WorldWideScience

Sample records for external factors affecting

  1. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  2. External factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Queirós, Antonio; Jorge, Jorge; Fernandes, Paulo; Cerviño, Alejandro; de Almeida, José Borges

    2007-03-01

    To analyze the factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination with the Medmont E-300 videokeratoscope and to provide strategies to minimize their effects. Sixty eyes from thirty young adults were examined. A second observer registered incidences with the potential to affect data acquisition. Those factors were correlated with the difficulty of measurements as judged subjectively by the practitioner who performed the examination. Measurements of axial curvature were analyzed to evaluate the variability expressed as intrasession and intersession coefficient of variation and the standard error of the mean (SEM). The level of difficulty rated by the practitioner was in general low, with 70% of the eyes being easy or very easy to measure. For the remaining 30% of the eyes, corneal topography measurements were considered to be difficult (27%) or very difficult (3%). Of the external parameters investigated, only fixation instability (PSEM improved when three readings from each session were considered. The level of subjective difficulty found during videokeratoscopy examination is correlated strongly with fixation instability and the need for head reorientation in the chin rest, whereas tear-related events seem to be less relevant in the practitioner perception of test ease or difficulty. Those factors have relevance in measurement variability.

  3. An Investigation of Relationships between Internal and External Factors Affecting Technology Integration in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Shannon, David; Wolf, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affecting technology integration have been identified, but little research has examined the relationships between factors, especially internal and external ones, and whether they directly or indirectly influenced each other. To fill this research gap, this study examined the significance and relationships of five factors…

  4. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, pHaiti and similar resource-limited settings.

  5. Internal and external environmental factors affecting the performance of hospital-based home nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, J-W; Kwon, Y-D; Yoon, S-J; Hwang, J-I

    2011-06-01

    Numerous studies on HNC services have been carried out by signifying their needs, efficiency and effectiveness. However, no study has ever been performed to determine the critical factors associated with HNC's positive results despite the deluge of positive studies on the service. This study included all of the 89 training hospitals that were practising HNC service in Korea as of November 2006. The input factors affecting the performance were classified as either internal or external environmental factors. This analysis was conducted to understand the impact that the corresponding factors had on performance. Data were analysed by using multiple linear regressions. The internal and external environment variables affected the performance of HNC based on univariate analysis. The meaningful variables were internal environmental factors. Specifically, managerial resource (the number of operating beds and the outpatient/inpatient ratio) were meaningful when the multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Indeed, the importance of organizational culture (the passion of HNC nurses) was significant. This study, considering the limited market size of Korea, illustrates that the critical factor for the development of hospital-led HNC lies with internal environmental factors rather than external ones. Among the internal environmental factors, the hospitals' managerial resource-related factors (specifically, the passion of nurses) were the most important contributing element. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  6. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food or Thought? Assessing Internal and External Factors Affecting Evaluations of Instructor Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John; Kiggins, Ryan; Kickham, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Within the broader literature concerned with potential bias in student measures of instructor effectiveness, two broad types of bias have been shown to operate in a course: internal and external. Missing is an assessment of the relative influence of each bias type in the classroom. Do internal or external types of bias matter more or less to…

  8. HOW EXTERNAL AND MEDIATING FACTORS AFFECT CONSUMER PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR IN ONLINE LUXURY SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Alamoudi, Hawazen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many studies have detailed how consumer perceptions and experiences affect attitudes and behaviours towards web service quality and e-satisfaction. Controversy arises when it comes to luxury brands. Luxury brands associate themselves with the concept of exclusivity and they position themselves in the market as such. But in online placement, how do they remain exclusive when information is accessible to everyone? Consumers of luxury products and services have varying opinions on the ...

