective communication, team competency with skills, active leadership, political factor, organizational culture, technology factor and economic factor on effective construction risk management among the construction companies operating in Abuja and Lagos state Nigeria have not received considerable attention. More so, a moderating variable is proposed. This paper proposes rules and regulations as the potential moderator on the relationship between organisational internal factors, external factors and effective construction risk management.

  15. Implementation lessons: the importance of assessing organizational "fit" and external factors when implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity.

  16. External factors and the interference of L1 Estonian on L2 English pronunciation: An apparent-time study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ader

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on external factors of second language learning (L2 and their effect on L2 sound production. The aim was to find out whether young adults whose first language (L1 is Estonian speak L2 English with less accent than older speakers of L1 Estonian. Prior studies have claimed that more exposure to the target language lessens the effect of L1 interference (internal factors (e.g. Piske et al. 2001, Muñoz, Llanes 2014. An apparent-time study was imple- mented in order to test whether a change in learner setting (i.e. limited exposure to the target language vs. abundant exposure shows any evidence which can be explained by such external factors. Data was elicited from the speech samples of 97 speakers of L1 Estonian and L1 interference effects were analysed sound by sound. The results show that the younger generation displays less L1 Estonian interference than the older generation. Both greater exposure to the target language and earlier age of L2 learning onset correlate with the ability to produce more sounds target-like.

  17. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  18. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  19. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  20. Using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale With Early Adolescents: Factor Structure, Reliability, Stability, and External Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel, Paweł; Humenny, Grzegorz; Rębisz, Sławomir

    2016-12-08

    The present investigation is the first examination of the factor structures, reliability, external validity, longitudinal invariance, and stability of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS), as used with early adolescents. It is based on a two-wave, large, representative sample of Polish primary school pupils. The results demonstrate that the model most reflective of the factor structure of the DJGLS is the bifactor model, which assumes the occurrence of one, highly reliable, general factor (overall sense of loneliness) and two, relatively irrelevant, subfactors. Essential unidimensionality (the general factor accounting for three fourth of the common variance) suggest that the interpretation of the subfactors over and above the general factor is inappropriate. The longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor structure of the DJGLS is invariant over time. Correlations with self-rated loneliness, sociometric acceptance/rejection, social self-efficacy, identification with class group, family structure, and gender provide support for the validity of the DJGLS. This implies that it could be used as a measure of loneliness in adolescence, which does not involve references to the school context, making it possible to conduct studies that go beyond school period and compare the intensity of the feeling of loneliness in that group with other age groups.

  1. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  2. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  3. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  4. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  5. Foundations of Language Perceptions and the Role of External Factors: A Norwegian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosstad, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Non-linguists' perceptions of language in use are generally considered to be strongly influenced by evaluative factors: attitudes, values and ideology. Such a perspective represents a somewhat biased approach to ordinary people's knowledge about language, which is characteristic of both sociolinguistics and its sub-branch, perceptual dialectology.…

  6. External human factors in incident management team decisionmaking and their effect on large fire suppression expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janie Canton-Tompson; Krista M. Gebert; Brooke Thompson; Greg Jones; David Calkin; Geoff. Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. Changing climate, fuel buildup due to past suppression, and increasing populations in the wildland-urban interface have all been blamed for the extreme fire seasons and rising suppression expenditures of recent years. With each high-cost year comes a...

  7. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  8. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  9. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майрамгуль Зайнабидиновна Ташиева

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

  11. Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

    1983-08-01

    9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed.

  12. The Depth of 60-80 km as the Boundary of External Factor Influence on the Earth's Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasorova, E. V.; Levin, B. W.

    2007-05-01

    The results of statistical analysis of worldwide seismic catalogs (ISC and NEIC), which was carried out in frame of two projects are presented. In both cases we extracted the evens occurred in the Pacific region from 1964 to 2004 with Mb>=4.0. The aftershocks were canceled from the list. All events were divided into following magnitude levels: 4Htr), where Htr is threshold value of the EQ source depth. In frame of the first project statistical verification of hypothesis about within-year variability existence for the events of various energy levels was carried out for the Pacific region (PO). The whole PO was subdivided into 31 subregions (Japan, Kuril Islands, Kamchatka, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, California, and so on along the perimeter of the Pacific). Then we were checking if the distributions of the events during the year period are uniform or these distributions are non- uniform. We were testing it separately for each region, for every magnitude level and for every depth level (total number of the samples under study was 310). It was disproved the null hypothesis about uniform EQ distributions in the course of year for shallow events (with less than 2% significance level), and it was confirmed the null hypothesis for deep earthquakes. It was shown that the main maximum of the seismic activity take place in November-March (minimum of the Earth-Sun distance) for both Hemispheres and the minimum - in April. It was found by using special software procedure that the Htr boundary between the shallow and the deep events was arranged in deep 60-80 km. Thus the EQ with sources located above this boundary are affected by external (astronomical) factors, which may trigger the process of EQ generation. While the external factors don't influence on the EQ sources located below this boundary. In frame of the second project statistical verification of hypothesis about existence non-random component in time distribution of the EQ's between the northern and southern part of

  13. Monte Carlo calculation of dose rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil

    CERN Document Server

    Clouvas, A; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2000-01-01

    The dose rate conversion factors D/sub CF/ (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h/sup -1/ per Bq kg/sup -1/) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D/sub CF/ values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good ag...

  14. Factors impacting on the external environment of the Arabic Maghrib Countries Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Mansur Essayah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the Arabic Maghrib Countries. Relations of these countries in their different forms, political, economical, and sociological, have not suddenly appeared, but are founded on a long-term development. At the same time, they have not yet achieved enough progress to make it possible to analyze the contradictory elements in the relation forms and to help these countries achieve the aims required and advantages they desire.Available information and performed analyses show that managerial systems are capable of making this partnership and its continuation effective, especially when they distinguish between what can be agreed upon, and the subjects of disagreement, and move away from the political circumstances, and exploit the geographical location. Location plays an important role in effecting unified relationships between the states of this union and with other countries as well, because it is considered an opportunity, and stimulatory factor, which needs to be exploited by cooperation in economic field.An example of cooperation of these countries can be adoption of unified policies represented by common conduct in negotiations of prices and other trade conditions in the trade with oil and natural gas, and natural resources of its member states, without relating to the old problems, and not linking political matters with economic matters.Focusing on the culture and education are also very important in this subject, because it represents one of the major constructs, which should be considered when trying to improve management systems in these countries. They have to try to overcome weaknesses by cooperation in preparation of educational concepts and systems and developing educational programs capable of meeting the challenges of sweeping societal changes, and the principal challenges, which Arabic Countries are bound to face in the near future. Education in these countries needs a lot of investments in order to

  15. Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

  16. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  17. Transcritption regulation of soybean ribulose-1,5-bisphos-phate carboxylase small sub-unit gene by external factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcS) is present with multi-gene family in plant genome. In Glycine max, the rbcS polypeptide (EC4.1.1.39) is encoded by a gene family containing 4-8 members. Three full-length rbcS cDNA clones were isolated and characterized from soybean seedlings, and both of their nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed high similarity. Differential accumulation of the rbcS mRNA was observed among roots, hypocotyls, cotyledons, epicotyls and leaves. The rbcS genes were up-regulated by various external factors such as salicylic acid (SA), salt stress and drought stress. The expression level of rbcS genes after being treated by 2.0 mmol/L SA and 0.4% NaCl, respectively, is 2.5-3.0-fold as high as that of control sample. Moreover, soybean rbcS mRNA was accumulated with diurnal variation but easily influenced by light and low temperature.

  18. Examining the Relations Among the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality, the Five-Factor Model, and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Chelsea E; Hyatt, Courtland S; Lamkin, Joanna; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D

    2017-01-26

    Given long-standing criticisms of the DSM's reliance on categorical models of psychopathology, including the poor reliability and validity of personality-disorder diagnoses, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published an alternative model (AM) of personality disorders in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; APA, 2013), which, in part, comprises 5 pathological trait domains based on the 5-factor model (FFM). However, the empirical profiles and discriminant validity of the AM traits remain in question. We recruited a sample of undergraduates (N = 340) for the current study to compare the relations found between a measure of the DSM-5 AM traits (i.e., the Personality Inventory for DSM-5; PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) and a measure of the FFM (i.e., the International Personality Item Pool; IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) in relation to externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In general, the domains from the 2 measures were significantly related and demonstrated similar patterns of relations with these criteria, such that Antagonism/low Agreeableness and Disinhibition/low Conscientiousness were related to externalizing behaviors, whereas Negative Affectivity/Neuroticism was most significantly related to internalizing symptoms. However, the PID-5 demonstrated large interrelations among its domains and poorer discriminant validity than the IPIP. These results provide additional support that the conception of the trait model included in the DSM-5 AM is an extension of the FFM, but highlight some of the issues that arise due to the PID-5's more limited discriminant validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Risk factors associated with external apical root resorption of the maxillary incisors: a 15-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshan, Vahid; Nateghian, Nazanin; Ordoubazari, Morteza

    2012-05-01

    To determine the possible risk factors for external apical resorption (EARR) of the maxillary incisors. Panoramic radiographs of 132 orthodontic patients with a mean age of 16.9 +/- 3.6 years were selected from two practice centres in Tehran. The radiographs were taken between 1990 and 2005 and 63.6% of the subjects were female. Mean, standard deviation and distribution of EARR for various variables were assessed. Prevalence significance, as well as differences between frequency distributions of clinical EARR (> or = 1.2 mm) between genders, treatment plans (extraction/ non-extraction), initial overjet and overbite magnitude, and incisor types (centrals/laterals) were evaluated by the chi-squared test. The mean resorption rates on central and lateral incisors were compared using the independent-samples t-test. Associations between EARR with the age, duration of treatment, pretreatment overjet and overbite were assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. The reliability of the method was determined by remeasuring 117 randomly selected incisors and determining the associations between both sets of measurements with the Pearson's correlation coefficients. The prevalence of EARR, and clinical EARR (> or = 1.2 mm) were 91.8% and 44.78% respectively. The average of EARR was 1.377 +/- 1.214 mm, or 8.65 +/- 8.021% of pretreatment root lengths. The prevalence of clinical EARR was significantly higher in extraction cases, cases with greater initial overjet and on lateral incisors. Using the t-test, significant differences (p overjet were correlated with higher EARR levels (p < 0.05, r < 0.2). Factors related to premolar extraction, initial ovejet size, treatment time and being female may be correlated with higher EARR. Clinically significant resorption did not occur more in females.

  20. The external factor. Western oil and gas companies and the Russian investment climate 1992-2000; De externe factor: Westerse olie- en gasbedrijven en het Russische investeringsklimaat 1992-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arnaud Gerkens, A. C.

    2006-11-15

    Historical economic research mainly focuses on the unstable investment climate of the Russian oil and gas sector to explain the low level of foreign direct investment (FDI) during the 1990's. The investment climate is, in this context, determined by internal political and economical factors that deterred western energy producers from making large investments in the Russian energy sector. This thesis argues that the external factor, the corporate actor, should be taken into account when explaining the low level of FDI in the Russian energy sector during the 1990's. In the first part internal factors are analyzed: the economic transition, the rise of the oligarchs, the political instability caused by conflicts between the nationalistic and conservative Duma and the progressive government and, finally, the corrupt bureaucracy. Although internal factors also play a part in the explanation, Russian reluctance towards PSA's was fed by the way the western legislation was transplanted into Russia. By analyzing corporate strategy, the second part of the thesis shows that western energy producers were not just victims of the investment climate. The approach companies took in Russia determined to a large extent the success of their project. The following projects have been researched: Polar Lights (Conoco), Saratov/Volgograd(Elf Aquitaine), Shtokman (Hydro, Conoco, Total), Sachalin-2 (Shell), and the Rosneft tender in 1997-1998 (Shell and Elf). This thesis shows that corporate strategies were not only influenced by the investment climate, but also by previous errors of the companies themselves. Those errors can be summed up by stating that the western oil industry, in regard to legal developments and political stability, expected too much of a transitional economy. On the other hand Russian knowledge and technical development were underestimated and Russia was often mistaken for a third world country. The analysis of the strategies and experiences of Western

  1. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  2. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  3. Multimethod Assessment of Psychopathy in Relation to Factors of Internalizing and Externalizing from the Personality Assessment Inventory: The Impact of Method Variance and Suppressor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Edens, John F.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Research to date has revealed divergent relations across factors of psychopathy measures with criteria of "internalizing" (INT; anxiety, depression) and "externalizing" (EXT; antisocial behavior, substance use). However, failure to account for method variance and suppressor effects has obscured the consistency of these findings across distinct…

  4. Attributions and Discrimination: A Study of Attributions to the Self, the Group, and External Factors among Whites, Blacks, and Cubans in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Fathali M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the self-protective role of social attributions by comparing individual attributions made to the self, to one's ethnic group, and to factors external to oneself. Results from 309 Black, Hispanic, and White mothers show they all attributed positive outcomes to themselves, while Whites attributed failure to themselves personally. Middle-…

  5. Multimethod Assessment of Psychopathy in Relation to Factors of Internalizing and Externalizing from the Personality Assessment Inventory: The Impact of Method Variance and Suppressor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Edens, John F.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Research to date has revealed divergent relations across factors of psychopathy measures with criteria of "internalizing" (INT; anxiety, depression) and "externalizing" (EXT; antisocial behavior, substance use). However, failure to account for method variance and suppressor effects has obscured the consistency of these findings…

  6. The use of external micro-PIXE to investigate the factors determining the Sr:Ca ratio in the shells of fossil aragonitic molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purton-Hildebrand, Louise M.A.; Grime, Geoff W. E-mail: geoff.grime@materials.ox.ac.uk; Shields, Graham A.; Brasier, Martin D

    2001-07-01

    The ratio of strontium to calcium in the shells of fossil marine molluscs has been proposed as an indicator of seawater temperature in past epochs, since this is less affected by other environmental conditions (such as variation of salinity) than the more conventional seawater palaeotemperature proxy {delta}{sup 18}O. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the Sr:Ca ratio is influenced by several factors including temperature and growth rate. Two fossil molluscs, a large spiral gastropod, Clavilithes macrospira, and a large bivalve, Venericarda planicosta, from the Eocene-aged deposits of Southern England were selected for study. The variation of the Sr:Ca ratio as a function of distance along the growth direction was measured using PIXE in the Oxford external microbeam facility and the {delta}{sup 18}O was measured using small samples removed by drilling at points along the same direction. The Sr:Ca profiles show a significant increase of Sr with age, as well as seasonal, possibly temperature-related variations. Comparison of the Sr:Ca profiles with those for {delta}{sup 18}O and the spacing of the dark annual growth bands suggests that Sr incorporation is controlled primarily by metabolic activity, which in turn is influenced by factors such as temperature, salinity, age and growth rate.

  7. Theoretical Analysis Model of the Adoption of Reactive and Proactive Eco-Innovation Strategies: the Influence of Contextual Factors Internal and External to Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Beatriz Maçaneiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide research propositions of the relationship between internal and external contextual factors and strategies for reac tive and proactive eco-innovation, defining the theoretical analysis model from these propositi ons. Therefore, this study is characterized as a theoretical essay, adopting the methodological procedure of literature review, through an analysis of national and international articles on the subject of eco-innovation strategy. As a result, the external and internal factors that affe ct the adoption of eco-innovation strategies were defined and propositions were made for their r elationship. With this theoretical approach and the establishment of the factors, it was possib le to design the theoretical model to analyze the impact of contextual factors on the adoption of eco-innovation strategies.

  8. Factors related to external loads in buried pipelines; Consideracoes quanto as variaveis relacionadas ao carregamento externo em dutos enterrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Carlos E.C.; Silva, Breno S.; Fernandes, Lincoln F.; Santos Junior, Sergio J.F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Louzada, Carlos H.C.M.

    2005-07-01

    Work of heavy equipment or vehicles above existent right-of-ways, may cause undesired external overload at buried pipelines in operation. The effect of these loads shall be analyzed considering the deflections and stresses on the pipelines. The major variables, nominal diameter, thickness, material, soil parameters, operation pressure and external loads shall be related and verified according to the limits from original project. Cases when the external loads cause higher efforts, the traffic over the pipelines shall be restricted in order to avoid damages. In other cases, it may be adapted to any technical alternatives to modify the parameters in such a way to make possible work above the right-of-way, such as increase the machine support area, increase backfill covering, a reduction in the internal operation pressure in a short time, etc. This work presents the study on the parameters used to establish the maximum allowable external loads over buried pipelines in operation. (author)

  9. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  11. Organ-specific external dose coefficients and protective apron transmission factors for historical dose reconstruction for medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L

    2011-07-01

    While radiation absorbed dose (Gy) to the skin or other organs is sometimes estimated for patients from diagnostic radiologic examinations or therapeutic procedures, rarely is occupationally-received radiation absorbed dose to individual organs/tissues estimated for medical personnel; e.g., radiologic technologists or radiologists. Generally, for medical personnel, equivalent or effective radiation doses are estimated for compliance purposes. In the very few cases when organ doses to medical personnel are reconstructed, the data is usually for the purpose of epidemiologic studies; e.g., a study of historical doses and risks to a cohort of about 110,000 radiologic technologists presently underway at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. While ICRP and ICRU have published organ-specific external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) (i.e., absorbed dose to organs and tissues per unit air kerma and dose equivalent per unit air kerma), those factors have been published primarily for mono-energetic photons at selected energies. This presents two related problems for historical dose reconstruction, both of which are addressed here. It is necessary to derive conversion factor values for (1) continuous distributions of energy typical of diagnostic medical x-rays (bremsstrahlung radiation), and (2) energies of particular radioisotopes used in medical procedures, neither of which are presented in published tables. For derivation of DCCs for bremsstrahlung radiation, combinations of x-ray tube potentials and filtrations were derived for different time periods based on a review of relevant literature. Three peak tube potentials (70 kV, 80 kV, and 90 kV) with four different amounts of beam filtration were determined to be applicable for historic dose reconstruction. The probabilities of these machine settings were assigned to each of the four time periods (earlier than 1949, 1949-1954, 1955-1968, and after 1968). Continuous functions were fit to each set of discrete values of the

  12. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Gemina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1 formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2 formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3 formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on typical food products of Bandung and Cianjur. The survey research method and form of research were verification, while the sampling method conducted was the simple random sampling by distributing questionnaires to 100 respondents. The data quality testing performed were the validity test and the reliability test. For the path analysis research model, data transformation from ordinal to interval was previously conducted using the method of successive interval. Results of the study revealed that consumer external and internal environmental factors together have a positive effect towards consumer perception. The effect of consumer external environmental factors are greater than the consumer internal environmental factors towards consumer perception. The more mature consumers are, either from the aspect of their way of thinking or educative factors obtained from education and insight, the more developed are their perception towards food products. Consumer perception has a positive effect towards consumer attitude and preference. The variable of consumer attitude and preference has a positive effect towards consumer behavior in consuming typical regional food products.

  13. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  14. A Conceptual Frame for Evaluating Success Factors being Critical for the Adaption of Externally Generated R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO RODRÍGUEZ CASTELLANOS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, enterprises require developing continuously innovations in their products, processes and organisational structures to gain and maintain competitive advantages. In this sense, the organizational adoption capacity of externally generated knowledge is becoming an increasingly crucial core capacity for businesses. Based on an empiric study, the present work proposes a model that aims at evaluating the organizational key drivers supporting the adoption of externally generated R+D. With this, it provides a management tool that might facilitate the determination of adequate strategies to take advantage of knowledge which is generated outide the own organizational borders.

  15. External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

  16. External dose-rate conversion factors of radionuclides for air submersion, ground surface contamination and water immersion based on the new ICRP dosimetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Song Jae; Jang, Han-Ki; Lee, Jai-Ki; Noh, Siwan; Cho, Gyuseong

    2013-01-01

    For the assessment of external doses due to contaminated environment, the dose-rate conversion factors (DCFs) prescribed in Federal Guidance Report 12 (FGR 12) and FGR 13 have been widely used. Recently, there were significant changes in dosimetric models and parameters, which include the use of the Reference Male and Female Phantoms and the revised tissue weighting factors, as well as the updated decay data of radionuclides. In this study, the DCFs for effective and equivalent doses were calculated for three exposure settings: skyshine, groundshine and water immersion. Doses to the Reference Phantoms were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX 2.7.0 radiation transport code for 26 mono-energy photons between 0.01 and 10 MeV. The transport calculations were performed for the source volume within the cut-off distances practically contributing to the dose rates, which were determined by a simplified calculation model. For small tissues for which the reduction of variances are difficult, the equivalent dose ratios to a larger tissue (with lower statistical errors) nearby were employed to make the calculation efficient. Empirical response functions relating photon energies, and the organ equivalent doses or the effective doses were then derived by the use of cubic-spline fitting of the resulting doses for 26 energy points. The DCFs for all radionuclides considered important were evaluated by combining the photon emission data of the radionuclide and the empirical response functions. Finally, contributions of accompanied beta particles to the skin equivalent doses and the effective doses were calculated separately and added to the DCFs. For radionuclides considered in this study, the new DCFs for the three exposure settings were within ±10 % when compared with DCFs in FGR 13.

  17. Factors Influencing Environmental Scanning in the Organizational Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zita Correia; T.D. Wilson

    2001-01-01

    ..., directed at the company's external environment. These factors include individual factors, such as information consciousness and exposure to information, and organizational factors such as information climate and "outwardness...

  18. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  19. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  20. An influential factor for external radiation dose estimation for residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-time spent outdoors for residents in Iitate Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted on radiation doses to residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Time spent outdoors is an influential factor for external dose estimation. Since little information was available on actual time spent outdoors for residents, different values of average time spent outdoors per day have been used in dose estimation studies on the FDNPP accident. The most conservative value of 24 h was sometimes used, while 2.4 h was adopted for indoor workers in the UNSCEAR 2013 report. Fukushima Medical University has been estimating individual external doses received by residents as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey by collecting information on the records of moves and activities (the Basic Survey) after the accident from each resident. In the present study, these records were analyzed to estimate an average time spent outdoors per day. As an example, in Iitate Village, its arithmetic mean was 2.08 h (95% CI: 1.64-2.51) for a total of 170 persons selected from respondents to the Basic Survey. This is a much smaller value than commonly assumed. When 2.08 h is used for the external dose estimation, the dose is about 25% (23-26% when using the above 95% CI) less compared with the dose estimated for the commonly used value of 8 h.

  1. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  2. The influence of external and internal factors on the quality of semen collection and qualitative indicators of semen in the dog (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vágenknechtová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of external and internal factors on the course of semen collection and quality of ejaculate has been evaluated in this work. This observation included 30 dogs of various breeds, each of which we collected 3 ejaculates from within one week (first, third and fifth day. The internal factors included the weight of the dog, order of semen collection and the age of the dog. The external factors included type of housing, utilization of the dog, point of the collection and type of nutrition. Average length of preparation of a dog for a collection and onset of sexual reflex was 95.7 sec. The observations showed that none of the evaluated internal factors had any influence on the length of preparation for the semen collection. The largest volume of ejaculate was collected from the first collection (10.5cm3, at the second collection it was 8.9 cm3 and the third one the volume was the smallest – with only 6.6 cm3. The average volume of 8.7 cm3 was found in the whole set of observed dogs. No statistically conclusive difference was found among groups. The average activity of sperm in the observed set was 68.8%. Activity declined from the first to the third collection from 73% to 65.5%. The difference in sperm activity was not statistically conclusive in any indicator. Sperm concentration in whole set of dogs was 143.6 103.mm−3 and was not significantly affected by any monitored internal factors.The longest preparation for the collection was found in dogs housed in pens (134.4 sec, dogs living in households (84.7 sec and the shortest preparation was needed in dogs with freedom of movement. The longest onset of sexual reflexes was found in Police forces dogs, then family dogs and sport dogs (130.0 sec, 97.8 sec and 68.3 sec. In dogs collected in laboratory, the emergence of sexual reflex was longer (110.7 sec than in dogs collected in their own natural environment (80.7 sec. The average length of the whole ejaculation was 396.0 sec in

  3. Demonstration of immunochemical identity between the nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the cell adhesion molecule L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, E; Richter-Landsberg, C; Faissner, A

    1985-01-01

    -treated rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells yielded comigrating bands by SDS-PAGE. NILE antibodies reacted with immunopurified L1 antigen, but not with N-CAM and other L2 epitope-bearing glycoproteins from adult mouse brain. Finally, by sequential immunoprecipitation from detergent extracts of [35S......The nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 were shown to be immunochemically identical. Immunoprecipitation with L1 and NILE antibodies of [3H]fucose-labeled material from culture supernatants and detergent extracts of NGF...

  4. Determination of dose conversion factors for external gamma radiation in dwellings; Determinacao de fatores de conversao de dose para radiacao gama externa em residencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis

    2000-07-01

    The use of building materials containing natural radionuclides in dwelling construction may lead to an increment of both external and internal radiation exposure of the population. External exposure in dwellings arises from gamma-emitter radionuclides existing in the walls, floor and ceiling. Mathematical models can be used to predict external dose rates inside the room, provided the radionuclide concentration activities in dwelling constituents and the building geometry are known. In this work, a methodology and a computer code, called EDVOS, for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses in the air, due to radionuclides present in the constituents of an hypothetical room, were developed. The room is modeled as three pairs of rectangular sheets with finite thickness. Evaluation of doses was performed through the application of a photon transport model, taking into account self-absorption and radiation buildup. The radionuclides were assumed to be uniformly distributed in the building materials. Calculations were performed for concrete walls and results are presented for {sup 40}K, {sup 226} Ra, and {sup 232}Th, taking into account, for dose calculations, all gamma emitters from {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th decay chains. The response of the model to the input parameters was studied by varying each of them within a reasonable range of applicability, while leaving the other ones at fixed selected values. The results obtained showed a good agreement with those presented in the literature and with data obtained by running RESRAD-BUILD code. Dose conversions factors are presented in a form suitable for the use in radiological impact studies applied to practical situations. (author)

  5. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  6. The influence of external environment factors on the activity of higher educational establishments in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Leonidovna Guzakova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The instability of market economy development causes continuous changes in the activity of higher educational establishments. The article deals with the processes, taking place in the system of higher professional education in the Russian Federation in recent decades. On the basis of the analysis of statistical data and normative acts of the Government and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the key global and national trends in higher education are identified: increasing demand for higher education, resulted in its considerable offer (the growth of quantitative indicators is not always accompanied by improvement of higher education quality; reduction in the total number of students due to the demographic situation worsening; transition to a multi-level system of higher education under the Bologna process; change in specialties patterns and directions of training specialists with higher professional education due to the economy structural reforms and labor market needs; aggravation of competition. The tendencies lead to the emergence of demographic, political and economic risks. To reduce negative impact of the external risks to the universities’ activity it is necessary to develop corresponding state educational policy in the sphere of higher education and risk management in universities

  7. Sensitivity of emergent sociohydrologic dynamics to internal system properties and external sociopolitical factors: Implications for water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafei, Y.; Tonts, M.; Sivapalan, M.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that effective management of water resources requires a holistic understanding of the coevolving dynamics inherent in the coupled human-hydrology system. One of the fundamental information gaps concerns the sensitivity of coupled system feedbacks to various endogenous system properties and exogenous societal contexts. This paper takes a previously calibrated sociohydrology model and applies an idealized implementation, in order to: (i) explore the sensitivity of emergent dynamics resulting from bidirectional feedbacks to assumptions regarding (a) internal system properties that control the internal dynamics of the coupled system and (b) the external sociopolitical context; and (ii) interpret the results within the context of water resource management decision making. The analysis investigates feedback behavior in three ways, (a) via a global sensitivity analysis on key parameters and assessment of relevant model outputs, (b) through a comparative analysis based on hypothetical placement of the catchment along various points on the international sociopolitical gradient, and (c) by assessing the effects of various direct management intervention scenarios. Results indicate the presence of optimum windows that might offer the greatest positive impact per unit of management effort. Results further advocate management tools that encourage an adaptive learning, community-based approach with respect to water management, which are found to enhance centralized policy measures. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to use a place-based sociohydrology model to make abstractions as to the dynamics of bidirectional feedback behavior, and provide insights as to the efficacy of water management tools under different circumstances.

  8. Evaluating Internal and External Factors of Chain Store for Improvement in Iran: A Case Study (Etka Chain Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aghaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to extract main indicators for review the internal and external dimensions of Etka chain stores and after the studying the organizational documentation and with using of the customer reviews, was determined the position of Etka chain stores in attractiveness and capabilities matrix. For any organization in any level, it is important to determine its position compared to competitors in terms of attractiveness and capabilities. Considering now that the "Etka chain stores" are the largest supplier of goods and services in Iran and in order to its mission tries to improve the processes of supply, storage, distribution, sales and after sales services company with an economic approach. According to peripheral changes in different dimensions of economic, political, social and also with the emergence fundamental paradigm in business such as service businesses, penetration of IT in business like E-commerce, the answer to this question is important “Where is the position of Etka chain stores in this industry?”. The data collection method is using the questionnaires. Finally the customer reviews have been analyzed.

  9. Innate Immunity Derived Factors as External Modulators of the CXCL12 - CXCR4 Axis and Their Role in Stem Cell Homing and Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Z. Ratajczak, Karol Serwin, Gabriela Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-chemokine CXCL12 (stromal derived factor-1; SDF-1 and its corresponding GαI protein-coupled CXCR4 receptor axis play an important role in retention of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs in bone marrow (BM stem cell niches. CXCL12 has also been identified as a strong chemoattractant for HSPCs and implicated both in homing of HSPCs to BM after transplantation and in egress of these cells from BM into peripheral blood (PB. However, since CXCL12, as a peptide, is highly susceptible to degradation by proteolytic enzymes, its real biological availability in biological fluids may be somewhat limited. In this review, we will present data demonstrating that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis is positively modulated by innate immunity-derived several external factors, ensuring that even low (near threshold doses of CXCL12 still exert a robust chemotactic influence on HSPCs.

  10. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  11. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  12. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  13. An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2013-01-01

    Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

  14. Mothers of Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Cognitive Risk Factors for Abuse Potential and Discipline Style and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…

  15. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  16. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  17. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  18. Role of external factors in the evolution of the ozone layer and stratospheric circulation in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zubov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry-climate model (CCM SOCOL has been used to evaluate the contributions of the main anthropogenic factors to the simulated changes of ozone and stratospheric dynamics during the 21st century. As the main anthropogenic factors we consider the atmospheric concentration of the greenhouse gases (GHG, ozone depleting substances (ODS and sea surface temperature and sea ice (SST/SI. The latter is considered here as an independent factor because the majority of the CCMs prescribe its evolution. We have performed three sets of "time slice" numerical experiments for the years 2000, 2050, and 2100 taking into account all factors separately and all together. The total column ozone increase during the first half of the 21st century is caused by the ODS, especially in the middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. In the tropics and the extra tropical region of the Northern Hemisphere (NH the SST/SI forcing plays a very important role in the evolution of atmospheric ozone during the second half of the 21st century. The GHG affect the temperature and ozone mainly in the upper stratosphere and in the lower stratosphere of the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH. In the lower tropical stratosphere of the NH, the long-term changes of the temperature, zonal wind and the meridional circulation are controlled mainly by the SST/SI. The strong contribution of the SST/SI to the ozone and circulation changes in the future implies that some differences between the results by different CCMs could be caused by the applied SST/SI rather than by the CCM's deficiencies. We suggest taking this issue into account for the planning of the future model evaluation campaigns.

  19. The Impact of Selected Individual and External Factors on the Occurrence of Severe Injuries: Case Study of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Tominc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the importance of different determinants and their impact on the severity of injuries of individuals in road traffic accidents, so that measures that are supposed to prevent or reduce severe injury consequences can be developed. In this paper three research models have been built. Model I was built to study the impact of demographic factors (gender and age on the individual’s likelihood to wear a seat-belt while Model II to study the impact of demographic factors (gender and age and the impact of wearing a seat belt on the likelihood that fatal injuries of individuals in road traffic accidents occur. Model III was formed to study the impact of several environmental factors on the likelihood that the accident involves severe or fatal injuries of road traffic accident participants. Altogether our study revealed that middle-aged individuals (over 25 years and up to 65 years old are less likely to wear a seat belt and at the same time more likely to suffer fatal injuries in road traffic accidents. This is the result that implies that the targeted policy measures to the population between 25 and 65 years of age are needed to reduce the fatal injuries occurrence in Slovenia.

  20. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  1. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  2. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  3. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  4. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  5. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution (DK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark); Willumsen, E.; Kristensen, N.B. [COWI (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AiGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Inititally, a brief description of the ExternE Transport methodology is given and it is summarised how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area. (au)

  6. Against Absolute Actualization: Three "Non-Localities" and Failure of Model-External Randomness made easy with Many-Worlds Models including Stronger Bell-Violation and Correct QM Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Vongehr, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Experimental violation of Bell-inequalities disproves actualization of single futures (~ 'naive realism'). To show this self-contained pedagogically, I resolve the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox by starting with a trivial non-quantum many-worlds model that already has 'apparent non-locality'. I modify it, constructing a visually intuitive classical-to-quantum transition model. 'Model-external randomness' (a ghost outside the universe throwing a pebble on state-space) stays unchanged, but the modeled observers witness even stronger Bell-violation than standard quantum probability P. P is derived from classical-to-quantum consistency. Model-internal probability (~ subjective Bayesianism) is derived as a measure of surprise (~ Deutsch's rational expectation) and shown to be reflected in the empirical records. The model shows how absolute actualization, say by hidden variables, fails. Models with standard quantum probabilities are supplied for completeness. The transition model is then presented as the first tou...

  7. Determination of dose factors for external gamma radiation at residences; Determinacao de fatores de dose para radiacao gama externa em residencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    A significant contribution to the global population exposure to ionizing radiation arises from natural sources, especially from radionuclides present in terrestrial crust. Human activities can eventually concentrate such radionuclides to significant levels from the point of view of radiological protection. Phosphogypsum, a by product of fertilizers industry, shows radionuclide concentrations in these conditions. Therefore, the viability of its use as an alternative material for natural gypsum in dwellings construction is conditioned, among several additional aspects, to optimization studies. This paper presents a methodology for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses due to radionuclides present in wall in an hypothetical room constructed of phosphogypsum sheets. Assessment of dose is being carried out through the application of photon transport model, taking into account self-absorption and buildup factors. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  9. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  10. Prevention of external factors in Department of Stomatology%口腔科外在危害因素的预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于兆兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:口腔科医疗工作性质的特殊性,决定了口腔科医院感染的复杂性和困难性,需加强医护工作者及患者自身防护的必要性及预防措施。方法提出了感染性因素、环境因素的防范措施。结果医护工作者的呼吸系统疾病发病率明显下降,院感检测合格率为99%。结论只要采取积极有效的防范措施,口腔科外在危害因素是可以预防的。%ObjectiveIn view of the specialty of the dental medical nature of work, determines the complexity and dififculty of dental hospital infection, strengthen health care workers and patients with their own necessity and measures of protection.methodsPut forward the infective factors, environmental factors and preventive measures.ResultsHealth care workers signiifcantly lower incidence of respiratory diseases, hospital inspection qualified r ate 99%.ConclusionAs long as to take positive and effective preventive measures, the harm of dental external factors can be prevented.

  11. Examining social competence, self-perception, quality of life, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescent females with and without autism spectrum disorder: a quantitative design including between-groups and correlational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, T Rene; Schuttler, Jessica Oeth

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent females with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are an understudied population, yet are also quite vulnerable, due to the increased complexities of social interaction and increased risk for internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Most research literature currently focuses on males with ASD, limiting our understanding of social experiences for females with ASD, and thus the potential to better inform supports and intervention to promote social-emotional functioning. This study examined similarities and differences in selected indicators of social-emotional health (social competence, self-perception, quality of life) and problematic behaviors such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms for adolescent females with and without ASD. This study employed a quantitative design utilizing correlational analysis as well as t test comparisons to examine selected indicators of social-emotional health and problematic symptoms using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), Youth Quality of Life Instrument (YQOL), and the Self-Perceptions Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) for adolescent females with ASD in relation to their typically developing peers. Significant differences were found between females with and without ASD in terms of their self-ratings of social-emotional health and problematic behaviors. The no-ASD group rated themselves higher across all areas of social-emotional health. Findings also suggest strong relationships between these constructs, especially for females without ASD. Parent reports of autism symptoms and social-emotional health indicated that as symptoms of autism are more severe, so too was the impact on individuals' social competence. Adolescent females with ASD perceive themselves as having lower social competence, self-worth, and quality of life and higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms as compared to their typically developing peers. Parent ratings indicate that higher levels of autism symptoms relate to lower

  12. The Effects of Some External Management Factors on the Nitrogen Composition of Cattle Manure on Smallholder Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Markewich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farmers in Kenya collect manure from confined cattle housing termed zero-grazing units. Zero-grazing designs may include urine collection, though the effectiveness of these designs in improving manure N content has not been established. The manure-urine mixtures produced in these units were simulated to determine urine effects on manure N composition. Manure and manure-urine mixtures were stored for 120 days during dry and rainy seasons in Kenya. Manure-urine mixtures leached 26% of their mineral N content during the dry season, but only 12% during the rainy season. After storage, manure-urine mixtures had less organic-N and fiber-N than manure alone during the dry season (<0.01, but not during the rainy season. Results suggest that the effect of cattle urine on manure N composition is greater during dry seasons than rainy. Manure should not be stored more than 30 days to minimize N loss to leaching. Farmers may take steps to reduce N loss by controlling leaching and protecting manure from rainfall.

  13. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  14. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  15. Impact on total population health and societal cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor- antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tran-Duy (An); A. Boonen (Annelies); M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental

  16. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  17. Gas-phase and Ar-matrix SQM scaling factors for various DFT functionals with basis sets including polarization and diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2011-05-12

    Scaling factors for Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) scheme have been determined for four different widely used DFT functionals (PBE, B3LYP, B3PW91, and M06-2X) and for two basis sets (6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVTZ) by fitting computed results to 347 fundamental experimental vibrational frequencies of 33 molecules. Measurements in the gas phase and in solid argon matrices were used independently in the fitting procedure in order to provide a simple method of estimating matrix shifts. The accuracy of the new scaling factors is demonstrated on test molecules including hydrogen-bonded systems and molecules containing chlorine and sulfur atoms.

  18. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  19. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  20. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  1. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  2. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  3. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  4. Investigation of Intrinsic and External Factors Contributing to the Occurrence of Coal Bumps in the Mining Area of Western Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Xue, Sheng; Pang, Xufeng; Lin, Zhinan; Deng, Daixin

    2017-04-01

    An investigation has been made to relate the occurrence of coal bumps to specific geological and mining conditions to the mining area of western Beijing. This investigation demonstrates that the high frequency of coal bumps in this area is due to four localized conditions, namely intrinsic coal properties, the presence of overturned strata and thrust faults, high in situ stress and the extraction of coal from island mining faces. Laboratory tests of coal samples indicated that the coals have a short duration of dynamic fracture, high bursting energy and high elastic strain energy, indicating that the coal is intrinsically prone to the occurrence of coal bumps. This investigation has also revealed that there are overturned strata and well-developed large- and medium-scale thrust faults in this area, and the presence of these structures results in plastic flow, severe discontinuities, rapid changes in overburden thickness and dipping of the coal seams. Well-developed secondary fold structures are also present in the axes and limbs of the primary folds. The instability of thrust faults, in combination with large-scale intrusion of igneous rocks, is closely associated with sudden roof breaking and induces sharp variations in electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and micro-seismic signals, which could be used to help predict coal bumps. In situ stress tests in the mining area demonstrate that the maximum and minimum principal stresses are nearly horizontal and that the intermediate principal stress is approximately vertical. The in situ stress level in the area is higher than the average in the Beijing area, North China and mainland China. In addition to the presence of overturned strata and thrust faults and high in situ stress levels, another external factor contributing to the frequency of coal bumps is coal extraction from island mining faces in this area. Island mining faces experience intermittent mining-induced abutment stress when a fault exists at one side of the

  5. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  6. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  7. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  8. External fixators in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  9. External iliac vein thrombosis in an athletic cyclist with a history of external iliac artery endofibrosis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kelly M; Skeik, Nedaa; Shepherd, Roger F; Wennberg, Paul W

    2011-11-01

    External iliac artery endofibrosis describes an intimal subendothelial fibrosis leading to wall thickening and stenosis that has been described in high-performance athletes. There are anatomical, mechanical, and probably metabolic factors that may contribute to this pathology. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement with exercise testing, duplex ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram, and ultimately arteriography help to make the diagnosis. Management can be conservative, but most cases require surgical intervention. External iliac vein stenosis and thrombosis in cyclists has rarely been described in the literature. We report a case of extensive left lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) including the external iliac vein diagnosed in a 57-year-old athletic cyclist with a history of external iliac artery thrombosis.

  10. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  11. EO Model for Tacit Knowledge Externalization in Socio-Technical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas Suresh Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: A vital business activity within socio-technical enterprises is tacit knowledge externalization, which elicits and explicates tacit knowledge of enterprise employees as external knowledge. The aim of this paper is to integrate diverse aspects of externalization through the Enterprise Ontology model. Background: Across two decades, researchers have explored various aspects of tacit knowledge externalization. However, from the existing works, it is revealed that there is no uniform representation of the externalization process, which has resulted in divergent and contradictory interpretations across the literature. Methodology\t: The Enterprise Ontology model is constructed step-wise through the conceptual and measurement views. While the conceptual view encompasses three patterns that model the externalization process, the measurement view employs certainty-factor model to empirically measure the outcome of the externalization process. Contribution: The paper contributes towards knowledge management literature in two ways. The first contribution is the Enterprise Ontology model that integrates diverse aspects of externalization. The second contribution is a Web application that validates the model through a case study in banking. Findings: The findings show that the Enterprise Ontology model and the patterns are pragmatic in externalizing the tacit knowledge of experts in a problem-solving scenario within a banking enterprise. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Consider the diverse aspects (what, where, when, why, and how during the tacit knowledge externalization process. Future Research:\tTo extend the Enterprise Ontology model to include externalization from partially automated enterprise systems.

  12. Risk factors for bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A focus on antimicrobials including cefepime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C; Chalana, Indu K; Tamam, Zeinab; Mohammed, Mazin; Alkatib, Shatha; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudhry, Khawar; Zhao, Jing J; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens represent increasing challenges to physicians because of rising prevalence, high mortality, and challenging treatment. Identifying high risks and early appropriate therapy is critical to favorable outcomes. This is a 5-year retrospective case-case-control study performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, each compared with uninfected controls. Data were collected from December 2004-August 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Participants included 103 patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens and 79 patients with BSI caused by pathogens that did not produce ESBLs. The mean age of patients in the ESBL group was 67 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 77% were black, and 38% (n = 39) died in hospital. The mean age of patients in the non-ESBL group was 58 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 92% were black, and 22% (n = 17) died in hospital. On multivariate analysis, predictors of BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens included central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 29.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-288.3), prior β-lactam-/β-lactamase-inhibitor therapy (OR, 28.1; 95% CI, 1.99-396.5), and prior cefepime therapy (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 2.7-192.4). The only risk factor for BSI caused by non-ESBL-producing pathogens was urinary catheter insertion (OR, 18.2; 95% CI, 3.3-100.3). Prior antimicrobial therapy, particularly with β-lactam, was the strongest unique risk factor for BSI caused by ESBL-producing E coli or K pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  14. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  15. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  16. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  17. External influences on local institutions: spatial dependence and openness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.; Gerritsen, M.J.