  9. Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izci, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student's learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students' learning. Thus reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers' practices of…

  10. Internal and external factors affecting photosynthetic pigment composition in plants: a meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Raquel; Barrutia, Oihana; Artetxe, Unai; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic pigment composition has been a major study target in plant ecophysiology during the last three decades. Although more than 2000 papers have been published, a comprehensive evaluation of the responses of photosynthetic pigment composition to environmental conditions is not yet available. After an extensive survey, we compiled data from 525 papers including 809 species (subkingdom Viridiplantae) in which pigment composition was described. A meta-analysis was then conducted to assess the ranges of photosynthetic pigment content. Calculated frequency distributions of pigments were compared with those expected from the theoretical pigment composition. Responses to environmental factors were also analysed. The results revealed that lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) were highly responsive to the environment, emphasizing the high phenotypic plasticity of VAZ, whereas neoxanthin was very stable. The present meta-analysis supports the existence of relatively narrow limits for pigment ratios and also supports the presence of a pool of free 'unbound' VAZ. Results from this study provide highly reliable ranges of photosynthetic pigment contents as a framework for future research on plant pigments. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Internal and external factors affecting the development of neuropathic pain in rodents. Is it all about pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, K; De Jongh, R; Hoffmann, V; Heylen, R; Crul, B; Meert, T

    2003-12-01

    It is important to know the factors that will influence animal models of neuropathic pain. A good reproducibility and predictability in different strains of animals for a given test increases the clinical relevance and possible targeting. An obligatory requirement for enabling comparisons of results of different origin is a meticulous definition of the specific sensitivities of a model for neuropathic pain and a description of the test conditions. Factors influencing neuropathic pain behavior can be subdivided in external and internal factors. The most important external factors are; timing of the measurement of pain after induction of neuropathy, circadian rhythms, seasonal influences, air humidity, influence of order of testing, diet, social variables, housing and manipulation, cage density, sexual activity, external stress factors, and influences of the experimenter. The internal factors are related to the type of animal, its genetic background, gender, age, and the presence of homeostatic adaptation mechanisms to specific situations or stress. In practice, the behavioral presentations to pain depend on the combination of genetic and environmental factors such as accepted social behavior. It also depends on the use of genetic manipulation of the animals such as in transgenic animals. These make the interpretation of data even more difficult. Differences of pain behavior between in- and outbred animals will be better understood by using modern analysis techniques. Substrains of animals with a high likelihood for developing neuropathic pain make the unraveling of specific pathophysiological mechanisms possible. Concerning the effect of stress on pain, it is important to differentiate between external and internal stress such as social coping behavior. The individual dealing with this stress is species sensitive, and depends on the genotype and the social learning. In the future, histo-immunological and genetic analysis will highlight similarities of the different

  12. The Survival and Recovery of Irradiated Bacterial Spores as Affected by Population Density and Some External Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Kiss, I.; Andrássy, E.

    1967-01-01

    The radiation resistance of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by the pH-value and cell density of the irradiated spore suspensions was investigated. The portions of the survival curves of suspensions of 10 8 , 4 x 10 3 and 5 x 10 1 per millilitre viable cell counts, respectively, were compared for a three-orders-of-magnitude decrease in viable cell count. It was established that the initial cell density did not affect radiation resistance of spores. Radiation resistance as affected by pH-value in the range of 3 to 8 was investigated. In the range of pH 5 to 8, the radiation resistance of B. cereus spores was not affected. By lowering the pH-value to below 5, the radiation resistance decreased below that observed in the neutral region. The colony-forming capacity of B. cereus, B. coagulans and B. pumilus as a function of the pH-value in the nutrient medium, and the pH-sensitivity of bacterial spores as affected by radiation, were also investigated. It was established that irradiation increased the pH-sensitivity of surviving bacterial spores in all three strains. The initial phase of spore germination (the phase accompanied by decrease of refractivity of the spores) and the division stage of vegetative cells proved to be the most sensitive to the value of the hydrogen ion concentration. (author)

  13. External Factors, Internal Factors and Self-Directed Learning Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurjannah; Muljono, Pudji; Afendi, Farit M.

    2018-01-01

    There are many factors which affect the level of self-directed learning readiness. This study aims to investigate the relationship between external factors, internal factors and self-directed learning readiness. This study was carried out by using a census method for fourth year students of medical program of Tadulako University. Data were…