    There are both empirical and theoretical arguments for the thesis that external factors have an impact on domestic institutional quality. Consequently, external factors may have large effects on domestic income via local institutions. This paper investigates the role of external factors by

  18. 资源型产业集群演化的外部环境因素分析%Analysis of External Environmental Factors of the Evolution of Resource-based Industrial Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振; 严良; 谢雄标

    2011-01-01

    资源型产业集群是以自然资源的开发和加工为主体.以资源产韭为核心的众多相互合作和竞争的企业或组织集聚在资源产地两形成的网络群体.资源型产业集群处于复杂的外部环境当中,本文在综合学者研究和广泛的实地调研的基础上提出了资源型产业集群演化的外部环境因素模型,认为影响资源型产业集群演化的外部环境因素包括:政府行为、金融环境、行业技术进步、相关产业的发展变化、市场需求、对外开放、基础设施、生态环境以及公众意识.本文采用DEMATEL方法对资源型产业集群演化的外部环境因素进行分析,通过对相关专家进行的问卷调查,确定资源型产业集群演化的外部环境因素之闻的直接影响关系,在计算出各因素在资源型产业集群演化的外部环境因素模型中的综合影响关系的基础上,认为政府可以在资源型产业集群演化过程中发挥关键的作用.本文最后提出了相应的政策建议以提高政府对资源型产业集群演化的促进作用.%Resource-based industrial clusters are network groups formed by many mutual cooperative and competitive enterprises or organizations with a core of resource industries based on development and production of natural resources. They are facing a relatively complex external environment. And to get a better understanding of the environment, the paper proposed a model of external environmental factors for the resource-based industrial clusters' evolution on the basis of comprehensive academic researches and extensive investigations. It pointed out that the influencing factors include government behavior, financing environment, technological progress, related industries, market demand, opening policy, infrastructure, ecological environment, and public awareness. in methodology, the paper applied the DEMATEL method to analyze the model and distributed questionnaires to related experts to

  19. Classical Noncommutative Electrodynamics with External Source

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E; Vassilevich, D V

    2011-01-01

    In a $U(1)_{\\star}$-noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory we extend the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map to include the (gauge-invariance-violating) external current and formulate - to the first order in the NC parameter - gauge-covariant classical field equations. We find solutions to these equations in the vacuum and in an external magnetic field, when the 4-current is a static electric charge of a finite size $a$, restricted from below by the elementary length. We impose extra boundary conditions, which we use to rule out all singularities, $1/r$ included, from the solutions. The selected solutions neither should nor do withstand the limiting transition $a \\rightarrow 0$. The static charge proves to be a magnetic dipole, with the magnetic moment depending on its size $a$. The external magnetic field modifies the long-range Coulomb field and some electromagnetic form-factors. We also analyze the ambiguity in the SW map and show that at least to the order studied here it is equivalent to the ambiguity of adding a ho...

  20. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  1. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  2. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  3. External Environmental Factors and the Capital Structure of the Real Estate Industry%外部环境因素对房地产行业资本结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 杜錾; 任贺

    2012-01-01

    以资产负债率较高的房地产行业作为研究样本,深入探讨了房地产行业特征因素、行业环境因素和宏观经济环境因素对资本结构的影响。研究结果表明,我国房地产行业的资本结构基本符合最优融资顺序理论,房地产行业的盈利水平可以解释资本结构的61.15%,但解释程度远低于工业行业。造成这种差异的原因是由于房地产行业资产负债率比工业行业高,对外部环境的变化更加敏感。实证结果表明,众多外部环境因素对房地产行业资本结构有重要影响,用行业利润和行业投资者行业特征指标、房屋销售价格指数和土地交易价格指数行业环境指标以及国内生产总值指数、贷款利率和货币供应量宏观环境指标,共计7个指标,能解释房地产行业的资产负债率的99.52%。%In this paper, the author select the real estate industry with high asset - liability ratio as the research sample and try to unveil how the real estate industry factors, industry environment and the maeroeconomic environment influence capital structure. The results show that the capital structure of Chinese real estate industry generally consistent with pecking order theory, the real estate industry' s profitability can explain the capital structure up to 61.15%, but the explanation degree is well below the industrial sector. This difference is due to the real estate industry' s high debt ratio, and it' s more sensitive to changes in the external environment. The empirical results show that many external environmental factors have impact on capital structure. Furthermore, the real estate industry' s capital structure can be explained up to 99.52% by industry characteristics including industry profits and industry investors, industry environment including housing sales price index and price index for land transactions, and macro -environment including gross domestic product indices

  4. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  5. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  6. 外部情境因素对城市女性公共环境行为的影响%Influences of External Situational Factors on City Women’s Public Environmental Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄粹; 鹿群; 赵闯

    2015-01-01

    This paper studied the moderating effects of situational factors on the relationship between environ‐mental attitude and environmental behavior using hierarchical regression analysis ,based on the ABC theory of psychology ,and using questionnaire surveys and interviews .The statistic results show that in the case of fa‐vorable external factors ,positive attitude can lead to environmental behavior ;while in the case of unfavorable external factors ,positive attitude cannot produce environmental behavior ,which indicates that the effect of en‐vironmental attitude on environmental behavior is restricted by external factors ,especially moderated by exter‐nal factors such as “cooperation and participation” ,“participation way” and “policies and regulations” .This conclusion shows that it is necessary for the departments concerned to improve the relevant external factors in order to promote the women’s public environmental behavior ,in addition to the cultivation of female positive environmental attitudes .%文章基于心理学中的ABC理论,采用问卷调查和访谈的方法,在肯定以往研究得出的环境态度影响环境行为的基础上,采用分层回归分析重点研究外部情境因素对环境态度与环境行为之间关系的调节作用。统计结果表明:在外部情境因素极其有利的情况下,积极的环境态度能够导致环境行为的发生,当外部情境因素不利的时候,积极的环境态度也不会产生环境行为。这说明了环境态度对环境行为的影响受到外部情境因素的制约,尤其是受到外部情境因素“合作参与”、“参与渠道”、“政策法规”的调节作用。这一结论说明促进城市女性在公共领域的环境行为,除了要培养女性积极的环境态度外,更需要有关部门完善相关的外部情境因素。

  7. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  8. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  10. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  11. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  12. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis

    2011-04-01

    This article focuses on the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies for children and adolescents with externalizing disorders. Following a description of risk factors for youth antisocial behavior, several components common to CBT interventions for youth with externalizing behaviors will be described. Using the Coping Power Program as a model, child treatment components including Emotion Awareness, Perspective Taking, Anger Management, Social Problem Solving, and Goal Setting will be reviewed. CBT strategies for parents of youth with disruptive behaviors will also be described. Finally, the article summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of CBT strategies for externalizing disorders and presents specific outcome research on several programs that include CBT techniques.

  13. Experiment study on RC frame retrofitted by the external structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Junji; Hiroshi, Kuramoto; Taguchi, Takashi; Kamiya, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    A new retrofitting method is proposed herein for reinforced concrete (RC) structures through attachment of an external structure. The external structure consists of a fiber concrete encased steel frame, connection slab and transverse beams. The external structure is connected to the existing structure through a connection slab and transverse beams. Pseudostatic experiments were carried out on one unretrofitted specimen and three retrofitted frame specimens. The characteristics, including failure mode, crack pattern, hysteresis loops behavior, relationship of strain and displacement of the concrete slab, are demonstrated. The results show that the load carrying capacity is obviously increased, and the extension length of the slab and the number of columns within the external frame are important influence factors on the working performance of the existing structure. In addition, the displacement difference between the existing structure and the outer structure was caused mainly by three factors: shear deformation of the slab, extraction of transverse beams, and drift of the conjunction part between the slab and the existing frame. Furthermore, the total deformation determined by the first two factors accounted for approximately 80% of the damage, therefore these factors should be carefully considered in engineering practice to enhance the effects of this new retrofitting method.

  14. Successful external cephalic version is an independent factor for caesarean section during trial of labor - a matched controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujenah, J; Fleury, C; Bonneau, C; Pharisien, I; Tigaizin, A; Carbillon, L

    2017-09-22

    To assess the mode of delivery and Caesarean Section (CS) rate after successful External Cephalic Version (ECV). A matched case-control study. Data were gathered from a tertiary care university hospital register from 1996-2015. All pregnant women who delivered after successful External Cephalic Version (ECV). Among 643 women who attempted ECV, we identified 198 with successful ECVs and compared them with the next two women who presented for labor management with spontaneous cephalic presentation, matching for delivery date, maternal age, parity, body mass index, and delivery history using univariate and stepwise logistic regression. The main outcome measure was the risk of caesarean. The caesarean section rate was higher after successful ECV (respectively 20.7% versus 7.07%, Pface) was higher after successful ECV (28.6% versus 0%). After adjustment for matching and confounding variables (variation of the caesarean section rate over the study period, gestational maternal complications, antepartum fetal complications, term of delivery, induction of labor, oxytocin use for dystocia, neonatal cephalic perimeter), a successful ECV increased the risk of caesarean section (adjusted OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.86-5.46). By stratifying on week, a trend for increased risk for caesarean section was observed at the week after ECV and at post term (28.6% before 37+6, 14.8% at 38+0-38+6, 13.8% at 39+0-39+6, 14.2% at 40+0-40+6 and 33.3% beyond 41+0 weeks' gestation, P=0.06). Women who have a successful ECV are at increased risk of caesarean section compared with women who experience spontaneous cephalic version. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  16. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  17. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  18. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  19. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  20. The relationship of internality-externality, self-acceptance, and self-ideal discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, J P; Fantasia, S C; Solheim, G

    1975-06-01

    Internals (n=35) and externals (n=38) responded to Rotter's (12) I-E scale under two sets of instructions: standard (as the kind of persons they really were) and ideal-self instructions (as if they were the types of persons they would like to be) and the self-acceptance questionnaire (4). Results indicated (a) on both instruments the discrepancy between real and ideal-self was significantly larger in externals: (b) the external ideal-self includes an internal locus of control; (c) a significant discriminatory factor between internals and externals is their perceived control over their own destiny and not social institutions. The results were discussed in terms of the relationship of externality to maladjustment, neuroticism, and possible causes for this relationship.

  1. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor....... In conclusion, spironolactone inhibits production of several proinflammatory cytokines considered to be of pathogenic importance in many immunoinflammatory diseases and shows positive effect in patients with chronic arthritis. Its effect as an anti-inflammatory drug should be explored, because prolonged...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  2. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    ,000 genes) and enzyme immunoassay for quantitating secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spironolactone as an anti-inflammatory drug 21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or other arthritides were treated...... for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  3. Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti–factor VIII immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Arthur R Thompson; Pratt, Kathleen P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after factor VIII (FVIII) infusions is a serious complication that affects approximately one-quarter of hemophilia A patients who have access to replacement therapy. To investigate the differentiation of naive T cells into FVIII-specific helper T cells that promote B-cell activation and antibody secretion, HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell clones that respond to a specific epitope in FVIII were isolated from a mild hemophilia A subject...

  4. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-assessed bowel toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer - predictive factors on irritative symptoms, incontinence and rectal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klotz Jens

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate self-assessed bowel toxicity after radiotherapy (RT for prostate cancer. In contrast to rectal bleeding, information concerning irritative symptoms (rectal urgency, pain and incontinence after RT has not been adequately documented and reported in the past. Methods Patients (n = 286 have been surveyed prospectively before (A, at the last day (70.2-72.0 Gy; B, a median time of two (C and 16 months after RT (D using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Bowel domain score changes were analyzed and patient-/dose-volume-related factors tested for a predictive value on three separate factors (subscales: irritative symptoms, incontinence and rectal bleeding. Results Irritative symptoms were most strongly affected in the acute phase, but the scores of all subscales remained slightly lower at time D in comparison to baseline scores. Good correlations (correlation indices >0.4; p Conclusion PTV and specific comorbidities are important predictive factors on adverse bowel quality of life changes after RT for prostate cancer. However, greater rectum volumes inside high isodose levels have not been found to be associated with lower quality of life scores.

  6. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Kepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13–17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen for male adolescents ages 13–17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  7. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  8. 多重外部因素下珠三角外贸企业适应性成长机制%Adaptive Growth Mechanism of Foreign Trade Enterprises in the Pearl River Delta with Multiple External Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁裕辉

    2012-01-01

    Multiple factors such as global social responsibility campaign, financial crisis, digital manufacturing, and virtual communities will change the ecological environment of the foreign trade enterprises in the Pearl River Delta. Through the a-nalysis on growth factors of foreign trade enterprises in the Pearl River Delta, its adaptive growth mechanism model has been constructed from the perspective of complex adaptive theory. Studies show that adaptive growth enterprises must be able to respond quickly to external environment' s change and reconstruct "internal model". Finally, in view of the multiple external factor, the paper puts forward the corresponding rapid response mechanisms consisting of technology innovation, system innovation, marketing innovation, and consciousness innovation.%全球社会责任运动、金融危机、制造业数字化、虚拟社区等多重因素将改变珠三角外贸企业的生态环境.基于复杂自适应理论的视角分析了影响珠三角外贸企业成长的因素,并构建了其适应性成长机制模型.研究结果表明:企业只有快速响应外部生态环境变化而重构“内部模型”,才能适应性成长.最后,针对目前多重外部因素的影响,提出了由技术创新、制度创新、营销创新、意识创新等构建的快速响应机制.

  9. Post-external dacryocystorhinostomy lagophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Thabit A; Odat, Haitham A; Khraisat, Heba; Odat, Mohannad A; Alzoubi, Firas Q

    2015-06-01

    To describe lagophthalmos and eyelid closure abnormality after external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). A retrospective review of medical records and postoperative photographs of 79 patients who underwent external DCR for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and developed eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos with or without exposure keratopathy was conducted. Collected data included age, sex, indication for surgery, laterality, length and type of incision, length of follow-up duration, presence of punctate epithelial keratopathy, and time for resolution of eyelid closure abnormalities. Twenty-seven patients with 28 external dacryocystorhinostomy had postoperative eyelid closure abnormalities. Male to female ratio was 1:6. The mean age was 40.1 years (range 9-80 years). All surgeries were performed through diagonal skin incision. Lagophthalmos involving the medial third of the palpebral fissure was noticed in 28.6 % of cases. All patients had hypometric blink mainly of the upper eyelid. One patient had punctate epithelial keratopathy. Resolution of lagophthalmos was noticed over a period of 1-5 weeks with an average of 3 weeks. None of the patients continued to have residual hypometric blink or punctate keratopathy at the last follow-up time. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 months (range 3-6 months). Eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos after external DCR are underestimated problems. Spontaneous resolution is seen in all cases weeks to months after surgery.

  10. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  11. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  12. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  13. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  14. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  15. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  16. 内外取热器影响装置长周期运行的因素及对策%Effects of Internal and External Heat Exchanger Device for Long Period Operation Factors and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾克利; 张玉宝; 康钰海; 李宏; 郭保宏; 安德会

    2012-01-01

    External heat exchanger main failure form of tube bundle leakage and finned tube distortion,the main reason is the erosion wear,corrosion,welding defects and their structure is not reasonable.The paper on the 60 Mt / a device of heavy oil catalytic cracking heat exchanger in the production of the problems in the running process,influence factors,management and technical defects of the effects obtained after analysis,in order to prolong the using life of external heat exchanger,energy saving,promoting device for diesel and jet operation purpose.%内外取热器失效的主要表现形式为管束泄漏和翅片管变形,其主要原因是冲蚀磨损、腐蚀穿孔、焊接缺陷以及结构不合理等。文章就60 Mt/a重油催化裂化装置取热器在生产运行过程中出现的问题、影响因素、管理缺陷以及技改后所取得的成效加以分析,以期延长外取热器使用寿命,节能降耗,促进装置安稳长满优运行的目的。

  17. Development of multidrug resistance due to multiple factors including P-glycoprotein overexpression under K-selection after MYC and HRAS oncogene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-15

    Multistep tumorigenesis is a form of microevolution consisting of mutation and selection. To clarify the role of selection modalities in tumor development, we examined two alternative evolutionary conditions, r-selection in sparse culture, which allows cells to proliferate rapidly, and K-selection in confluent culture, in which overcrowding constrains cell proliferation. Using MYC- and EJ-RAS-transformed rat embryo fibroblasts, we found that K-selected cells acquired and stably maintained multidrug resistance (MDR) to DOX, VCR, MTX and Ara-C. Then, we examined the involvement of a number of factors potentially causal of the development of MDR, that is, ploidy, Tp53 mutation, doubling time and the expression levels of genes related to drug resistance. Although ploidy status and Tp53 mutations did not correlate with MDR, we found that Abcb1/Mdr1, encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp), was significantly upregulated after K-selection. Cyclosporin A, a competitive inhibitor of Pgp, increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and reduced the resistance to it. Indeed, the population of Pgp-transfected cells significantly expanded under K-, but not under r-selection. In addition to Pgp upregulation, altered expression of other genes such as Cda/cytidine deaminase and Slc29a1/equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and prolonged doubling times were associated with MDR. This system reproduces events associated with MDR in vivo and would be useful for analysis of MDR development.

  18. Real-world Experience with Sofosbuvir-based Regimens for Chronic Hepatitis C, Including Patients with Factors Previously Associated with Inferior Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christina J; Roytman, Marina M; Hong, Leena K; Huddleston, Leslie; Trujillo, Ruby; Cheung, Alvin; Poerzgen, Peter; Tsai, Naoky C S

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of sofosbuvir, a direct acting antiviral, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy, simplicity, and tolerability of sofosbuvir-based regimens and report high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) rates. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical trial findings translate into a real-world setting, particularly with treatment of chronic HCV in our diverse, multiethnic population of Hawai'i. Retrospective analysis was performed for 113 patients with genotype 1-6 HCV infection being treated at the Queen's Liver Center between January 2014 and March 2015. SVR rates for our cohort were slightly lower than the rates published by the clinical trials. Data analysis also suggested that most baseline characteristics previously associated with inferior response might not be as significant for sofosbuvir-based regimens; in our cohort, male gender was the only factor significantly related to increased risk of virologic relapse. Pacific Islanders also had higher rate of relapse compared to other ethnic groups, but the small number of patients treated in this subgroup make it difficult to validate this finding. While newer all-oral treatment regimens have been introduced since this study, we highlight the importance of comparing real-world versus clinical trial results for new treatments, and provide data analyses for treatment of chronic HCV in Hawai'i.

  19. External factors determining breeding season in the red mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae on the São Paulo State northern coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo Valter José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the water and air temperatures, pluviosity and photoperiod on the breeding season of Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803, in Ubatuba littoral, southeastern Brazilian coast. Monthly collections were conducted out from January/95 to December/96 in an estuarine area from 23º29'10"-23º29'45"S to 45º09'10"-45º10'00"W. Water and air temperature variation showed the highest correlation coefficient with the frequency of ovigerous females, r² = 0.73 and 0.68, respectively. However, an analysis of the set of environmental variables, revealed the photoperiod as the factor of highest association with the ovigerous frequency (r² = 0.68. This degree of association allow us to suggest that the breeding season duration of G. cruentata might have some variations over different latitudes, and such results could be quite diverse in populations from different latitudes.

  20. Evaluating the prevalence of canceling surgical operations,including its influencing factors at Imam Khomeini hospital in Sari during 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamani kiasari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Hospital admission for surgery is an important event for patients. Canceling surgical procedures produce several unpleasant results for patients such as waste of time, including payment. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to achieve problem solving methods.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Statistical data regarding all surgical procedures (without sampling performed during 2006 to 2007, were recorded in a checklist. Study variables were identified based on surgical procedures that were canceled during this study. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and statistical analysis tests.Results: Of 4,711 scheduled patients, 510 (10/9% surgical operations were canceled. The highest number of patient candidates for surgical operation was related to gynecology, orthopedic, urology, while the least were related to reconstructive and vascular surgery groups respectively. The most canceled surgical procedures were related to neurosurgical operation 32/4% (68 from 207 cases while the least canceled cases belonged to gynecology 4/4% (48 from 1094 cases.Conclusion: The results of our study showed that 54/2% of canceled cases were preventable. The results of this study and similar studies demonstrate that traditional pre-operative preparation for surgical scheduling, day before surgery is in need of serious consideration. We recommend a fundamental change by discarding traditional methods and creating a new committee including specialized bed or resource groups, monthly management meetings to discuss causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to reduce its occurrence. Thus, decreasing the rate of canceling surgical wasted, while reducing anxiety in patients and their family. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(65:52-62 (Persian

  1. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  2. Borrelidin Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Inhibited Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via Several Factors Including GATA-Binding Protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Tokuyama, Shinji; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    An inhibitor of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was isolated from Streptomyces sp. TK08330 and identified by spectroscopy as the 18-membered macrolide borrelidin. Treatment with 1.0 μM borrelidin suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation by 80% and inhibited the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. Borrelidin suppressed the mRNA expression of two master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα). Studies on well-known upstream regulators of PPARγ revealed that borrelidin down-regulated C/EBPδ mRNA expression but did not affect expression of C/EBPβ. Borrelidin increased mRNA expression of negative regulators of differentiation such as GATA-binding protein (GATA) 3, Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 3 and KLF7, as well as positive regulators, KLF4, KLF6 and KLF15, at early stages of differentiation. To elucidate a primary mediator of borrelidin differentiation inhibitory activity, small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection experiments were performed. The mRNA expression of PPARγ, which was down-regulated by borrelidin, was not changed by KLF3 and KLF7 siRNA treatment. In contrast, expression of PPARγ in GATA-3 siRNA-treated cells was not significantly different from that of control siRNA-treated cells. Borrelidin significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in control siRNA-treated cells, and treatment with GATA-3 siRNA slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of borrelidin. These results indicate that borrelidin inhibited adipocyte differentiation partially via GATA-3.

  3. Human CD34+ CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells cultured with growth factors including Angptl5 efficiently engraft adult NOD-SCID Il2rγ-/- (NSG mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Drake

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their stem cell activity. Here, we expanded cord blood CD34(+ CD133(+ cells in a defined medium containing angiopoietin like 5 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and evaluated the cells for stem cell activity in NOD-SCID Il2rg(-/- (NSG mice by multi-lineage engraftment, long term reconstitution, limiting dilution and serial reconstitution. The phenotype of expanded cells was characterized by flow cytometry during the course of expansion and following engraftment in mice. We show that the SCID repopulating activity resides in the CD34(+ CD133(+ fraction of expanded cells and that CD34(+ CD133(+ cell number correlates with SCID repopulating activity before and after culture. The expanded cells mediate long-term hematopoiesis and serial reconstitution in NSG mice. Furthermore, they efficiently reconstitute not only neonate but also adult NSG recipients, generating human blood cell populations similar to those reported in mice reconstituted with uncultured human HSCs. These findings suggest an expansion of long term HSCs in our culture and show that expression of CD34 and CD133 serves as a marker for HSC activity in human cord blood cell cultures. The ability to expand human HSCs in vitro should facilitate clinical use of HSCs and large-scale construction of humanized mice from the same donor for research applications.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  5. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  6. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul

  7. Modifiable risk factors including sunlight exposure and fish consumption are associated with risk of hypertension in a large representative population from Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liang; Ho, Jacky; Feng, Jianzhang; Mpofu, Elias; Dibley, Michael J; Feng, Xiuhua; Van, Florance; Leong, Sokman; Lau, Winne; Lueng, Petra; Kowk, Carrie; Li, Yan; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye E

    2014-10-01

    Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged ≥18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (β=-0.072, pexposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Análisis de la conectividad externa de los puertos de Chile como un factor de competitividad External connectivity analysis of the ports of Chile as a factor of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Salgado Oportus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los puertos son un nodo dentro de la cadena de transporte, por lo que evaluar y determinar la conectividad externa de los puertos de Chile con los principales socios económicos del país es una de las piezas fundamentales para determinar y analizar su competitividad portuaria dado el creciente desarrollo comercial que ha llevado nuestro país. Esta investigación está basada en el contenido de los lineamientos de investigación sobre conectividad externa de países de la UNCTAD. En el caso de este estudio, esta metodología fue modificada y aplicada para medir la conectividad externa de los puertos que transfieren contenedores en Chile. Se seleccionaron siete puertos utilizando el criterio de la participación en el mercado de este tipo de carga, para los cuales se determinaron nueve tasas que conforman el Índice de Conectividad Externa Portuaria (ICEP definido en este trabajo. Los resultados obtenidos arrojaron que los puertos de Iquique, San Vicente y Valparaíso brindan mayores oportunidades a los exportadores de acceder a cadenas logísticas más adecuadas a sus productos o acceder a distintos mercados desde un mismo puerto. Sin embargo, en las vecindades portuarias de la Quinta y Octava regiones se encontró que los puertos del sur poseen mejores condiciones de accesibilidad marítima, pudiendo atraer más compañías navieras a dicha zona. Los puertos de la zona central no presentan mayores diferencias de conectividad externa para los exportadores. En cambio para los puertos del sur los exportadores tienen mejores alternativas de acceso a mercados a través del puerto de San Vicente.Ports are a node within the transport chain, so that to determine and evaluate the external connectivity of Chilean ports with Chile's main commercial partners is a key element in analyzing port competitiveness with regards to Chile's increasing foreign trade. This research is based on the UNCTAD research guidelines concerning the external connectivity of

  9. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  10. ENDOSCOPIC DCR VERSUS EXTERNAL DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare success rates of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR and external DCR for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative non randomized study of 64 patients who presented with acquired NLD obstruction to a tertiary hospital. They were fully evaluated to ascertain the site of obstruction and patients with distal obstruction were included in the study. 34 patients underwent endoscopic DCR and 30 patients underwent external DCR RESULTS: 64 patients were included in the study and 72 procedures carried out. Success was achieved in 65 cases and failure in 7. Of the 7 failed cases, anatomical obstruction at the fistula site was found in 3, whereas functional failure was found in 4. In our patients, endoscopic DCR had a significantly higher success rate than external DCR, 95.23% versus 83.33% (P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of Endoscopic DCR for acquired NLDO in our group of patients was 95.23%, with endoscopic surgery showing better results.

  11. Research on the Internal and External Factors that Influence Individual's Healthy Growth%个体不健康影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万瓅媛

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development and major changes of society has brought people a lot of rich material conditions and special opportunity as well as new challenges, pressure and maladjustment. The reasons are various including genetic quality, environment, education (especially school education) and personal subjective ability. From these four aspects, this paper analyzes the influence of subjective will and objective environment in the process of personal growth.%社会的急速发展和重大变化给人们带来了很多富足的物质条件和特殊机遇,同时也带来了各种新的挑战、压力与不适应。究其原因是多方面的,是遗传素质、环境、教育(特指学校教育)、个人主观能力性综合作用的结果。本文从这四个方面,就个人成长过程中主观意志与客观环境的影响作用进行深入分析。

  12. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    own specific set of mechanisms and conditions. Integrating innovations has been mostly studied from an absorptive capacity perspective, with less attention given to the impact of competencies and culture (including “not invented here”). Commercializing innovations puts the most emphasis on how......” in a way inconsistent with earlier definitions in innovation management. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research that include examining the end-to-end innovation commercialization process, and studying the moderators and limits of leveraging external sources of innovation....

  13. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  14. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  15. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  16. European regional efficiency and geographical externalities: a spatial nonparametric frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Julián; Cordero, José Manuel; Márquez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses region-level technical efficiency in nine European countries over the 1995-2007 period. We propose the application of a nonparametric conditional frontier approach to account for the presence of heterogeneous conditions in the form of geographical externalities. Such environmental factors are beyond the control of regional authorities, but may affect the production function. Therefore, they need to be considered in the frontier estimation. Specifically, a spatial autoregressive term is included as an external conditioning factor in a robust order- m model. Thus we can test the hypothesis of non-separability (the external factor impacts both the input-output space and the distribution of efficiencies), demonstrating the existence of significant global interregional spillovers into the production process. Our findings show that geographical externalities affect both the frontier level and the probability of being more or less efficient. Specifically, the results support the fact that the spatial lag variable has an inverted U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance of regions. This finding can be interpreted as a differential effect of interregional spillovers depending on the size of the neighboring economies: positive externalities for small values, possibly related to agglomeration economies, and negative externalities for high values, indicating the possibility of production congestion. Additionally, evidence of the existence of a strong geographic pattern of European regional efficiency is reported and the levels of technical efficiency are acknowledged to have converged during the period under analysis.

  17. Factors that increase external pressure to the fibular head region, but not medial region, during use of a knee-crutch/leg-holder system in the lithotomy position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ju Mizuno,1 Toru Takahashi2 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Faculty of Health and Welfare Science, Okayama Prefectural University, Soja, Japan Background: Paralysis of the common peroneal nerve is one of the relatively common nerve injuries related to the lithotomy position with the use of a knee-crutch/leg-holder system. Several risk factors have been implicated in lithotomy position-related common peroneal nerve paralysis during operation.Materials and methods: In the present study, 21 young healthy volunteers participated in the investigation of the causes of the paralysis of the common peroneal nerve in the lithotomy position using a knee-crutch/leg-holder; Knee Crutch. We assessed the external pressure applied to the fibular head and medial regions using the Big-Mat pressure-distribution measurement system. Relationships between the peak contact pressure and physical characteristics, such as sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI, and fibular head circumference, were analyzed.Results: The peak contact pressure to the fibular head region was greater for males than for females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between the peak contact pressure to the fibular head region and weight, BMI, or fibular head circumference. However, there was no significant difference between the peak contact pressure to the fibular head region and height for any subjects. Moreover, there was no sex-related difference in the peak contact pressure to the fibular medial region, and no significant differences between the peak contact pressure to the fibular medial region and height, weight, BMI, or fibular head circumference.Conclusion: External pressure to the fibular head region is greater for males than for females using a knee-crutch/leg-holder system in the lithotomy position. In addition, the external pressure

  18. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  19. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  20. Experimental modulation of external microbiome affects nestmate recognition in harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex barbatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosmann, Andy; Bahet, Nassim; Gordon, Deborah M

    2016-01-01

    Social insects use odors as cues for a variety of behavioral responses, including nestmate recognition. Past research on nestmate recognition indicates cuticular hydrocarbons are important nestmate discriminators for social insects, but other factors are likely to contribute to colony-specific odors. Here we experimentally tested whether external microbes contribute to nestmate recognition in red harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex barbatus). We changed the external microbiome of ants through topical application of either antibiotics or microbial cultures. We then observed behavior of nestmates when treated ants were returned to the nest. Ants whose external microbiome was augmented with microbial cultures were much more likely to be rejected than controls, but ants treated with antibiotics were not. This result is consistent with the possibility that external microbes are used for nestmate recognition.

  1. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western Europ...... show that estimated damages due to the greenhouse effect are predominant, however, the uncertainty is high. The predominant damage at the local and regional level is related to emission of NOx, which results in effects on public health....... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...... the use of a software package, EcoSence, having an environmental database at both a local and regional level including population, crops, building materials and forest. The system also incorporates two air transport models, allowing local and regional scale modelling. The results of the Danish case study...

  2. Variations in clinical estimates of tumor volume regression parameters and time factor during external radiotherapy in cancer cervix: Does it mimic the linear-quadratic model of cell survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor regression parameters and time factor during external radiotherapy (EXTRT are of paramount importance. AIMS: To quantify the parameters of tumor regression and time factor during EXTRT in cancer cervix. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Patients, treated solely with radiotherapy and enrolled for other prospective studies having weekly tumor regressions recorded were considered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients received 50Gy of EXTRT followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. Loco-regional regressions were assessed clinically and regression fraction (RF was represented as RF = c + a1D + a2D2- a3T, with c, D and T as constant, cumulative EXTRT dose and treatment time respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Step wise linear regression was performed for RF. Scatter plots were fitted using linear-quadratic fit. RESULTS: Coefficients of parameters D, D2 and T were computed for various dose intervals, namely 0-20 Gy, 0-30 Gy, 0-40 Gy and 0-50 Gy. At 0-20 Gy and 0-30 Gy, only the coefficient of D2 was significant (P < 0.001, while both D2 and T turned significant (P < 0.001 at 0-40 Gy. For the entire range of 0-50 Gy, all the coefficients of D, D2 and T showed significance, leading to an estimate of 26 Gy for a1/a2 and 0.96 Gy/day for a3/a1. CONCLUSIONS: As with a/β and g/a of post-irradiation cell survival curves, a1/a2 and a3/a1 represents the cumulative effect of various radiobiological factors influencing clinical regression of tumor during the course of EXTRT. The dynamic changes in the coefficients of D, D2sub and T, indicate their relative importance during various phases of EXTRT.

  3. 影响英语专业听力课堂注意力的外部因素分析%Analysis on the External Factors of Class Attention in English Major’s Listening Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文洁; 梁梅红

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most important language abilities of language learning, listening plays an important role in learning Eng⁃lish especially for English majors. Attention in class plays an important role in the process of intake in class, and it makes all the difference between success and failure in English learning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the external factors that might influence students’attention in English listening classes, and the author employs interview and observation as the research meth⁃ods to explore the factors that may influence English major students’attention in listening class. By noticing these factors, teachers together with the students may figure out some effective solutions to solve these problems and to improve the learning efficiency in listening class.%作为语言学习中一项重要的语言能力,听力对于英语学习者,尤其是对英语专业学生而言显得尤为重要,而课堂上的注意力却在很大程度上影响着英语学习者们对所授知识的吸收程度。该研究通过访谈和观察两种研究方法,探讨可能影响英语专业学生在听力课堂上注意力的外部因素,目的在于针对相关的外部影响因素,找出解决这些问题的一些有效的解决方案,提高在学生在听力课上的学习效率。

  4. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  5. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  6. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormo

  7. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  8. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  9. 从内因到外因:影响教师专业发展的四个因素%The Four Internal and External Factors Influencing Teacher' s Professional Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯云洁

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs about happiness, career, and teacher self- efficacy and group efficacy are four internal and external factors affecting each teacher' s professional development. Beliefs about happiness and career decide teachers' value and development orientation, and the amount of time and efforts spent; self- efficacy is a necessary psychological motive, providing the energy for teachers' persistent pursuit of professional development; group efficacy has the driving force for promoting teacher development.%教师的幸福观、职业观、自我效能感和群体效能感,是从内因到外因影响教师专业发展的四个重要因素。幸福观和职业观决定了教师专业发展的个人价值取向和路径取向,以及时间付出的多少和努力程度;自我效能感是专业发展必要的心理机制,决定了教师努力的强度和持续度;群体效能感是牵引教师专业发展的推动力。

  10. Multi-institutional Prospective Evaluation of Bowel Quality of Life After Prostate External Beam Radiation Therapy Identifies Patient and Treatment Factors Associated With Patient-Reported Outcomes: The PROSTQA Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Conlon, Anna S.C.; Daignault, Stephanie [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dunn, Rodney L. [Department of Urology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hembroff, A. Larry [Office for Survey Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaplan, Irving [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ciezki, Jay [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, John T. [Department of Urology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sanda, Martin G. [Department of Urology, Emory University Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients treated with external beam radiation therapy as part of the multicenter Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Treatment Quality Assessment (PROSTQA), to identify factors associated with posttreatment patient-reported bowel health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment characteristics and treatment details among 292 men were evaluated using a general linear mixed model for their association with measured HRQOL by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite instrument through 2 years after enrollment. Results: Bowel HRQOL had a median score of 100 (interquartile range 91.7-100) pretreatment and 95.8 (interquartile range 83.3-100) at 2 years, representing new moderate/big problems in 11% for urgency, 7% for frequency, 4% for bloody stools, and 8% for an overall bowel problems. Baseline bowel score was the strongest predictor for all 2-year endpoints. In multivariable models, a volume of rectum ≥25% treated to 70 Gy (V70) yielded a clinically significant 9.3-point lower bowel score (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.8-1.7, P=.015) and predicted increased risks for moderate to big fecal incontinence (P=.0008). No other radiation therapy treatment-related variables influenced moderate to big changes in rectal HRQOL. However, on multivariate analyses V70 ≥25% was associated with increases in small, moderate, or big problems with the following: incontinence (3.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-13.4, P=.03), rectal bleeding (3.6-fold; 95% CI 1.3-10.2, P=.018), and bowel urgency (2.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-7.6, P=.026). Aspirin use correlated with a clinically significant 4.7-point lower bowel summary score (95% CI 9.0-0.4, P=.03) and an increase in small, moderate, or big problems with bloody stools (2.8-fold; 95% CI 1.2-6.4, P=.018). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was associated with higher radiation therapy doses to the prostate and lower doses to the rectum but did not independently correlate with bowel HRQOL

  11. 21 CFR 890.3420 - External limb prosthetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... total prosthesis. Examples of external limb prosthetic components include the following: Ankle, foot... shoulder joint components; and cable and prosthesis suction valves. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ju; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-05-13

    Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a

  13. External Beam Radiation in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Billan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC is surgery followed in some cases by adjuvant treatment, mostly with radioactive iodine (RAI. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT is less common and not a well-established treatment modality in DTC. The risk of recurrence depends on three major prognostic factors: extra-thyroid extension, patient’s age, and tumor with reduced iodine uptake. Increased risk for recurrence is a major factor in the decision whether to treat the patient with EBRT. Data about the use of EBRT in DTC are limited to small retrospective studies. Most series have demonstrated an increase in loco-regional control. The risk/benefit from giving EBRT requires careful patient selection. Different scoring systems have been proposed by different investigators and centers. The authors encourage clinicians treating DTC to become familiarized with those scoring systems and to use them in the management of different cases. The irradiated volume should include areas of risk for microscopic disease. Determining those areas in each case can be difficult and requires detailed knowledge of the surgery and pathological results, and also understanding of the disease-spreading pattern. Treatment with EBRT in DTC can be beneficial, and data support the use of EBRT in high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed for better confirmation of the role of EBRT.

  14. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  15. Analysing Factors Causing Pancreatic Fistula post Pancreaticoduodenectomy with External Drainage of Pancreatic Duct%放置胰管外引流的胰十二指肠切除术后胰瘘原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁强; 王毅军; 邢谦哲; 杜智

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨放置胰管外引流的胰十二指肠切除术后胰瘘发生的原因。方法收集1999年-2011年行胰十二指肠切除术并放置胰管外引流的133例患者资料,分析其性别、年龄、合并冠心病、合并高血压、合并糖尿病、合并胆管炎、术前白蛋白(ALB)、总胆红素(TBIL)、术前胆管引流、胰管直径、胰管引流通畅与否、病理类型和术后是否应用生长抑素与发生胰瘘的关系。结果133例患者中24例(18.05%)术后发生胰瘘,其中A级3例,B级13例,C级8例。24例患者中胰管引流通畅(通畅组)和不畅(不畅组)各12例。不畅组胰瘘的严重程度高于通畅组。除胰管引流不畅患者胰瘘发生率高于胰管引流通畅者(30.8%vs 12.8%,χ2=6.041,P<0.05)外,不同性别、年龄等其他因素间胰瘘发生率差异均无统计学意义。Logistic回归分析显示,胰管引流不畅是术后胰瘘发生的独立危险因素。结论胰管引流不畅是放置胰管外引流的胰十二指肠切除术后发生胰瘘的主要原因,保持术后胰管引流畅通可明显减少胰瘘的发生及胰瘘的严重程度。%Objective To analyze relevant factors causing pancreatic fistula post pancreaticoduodenectomy with ex-ternal drainage of pancreatic duct. Methods Altogether 133 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with exter-nal drainage of pancreatic duct in our hospital from 1999 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relevance of pancreatic fistula with age, gender, combined diseases, pancreatic duct diameter, patho-logical types, preoperative total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB) levels, drainage of the bile duct before operation, obstruc-tion of the pancreatic duct drainage and postoperative application of growth somatostatin. Then we also analyzed the relation-ship between those risk factors and the severity of pancreatic fistula. Results

  16. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  17. Power, muscular work, and external forces in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, G; Welbergen, E; Clijsen, L; Clarijs, J; Cabri, J; Antonis, J

    1994-01-01

    Cycling performance is affected by the interaction of a number of variables, including environment, mechanical, and human factors. Engineers have focused on the development of more efficient bicycles. Kinesiologists have examined cycling performance from a human perspective. This paper summarizes only certain aspects of human ergonomics of cycling, especially those which are important for the recent current research in our departments. Power is a key to performance of physical work. During locomotion an imaginary flow of energy takes place from the metabolism to the environment, with some efficiency. The 'useful' mechanical muscle power output might be used to perform movements and to do work against the environment. The external power is defined as the sum of joint powers, each calculated as the product of the joint (net) moment and angular velocity. This definition of external power is closely related to the mean external power as applied to exercise physiology: the sum of joint powers reflects all mechanical power which in principle can be used to fulfil a certain task. In this paper, the flow of energy for cycling is traced quantitatively as far as possible. Studies on the total lower limb can give insight into the contribution of individual muscles to external power. The muscle velocity (positive or negative) is obtained from the positions and orientations of body segments and a bar linkage model of the lower limb. The muscle activity can be measured by electromyography. In this way, positive and negative work regions in individual muscles are identified. Synergy between active agonistic/antagonistic muscle groups occurs in order to deliver external power. Maximum power is influenced by body position, geometry of the bicycle and pedalling rate. This has to be interpreted in terms of the length-tension and force-velocity-power relationships of the involved muscles. Flat road and uphill cycling at different saddle-tube angles is simulated on an ergometer. The

  18. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. [Conversion factors are given for dose rates to 21 organs from 240 different radionuclides for 3 different modes of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1979-02-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation have been calculated for 240 radionuclides of potential importance in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and exposure to a contaminated ground surface are estimated for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. For each exposure mode, photon dose-rate conversion factors are also estimated for 22 body organs. The calculations assume that the contaminated air, water, and ground surface are infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration is uniform. Dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air and water are based on the requirement that all energy emitted in the decay of a radionuclide is absorbed in the infinite medium. Dose-rate conversion factors for ground-surface exposure are calculated for a height of 1 m using the point-kernel integration method and known specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in air. The computer code DOSFACTER written to perform the calculations is described and documented.

  19. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  20. Mapping An Internal-External (I-E) Matrix Using Traditional And Extended Matrix Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher M. Cassidy; Michael D. Glissmeyer; Charles J. Capps III

    2013-01-01

      Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) and External Factor Evaluation (EFE) matrices allow an organization to visualize their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats while a Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM...

  1. Schizophrenia in the internalizing-externalizing framework: a third dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Roman; Chang, Su-Wei; Fochtmann, Laura J; Mojtabai, Ramin; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sedler, Mark J; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2011-11-01

    Prior studies of common disorders in community-dwelling adults identified internalizing and externalizing spectra of mental illness. We investigated the placement of schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder in this framework and tested the validity of the resulting organization in a clinical population. The data came from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort (N = 628), which consists of first-admission patients with psychosis recruited from inpatient units throughout Suffolk County, NY (72% response rate). The sample was reassessed multiple times over the following 10 years. Complete diagnostic data were available for 469 participants. Mental health professionals diagnosed 11 target conditions based on semistructured clinical interviews, review of medical records, and reports of significant others. Two validators were included: family history of schizophrenia and 10-year illness course. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV grouping of conditions fit the data poorly. The best alternative classification consisted of three clusters: internalizing, externalizing, and schizophrenic. Both validators supported the coherence and distinctiveness of the schizophrenic cluster. We replicated internalizing and externalizing spectra in a clinical population, identified a schizophrenic spectrum, and provided initial evidence of its validity. These findings suggest that schizotypal personality disorder may be better placed with schizophrenia, antisocial conditions with substance use disorders, and major depression with anxiety disorders.

  2. Temperament profiles associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how temperament factors are linked to internalizing and externalizing problems in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N = 2230). Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report and temperament was evalu

  3. 论我国行政公益诉讼的外部因素、制度缺陷与路径选择%On External Factors,Systematical Defects and Path Choice of Public Interest Litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    念富强

    2014-01-01

    The dilemma in establishing the system of administrative public interest litigation is caused both by external factors and systematical defects.The external causes such as unwillingness,fear, unawareness and lack of techniques to litigate have existed for long and are quite complicated,and cannot be solved in one try.It needs a gradual and orderly process,relies on social and economic pros-perity,enhancement of social democratic awareness,improvement of ideas about litigation,and per-fection,development and gradual realization of litigation aid theories.The system of legal rights oper-ation can be realized through top level design of national public rights.In terms of paths,we should stick to"the principle of public rights being defined by public rights".By reforming the present j udi-cial system or reconstruct independent j udicial system,we can realize the independence,balance and healthy interaction of j udicial operation,and prevent the interference from administrative rights.On the other hand,this should be based on"fundamental legal spirits of people's rights",granted people or social organizations rights to litigate against the damage.This is a specific example of"the principle of public rights being defined by private rights",and a legal path and guarantee of people'supervision of governments.As for lack and defects of legal action system as a public product,such as damage caused by administration being unable to sue,severe restriction of plaintiff qualifications,difficulties in evidence provision,huge burden of litigation,we can still do something under the present circum-stances.The suggestion is to revise Administrative Procedure Law.This can be constructed and per-fected through expansion of filing of administrative procedure,addition of types of plaintiff qualifica-tions,scientific division of evidence provision,establishment of fund for public interest litigation,re-duction and deferred payment of litigation fee.%建立我国行政公益诉讼制度

  4. External Tank CIL Closed Loop Verification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Eugene A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Lockheed Martin was requested to develop a closed loop CIL system following the Challenger accident. The system that was developed has proven to be very robust with minimal problems since implementation, having zero escapes in the last 7 years (27 External Tanks). We are currently investigating expansion of the CIL Closed Loop system to include "MI" CILs.