  14. A multiple linear regression analysis of factors affecting the simulated Basic Life Support (BLS) performance with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) in Flemish lifeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Schouppe, Gilles; Charlier, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Research investigating lifeguards' performance of Basic Life Support (BLS) with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is limited. Assessing simulated BLS/AED performance in Flemish lifeguards and identifying factors affecting this performance. Six hundred and sixteen (217 female and 399 male) certified Flemish lifeguards (aged 16-71 years) performed BLS with an AED on a Laerdal ResusciAnne manikin simulating an adult victim of drowning. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with BLS/AED performance as outcome variable and demographic data as explanatory variables. Mean BLS/AED performance for all lifeguards was 66.5%. Compression rate and depth adhered closely to ERC 2010 guidelines. Ventilation volume and flow rate exceeded the guidelines. A significant regression model, F(6, 415)=25.61, p<.001, ES=.38, explained 27% of the variance in BLS performance (R2=.27). Significant predictors were age (beta=-.31, p<.001), years of certification (beta=-.41, p<.001), time on duty per year (beta=-.25, p<.001), practising BLS skills (beta=.11, p=.011), and being a professional lifeguard (beta=-.13, p=.029). 71% of lifeguards reported not practising BLS/AED. Being young, recently certified, few days of employment per year, practising BLS skills and not being a professional lifeguard are factors associated with higher BLS/AED performance. Measures should be taken to prevent BLS/AED performances from decaying with age and longer certification. Refresher courses could include a formal skills test and lifeguards should be encouraged to practise their BLS/AED skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  16. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat

  17. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  18. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  19. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  20. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  1. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  2. Influence of External Factors on the Taiwan Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Wen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the small market size and the low trading volume, emerging markets are, in general, shallow and easily affected by external factors such as the capital flows from foreign portfolio investment and the stock market fluctuations of their major trading partners. This study attempts to investigate how foreign portfolio investment and the trading partner’s equity market affect the local stock market and whether such impacts are persistent through time. Adopting the GARCH-EVT-Copula approac...

  3. Factors affecting the success of moxibustion in the management of a breech presentation as a preliminary treatment to external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyande, Anne; Grabowska, Christine

    2009-12-01

    to explore the effects of moxibustion treatment, to examine the predictors of its use in causing a breech presentation to spontaneously turn to a cephalic presentation which will result in a vaginal birth (the paper will refer to this as 'successful') and offer external cephalic version (ECV) subsequently after moxibustion treatment when the fetus remains in a breech presentation. a prospective study over a two-year time period from February 2004 until January 2006. 76 pregnant women from various acupuncture practices in the UK, with a third trimester breech presentation. the acupuncturist taught the women how to apply moxibustion (sticks of compressed dried herbs-Artemisia vulgaris) treatment at home by stimulating the acupoint on the outer edge at the base of the little toe nail for seven days twice a day (morning and afternoon). If the breech presentation persisted after treatment, ECV was carried out towards the end of the pregnancy. The obstetricians offered this during the routine antenatal hospital visits. the results show that following treatment with moxibustion, 31 (40.8%) of the breech presentations spontaneously turned to cephalic presentations, and a further 33 (43.4%) breech presentations were turned by ECV. Women who involved other people in the administration of moxibustion were twice as likely to be successful. Multiparous women were also 16% more likely than primiparous women to succeed in achieving a spontaneous version with the use of moxibustion. Fewer side effects reported when using moxibustion were the strongest predictor of successful spontaneous cephalic version with an odds ratio of 12% (p = 0.02). moxibustion creates a better chance of vaginal birth for expectant mothers. Of the women who were successful in turning their babies using moxibustion, 88% went on to have a normal birth and 12% had a caesarean section. Moxibustion treatment also significantly increases version from a breech presentation to a cephalic presentation where there

  4. Limiting Factors for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.

    2005-01-01

    The method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) that involves flooding of the reactor cavity during a severe accident has been considered a viable means for in-vessel retention (IVR). For high-power reactors, however, there are some limiting factors that might adversely affect the feasibility of using ERVC as a means for IVR. In this paper, the key limiting factors for ERVC have been identified and critically discussed. These factors include the choking limit for steam venting (CLSV) through the bottleneck of the vessel/insulation structure, the critical heat flux (CHF) for downward-facing boiling on the vessel outer surface, and the two-phase flow instabilities in the natural circulation loop within the flooded cavity. To enhance ERVC, it is necessary to eliminate or relax these limiting factors. Accordingly, methods to enhance ERVC and thus improve margins for IVR have been proposed and demonstrated, using the APR1400 as an example. The strategy is based on using two distinctly different methods to enhance ERVC. One involves the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design to facilitate steam venting through the bottleneck of the annular channel. The other involves the use of an appropriate vessel coating to promote downward-facing boiling. It is found that the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design with bottleneck enlargement could greatly facilitate the process of steam venting through the bottleneck region as well as streamline the resulting two-phase motions in the annular channel. By selecting a suitable enhanced vessel/insulation design, not only the CLSV but also the CHF limits could be significantly increased. In addition, the problem associated with two-phase flow instabilities and flow-induced mechanical vibration could be minimized. It is also found that the use of vessel coatings made of microporous metallic layers could greatly facilitate downward-facing boiling on the vessel outer surface. With vessel coatings, the local CHF limits at