  5. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care.

  6. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  7. Inspire and Factors of Affecting the External Representation of Mathematics Word Problem%数学应用题外部表征的影响因素及启发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢强; 单永明

    2012-01-01

    Some factors of affecting the external representation of math word problems mainly contain the surface features of text, mathematical symbols, text familiarity, illustrations, problems and text of location, different rewordings, the reality of situational content and so on. Some studies can be advanced from the following aspects in the future: for the math word problems of situational background of different levels of complexity, how text familiarity affects the representation of math word problems? How dynamic conditions itself and the irrelevant information which contain color, shape etc in animated presentation affect the problem-solving in some degree? In the process of children's understanding and solving math word problems, which dimensions are more important to help the students understand mathematical relationships in math word problems when are emphasized in constructing situation model, in order to construct appropriate situation model, conduct correct representation of math word problems?%数学应用题表征类型中的外部表征的影响因素,主要包括文本表面特征、数学符号、文本内容熟悉程度、插图、问题与文本的呈现位置、不同的措辞、情境内容的现实性等.未来可以从以下几个方面进行进一步研究:对不同复杂程度情境背景的应用题而言,题材熟悉度对应用题表征的影响如何?动态呈现方式本身以及动画呈现中的颜色、形状等无关信息对问题解决的影响程度如何?在儿童理解和解决数学应用题过程中,强调情境模型构建的5个维度中的哪些维度更有利于学生理解应用题中的数学关系,以便构建合适的情境模型,进行正确的数学表征?

  8. Skepticism, contextualism, externalism and modality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-01-01

    .... However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated...

  9. Investigating students’ attitude towards the importance of factors included in the teaching evaluation forms of School of Public Health of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Dehghani Tafti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students’ attitudes about teaching methodology have been widely recognised as a valid tool of evaluating teaching activities of faculty members. This study aims to determine the importance of the factors included in the teaching evaluation, from the students’ point of view. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Using a random cluster sampling, 332 students of the school of public health of Shahid Sadoughi University were selected .To collect data, a questionnaire containing three partswere used. These were demographic items, teachers’ evaluation (14 items and self-evaluation (4 items. Results: The students (80% scoredpersonal characteristics more. Among different fields of study, those studying occupational health scored the factorsless than others, and those studying at masters level scored them more than others.   The results indicated that there are significant correlation between age, marital status, and employment status of the students and the total average score.   The students scored the self-evaluation items more than 60%, There was a significant correlation between the average scores of evaluation and self-evaluation items. The students at bachelor level scored the factor more than masters students. Conclusion: The students’ focus on personal characteristics of teachers was remarkable. There is a need to revise the process of academics’ recruitment based on these findings. There is also a need to review the items included in evaluation forms of the school.

  10. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination.

  11. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  12. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as...

  14. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron C Y; Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Singh, Mansher; Caterson, Edward J; Eriksson, Elof; Sørensen, Jens A

    2015-01-01

    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment methods that directly alter the features of the external wound microenvironment indirectly affect the internal wound microenvironment due to the exchange between the two compartments. In this review, we focus on the effects of temperature, pressure (positive and negative), hydration, gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), pH, and anti-microbial treatment on the wound. These factors are well described in the literature and can be modified with treatment methods available in the clinic. Understanding the roles of these factors in wound pathophysiology is of central importance in wound treatment. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  16. Combined Influences of Genes, Prenatal Environment, Cortisol, and Parenting on the Development of Children's Internalizing Versus Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Fisher, Philip A; Leve, Leslie D

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children's morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood.

  17. Influencing Factors of Corporate External Knowledge Network Capabilities:An Interactive Empirical Study%企业外部知识网络能力的影响因素:一个交互效应的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海花; 周嵩安

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation from the funnel-type closed innovation to the sieve-type open innovation, the exogenous knowledge search and external knowledge sources management are becoming the components of corporate innovation system. It is increasingly becoming one of the important topics in both corporate practice and theoretical research how to improve the external knowledge network capabilities. This paper, by applying the combination of qualitative and quantitative research, systematically reveals the“black box”of factors influencing the external knowledge network capabilities from multi-dimen⁃sions, including macro environment, inter-organizational situation, micro firm and content attribute and so on. Based on the research findings,the paper proposes the strategies to enhance the external knowledge network capabilities from multiple perspectives, namely building the macro environment“monitor”to instantaneously scan and take advantage of opportuni⁃ties, configuring heterogeneous knowledge potential energy to promote knowledge network embeddedness, fostering culture and internal resources to form network construction foundation,and developing employees’ learning and creative abilities to construct knowledge absorption and transfer platform.%随着漏斗式的封闭创新向筛子式的开放创新的转变,外源知识搜索和外部知识源管理逐渐纳入企业创新系统的范畴。如何提升外部知识网络能力,日益成为企业实践界和理论研究界愈来愈关注的重要课题之一。文章运用质化研究和量化研究相结合的方式,从宏观环境、中观情境、微观主体和内容属性等多维度系统地探秘企业外部知识网络能力影响因素的“黑箱”,基于研究结论从多个角度提出企业外部知识网络能力的提升策略,即建立宏观环境“监控器”,即时扫描并利用各种机会;配置异质化知识势能,提升知识网络嵌入性;培育文化与

  18. External aggression to the limb as a predictive factor in the evolution of patients undergoing arterial revascularization Agressão externa aos membros inferiores como fator preditivo na evolução dos pacientes submetidos a revascularização arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wolosker

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A variety of predictive factors for the evolution of arterial grafts in patients with critical ischemia have been well defined in clinical studies, including diabetes mellitus, dialytic renal insufficiency, smoking, and distal arterial runoff. The goal of this study was to determine whether patients with critical ischemia undergoing arterial reconstruction in which ischemic lesions appeared spontaneously, compared to those in which the ischemic lesion appeared following an external aggression to the limb present different patterns of evolution. METHODS: From February 2002 to January 2004, 100 patients undergoing infra-inguinal arterial reconstruction were followed. They were divided into 2 groups: 1 the spontaneous group (n = 52, comprising individuals presenting with ischemic lesions of spontaneous origin and 2 the external aggression to the limb group (n = 48, comprising individuals for which an external causal mechanism for the appearance of the ischemic lesion was identified. The variables analyzed were limb salvage and graft functioning rates. RESULTS: Patients with spontaneous lesions had rates of limb salvage and graft functioning significantly lower than those for patients with lesions that were secondary to external aggression (42.3% versus 87.5%, respectively for both outcomes; P OBJETIVO: Diversos fatores preditivos de evolução de enxertos arteriais em pacientes com isquemia grave foram definidos em estudos clínicos como diabetes mellitus, insuficiência renal, fumo e vasão distal. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se pacientes com isquemia grave submetidos a revascularização nos quais as lesões apareceram espontaneamente apresentam evolução diferente daquela em que as lesões apareceram após uma agressão externa ao membro. MÉTODOS: De fevereiro de 2002 a janeiro de 2004, 100 pacientes submetidos a revascularizações infra-inguinais foram seguidos. Eles foram divididos em 2 grupos: 1 Grupo com lesão espont

  19. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  20. Externalities, Floating Population and Spatial Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Yu; Wang Chuansheng; Fan Jie

    2007-01-01

    With the further development of socialist market economy,the mobility of factor markets in China,especially the labor market.is strengthened.Extemalities interacts with the agglomeration of productive factors.Under the framework of new economic geographg this article presents a theoretical model involving the endogenous population density affected by urban externalities.Results show that the population density is more concentrated around the center because the degree and extent of interaction between individuals intensifies when the distance from the center decreases.When there are several extemalifies resonurces,the aggregation of externalities changes the configuration of spatial factor allocation.These results fit well with the empirical facts about the decreasing density of floating population along the cities of Guangzhou,Dongguan and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province which is situat d in the eastern coast of the Pearl River Delta.We find that under the impacts of externalities released from Hong Kong into the coast,floating population Was more concentrated around Shenzhen and Dongguan,which are more adjacent to Hong Kong compared with Guangzhou City.

  1. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  2. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  3. The associations between self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yan-Gang; Li, Jian-Bin; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2014-07-01

    Self-consciousness is considered as a multifaceted and hierarchical construct that includes self-evaluation, self-experience, and self-control. This study assumes that self-consciousness is a preventative factor of internalizing and externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents. 1202 Chinese adolescents from grade 7 to grade 12 participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires that assessed self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems. The results showed that, after controlling demographic variables, some lower-order factors (i.e., sense of satisfaction, sense of anxiety, social self, self-restraint, self-esteem, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-evaluation and self-experience) of self-consciousness significantly predicted internalizing problems, while externalizing problems were predicted by several lower-order factors (i.e., self-restraint, sense of satisfaction, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-control and self-experience). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Chinese adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems are related with different aspects of self-consciousness, which sheds light on the prevention into adolescents' problem behaviors.

  4. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  5. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  6. Nonlinear External Kink Computing with NIMROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    Vertical displacement events (VDEs) during disruptions often include non-axisymmetric activity, including external kink modes, which are driven unstable as contact with the wall eats into the q-profile. The NIMROD code is being applied to study external-kink-unstable tokamak profiles in toroidal and cylindrical geometries. Simulations with external kinks show the plasma swallowing a vacuum bubble, similar to. NIMROD reproduces external kinks in both geometries, using an outer vacuum region (modeled as a plasma with a large resistivity), but as the boundary between the vacuum and plasma regions becomes more 3D, the resistivity becomes a 3D function, and it becomes more difficult for algebraic solves to converge. To help allow non-axisymmetric, nonlinear VDE calculations to proceed without restrictively small time-steps, several computational algorithms have been tested. Flexible GMRES, using a Fourier and real space representation for the toroidal angle has shown improvements. Off-diagonal preconditioning and a multigrid approach were tested and showed little improvement. A least squares finite element method (LSQFEM) has also helped improve the algebraic solve. This effort is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Award Numbers DE-FG02-06ER54850 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  7. Frequent external focus feedback enhances motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eWulf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that feedback inducing an external focus of attention enhances motor learning if it is provided frequently (i.e., 100% rather than less frequently. Children (10-12 year olds practiced a soccer throw-in task and were provided feedback about movement form. The feedback statements, provided either after every (100% or every third (33% practice trial, were similar in content but induced either an internal focus (body-movement related or external focus (movement-effect related. The results demonstrated that learning of the movement form was enhanced by external-focus feedback after every trial (100% relative to external-focus feedback after every third trial (33% or internal-focus feedback (100%, 33%, as demonstrated by immediate and delayed transfer tests without feedback. There was no difference between the two internal-focus feedback groups. These findings indicate that the attentional focus induced by feedback is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of different feedback frequencies. We argue that the informational properties of feedback cannot sufficiently account for these and related findings, and suggest that the attentional role of feedback be given greater consideration in future studies.

  8. Conversion factors in patient activity external rate Hp (10) in the patient environment in metabolic therapy with 1-131; Coeficientes de conversion actividad en pacientes a tasa externa Hp(10) en el entorno del paciente en terapia metabolica con I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero Sanz, R.; Chambung, K.; Jaesseong, L.; Castillo Belmonte, A. del; Alonso Hernandez, D.; Andres Rodriguez, C.; Tortosa Oliver, R.; Mari Palacios, A.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the conversion factors (h) of R-131 to H measured in the patients environment, as the provision of activity in the same body or tumor, and analyzing the magnitude of the variables most significant influence on the measure of H. Applying the same procedure developed by the working group SEFM based on external exposure measurements made CHin taking the patient during their hospital stay, will optimize the procedure.

  9. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

  10. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  11. 埋地钢管外防腐系统腐蚀因素的检测评价与控制%Detection Assessment and Control of Corrosion Factors on External Anti-corrosion System of Buried Steel Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄桂云

    2012-01-01

    Based on the external anti-corrosion detection of buried steel pipelines in North Shanghai Gas Business CO., Ltd, the artilce analyses the influences of the external anti-corrosion coating, the cathode protection effectiveness, the influences of the stray current, and puts forward the corrosion controlling method.%文章通过对上海燃气市北销售有限公司埋地钢管外防腐系统的检测,分析了外防腐层保护效果、阴极保护效果以及杂散电流对钢管腐蚀的影响,并提出了腐蚀控制措施。

  12. Evaluation of pediatric lower extremity fractures managed with external fixation: outcomes in a deployed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, Josef K; McKenzie, Colin S; Devine, John G

    2012-01-01

    External fixation of pediatric lower extremity fractures is usually reserved for severe, open fractures in polytraumatized patients, but it is often the only available treatment option for deployed military surgeons. We analyzed the outcomes and complications of 17 consecutive pediatric long bone fractures treated with external fixation at a Forward Surgical Team facility in an austere environment during Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan during a 12-month period. Treatment consisted of uniplanar external fixation for 12 femoral shaft fractures (11 closed), 4 tibial shaft fractures (all open), and 1 subtrochanteric fracture (closed) in 14 males and 3 females with an average age of 7.4 years. All 17 fractures went on to union with no incidences of refracture. Complications included 1 broken pin and 3 pin site infections treated with wound care and oral antibiotics. In a deployed environment, external fixation is the treatment method of choice for lower extremity fractures by virtue of patient, environment, equipment, and mission factors. This case series validates the usage of a simple, uniplanar external fixator for a variety of open and closed pediatric long bone fractures as evidenced by the successful union rate and low number of complications.

  13. External cardiac compression may be harmful in some scenarios of pulseless electrical activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, T S

    2012-10-01

    Pulseless electrical activity occurs when organised or semi-organised electrical activity of the heart persists but the product of systemic vascular resistance and the increase in systemic arterial flow generated by the ejection of the left venticular stroke volume is not sufficient to produce a clinically detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity encompasses a very heterogeneous variety of severe circulatory shock states ranging in severity from pseudo-cardiac arrest to effective cardiac arrest. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are generally poor. Impairment of cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output in many scenarios of pulseless electrical activity, including extreme vasodilatory shock states. There is no evidence that external cardiac compression can increase cardiac output when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. If impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output and the heart is effectively ejecting all the blood returning to it, then external cardiac compression can only increase cardiac output if it increases venous return and cardiac filling. Repeated cardiac compression asynchronous with the patient\\'s cardiac cycle and raised mean intrathoracic pressure due to chest compression can be expected to reduce rather than to increase cardiac filling and therefore to reduce rather than to increase cardiac output in such circumstances. The hypothesis is proposed that the performance of external cardiac compression will have zero or negative effect on cardiac output in pulseless electrical activity when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. External cardiac compression may be both directly and indirectly harmful to significant sub-groups of patients with pulseless electrical activity. We have neither evidence nor theory to provide comfort that external cardiac compression is not harmful in many scenarios of pulseless

  14. External cardiac compression may be harmful in some scenarios of pulseless electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, T S

    2012-10-01

    Pulseless electrical activity occurs when organised or semi-organised electrical activity of the heart persists but the product of systemic vascular resistance and the increase in systemic arterial flow generated by the ejection of the left venticular stroke volume is not sufficient to produce a clinically detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity encompasses a very heterogeneous variety of severe circulatory shock states ranging in severity from pseudo-cardiac arrest to effective cardiac arrest. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are generally poor. Impairment of cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output in many scenarios of pulseless electrical activity, including extreme vasodilatory shock states. There is no evidence that external cardiac compression can increase cardiac output when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. If impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output and the heart is effectively ejecting all the blood returning to it, then external cardiac compression can only increase cardiac output if it increases venous return and cardiac filling. Repeated cardiac compression asynchronous with the patient's cardiac cycle and raised mean intrathoracic pressure due to chest compression can be expected to reduce rather than to increase cardiac filling and therefore to reduce rather than to increase cardiac output in such circumstances. The hypothesis is proposed that the performance of external cardiac compression will have zero or negative effect on cardiac output in pulseless electrical activity when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. External cardiac compression may be both directly and indirectly harmful to significant sub-groups of patients with pulseless electrical activity. We have neither evidence nor theory to provide comfort that external cardiac compression is not harmful in many scenarios of pulseless

  15. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  16. CHALLENGES, VULNERABILITIES AND WAYS OF APPROACH IN ROMANIA'S EXTERNAL DEBT SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Gheorghe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a country's external debt, measured by a complex system of static and dynamic indicators, knows a lot of approaches and opinions in the literature, more or less convergent, complementary and advanced in terms of factors. Indicators of the external public and private debt on short, medium and long term provide a snapshot of indebtedness of the country and are the most researched domain in the literature, including national and international financial bodies, which adopt a series of classification criteria of countries in terms of size and dynamics of external debt. In this study, we intend to make an analysis of the volume, dynamics and structure of the current Romania's foreign debt, showing the challenges for national economic policies, present and perspective, the internal and external vulnerabilities and ways of approaching the external debt sustainability. According to the definition given by UNCTAD, a sustainable foreign debt is that level of debt which: ? allows the indebted country to pay all current and future debt service without resorting to restructuring or rescheduling; ? prevents accumulation of arrears and defaults; ? in parallel provides an acceptable level of growth in the lending country. Until recently, Romania was considered a country with a low external debt. Currently, the situation has changed, meaning that this debt, somewhat neglected in the early transition period has become a serious threat to present and future sustainability of economic development in Romania. In general, external debt concerns financial and economic interests of all parties especially creditors and debtors, by the formula "win-win", so that, currently, some countries have surplus of balance of payments, usually the most developed and economically healthy, while others have deficits that, in extreme situations, can lead to inability to pay the debt, which means tough measures and policies, especially for the living standards of many

  17. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Jonathan E; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Benedict, Ashwini; Costantino, Julie; Ward, Michael; Peyser, Brian D; Retterer, Cary J; Tressler, Lyal E; Wanner, Laura M; McGovern, Hugh F; Zaidi, Anum; Anthony, Scott M; Kota, Krishna P; Bavari, Sina; Hakami, Ramin M

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  18. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Nuss

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  19. A prospective randomized trial: a comparison of the analgesic effect and toxicity of 153Sm radioisotope treatment in monotherapy and combined therapy including local external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) among metastatic castrate resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients with painful bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyk, M; Milecki, P; Pisarek, M; Gut, P; Antczak, A; Hrab, M

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastases in prostate cancer constitute the most frequent cause of systemic failure in treatment, which results in numerous complications and finally leads to patient's death. Pain is one of the first and most important clinical symptoms of bone metastases and can be found among more than 80% of patients. Therefore, the most analgetic effective and simultaneously the least toxic treatment is an important point of therapeutic management in this group of patients. The aim of this prospective clinical trial was a comparison of analgetic effectiveness and toxicity of monotherapy with 153Sm isotope to combined therapy (153Sm + EBRT) among patients diagnosed with multiple painful bone metastases due to CRPC (mCRPC). 177 patients with mCRPC were included into the prospective randomised clinical trial in which 89 patients were assigned to the 153Sm isotope monotherapy, while 88 patients were assigned to the combined therapy including 153Sm isotope therapy and EBRT. All patients were diagnosed (bone scan and X-ray or/and CT or/and MRI) with painful bone metastases (bone pain intensity >= 6 according to VAS classification). The following additional inclusion criteria were established: histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of prostate, multifocal bone metastases, no prior chemotherapy or palliative radiotherapy to bone. All patients signed informed consent.The combination of the isotope therapy with EBRT was more effective analgetic treatment than isotope therapy alone. The highest pain decline was noticed in the first weeks after treatment termination. In the whole group, a total or partial analgesic effect was observed among 154 (87%) patients while among 23 (13%) patients there was a lack of analgesic effect or even pain intensification. The results of this clinical trial demonstrated that for patients with multiple mCRPC it is recommended to combine the 153Sm isotope therapy with local EBRT because of a greater analgetic effect. It is important to note that

  20. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges.

  1. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  2. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  4. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  5. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  6. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  7. Internal entanglement amplification by external interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to control the level of entanglement between two fixed spin-1/2 systems by interaction with a third particle. For specific designs, entanglement is shown to be "pumped" into the system from the surroundings even when the spin-spin interaction within the system is small or nonexistent. The effect of the external particle on the system is introduced by including a dynamic spinor in the Hamiltonian. Controlled amplification of the internal entanglement to its maximum value is...

  8. External memory algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Abello, James M

    1999-01-01

    The AMS and DIMACS are pleased to present this 50th volume in the DIMACS series. This series contains volumes coming out of programs at the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DIMACS), which is headquartered at Rutgers University in partnership with Princeton University, AT&T Labs-Research, Bell Labs (Lucent Technologies), NEC Research Institute, and Telcordia Technologies (formerly Bellcore). The series includes topics on research and education concerning areas such as discrete and computational geometry, discrete optimization, data structures and algorithms, computational intractability, massive data sets, networks, graph theory, combinatorics, computational number theory and cryptology, discrete probability, recursive function theory and mathematical logic, Boolean functions, computational and mathematical biology, and computational algebra.

  9. The relationship between the genetic and environmental influences on common externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John M; Keyes, Corey L M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.

  10. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2017-09-15

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca(2+) and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR 5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  12. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective of...