  5. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  6. External dose conversion factor from canal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, Pradeep; Chitra, S.; Mhatre, Arti S.; Singh, Kapil Deo

    2016-01-01

    External dose needs to be estimated for the radioactivity discharged into the canal, as it constitutes one of the pathways of exposure to the public. Two activities are considered here: i) a walk along the bank of the canal ii) and the walk on the bridge. A concentration of 1 Bq/l is assumed here for the gross beta activity for the estimation of the dose conversion factor. A canal of width 14.39 m and the depth of 2.5 m is considered for this study. Length of the canal is taken to be infinite. Canal side wall is assumed to be the 25 cm thick concrete. Two points are selected, one on the bank, and the second on a bridge 1 m above the top surface of canal water. Dose Conversion factors for the person moving on the Bridge (at one meter above the water surface) and standing on bank of canal is estimated by using the QAD CG code for 137 Cs. Dose conversion factors for the location mentioned above are found to be 1.11E-10 Sv/hr/(Bq/l) and 1.55 E-11 Sv/hr/(Bq/l) for bridge and bank of canal respectively. (author)

  7. Identification of External Critical Success Factors in Microbial Biotechnology Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AZIMI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biotechnology is expected to change production methods, the products themselves and the structure of the industries in the new economies. Hopefully, countries in the Middle-East, Latin America, Asia and Africa have already recognized the importance of microbial biotechnology's promise. In this sense, the importance of externalities which might affect the success or failure of these companies becomes an issue of paramount importance. In the present study, we will try to identify the main external factors which could lead in the success of microbial biotechnology firms in Iran. To do so, the research follows a qualitative research design to answer this main question. Based on our findings, critical success factors are categorized in the following categories: General Environment (GE, Political Position (PP, Economic Position (EP, and Market Position (MP.

  8. Reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors determines individual movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodie; van Moorter, Bram; Revilla, Eloy; Blanchard, Pierrick; Dray, Stéphane; Quenette, Pierre-Yves; Allainé, Dominique; Swenson, Jon E

    2013-03-01

    Movement is fundamental to individual and population dynamics, as it allows individuals to meet their basic requirements. Although movement patterns reflect interactions between internal and external factors, only few studies have examined the effects of these factors on movement simultaneously, and they generally focused on particular biological contexts (e.g. dispersal, foraging). However, the relative importance of these factors in driving individual routine movements might reflect a species' potential flexibility to cope with landscape changes and therefore buffer their potential impact on fitness. We used data from GPS collars on Scandinavian brown bears to investigate the relative role of these factors, as well as an additional factor (period of the year) on routine movements at two spatial scales (hourly and daily relocations). As expected, internal factors played a major role in driving movement, compared to external factors at both scales, but its relative importance was greater at a finer scale. In particular, the interaction between reproductive status and period of the year was one of the most influential variables, females being constrained by the movement capacity of their cubs in the first periods of the year. The effect of human disturbance on movement was also greater for females with cubs than for lone females. This study showed how reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors is shaping space use of brown bears. We stress that these factors should be studied simultaneously to avoid the risk of obtaining context-dependent inferences. Moreover, the study of their relative contribution is also highly relevant in the context of multiple-use landscapes, as human activities generally affect the landscape more than they affect the internal states of an individual. Species or individuals with important internal constraints should be less responsive to changes in their environment as they have less freedom from internal constraints and should

  9. Towards a Classification of Architecture Initiatives: Outlining the External Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    or bad, without including the contextual differences. The purpose of the external factors is to improve scoping and goal setting of architecture initiatives, and improve comparability between- and transferability of knowledge from architecture initiatives. The external factors are a first step towards......This paper introduced a set of external factors capturing the contextual differences that set the stage for architecture initiatives. These are derived from a systems theoretical approach recognizing the fact that architecture initiatives should respond the challenges posed by the external...

  10. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  11. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  12. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  13. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  14. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  15. Personality factors and adult attachment affecting job mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility

  16. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.