  13. Comparison of External Cost of Nuclear Power Chain and Coal Power Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The use of energy causes damage to a wide range of receptors, including human health, crops, forests, materials and natural ecosystems. Such damages are referred to as external costs or externalities, which

  14. Deep Venous Thrombosis in Teen With Crouzon Syndrome Post-Le Fort III Osteotomy With Rigid External Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Lauren O; Myers, Rene P; Girotto, John A

    2015-11-01

    Venous thromboembolic events are rare in pediatric patients. Risk factors associated with the development of venous thromboembolic events in pediatric patients include the use of central venous catheters, hospitalization, cancer, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and congenital prothrombotic disorders.The authors present the case of a 14-year-old man with Crouzon syndrome who required Le Fort III osteotomy with rigid external distraction for significant midface hypoplasia who presented postoperatively with an extensive deep venous thrombosis. This is the first reported case of symptomatic venous thrombosis post-Le Fort III osteotomy and rigid external distraction. Although rare, surgeons should be aware of this potential complication.

  15. External debt in developing economies: assessment and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Holland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one decade after the external debt restructuring (the Brady Plan, a great amount of literature has been published concerning the balance sheet factors in developing countries. The staff of international multilateral institutions joined with reputable academics in this great controversy. The external debt problem of the developing countries is back and once more reflections on its cause and on policy recommendations are analytically distinct. Our main task is to reflect on the recent external debt dynamics and assess how this debt has evolved. Our findings indicate that the susceptibility of some developing countries to default is associated with global imbalance, that is, the way they borrow.

  16. Racing to define pharmaceutical R&D external innovation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangsu; Plump, Andrew; Ringel, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The pharmaceutical industry continues to face fundamental challenges because of issues with research and development (R&D) productivity and rising customer expectations. To lower R&D costs, move beyond me-too therapies, and create more transformative portfolios, pharmaceutical companies are actively capitalizing on external innovation through precompetitive collaboration with academia, cultivation of biotech start-ups, and proactive licensing and acquisitions. Here, we review the varying innovation strategies used by pharmaceutical companies, compare and contrast these models, and identify the trends in external innovation. We also discuss factors that influence these external innovation models and propose a preliminary set of metrics that could be used as leading indicators of success.

  17. Carcinoma of the prostate: treatment with external radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harisiadis, L.; Veenema, R.J.; Senyszyn, J.J.; Puchner, P.J.; Tretter, P.; Romas, N.A.; Chang, C.H.; Lattimer, J.K.; Tannenbaum, M.

    1978-06-01

    Among 146 prostate carcinoma patients treated with external radiotherapy at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, the 5 and 10 year survival rates were 64.1% and 40.5%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was 88.2% for patients with Stage A, 86.8% for Stage B, and 58% for Stage C; it was 64.4% for patients with more differentiated carcinomas, but only 28.7% for patients with undifferentiated tumors. Patients with obstructive changes on IVP had a 5 year survival rate of 24.1%, whereas, for patients with no obstruction on IVP, this rate was 71.3%. When radiotherapy started within 6 months after the diagnosis, the 5 year survival rate was 70.3%, whereas, a delay in starting radiotherapy, for more than 6 months after the diagnosis, was associated with a survival rate of 31.9%. Radiation dose of 6500 rad or more was associated with a 5-year survival rate of 86.7%, whereas, for a dose of less than 6500 rad this survival rate was 57.1%. All the above differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Other factors found to influence the prognosis to a degree that was not statistically significant included: age of the patient at the time of radiotherapy, presenting symptoms, levels of acid phosphatase in the serum and in the bone marrow, and size of the irradiated volume. In agreement with other published series the complications were usually mild and their incidence low. Tumor involving and protruding into the urethra may have contributed to the formation of urethral strictures. Local control of this cancer with external radiotherapy appears very successful. Treatment failures were manifested most often with distant metastases with or without local recurrence, suggesting that subclinical distant metastases might have been present prior to initiation of radiotherapy. External radiotherapy rather than brachytherapy, appears to be the treatment of choice for cancer of the prostate with indications for radiotherapy.

  18. A Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Factors Related to Help-Seeking Attitudes for Psychological Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai, Michiyo

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that Asian people have negative views of mental illness, including beliefs that it is incurable and shameful. Asian people also tend to attribute causes of mental disorders to factors less susceptible to personal influence such as supernatural factors, and are likely to have an external health locus of control which reflects beliefs that health outcomes are a product of external factors such as luck. In the present study, each of the above constructs were compared between...

  19. Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Lim, Seung-Lark; Smith, Timothy Ryan; Cherry, J Bradley C; Black, William R; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Jared M

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this concise narrative review is to examine the current literature regarding endogenous and exogenous influences on youth food choices. Specifically, we discuss internal factors such as interoception (self-awareness) of pain and hunger, and neural mechanisms (neurofunctional aspects) of food motivation. We also explore external factors such as early life feeding experiences (including parenting), social influences (peers), and food marketing (advertising). We conclude with a discussion of the overlap of these realms and future directions for the field of pediatric food decision science.

  20. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-01-01

    Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt man...

  1. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  2. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kewisch, Jorg; Chang, Xiangyun

    2007-06-05

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  3. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  4. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spacial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential $A_\\mu$ are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general $A_\\mu$, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of $A_\\mu$ w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  5. Vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, M

    2001-01-01

    Active stabilisation showed a relative locked linewidth of approx 3 kHz. Coarse tuning over 7 nm was achieved using a 3-plate birefingent filter plate while fine-tuning using cavity length change allowed tuning over 250 MHz. Vertical external cavity semiconductor lasers have emerged as an interesting technology based on current vertical cavity semiconductor laser knowledge. High power output into a single transverse mode has attracted companies requiring good fibre coupling for telecommunications systems. The structure comprises of a grown semiconductor Bragg reflector topped with a multiple quantum well gain region. This is then included in an external cavity. This device is then optically pumped to promote laser action. Theoretical modelling of AIGaAs based VECSEL structures was undertaken, showing the effect of device design on laser characteristics. A simple 3-mirror cavity was constructed to assess the static characteristics of the structure. Up to 153 mW of output power was achieved in a single transver...

  6. Extremely Intense Magnetospheric Substorms : External Triggering? Preconditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Echer, Ezequiel; Hajra, Rajkumar

    2016-07-01

    We study particularly intense substorms using a variety of near-Earth spacecraft data and ground observations. We will relate the solar cycle dependences of events, determine whether the supersubstorms are externally or internally triggered, and their relationship to other factors such as magnetospheric preconditioning. If time permits, we will explore the details of the events and whether they are similar to regular (Akasofu, 1964) substorms or not. These intense substorms are an important feature of space weather since they may be responsible for power outages.

  7. 浅析元件参数对外腔半导体激光器输出谱宽影响%Influencing factors on spectral linewidth of external cavity diode laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元栋; 武永福; 胡猛; 孙瑞

    2014-01-01

    High power narrowed linewidth pump source is needed with diode pumped alkali laser developed. But the linewidth of the commercial diode laser is far exceed the absorption linewidth of the alkali atom. So the Littrow external cavity is used to narrowed the spectrum of high power diode laser array. The linewidth of high power diode laser array is directly affected by the parameters of elements in Littrow external cavity. In this paper, the model of external cavity diode laser was set up by using ray tracing method. By replacing cylindrical lens with sphere lens, the influence of micro-cylindrical lens array, beam shaping optics and grating were analysed. The resutls show that, to obtain narrower output laser linewidth, the focal length of micro-cylindrical lens array should be smaller, the grating grooves is denser, and the focal of spherical lens is larger. And the theoretical conclusions is demonstrated by experimental results.%半导体抽运碱金属蒸气激光器(DPAL)需大功率窄线宽泵浦源,但市售半导体激光器输出线宽远远大于碱金属原子吸收谱宽,难以实现有效泵浦,因此需采用Littrow外腔法压窄半导体激光器输出谱宽。 Littrow外腔系统中元件参数的选择直接影响大功率半导体激光器输出谱宽。为此文中沿入射光线方向构建外腔压窄模型,利用球面镜替代柱面镜,分析了微柱透镜阵列、光学系统和光栅元件对外腔输出谱宽的影响,模拟结果为微柱透镜阵列焦距越小、光栅刻线越密、球面镜焦距越大,外腔输出谱宽越窄,实验结果符合理论模型。

  8. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  9. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  10. The internalizing and externalizing structure of psychiatric comorbidity in combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Fogler, Jason M; Wolf, Erika J; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the latent structure of psychiatric disorders in a sample with a high prevalence of PTSD. A series of confirmatory factor analyses tested competing models for the covariation between Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R diagnoses among 1,325 Vietnam veterans. The best-fitting solution was a 3-factor model that included two correlated internalizing factors: anxious-misery, defined by PTSD and major depression, and fear, defined by panic disorder/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The third factor, externalizing, was defined by antisocial personality disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence. Both substance-related disorders also showed significant, albeit smaller, cross-loadings on the anxious-misery factor. These findings shed new light on the structure of psychiatric comorbidity in a treatment-seeking sample characterized by high rates of PTSD.

  11. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general

  12. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal Auctions with Financial Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We construct optimal auctions when bidders face financial externalities.In a Coasean World, in which the seller cannot prevent a perfect resale market, nor withhold the object, the lowest-price all-pay auction is optimal.In a Myersonean World, in which the seller can both prevent resale after the au

  14. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  15. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  16. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  17. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  18. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  19. The effect of childhood malnutrition on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2006-10-01

    Childhood externalizing behavior (aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct disorder) has been increasingly viewed as a public health problem because of its etiology and outcome. The association between malnutrition and externalizing behavior has begun to receive attention. This review summarizes recent empirical findings on malnutrition as a risk factor for the development of externalizing behavior, with an emphasis on micronutrient deficiency, and explores brain dysfunction as a possible mechanism. Externalizing behavior is associated with both macromalnutrition (e.g. protein) and micromalnutrition (e.g. iron and zinc). Both prenatal and postnatal malnutrition is implicated. The long-term effects of malnutrition on behavior could be reversible. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid/omega-3 long-chain essential fatty acid on externalizing behavior are more mixed. From animal and human findings, it is hypothesized that malnutrition impairs neurocognitive functioning by reducing neurons, alternating neurotransmitter functioning, and increasing neurotoxicity, and that such neurocognitive impairments predispose to externalizing behavior. Different lines of evidence support the view that poor nutrition contributes to the development of child behavior problems. More randomized, controlled trials that manipulate nutritional intake and evaluate behavior in children are needed to evaluate the etiological role of nutrition in externalizing behavior in order to inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  20. Parent and Child Personality Traits and Children's Externalizing Problem Behavior from Age 4 to 9 Years: A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data for children's externalizing behavior from four overlapping age cohorts (4, 5, 6, and 7 years at first assessment) measured at three annual time points. The data included mother and father ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory…

  1. Implications of environmental externalities assessments for solar thermal powerplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, M. C.

    1991-03-01

    Externalities are those impacts of one activity on other activities that are not priced in the marketplace. An externality is said to exist when two conditions hold: (1) the utility or operations of one economic agent, A, include nonmonetary variables whose values are chosen by another economic agent, B, without regard to the effects on A, and (2) B does not pay A compensation equal to the incremental costs inflicted on A. Electricity generation involves a wide range of potential and actual environmental impacts. Legislative, permitting, and regulatory requirements directly or indirectly control certain environmental impacts, implicitly causing them to become internalized in the cost of electricity generation. Electricity generation, however, often produces residual environmental impacts that meet the definition of an externality. Mechanisms have been developed by several states to include the costs associated with externalities in the cost-effectiveness analyses of new powerplants. This paper examines these costs for solar thermal plants and applies two states' scoring methodologies to estimate how including externalities would affect the levelized costs of power from a solar plant in the Pacific Northwest. It concludes that including externalities in the economics can reduce the difference between the levelized cost of a coal and solar plant by between 0.74 and 2.42 cents/kWh.

  2. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective...

  3. Siblings versus parents and friends: longitudinal linkages to adolescent externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Ivy N; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel A G; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim

    2013-08-01

    It is well documented that friends' externalizing problems and negative parent-child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings' externalizing problems and sibling-adolescent negative interactions on adolescents' externalizing problems, while examining and controlling for similar linkages with friends and parents. Questionnaire data on externalizing problems and negative interactions were annually collected from 497 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.03 years, SD = 0.52, at baseline), as well as their siblings, mothers, fathers, and friends. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed modest unique longitudinal paths from sibling externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, for male and female adolescents, and for same-sex and mixed-sex sibling dyads, but only from older to younger siblings. Moreover, these paths were above and beyond significant paths from mother-adolescent negative interaction and friend externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, 1 year later. No cross-lagged paths existed between sibling-adolescent negative interaction and adolescent externalizing problems. Taken together, it appears that especially older sibling externalizing problems may be a unique social risk factor for adolescent externalizing problems, equal in strength to significant parents' and friends' risk factors. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  5. To investigate the mechanism about the pathogenic factors including Hhcy, in coronary artery coronary endothelial cell damage mechanism%Hhcy对冠脉内皮细胞损伤机制的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆成; 张向峰; 韩晓丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism about the pathogenic factors including Hhcy, etc in coronary artery coronary endothelial cell damage mechanism.Methods In this paper, according to coronary angiography examination,select 121 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. According to the clinical symptom of coronary heart disease group, heartache group 71 cases, acute myocardial infarction group 50 cases. 95 cases of normal healthy subjects were selected as control group. The Hcy, EC, ET, niacin and vitamin B12 were measured.Results In patients with coronary artery stenosis groups of Hcy, EC, ET, niacin, vitamin B12 indicators along with the change of coronary artery stenosis degree change, the more the degree of stenosis serious Hcy, EC, ET, etc indicators increased, the more obvious, in severe stenosis group (P<0.01). Hcy, EC, ET in CHD group significantly increased than the normal control group. The study also found that the level of serum Hcy and EC, Hcy and ET, Hcy and niacin had a positive correlation (r=0.61, r=0.55, r=0.62). Hcy had niacin, Hcy had vitamin B12 had a negative correlation (r=-0.62, r=-0.58).Conclusions The level of Hcy, EC, ET increasing and the level of niacin, vitamin B12 reducing has important significance in coronary artery intimal injury, plaque formation, leading to coronary artery stenosis.%目的:探讨Hhcy等致病因素在冠脉冠脉内皮细胞损伤的机制。方法:本文选择冠心病(CHD)患者121例,根据冠心病临床症状分组,心痛组71例,急性心肌梗塞组50例,选取95例冠状动脉造影等检查为正常健康者作为正常对照组。测定所有受试者同型半胱氨酸(Hcy),内皮细胞(EC),内皮素(ET),烟酸,维生素B12等指标。结果:冠脉狭窄患者各组Hcy,EC,ET、烟酸,维生素B12等指标随冠脉狭窄程度的改变而改变,狭窄程度愈严重Hcy,EC,ET等指标增高越明显(P<0.01)。CHD组Hcy,EC,ET等指标较正

  6. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000....... PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME...

  7. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CONTROL IN PLANT DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beáta Oborny

    2003-01-01

    Bodies of plants are modularly organized. Development proceeds by adding new modules to open endings with a potential for branching. Each module is autonomous to some extent. Development relies on the self-organized patterns that emerge from the interactions of individual modules. Interactions include both competition and cooperation, and several types of positive and negative feedback loops are involved. Development can be open to external influences, thus enabling the plant to adjust its form to the environment, for example, to the spatial distribution of ecological resources. This paper provides a review on adaptive plasticity in plants.

  8. Externally Fed Accretion onto Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Dalba, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric molecular emission lines from dense cores reveal slow, inward motion in the clouds' outer regions. This motion is present both before and after the formation of a central star. Motivated by these observations, we revisit the classic problem of steady, spherical accretion of gas onto a gravitating point mass, but now include self-gravity of the gas and impose a finite, subsonic velocity as the outer boundary condition. We find that the accretion rate onto the protostar is lower than values obtained for isolated, collapsing clouds, by a factor that is the Mach number of the outer flow. Moreover, the region of infall surrounding the protostar spreads out more slowly, at a speed close to the subsonic, incoming velocity. Our calculation, while highly idealized, provides insight into two longstanding problems -- the surprisingly low accretion luminosities of even the most deeply embedded stellar sources, and the failure so far to detect spatially extended, supersonic infall within their parent dense ...

  9. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  10. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  11. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  12. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  13. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  14. Network externalities across financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Iragorri, Carlos Alberto; Preciado Pua, Sergio Andrés; Ordóñez Herrera, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We propose and estimate a financial distress model that explicitly accounts for the interactions or spill-over effects between financial institutions, through the use of a spatial continuity matrix that is build from financial network data of inter bank transactions. Such setup of the financial distress model allows for the empirical validation of the importance of network externalities in determining financial distress, in addition to institution specific and macroeconomic covariates. The re...

  15. Externe Kosten in der Energiewirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Alfred; Friedrich, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    Als externe Effekte werden unbeteiligte Dritte betreffende Zusatzkosten oder Zusatznutzen verstanden, die sich in den jeweiligen Güterpreisen nicht wiederfinden und denen die Betroffenen nicht indifferent gegenüberstehen. Die gegenwärtige Energiebereitstellung und -nutzung ist in vielen Bereichen eine wesentliche Quelle der Belastung von Umwelt und Natur. Begriffe und Schlagworte wie Waldsterben, Tankerunglücke, Tschernobyl und Treibhauseffekt seien in diesem Zusammenhang erwähnt.

  16. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas......, optimistic, and pessimistic behaviour, and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  17. Data-Oblivious External-Memory Algorithms for the Compaction, Selection, and Sorting of Outsourced Data

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    We present data-oblivious algorithms in the external-memory model for compaction, selection, and sorting. Motivation for such problems comes from clients who use outsourced data storage services and wish to mask their data access patterns. We show that compaction and selection can be done data-obliviously using $O(N/B)$ I/Os, and sorting can be done, with a high probability of success, using $O((N/B)\\log_{M/B} (N/B))$ I/Os. Our methods use a number of new algorithmic techniques, including data-oblivious uses of invertible Bloom lookup tables, a butterfly-like compression network, randomized data thinning, and "shuffle-and-deal" data perturbation. In addition, since data-oblivious sorting is the bottleneck in the "inner loop" in existing oblivious RAM simulations, our sorting result improves the amortized time overhead to do oblivious RAM simulation by a logarithmic factor in the external-memory model.

  18. Construction and characterization of external cavity diode lasers for atomic physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Kyle S; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E; Kuhn, Carlos C N; McDonald, Gordon D; Robins, Nick

    2014-04-24

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included.

  19. Gestão das fontes externas de informação: uma análise dos fatores que influenciam o desempenho inovador Management of external sources of information: an analysis of factors influencing the innovation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clandia Maffini Gomes

    2011-01-01

    reference for developing processes of sustainable technological innovation. Managing sources of information not only helps an organization harmonize the potential inside and outside sources of information but also helps organizations broaden their activities geared to stimulating and bringing about innovation. Companies today are setting up more and more alliances in order to make use of outside sources of information for innovation, but they still lack explicit management strategies. A survey was carried out in Brazilian industrial companies with innovative characteristics, and the aim was to provide new inferences on the relationships between the management of outside sources of technology information and the innovative performance of the companies studied. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to study the relationship between practices for managing external sources of information and the innovative performance of the enterprise. The research can be characterized as quantitative. The data were collected through questionnaires from enterprises seen as having substancial technological innovation activities. The bivariate and multivariate independent and dependent variables suggest the existence of an association between the management of outside sources of technology information and innovative performance. Especially important here is how the different types of sources of information influence the indicators related to products innovation and how the type of access to technology affects the indicators related to processes innovation. The findings of the study suggest many significant relationships between the innovation performance of the enterprise and the types of sources of technological information used and the access modalities to their external sources of technolgical information. The results indicate a trend towards increased use of external sources of information.

  20. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor

  1. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii......) The relevance and efficiency of different instruments for internalisation and compensation; and iii) Implementing internalisation over large geographical and temporal distances. We find taxation to be a more relevant and efficient tool for internalisation than insurance and litigation. With increasing...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  2. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  3. Changes in Shoulder External Rotator Muscle Activity during Shoulder External Rotation in Various Arm Positions in the Sagittal Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate changes in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles during shoulder external rotation under different shoulder flexion angles. [Subjects] Thirteen participants were included in this study. [Methods] The participants performed isometric shoulder external rotation at 45°, 90°, and 135° of shoulder flexion. A surface EMG system recorded the EMG activity of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles...

  4. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the

  5. Risk factors for obesity at age 3 in Alaskan children, including the role of beverage consumption: results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and its three-year follow-up survey, CUBS, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B; Perham-Hester, Katherine A; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages.

  6. A multifactorial approach including tumoural epidermal growth factor receptor, p53, thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase to predict treatment outcome in head and neck cancer patients receiving 5-fluorouracil

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, M. C.; Pivot, X; Formento, J. L.; Bensadoun, R J; Formento, P.; Dassonville, O; Francoual, M.; Poissonnet, G.; Fontana, X; Schneider, M.; Demard, F.; Milano, G

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of tumoural epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53, thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was analysed on 82 advanced head and neck cancer patients (71 men, 11 women; mean age 59). Induction treatment was cisplatin–5-FU ± folinic acid (61 patients, Chem group) or concomitant cisplatin–5-FU–radiotherapy (21 patients, RChem group). EGFR (binding assay), p53 protein (Sangtec immunoluminometric assay), TS and DPD activities (radioenzymatic ...

  7. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B.; Katherine A Perham-Hester; de Schweinitz, Peter; Bradford D Gessner

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic ...

  8. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  9. Análisis del coeficiente de carga dinámica interna en engranajes cilíndricos según ISO 6336-1. // Analysis of the ISO dynamic factors for cylindrical gears with external contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. González Rey

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se presentan y esclarecen las cinco diferentes metodologías de cálculo del coeficiente de carga dinámicapresentes en la Norma ISO 6336-1: 96. Con el objetivo de conocer la conveniencia de aplicación y las limitaciones quepresentan los diferentes métodos de cálculo, son comparados los resultados derivados de las formulaciones declaradas enISO 6336-1 para el factor de carga dinámica con algunos resultados prácticos determinados en ensayos de engranajescilíndricos. Aunque las valoraciones del coeficiente de carga dinámica en los engranajes cilíndricos están en una etapabastante avanzada, se puede afirmar que aún los procedimientos contemplados para evaluar las cargas dinámicas internasen los engranajes cilíndricos muestran dificultades en la precisión de la frecuencia de resonancia del engranaje.Palabras claves: Engranajes cilíndricos, cargas dinámicas, Norma ISO, factor de carga dinámica._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract:Five different methods of calculation procedures of the dynamic factor Kv on cylindrical gears is exposed in thispaper, taking into account the International Standard ISO 6336:96. In order to analyze consistence and limit ofapplication of ISO methods for Kv. ISO dynamic factors are confronted with some experimental results.Key words: cylindrical gear, dynamic load, ISO Standard, dynamic factor.