  17. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, Adhista Cahya

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  18. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  19. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  20. External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G; Steiner, Hans

    2009-03-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

  1. Disentangling internal and external factors in bimodal acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulk, A.; Van den Bogaerde, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary we address some of the internal and external factors which are generally found to interact with purely linguistic factors in the languages of bimodal children, and which we think should be taken into account while analysing the bimodal data.

  2. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  3. Internal and external quasicrystal inflation center and their scaling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masakova, Z.; Patera, J.; Pelantova, E.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of quasicrystals of the cut and project type - namely, self-similarities or so-called inflation properties - are studied. A complete description is given for centers of the scaling symmetry of a quasicrystal, and the relevant scaling factors are determined for each 'inflation center'. If the center is a quasicrystal point, it is called an 'internal inflation center'; otherwise, it is an 'external' one. It turns out that, for any quasicrystal point u, the set of appropriate scaling factors is a u-dependent one-dimensional quasicrystal. There are infinitely many scaling factors common to all internal inflation centers. The description of external inflation centers, which are plentiful in any quasicrystal, is a slight modification of a similar description for the interval ones

  4. Contingent factors affecting network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  5. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  6. Factors That Affect Software Testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  7. Evaluation of Logistics Centres Establishment: External and Internal Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rasciauskaite, Daiva; Raudeliūnienė, Jurgita

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important research objects in comprehensive theories of strategic management for theoreticians and representatives of logistics is making appropriate competitive strategic decisions and achieving a competitive advantage in dynamic and uncertain business environment. The aim of the topic is to create the conceptual model of evaluation of logistics centres establishment, which allows complex assessment of external and internal factors of competition of logistics centres. The pro...

  8. External Factors Influencing Interorganizational Collaboration: The Strategic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Golonka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to present the phenomenon of interorganizational collaboration from the strategic perspective, as a complex phenomenon, infl uenced by environmental factors, such as institutions � both formal and informal. Additional aims of the paper are: to present a model including all signifi cant elements and identifying important research gaps.Methodology: The paper presents the results of literature analyses as well as the fi ndings of the latest research studies in the fi eld of interorganizational collaboration, taking into account the environment of the organization.Conclusions: The external environment of the organization, in particular socio-cultural factors, has a significant impact on the formation, development, evolution and management of interorganizational collaboration. There are still many research gaps in this fi eld, and some of them have been presented in this paper.Research limitations: This paper is a theoretical and conceptual study. It forms an introduction to further empirical research.Originality: The paper presents the phenomenon of interorganizational collaboration in a broader context, taking into account the external environment as an element infl uencing such collaboration. Most of the works in this fi eld focus on organizations managing or coping with the environment. This paper presents a different approach. It indicates the external factors that infl uence interorganizational collaboration from a strategic perspective, and subsequently presents them in the form of a model.

  9. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  10. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... from the ANOVA analysis have a significant value of Pmodel>F= 0.0008 and R2 .... there are various environmental and nutritional factors ... reported to affect cellulase production from wheat straw ... many factors affecting simultaneously the fermentation ..... and control its stability (Kalra and Sandhu, 1986).

  11. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Influence of external action and structural factors on radiation blistering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Chernov, I.I.; Fomina, E.P.; Korshunov, S.H.; Polsky, V.I.; Skorov, D.M.; Yakushin, V.L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of experimental results is presented, pertaining to radiation blistering of a considerable number of materials (stainless steels, alloys with high nickel content, alloys of refractory metals) under helium ion irradiation with energies of 20-100 keV under conditions corresponding to the plasma-wall interaction: bombardment at various angles of incidence and cyclic irradiation in a wide spectrum of ion incidence angles; influence of external action, including thermocyclic; influence of preceding neutron and proton irradiation. It has been shown that external factors have a complex influence on blister parameters and erosion coefficients of materials. A study has been carried out on the influence of aluminium coatings, alloying additions, phase state of material and microstructure on the nature and degree of surface erosion. Complex influence of element and phase composition, as well as microstructural changes during heat treatment and welding on radiation erosion have been established. (orig.)

  13. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  14. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  15. 7339 BASELINE SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SORGHUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muuicathy

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... factors affecting sorghum production and the sorghum farming ... The informal seed system includes methods such as retaining seed on-farm from ..... Jaetzold R and H Schmidt Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Ministry.

  16. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  17. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...

  18. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  19. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  20. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  1. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  2. How does context affect intimate relationships? linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2004-02-01

    Stressors external to the marriage frequently affect the way spouses evaluate their marital quality. To date, however, understanding of the interplay between external stress and internal relationship processes has been limited in two ways. First, research has generally examined only the short-term consequences of stress. Second, the mechanisms through which external stressors influence relationship outcomes are unclear. This study addressed both limitations by examining relationship cognitions that may mediate the effects of external stress throughout 4 years of marriage. Analyses confirmed that stressful experiences were associated with the trajectory of marital quality overtime. Furthermore, both the content and the organization of spouses' specific relationship cognitions mediated this effect. That is, stress negatively influenced the nature of spouses' marital perceptions as well as the way spouses interpreted and processed those perceptions. These findings draw attention to ways that the context of relationships shapes and constrains relationship processes.

  3. Determination of dose factors for external gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, M.F.; Hiromoto, G.

    2000-01-01

    A significant contribution to the global population exposure to ionizing radiation arises from natural sources, especially from radionuclides present in terrestrial crust. Human activities can eventually increase that exposure to significant levels, from the point of view of radiological protection. The presence of natural radionuclides in building materials may lead to an increment of both external and internal radiation exposure of the population. External exposure in dwellings arises from gamma-emitter radionuclides existing in the walls, floor and ceiling of their rooms. Mathematical models can be used to predict external dose rates inside the room, known the radionuclide concentration activities in dwelling constituents. This paper presents a methodology for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses due to radionuclides present in the walls of an hypothetical standard room. The room is modeled as three pairs of rectangular sheets with finite thickness. Assessment of doses was performed through the application of photon transport model, taking in account self-absorption and radiation buildup. As the external dose due to a particular radionuclide is proportional to its activity concentration, results are presented as dose factors, defined as a ratio of absorbed dose (nGy.h -1 ) to the activity concentration (Bq.kg -1 ), for each radionuclide. The radionuclides were assumed to be uniformly distributed in the building materials. Calculations were performed for concrete walls and results are presented for 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, taking in account, for dose calculations, all gamma emitters from 226 Ra and 232 Th decay chains. Sensitivity of the model was estimated by varying four of its input parameters within a reasonable range of applicability, while leaving all other parameters at fixed selected values. The parameters studied and respective ranges of variation were: for thickness, 5 to 60 cm; for density, 0.5 to 4 g.cm -3 ; for the room length, 1.5 to 10 m

  4. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  5. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship and Business Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tur-Porcar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming increasingly important for society, and the creation of business ventures is one area where sustainability is critical. We examined the factors affecting actions that are designed to foster business sustainability. These factors are related to the environment, behavior, human relations, and business activity. Based on questionnaire responses from experts, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to rank sustainable business criteria according to their importance for entrepreneurs starting sustainable businesses. The results indicate that the most important drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship are behavioral factors and business factors. Ethical principles and values, together with competitive intelligence, are crucial for undertaking actions that lead to sustainability.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  7. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  8. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  9. Factors affecting the effects of diuresis renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deshan

    2006-01-01

    Diuresis renography is one of the classic methods for diagnosing upper urinary tract obstruction in both children and adults. However, in clinical practice, the results of diuresis renography were often influenced by many factors including diuretics, timing of diuretics injection, the status of renal function and hydration, the volume and compliance of collecting system, bladder fullness and so on. It is important to consider all the factors affecting diuresis renography during performing and interpreting diuresis renography. (authors)

  10. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors affecting career preferences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    College of Medicine prefer to work as doctors, and (ii) what factors may affect their long-term retention in their home country? Methods. We designed ... from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were 'non- professionals', were .... needs – 5; city life can be difficult – 3; one is closer to family – 2; there is a sense of ...

  12. Workplace, Biographical and Motivation Factors Affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...

  13. Factors affecting IUCD discontinuation in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Paudel, Ishwari Sharma; Bhattarai, Sailesh

    2015-01-01

    Information related to contraception discontinuation, especially in the context of Nepal is very limited. A nested case-control study was carried out to determine the factors affecting discontinuation of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A total of 115 cases (IUCD discontinuers) and 115...