  10. Risk factors for obesity at age 3 in Alaskan children, including the role of beverage consumption: results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and its three-year follow-up survey, CUBS, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups.Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS, we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children.We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5. Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (<$10,000 in the year before the child was born (OR 3.94, 95%CI 1.22--17.03 and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01 and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995. Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60. Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state.The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages.

  11. Successful external fertilization in turbulent environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, E A; Pearson, G; Kautsky, L; Brawley, S H

    1996-05-28

    Mathematical and experimental simulations predict that external fertilization is unsuccessful in habitats characterized by high water motion. A key assumption of such predictions is that gametes are released in hydrodynamic regimes that quickly dilute gametes. We used fucoid seaweeds to examine whether marine organisms in intertidal and subtidal habitats might achieve high levels of fertilization by restricting their release of gametes to calm intervals. Fucus vesiculosus L. (Baltic Sea) released high numbers of gametes only when maximal water velocities were below ca. 0.2 m/s immediately prior to natural periods of release, which occur in early evening in association with lunar cues. Natural fertilization success measured at two sites was always close to 100%. Laboratory experiments confirmed that (i) high water motion inhibits gamete release by F. vesiculosus and by the intertidal fucoids Fucus distichus L. (Maine) and Pelvetia fastigiata (J. Ag.) DeToni (California), and (ii) showed that photosynthesis is required for high gamete release. These data suggest that chemical changes in the boundary layer surrounding adults during photosynthesis and/or mechanosensitive channels may modulate gamete release in response to changing hydrodynamic conditions. Therefore, sensitivity to environmental factors can lead to successful external fertilization, even for species living in turbulent habitats.

  12. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  13. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  14. Magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2017-07-01

    We obtain a family of exact solutions describing magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field. Locally the solutions can be interpreted as representing the near-horizon region of a black hole, which interacts with a surrounding matter distribution producing a strong magnetic field. Thus, the solutions reflect the influence of both a gravitational and an electromagnetic external potential in the strong field regime. The static members in the family are generalizations of the Schwarzschild solution in the described environment, while the rotating ones generalize the magnetized Reissner-Nordström solution when the influence of an external gravitational source is also taken into account. Technically, the solutions are obtained by means of a Harrison transformation, applied on the (electro-)vacuum distorted black holes constructed by Bretón et al. We examine the thermodynamical properties of the solutions, and compare them with the corresponding isolated black holes, and with the particular cases when the interaction with only one of the external potentials is taken into account. For the static black holes the influence of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is factorized in a sense, both affecting different properties, and leaving the rest intact. For the rotating solutions the external gravitational and magnetic fields are coupled through the conditions for avoiding conical singularities. The Meissner effect is observed for extremal rotating solutions only in the zero-charge limit, similar to the magnetized Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  15. Conversion of neurons and glia to external-cell fates in the external sensory organs of Drosophila hamlet mutants by a cousin-cousin cell-type respecification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrian W; Roegiers, Fabrice; Jan, Lily Y; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2004-03-15

    The Drosophila external sensory organ forms in a lineage elaborating from a single precursor cell via a stereotypical series of asymmetric divisions. HAMLET transcription factor expression demarcates the lineage branch that generates two internal cell types, the external sensory neuron and thecogen. In HAMLET mutant organs, these internal cells are converted to external cells via an unprecedented cousin-cousin cell-fate respecification event. Conversely, ectopic HAMLET expression in the external cell branch leads to internal cell production. The fate-determining signals NOTCH and PAX2 act at multiple stages of lineage elaboration and HAMLET acts to modulate their activity in a branch-specific manner.

  16. External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical…

  17. External Aiding Methods for IMU-Based Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-26

    system in the dead- reckoning of the vehicle’s position and attitude . Due to the nature of sensors, the measurement of the linear acceleration and angular...6 3.2.3 Velocity Random Walk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2.4 Scale Factor Error...Standard Deviation in Position and Attitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.3.2 Standard Deviation with External Aiding

  18. Maternal Emotion Coaching, Adolescent Anger Regulation, and Siblings' Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Stoolmiller, Mike; Smith-Shine, Jessica N.; Eddy, J. Mark; Sheeber, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increases in externalizing behaviors during the transition to adolescence may put children at risk for developing mental disorders and related problems. Although children's ability to regulate their emotions appears to be a key factor influencing risk for maladjustment, emotion processes during adolescence remain understudied. In this…

  19. Collaborative innovation: Internal and external involvement in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2011-01-01

    strategic priorities influence the degree of external and internal involvement in the NPD process, moderated by contextual factors. Results based on analyses of 584 companies from the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) 2005 indicate that suppliers are heavily involved in the NPD process...

  20. Aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Henning

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to better understand the aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids (TEH because recurrence rates are high, prophylaxis is unknown, and optimal therapy is highly debated. Findings We conducted a questionnaire study of individuals with and without TEH. Aetiology was studied by comparison of answers to a questionnaire given to individuals with and without TEH concerning demography, history, and published aetiologic hypotheses. Participants were evaluated consecutively at our institution from March 2004 through August 2005. One hundred forty-eight individuals were enrolled, including 72 patients with TEH and 76 individuals without TEH but with alternative diagnoses, such as a screening colonoscopy or colonic polyps. Out of 38 possible aetiologic factors evaluated, 20 showed no significant bivariate correlation to TEH and were no longer traced, and 16 factors showed a significant bivariate relationship to TEH. By multivariate analysis, six independent variables were found to predict TEH correctly in 79.1% of cases: age of 46 years or younger, use of excessive physical effort, and use of dry toilet paper combined with wet cleaning methods after defaecation were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing TEH; use of bathtub, use of the shower, and genital cleaning before sleep at least once a week were associated with a significantly lower risk of developing TEH. Conclusion Six hypotheses on the causes of TEH have a high probability of being correct and should be considered in future studies on aetiology, prophylaxis, and therapy of TEH.

  1. The pyrH gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris encoding UMP kinase is transcribed as part of an operon including the frr1 gene encoding ribosomal recycling factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lüders; Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    2000-01-01

    establishing the ability of the encoded protein to synthesize UDP. The pyrH gene in L. lactis is flanked downstream by frr1 encoding ribosomal recycling factor 1 and upstream by an open reading frame, orfA, of unknown function. The three genes were shown to constitute an operon transcribed in the direction orf......A-pyrH-frr1 from a promoter immediately in front of orfA. This operon belongs to an evolutionary highly conserved gene cluster, since the organization of pyrH on the chromosomal level in L. lactis shows a high resemblance to that found in Bacillus subtilis as well as in Escherichia coli and several other...

  2. OVERVIEW OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY WORKING GROUP ON EXTERNAL EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakoski, John A.; Smith, Curtis L.; Kim, Min Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The Orgranisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has established a Working Group on External Events (WGEV) that provides a forum for subject matter experts from the nuclear industry and regulators to improve the understanding and treatment of external hazards that would support the continued safety performance of nuclear installations, and improve the effectiveness of regulatory practices, in NEA member countries. This report provides a description of the ongoing work of the WGEV. The work of the WGEV includes the collection of information and conducting a workshop on severe weather and storm surge that brought together a diverse group of subject matter experts to identify commendable practices related to the treatment of severe weather and storm surge consideration in regulatory and operational decision-making. Other work of the WGEV includes looking at science-based screening of external events that are factored into decisions on the safe operation of nuclear facilities; and identification of commendable practices and knowledge gaps on riverine flooding.

  3. The Importance of Engine External's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Barry L.

    2006-01-01

    Engine external components include all the fluid carrying, electron carrying, and support devices that are needed to operate the propulsion system. These components are varied and include: pumps, valves, actuators, solenoids, sensors, switches, heat exchangers, electrical generators, electrical harnesses, tubes, ducts, clamps and brackets. The failure of any component to perform its intended function will result in a maintenance action, a dispatch delay, or an engine in flight shutdown. The life of each component, in addition to its basic functional design, is closely tied to its thermal and dynamic environment .Therefore, to reach a mature design life, the component's thermal and dynamic environment must be understood and controlled, which can only be accomplished by attention to design analysis and testing. The purpose of this paper is to review analysis and test techniques toward achieving good component health.

  4. Coupled external cavity photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-05-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ∼10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ∼10(5) × improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays.

  5. Research on the Internal and External Motivation of the Sustainable Development Factors of American Women's Soccer of Teenagers%美国青少年女子足球运动可持续发展的内外动因探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳明; 何志林; 靳勇; 邹勇

    2012-01-01

    Through the wide documentation of the overseas research on the women' s soccer of teenagers and browsing international websites, the paper discusses the origin and evolution of the American teenager' s women soccer development and makes an internal and external motivation research on the sustainable development. It concludes that the internal motivation is the psychological and institutional incentive; the former includes the freedom education concept and integration of the amateur sports spirits while the latter includes the regulations, managment and competition system. Its external motivation is the nature and environmental and social environment incentives.%通过广泛的国外有关青少年女足的文献资料调研、国外网站浏览法,探讨美国青少年女子足球发展的源起、演变,并对其可持续发展的机理进行内外动因分析:美国青少年女足运动可持续发展的内部动因是精神动因与制度动因,精神动因蕴含了自由教育理念与业余体育精神的融合,制度动因则包括法制规章、管理体制、竞赛体制,外部动因是自然环境动因与社会环境动因。

  6. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  7. Empirical Evaluation On External Debt Of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nor’Aznin Abu Bakar; Sallahuddin Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of external debts on economic growth in Malaysia. The analysis is conducted both at aggregate and disaggregate levels. The empirical results are based on VAR estimates using GDP, external debts, capital accumulation, labor force and human capital. Estimation results at the aggregate level indicate that total external debts affect economic growth positively. In particular, one percentage point increase in total external debts generates 1.29 percentage point of e...

  8. Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, P

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  9. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an enclosed...

  10. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum breaker...

  11. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on the...

  12. Quantum electrodynamics on background external fields

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  13. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  14. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  15. THE PROBLEM OF AN EXTERNAL CIRCULAR CRACK UNDER ASYMMETRIC LOADINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银邦

    2001-01-01

    Using the boundary integral equation method, the problem of an external circular crack in a three-dimensional infinite elastic body under asymmetric loadings is investigated. The two- dimensional singular boundary integral equations of the problem were reduced to a system of Abel integral equations by means of Fourier series and hypergeometric functions. The exact solutions of stress intensity factors are obtained for the problem of an external circular crack under asymmetric loadings, which are even more universal than the results obtained by the use of Hankel transform method. The results demonstrate that the boundary integral equation method has great potential as a new analytic method.

  16. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt management mechanism and economic corruption were a product of the lack of political and fiscal accountability in the context of personal rule.

  17. Internal and external influence in the US stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysov, Stanislav; Roudi, Yasser; Balatsky, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the multivariate distribution of the US stock returns using pairwise interaction models, inspired by Ising models in glasses and neural networks. Using the inference methods from neural networks analysis we find unique descriptors of the dynamics of stock returns in periods of crisis. Our findings suggest that the near crash dynamics is primarily governed by external factors (external fields), while internal network structure (J couplings) are not significantly affected. This work is supported by Nordita and VR VCB 621-2012-2983.

  18. Externalizing and internalizing subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology and anger expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Diane T; Joseph, Jeremy S; Tharp, Andra T; C'de Baca, Janet; Torres-Sena, Lorraine M; Qualls, Clifford; Miller, Mark W

    2014-02-01

    Subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology were replicated and extended in 254 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cluster analyses on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Personality Psychopathology Five scales (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath, ) yielded internalizing and externalizing psychopathology dimensions, with a third low psychopathology group (simple PTSD). Externalizers were higher than the internalizers and the simple PTSD groups on the antisocial, substance, and aggression scales; internalizers were higher on depression and anxiety scales. Further validation included an independent measure of psychopathology to examine anger (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, [BDHI]; Buss & Durkee, ). Externalizers were higher on extreme behavioral anger scales (assault and verbal hostility); and externalizers and internalizers were higher than the simple PTSD subjects on other anger scales. Positive correlations between the BDHI scales and the PTSD symptom of "irritability and anger outbursts" were found across scales in the total sample (range: r = .19-.36), on the assault scale in externalizers (r = .59), and the verbal hostility scale in both internalizers (r = .30) and simple PTSD (r = .37) groups, suggesting the broad utility of the symptom in the diagnosis. The results demonstrate the generalizability of the internalizing/externalizing typology to the female veteran population and highlight clinically relevant distinctions in anger expression within PTSD.

  19. [The current views of the treatment of diffuse external otitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O V; Shadrin, G B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the local application of triderm for the treatment of diffuse external otitis. The study included 68 patients presenting with bacterial and fungal diffuse external otitis. The treatment in the form of local empiric therapy was continued till the results of microbiological treatment became apparent. The beneficial outcome achieved in 91.2% of the patients was clinically manifest as the regression of the inflammatory process in the external auditory meatus. No complications, such as ototoxic events, either local or systemic allergic reactions, were documented. The authors substantiate the possibility of the application of the medication under consideration for the treatment of diffuse external otitis based on the knowledge of the mechanism of the actin of its constituent components, viz. betamethasone, dipropionate, gentamicin sulfate, and clotrimazole, taking into account the occurrence of the most common causative agents of diffuse external otitis. It is concluded that triderm is a safe medication for the local application and, probably, for the initial empiric therapy of diffuse external otitis to be continued till the results of the microbiological treatment become apparent.

  20. The External Restraints to Corporative Administration%外部约束下的公司治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔新有

    2004-01-01

    Corporative efficiency in operation and logic administration relies not only on the good functionality of internal control mechanism, but also on that of external management. Business administrators usually maintain that an ideal restricting mechanism involves internal stimulating tools as well as external restraints. This paper aims to analyze the factors in external, restraints, which leads to some feasible proposals.

  1. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed excreting system. Aim: To compare the result and advantages of both endonasal endoscopic and external DCR regarding the patency rate, patient compliance and complications. Study Design: Prospective non-randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted for 16 months duration in a teaching hospital with 50 cases of endoscopic and 30 cases of external DCR with a follow-up of minimum 6 months. Data regarding surgical outcome and complications were analysed and compared using χ2 test. Results: Total 72 patients were included in the study with six having bilateral involvement, out of which 20 were male and 52 were female. The mean age for endoscopic and external DCR was 33.6 years and 46.0 years, respectively. Right eye (63.8% was involved more commonly than left eye (36.2%. Epiphora was the commonest presenting symptom (63.7%. Mean duration of surgery was much lengthier in external (mean 119.6 minutes than endoscopic (mean 49.0 minutes DCR. Bleeding was the most common immediate postoperative complication seen in 33.3% and 10.0% of external and endoscopic DCR cases, respectively. Primary surgical success rate was 90% and 96.7% for endoscopic and external DCR, respectively ( P = 0.046. Among the endoscopic DCR group, four patients underwent revision surgery giving a total successful surgical outcome of 98% at third month of follow-up. However, at 6 month of follow-up, success rate was 92% for endoscopic DCR and 93.3% for external DCR. The difference was not statistically significant ( P = 0.609. Conclusion: Intranasal endoscopic DCR is a simple, minimally invasive, day care procedure and had comparable result with conventional external DCR.

  2. The Relationship between Internal Satisfaction and External Satisfaction amongst Hotel Customers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on hotel customers' internal and external satisfaction. Some previous studies had only focused on the customers' external satisfaction and only a few studies had managed to link between the two variables. The study also looked into factors which may act as internal variables such as the employer-employee relationship, employee relationship as well as employee- customer relationship. As for the external variables, these may involve looking into other aspects of satisfac...

  3. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  4. External symmetry in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cotaescu, I I

    2000-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the isometry transformations to the geometric context of the field theories with spin where the local frames are explicitly involved. We define the external symmetry transformations as isometries combined with suitable tetrad gauge transformations and we show that these form a group which is locally isomorphic with the isometry one. We point out that the symmetry transformations that leave invariant the equations of the fields with spin have generators with specific spin terms which represent new physical observables. The examples we present are the generators of the central symmetry and those of the maximal symmetries of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes derived in different tetrad gauge fixings. Pacs: 04.20.Cv, 04.62.+v, 11.30.-j

  5. What is the impact of obtaining medical clearance to participate in a randomised controlled trial examining a physical activity intervention on the socio-demographic and risk factor profiles of included participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Rebar, Amanda L; Maeder, Anthony J; Tague, Rhys; Savage, Trevor N; van Itallie, Anetta; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-12-07

    Requiring individuals to obtain medical clearance to exercise prior to participation in physical activity interventions is common. The impact this has on the socio-demographic characteristic profiles of participants who end up participating in the intervention is not clear. As part of the multi-component eligibility screening for inclusion in a three-arm randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of a web-based physical activity intervention, individuals interested in participating were required to complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The PAR-Q identified individuals as having lower or higher risk. Higher-risk individuals were required to obtain medical exercise clearance prior to enrolment. Comparisons of the socio-demographic characteristics of the lower- and higher-risk individuals were performed using t tests and chi-square tests (p = 0.05). A total of 1244 individuals expressed interest in participating, and 432 were enrolled without needing to undergo further screening. Of the 251 individuals required to obtain medical clearance, 148 received clearance, 15 did not receive clearance and 88 did not return any form of clearance. A total of 105 individuals were enrolled after obtaining clearance, and the most frequent reason for being required to seek clearance was for using blood pressure/heart condition medication. Higher-risk individuals were significantly older, had a higher body mass index and engaged in more sedentary behaviour than lower-risk individuals. Use of more inclusive participant screening protocols that maintain high levels of participant safety are encouraged. Allowing individuals to obtain medical clearance to participate can result in including a more diverse population likely to benefit most from participation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000157976 ). Registered on 9 February 2011.

  6. Numerical analysis of rainfall effects in external overburden dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhakanta Koner⇑; Debashish Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    The effect of slope angle for external overburden dump in response to average and heavy rainfall has been analyzed using a two dimensional finite difference method of transient water flow through unsaturated–saturated soil. The external dump stability is evaluated for five geomaterial types on the basis of globally accepted safety factor analysis technique, based on shear strength reduction approach using finite differ-ence method. The results obtained from the finite difference method of analysis indicate that the external dump with more than 30? slope angle is greatly influenced by the rainfall under the studied conditions for geomaterial 3, 4 and 5, whereas dumps with geomaterial 1 and 2 remain safe. The analysis shows that major slope failure is out of preview for the studied rainfall conditions.

  7. Logistic regression analysis on the risk factors for external hydrocephalus after traumatic brain injury in the infants and young children%婴幼儿颅脑创伤后外部性脑积水的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍永峰; 庄强; 肖龙海; 张宗才; 秦浩

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析婴幼儿颅脑损伤后外部性脑积水(EH)的危险因素.方法 回顾性分析我院2004年3月至2009年4月收治的178例颅脑损伤婴幼儿患者的临床资料,对婴幼儿脑损伤后EH的相关临床因素进行单因素和Logistic回归分析.结果 单因素分析结果 显示:年龄、伤后GCS评分、昏迷时间、脑挫裂伤、蛛网膜下腔出血和继发癫痫均是婴幼儿EH的危险因素(P均0.05),婴幼儿颅脑损伤后EH的发生率为14%(25/178),年龄(OR=0.5743)、伤后昏迷时间(OR=3.0628)、伤后GCS评分(OR=1.5628)、蛛网膜下腔出血(OR+3.7093)、脑挫裂伤(OR=4.7892)和外伤后癫痫(OR=2.9976)均是婴幼儿EH的危险因素(P均0. 05). The incidence of EH after traumatic brain injury in the infants and young children was 14% (25/178 ). Age ( OR = 0.5743 ) , coma duration after trauma (OR =3.0628) ,subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR =3.7093),brain contusion(OR = 4.7892) and post-trauma epilepsy (OR =2. 9976) were risk factors for EH (Ps < 0. 05). Conclusion Younger than 2 years old, low GCS score, long coma duration, brain contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage and epilepsy would increase the risk of EH after traumatic brain injury in the infants and young children. This study provides information for the prevention of EH after traumatic brain injury in the infants and young children.

  8. Social externalities, overlap and the poverty trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chul; Loury, Glenn C

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies find that some social groups are stuck in poverty traps because of network effects. However, these studies do not carefully analyze how these groups overcome low human capital investment activities. Unlike previous studies, the model in this paper includes network externalities in both the human capital investment stage and the subsequent career stages. This implies that not only the current network quality, but also the expectations about future network quality affect the current investment decision. Consequently, the coordinated expectation among the group members can play a crucial role in the determination of the final state. We define "overlap" for some initial skill ranges, whereby the economic performance of a group can be improved simply by increasing expectations of a brighter future. We also define "poverty trap" for some ranges, wherein a disadvantaged group is constrained by its history, and we explore the egalitarian policies to mobilize the group out of the trap.

  9. RMB:Depreciating Internationally while Appreciating Externally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝多广; 朱晓莉

    2008-01-01

    RMB has been depreciating internally while appreciating externally since 2002. This new monetary phenomenon, has been strengthened in the context that US dollar depreciates internationally and that domestic economy is overwhelmed with excessive liquidities. Certainly the monetary phenomenon is the reflection of the actual economy: continued trade surplus, triggered robustly by the export-driven economy, is bringing a huge amount of exchange reserve which accelerates sequentially the expansion of domestic money supply. Furthermore, a refrained appreciation of RMB tends to deteriorate the domestic inflation, which is not simply a traditional concept of CPI but a broad inflation parameter including a variety of asset prices. It’s sure that the new phenomenon is becoming a new challenge to the macroeconomic equilibrium as well as the decision maker of monetary policy.

  10. Treatment of acromegaly by external irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macleod, A.F.; Clarke, D.G.; Pambakian, H.; Lowy, C.; Sonksen, P.H.; Collins, C.D. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK))

    1989-03-01

    Despite hypophysectomy as the primary treatment in acromegaly, external radiotherapy maintains a role as a relatively slow but effective therapy for inadequately treated patients or those unsuitable for operation. Over the last 25 years the authors' regimen has differed from published series in that they give a larger dose per fraction, with fewer treatments. They have analysed the efficacy and side-effects of this regimen in 27 subjects with acromegaly. Growth hormone levels have fallen by, on average, 27% per year in the first five years, 83% of subjects achieving a basal growth hormone of <10mU/1. The acute and chronic side-effects of irradiation are discussed, including the relevance of estimates of biological potency, for example Time Dose Fraction (TDF). One patient suffered visual loss that was most likely to be secondary to the radiotherapy. Histological appearances of the pituitary fossa in five subjects previously treated with radiotherapy are reported. (author).

  11. Dental hygiene student experiences in external placements in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane A; Hayes, Melanie J; Wallace, Linda

    2012-05-01

    While placements in external locations are being increasingly used in dental education globally, few studies have explored the student learning experience at such placements. The purpose of this study was to investigate student experiences while on external placement in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to final-year dental hygiene students (n=77) at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in 2010. The questionnaire included questions regarding the type of placement, experiences offered, supervision, resources available, and lasting impressions. Responding students were generally positive about their external placement experience and indicated that the majority of facilities provided them with the opportunity to provide direct patient care and perform clinical tasks typical of a practicing hygienist. However, there was a statistically significant difference in their opinions about discipline-focused and community placements. Students indicated that their external placement experience provided opportunities to learn more about time and patient management, including hands-on experience with specific clinical tasks. Ongoing evaluations are necessary to ensure that external placements meet both student needs and intended learning outcomes within dental hygiene programs.

  12. Gender inequalities in external cause mortality in Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Catarina de Moura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate mortality rate by external causes in Brazil.Methods: Mortality national 2010's data corrected by underreport and adjusted by direct method were evaluated by sex according to age, region of residence, race/skin color, education and conjugal situation.Results: The standardized mortality coefficient of external causes is higher among men (178 per thousand inhabitants than among women (24 per thousand inhabitants, being higher among young men (20 to 29 years old in all regions and decreasing with aging. The mortality rate reaches almost nine times higher among men comparably to women, being higher in North and Northeast regions. The death incidence by external causes is higher among men (36.4% than among women (10.9%, meaning 170% more risk for men. The risk is also higher among the youngest: 6.00 for men and 7.36 for women. The main kind of death by external causes among men is aggressions, followed by transport accidents, the opposite of women.Conclusions: Besides sex, age is the more important predictive factor of precocious death by external causes, pointing the need of many and various sectors in order to construct new identities of non violence.

  13. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  14. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux implant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jungkim, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of T-Flux implant in nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. METHODS: This clinical interventional case series study included 35 eyes of 35 patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux (ETTF) is a technique of nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery, in which after removing deep scleral tissue and un-roofing the canal of Schlemn (CS) the external trabecular tissue is peeled off to enhance the aqueous drainage without opening the anterior chamber. A non-absorbable T-Flux implant (IOL TECH Laboratories, France) was sutured in deep intrascleral space to keep it patent. Snellen\\'s best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, funduscopy, and optic disc assessment were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3 , 6, and 12 months. Visual field testing was performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: For three eyes, surgery was converted to standard trabeculectomy owing to the perforation of trabeculo-Descemet\\'s membrane and iris prolapse and excluded from the study. The results of the remaining 32 eyes were included in the study. Preoperative IOP (mean +\\/- SD) of 32.88 +\\/- 5.7 mmHg decreased to 15.44 +\\/- 1.6 mmHg after 12 months. Ten eyes (28.6%) had microhyphema that resolved spontaneously; 3 eyes (8.6%) had microperforation without iris prolapse so ETTF was proceeded routinely. The preoperative number of antiglaucoma medications per patient reduced from (mean +\\/- SD) 2.74 +\\/- 0.61 to 0.11 +\\/- 0.32 postoperatively at 12 months. Visual acuity and visual fields remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: ETTF appears to provide significant control of IOP and have low incidence of complications.

  15. Public Debt and External Reserve: The Nigerian Experience (1981–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Senibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is confronted with the issue of limited capital and has to resort to foreign debt in order to augment domestic savings, balance of payment deficits, and shortfall in revenue which induce continuous raise in the debt stock at an alarming rate. In the light of this, this study assesses the impact of public debt on external reserve in Nigeria. The objectives of this study include the assessment of the trends and relationship between public debt and external reserve in Nigeria, using the Johansen cointegration and FMOLS technique on the secondary data from 1981 to 2013. The result revealed that public debt has a positive and significant effect on external reserve stock in the long run suggesting that the nation’s debt crisis can be attributed to both exogenous and endogenous factors such as the nature of the economy, economic policies, high dependence on oil, and swindling foreign exchange receipt. This study recommends that the federal government should employ more superior method to negotiate for fixed interest payment and varying amortization schemes, as well as seek multiyear rescheduling rather than year by year basis.

  16. A Thermodynamically Correct Treatment of Externalities with an Exergy-Based Numeraire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sciubba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “sustainable development” implies that the environmental externalities unavoidably generated by human activities be reduced to a minimum: In fact, the very definition of “sustainability” leads—as it will be briefly discussed in the paper—to a physically measurable upper limit for untreated discharges. Since the current state of affairs on Earth is far from being sustainable, any proposal for a future scenario that is not substantiated by an accurate assessment of the effects of the environmental externalities is devoid of real sense and ought not to be pursued. The present paper illustrates the application of Extended Exergy Accounting (EEA to the quantification of such externalities. The exergy flow diagrams of EEA include non-material and non-energetic production factors like labor, and capital and environmental remediation costs, providing a quantitative measure of the amount of primary resources that are cumulatively used in the production of a good or service, and it is shown to provide a wealth of quantitative information to energy managers and planners.

  17. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  18. Successful new product development through external collaboration : the case of SMEs in the medical devices sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullen, A.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the challenges faced by small and medium sized companies (SMEs) in New Product Development and the importance of the external network in this situation. The literature clearly identifies the internal and external organization as two factors that influence innovation performa

  19. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth…

  20. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  1. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  2. The impact of maternal depression and overcrowded housing on associations between autonomic nervous system reactivity and externalizing behavior problems in vulnerable Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sara F; Boyce, W Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda; Alkon, Abbey

    2016-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system responses and contextual factors has shed light on the development of children's negative outcomes, but the majority of these studies have not focused on minority populations living under adversity. To address these gaps, the current longitudinal study included a sample of poor, immigrant Latino families to examine whether associations between children's autonomic nervous system reactivity at 6 months and their externalizing behavior problems at 7 years of age were moderated by two risk factors associated with poverty: the interpersonal factor of chronic maternal depression and the environmental factor of chronic overcrowded housing. Multiple linear regression (N = 99) revealed that children who exhibited less parasympathetic nervous system withdrawal in response to challenge during infancy had more externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who experienced chronic depression. Children who exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system reactivity during infancy had the lowest levels of externalizing problems during childhood only if they had mothers who chronic depression. Chronic overcrowded housing did not moderate associations between physiological reactivity and level of externalizing problems. These findings extend our understanding of the interaction of physiology and context on child outcomes to the understudied population of impoverished Latino families.

  3. Triple play: Additive contributions of enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and external attentional focus to motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Cardozo, Priscila; Chiviacowsky, Suzete

    2017-01-24

    In the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning [Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2016). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi:10.3758/s13423-015-0999-9], 3 factors are postulated to facilitate learning: enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance, autonomy support (AS), and an external focus (EF) of attention. In 3 recent studies, combinations 2 of these variables resulted in superior learning relative to the presence of only 1 variable, or none. We examined whether the combination of all 3 factors would enhance learning relative to combinations of 2 factors. Our design included EE-AS, EE-EF, AS-EF, and AS-EE-EF groups. Participants threw balls at a target with their non-dominant arm. In the EE conditions, they received positive social-comparative feedback. In the AS conditions, they were allowed to throw with their dominant arm on trial blocks chosen by them. In the EF conditions, participants were asked to focus on the target. On a delayed retention test, the AS-EE-EF group outperformed all other groups. The findings provide evidence that enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and an external focus can contribute in an additive fashion to optimize motor learning.

  4. An on-line calibration algorithm for external parameters of visual system based on binocular stereo cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2014-11-01

    Stereo vision is the key in the visual measurement, robot vision, and autonomous navigation. Before performing the system of stereo vision, it needs to calibrate the intrinsic parameters for each camera and the external parameters of the system. In engineering, the intrinsic parameters remain unchanged after calibrating cameras, and the positional relationship between the cameras could be changed because of vibration, knocks and pressures in the vicinity of the railway or motor workshops. Especially for large baselines, even minute changes in translation or rotation can affect the epipolar geometry and scene triangulation to such a degree that visual system becomes disabled. A technology including both real-time examination and on-line recalibration for the external parameters of stereo system becomes particularly important. This paper presents an on-line method for checking and recalibrating the positional relationship between stereo cameras. In epipolar geometry, the external parameters of cameras can be obtained by factorization of the fundamental matrix. Thus, it offers a method to calculate the external camera parameters without any special targets. If the intrinsic camera parameters are known, the external parameters of system can be calculated via a number of random matched points. The process is: (i) estimating the fundamental matrix via the feature point correspondences; (ii) computing the essential matrix from the fundamental matrix; (iii) obtaining the external parameters by decomposition of the essential matrix. In the step of computing the fundamental matrix, the traditional methods are sensitive to noise and cannot ensure the estimation accuracy. We consider the feature distribution situation in the actual scene images and introduce a regional weighted normalization algorithm to improve accuracy of the fundamental matrix estimation. In contrast to traditional algorithms, experiments on simulated data prove that the method improves estimation

  5. Polyvinyl siloxane: novel material for external nasal splinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, N K; Rathnaprabhu, V; Ramesh, S; Parameswaran, A

    2016-01-01

    External nasal splinting is performed routinely after nasal bone fracture reductions, osteotomies, and rhinoplasties. Materials commonly used include plaster of Paris (POP), thermoplastic splints, self-adhesive padded aluminium splints, and Orthoplast, among many others. The disadvantages of these materials are described in this paper, and polyvinyl siloxane is recommended as an effective and more readily available alternative material to counter these pitfalls.

  6. The Role of Advocacy Organizations in Reducing Negative Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An externality is a cost that a corporation's actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the…

  7. Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures

  8. 76 FR 74777 - National Marine Protected Areas Center External Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., information resources, coordination and policy development. An external review of the MPA Center is needed to... feedback, including public comment on the program's approach to balancing competing priorities. All... of MPAs? Are resources (human and financial) allocated appropriately to effectively address the...

  9. Changing external conditions require high levels of entrepreneurship in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Society including markets and policies rapidly changes. Farmers or agricultural entrepreneurs need to become more flexible and develop strategies to pro-actively adapt their farm, product portfolio, networks, partnerships, knowledge systems, personal skills and competences to the changing external c

  10. External model validation of binary clinical risk prediction models in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Graeme L; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2016-08-01

    Clinical risk-prediction models serve an important role in healthcare. They are used for clinical decision-making and measuring the performance of healthcare providers. To establish confidence in a model, external model validation is imperative. When designing such an external model validation study, thought must be given to patient selection, risk factor and outcome definitions, missing data, and the transparent reporting of the analysis. In addition, there are a number of statistical methods available for external model validation. Execution of a rigorous external validation study rests in proper study design, application of suitable statistical methods, and transparent reporting.

  11. Conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology: overlap, developmental patterns, and etiology of two related constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed.

  12. The Internal, External, and Diagnostic Validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Leopold, Daniel R; Burns, G Leonard; Jarrett, Matthew A; Langberg, Joshua M; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willcutt, Erik G

    2016-03-01

    To conduct the first meta-analysis evaluating the internal and external validity of the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct as related to or distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as associated with functional impairment and neuropsychological functioning. Electronic databases were searched through September 2015 for studies examining the factor structure and/or correlates of SCT in children or adults. The search procedures identified 73 papers. The core SCT behaviors included across studies, as well as factor loadings and reliability estimates, were reviewed to evaluate internal validity. Pooled correlation effect sizes using random effects models were used to evaluate SCT in relation to external validity domains (i.e., demographics, other psychopathologies, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning). Strong support was found for the internal validity of the SCT construct. Specifically, across factor analytic studies including more than 19,000 individuals, 13 SCT items loaded consistently on an SCT factor as opposed to an ADHD factor. Findings also support the reliability (i.e., internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability) of SCT. In terms of external validity, there is some indication that SCT may increase with age (r = 0.11) and be associated with lower socioeconomic status (r = 0.10). Modest (potentially negligible) support was found for SCT symptoms being higher in males than females in children (r = 0.05) but not in adults. SCT is more strongly associated with ADHD inattention (r = 0.63 in children, r = 0.72 in adults) than with ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity (r = 0.32 in children, r = 0.46 in adults), and it likewise appears that SCT is more strongly associated with internalizing symptoms than with externalizing symptoms. SCT is associated with significant global, social, and academic impairment (r = 0.38-0.44). Effects for neuropsychological functioning are mixed, although

  13. 甘南亚高寒草甸金露梅叶片氮磷化学计量学动态%Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in Potentilla fruticosa L.affected by internal and external factors in the subalpine in Gannan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵君; 张仁懿; 李新娥; 陈凌云; 王刚

    2011-01-01

    Leaf N and P stoichiometry of Potentilla fruticosa L. were studied under external factors (different nutrients level) and internal factors (with and without reproduction). The results showed that there was a significant effect of fertilization on leaf w(N) and w(P); leaf w(N) was 17.8, 18.9, 20.1, 22.6 mg/g, leaf w(P)was 1.92, 2.05, 2.19, 2.58 mg/g after fertilization (0, 40, 80, 120 g/m2 NH4H2PO4) respectively; but there was no significant effect of fertilization on w(N) :w(P) ratios. Reproduction significantly decreased leaf N content while the impact on P content was weak. The effect of external and internal factors on the leaf stoichiometry of Potentilla fruticosa L. was different. Fertilization affected leaf N and P content significantly while it did not affect w(N): w(P) significantly. Reproduction decreased leaf w(N) and leaf w(N): w(P) significantly. Leaf w(N): w(P)of Potentilla fruticosa L. showed a convergence and differentiation under external and internal factors.%通过甘南地区金露梅的研究,以营养元素的不同水平供给为外部驱动因素,有无繁殖过程为内部因素,比较分析了金露梅叶片氮磷化学计量学的变化特征.研究结果表明:施肥显著影响了叶片的w(N)和w(P),施肥后叶片的w(N)依次为17.8,18.9,20.1,22.6 mg/g,w(P)依次为1.92,2.05,2.19,2.58 mg/g,但施肥对w(N):w(P)的影响不显著.繁殖显著降低了叶片的w(N)和w(N):w(P),而对w(P)影响不显著.外部和内部因素对金露梅叶片的化学计量学的影响不相同.不同的施肥水平显著影响金露梅叶片的w(N)和w(P),而对w(N):w(P)影响不显著.证明繁殖过程导致了氮的大量消耗和w(N):w(P)的显著降低.金露梅在内外因素的影响下分别表现了w(N):w(P)的趋同和分异.

  14. Micro-Ramps for External Compression Low-Boom Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalko, Michael; Loth, Eric; Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; DeBonis, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The application of vortex generators for flow control in an external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was investigated using RANS simulations with three-dimensional (3-D), structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code. The low-boom inlet design is based on previous scale model 1- by 1-ft wind tunnel tests and features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. Validation of the methodology was first performed for micro-ramps in supersonic flow on a flat plate with and without oblique shocks. For the inlet configuration, simulations with several types of vortex generators were conducted for positions both upstream and downstream of the terminating normal shock. The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and massflow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. The optimum upstream configuration was found to substantially reduce the post-shock separation area but did not significantly impact recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Downstream device placement allowed for fuller boundary layer velocity profiles and reduced distortion. This resulted in an improved pressure recovery and massflow ratio at the AIP compared to the baseline solid-wall configuration.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma in external auditory canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengjuan Zhen; Tao Fu; Jinjie Qi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate outcomes in treating carcinoma of external auditory canal (EAC) and to analysis factors which effect the prognosis of this disease. Methods: A retrospectively review of 16 patients treated for carcinoma of EAC at our department between April 2000 and April 2014 was conducted. All patients underwent surgical treatment and the diagnosis confirmed by pathological examination. Results: There were adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in 8 patients, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 5 patients, adenocarcinoma (AC) in 2 patients, and verrucous carcinoma (VC) in 1 patient. The tumors were classified as Stage I in 4 cases, Stage II in 2 cases, Stage III in 3 cases, and Stage IV in 7 cases. Five patients underwent extensive tumor resection (ETR), 2 patients underwent lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR), 5 patients underwent modified LTBR, 2 patients underwent subtotal temporal bone resection (STBR), and 2 patients underwent only open biopsy. Besides, adjunctive procedures, including neck dissection, parotidectomy and pinna resection were performed when indicated. Ten patients received postoperative radiotherapy. By the end of follow up, two patients had died of their disease, 2 lost to follow up, 2 survived with the disease, and the rest survived disease-free. The median follow-up period was 24 months. Conclusion: Complete tumor resection appears to be an effective treatment for carcinoma of the EAC. Patients with SCC seem to have worse prognosis than those with ACC. Radiation therapy seems less effective for the disease than surgical treatment.

  16. External-Compression Supersonic Inlet Design Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, John W.

    2011-01-01

    A computer code named SUPIN has been developed to perform aerodynamic design and analysis of external-compression, supersonic inlets. The baseline set of inlets include axisymmetric pitot, two-dimensional single-duct, axisymmetric outward-turning, and two-dimensional bifurcated-duct inlets. The aerodynamic methods are based on low-fidelity analytical and numerical procedures. The geometric methods are based on planar geometry elements. SUPIN has three modes of operation: 1) generate the inlet geometry from a explicit set of geometry information, 2) size and design the inlet geometry and analyze the aerodynamic performance, and 3) compute the aerodynamic performance of a specified inlet geometry. The aerodynamic performance quantities includes inlet flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The geometry output from SUPIN includes inlet dimensions, cross-sectional areas, coordinates of planar profiles, and surface grids suitable for input to grid generators for analysis by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The input data file for SUPIN and the output file from SUPIN are text (ASCII) files. The surface grid files are output as formatted Plot3D or stereolithography (STL) files. SUPIN executes in batch mode and is available as a Microsoft Windows executable and Fortran95 source code with a makefile for Linux.

  17. Implementation of external hazards in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manorma; Klug, Joakim; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The paper will focus on the discussion on implementation of external hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods for the extreme external hazards mainly focused on Seismic, Flooding, Meteorological Hazards (e.g. Storm, Extreme temperature, snow pack), Biological infestation, Lightening hazards, Accidental Aircraft crash and man- made hazards including natural external fire and external explosion. This will include discussion on identification of some good practices on the implementation of external hazards in Level 1 PSA, with a perspective of development of extended PSA and introduction of relevant modelling for external hazards in an existing Level 1 PSA. This paper is associated to the European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) which gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and which aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants.

  18. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  19. Methodology for the Design of Streamline-Traced External-Compression Supersonic Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, John W.

    2014-01-01

    A design methodology based on streamline-tracing is discussed for the design of external-compression, supersonic inlets for flight below Mach 2.0. The methodology establishes a supersonic compression surface and capture cross-section by tracing streamlines through an axisymmetric Busemann flowfield. The compression system of shock and Mach waves is altered through modifications to the leading edge and shoulder of the compression surface. An external terminal shock is established to create subsonic flow which is diffused in the subsonic diffuser. The design methodology was implemented into the SUPIN inlet design tool. SUPIN uses specified design factors to design the inlets and computes the inlet performance, which includes the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and wave drag. A design study was conducted using SUPIN and the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics code to design and analyze the properties of two streamline-traced, external-compression (STEX) supersonic inlets for Mach 1.6 freestream conditions. The STEX inlets were compared to axisymmetric pitot, two-dimensional, and axisymmetric spike inlets. The STEX inlets had slightly lower total pressure recovery and higher levels of total pressure distortion than the axisymmetric spike inlet. The cowl wave drag coefficients of the STEX inlets were 20% of those for the axisymmetric spike inlet. The STEX inlets had external sound pressures that were 37% of those of the axisymmetric spike inlet, which may result in lower adverse sonic boom characteristics. The flexibility of the shape of the capture cross-section may result in benefits for the integration of STEX inlets with aircraft.

  20. Adolescent externalizing behaviour, psychological control, and peer rejection: Transactional links and dopaminergic moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; Claes, Stephan; Van Heel, Martijn; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated (1) reciprocal links among parental psychological control, peer rejection, and adolescent externalizing (aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour), and (2) the moderating effect of an adolescent genetic factor (biologically informed polygenic score for dopamine signalling). Three-year longitudinal data from 1,116 adolescents (51% boys; M age = 13.79) and their parents included psychological measures (adolescent-reported psychological control, peer-reported rejection, and parent-reported aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour). Cross-lagged analyses showed bidirectional effects between psychological control and both aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour and a unidirectional effect of peer rejection on both forms of problem behaviour over time. Multigroup structural equation modelling revealed genetic moderation only for rule-breaking behaviour: for adolescents with intermediate levels of dopamine signalling significant environmental effects were present, whereas adolescent effects of rule-breaking behaviour on psychological control were significant for adolescents with both intermediate and high profiles and effects on peer rejection only for adolescents with high dopamine profiles. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Parental psychological control is related to adolescent externalizing problems. Experiencing peer rejection reinforces aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. Single-gene studies show that dopaminergic genes influence externalizing problems directly or in interaction with the environment. What does this study add? Parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour exacerbate one another longitudinally. Longitudinal associations between peer rejection and both subtypes of externalizing behaviour are unidirectional. With a polygenic approach, dopaminergic moderation is present for rule-breaking behaviour only. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.