  14. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  15. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  16. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  17. Identification of factors affecting individual industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Mirzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High knowledge and technology are rapidly becoming a competitive advantage in today’s world. Individual industries are considered one of the key sectors in the country’s industry. Ranking the factors that affect these industries makes us more familiar with their effectiveness and helps us take actions to improve such factors in knowledge-based companies. Consequently, based on previous research studies on Individual Industries, field observations, and a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, the current study explores and classifies the factors affecting the establishment of these industries. Regarding its purpose, this is an applied research, and regarding data collection, it is a descriptive survey. Using purposive sampling, 60 questionnaires were collected and effective factors were classified applying the SPSS software and the TOPSIS technique. This study suggests that content factors are ranked first place, while contextual and structural factors are ranked second and third, respectively. Therefore, executives and managers in single industries are recommended to strengthen joint enterprise norms and dominant values and beliefs in knowledge-based companies in order to help the growth and development of single industries.

  18. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  19. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  20. Perceptual Factors Affecting the Tendency to Collaboration in SMEs: Perceived Importance of Collaboration Modes and Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyong Noh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explore key factors of SMEs’ external collaboration and identifies the perceived factors affecting propensity for collaboration. Particularly, we focus on two factors – internal strategic activities geared towards open innovation and external collaboration partners, both of which are essential to establishing an external collaboration. We conducted a survey of Korean SMEs regarding their collaboration project experiences, and used logistic regression analysis to analyze the survey data. The research findings are expected to help understanding the complex open innovation mechanism in SMEs and to have meaningful implications for the development of their collaboration model.

  1. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.

  2. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  3. External nitrogen input affects pre- and post-harvest cell wall composition but not the enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Laetitia Andrée; Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops for food and feed and its straw is a potential feedstock for biorefinery purposes. Nitrogen (N) is an essential input factor in wheat agriculture but no information is available on how it affects straw composition during maturation and at harvest....... To investigate this, we conducted a large scale field experiment in which wheat plants were cultivated at three levels of externally applied N. The plants were harvested at different stages of maturation, spanning green straw at heading (ear emergence) to fully yellow straw at final maturity. Defined parts...

  4. Femoral Component External Rotation Affects Knee Biomechanics: A Computational Model of Posterior-stabilized TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Mohammad; Wright, Timothy M; Cross, Michael B; Mayman, David J; Pearle, Andrew D; Sculco, Peter K; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Imhauser, Carl W

    2018-01-01

    The correct amount of external rotation of the femoral component during TKA is controversial because the resulting changes in biomechanical knee function associated with varying degrees of femoral component rotation are not well understood. We addressed this question using a computational model, which allowed us to isolate the biomechanical impact of geometric factors including bony shapes, location of ligament insertions, and implant size across three different knees after posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA. Using a computational model of the tibiofemoral joint, we asked: (1) Does external rotation unload the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and what is the effect on lateral collateral ligament tension? (2) How does external rotation alter tibiofemoral contact loads and kinematics? (3) Does 3° external rotation relative to the posterior condylar axis align the component to the surgical transepicondylar axis (sTEA) and what anatomic factors of the femoral condyle explain variations in maximum MCL tension among knees? We incorporated a PS TKA into a previously developed computational knee model applied to three neutrally aligned, nonarthritic, male cadaveric knees. The computational knee model was previously shown to corroborate coupled motions and ligament loading patterns of the native knee through a range of flexion. Implant geometries were virtually installed using hip-to-ankle CT scans through measured resection and anterior referencing surgical techniques. Collateral ligament properties were standardized across each knee model by defining stiffness and slack lengths based on the healthy population. The femoral component was externally rotated from 0° to 9° relative to the posterior condylar axis in 3° increments. At each increment, the knee was flexed under 500 N compression from 0° to 90° simulating an intraoperative examination. The computational model predicted collateral ligament forces, compartmental contact forces, and tibiofemoral internal/external and

  5. Successful External Cephalic Version: Factors Predicting Vaginal Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Pei Shan; Ng, Beng Kwang; Ali, Anizah; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Kampan, Nirmala Chandralega; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV) as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263 ± 6.52 days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days). Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG) changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P = 0.000) with 277.9 ± 8.91 days and 269.9 ± 9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P = 0.010). On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they

  6. Successful External Cephalic Version: Factors Predicting Vaginal Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Shan Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263±6.52 days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days. Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P=0.000 with 277.9±8.91 days and 269.9±9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P=0.010. On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P=0.001. Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they

  7. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  8. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  9. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Microbiome Development in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Yieh Lin Chong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of factors that affect the development of the gastrointestinal (GI microbiome during prenatal, perinatal to postnatal life, and their reciprocal relationship with GI tract development in neonates.

  10. External factors in hospital information system (HIS) adoption model: a case on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heng Wei; Ramayah, Thurasamy; Zakaria, Nasriah

    2012-08-01

    Studies related to healthcare ICT integration in Malaysia are relatively little, thus this paper provide a literature review of the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the healthcare sector in Malaysia through the hospital information system (HIS). Our study emphasized on secondary data to investigate the factors related to ICT integration in healthcare through HIS. Therefore this paper aimed to gather an in depth understanding of issues related to HIS adoption, and contributing in fostering HIS adoption in Malaysia and other countries. This paper provides a direction for future research to study the correlation of factors affecting HIS adoption. Finally a research model is proposed using current adoption theories and external factors from human, technology, and organization perspectives.

  11. Affective decision-making and externalizing behaviors: the role of autonomic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jennifer L; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2008-08-01

    We tested a conceptual model involving the inter-relations among affective decision-making (indexed by a gambling task), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a largely impoverished, inner city sample of first through third grade children (N=63, 54% male). The present study hypothesized that impaired affective decision-making and decreased sympathetic and parasympathetic activation would be associated with higher levels of ADHD and ODD symptoms, and that low sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during an emotion-inducing task would mediate the relation between affective decision-making and child externalizing symptoms. In support of our model, disadvantageous decision-making on a gambling task was associated with ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms among boys, and attenuated sympathetic activation during an emotion-inducing task mediated this relation. Support for the model was not found among girls.

  12. Effect of Internal Factors and External Factors on Learning Achievement Intermediate Financial Accounting Course I

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Syamsul; Diana, Nana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of internal and external factors of students on the achievement of intermediate financial accounting courses 1 partially and simultaneously. This type of research is quantitative, while the data used in this study is primary data in the form of questionnaires and secondary data in the form of midterm semester exam on intermediate financial accounting 1 semester odd academic year 2016/2017. Hypothesis testing using multiple regression analy...

  13. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  14. Factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Saraswati; Rao, Chandrika; Hegde, Radhakrishna

    2009-05-01

    The present study aims at recognizing the social influence, study habits and health factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents and to compare these factors among the adolescents between two categories of school. A total of 1230 adolescents (13-18 yrs) were screened. Data was collected by personal interview, using the teenage screening questionnaire, Trivandrum, between May 2004 and November 2005. A total 615 students from corporation and private schools were studied. 39.76% (489) were high achievers, 13.5% (166) were low achievers with p poor study habits and social factors were increased in low achievers of corporation schools. On multivariate analysis, the predictor variables for poor scholastic performance were adolescent having refractory error, not having help for study at home, not doing home work regularly, not solving question bank papers and reading only before examinations. It is feasible and worthwhile to identify the determinants of scholastic performance and plan intervention strategies at each school. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing newer strategies, focusing on strict study patterns and creating the conducive school and home environment for study, so as to achieve better scholastic performances.

  15. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  16. CRITICAL THINKING AND ITS AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Slameto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.

  17. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  18. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  20. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  1. Emergency Nurses' Perspectives: Factors Affecting Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carol L; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2016-05-01

    Caring is a universal phenomenon. However, as a result of higher patient acuity and staff shortages within the chaotic ED environment, caring behaviors may be in peril. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of caring from the perspective of emergency nurses. Exploring nurses' perspectives of caring is central to improving staffing and retention issues in this unique work environment. As part of a larger study, a subsample of emergency nurses who work in public hospitals in Manitoba, Canada (n = 17) were interviewed. A qualitative descriptive design was used to gain insight into the caring perspectives of nurses by asking them, "What does caring meaning to you?" and "What affects caring in your practice in the emergency department?" Emerging themes were extracted through analysis of audio tapes and transcripts. Advocacy and holistic care emerged as major themes in the meaning of caring for emergency nurses. Caring was affected by a number of factors, including workload, lack of time, staffing issues, shift work, and lack of self-care. However, lack of management support was the most consistent hindrance to caring identified by study participants. Caring continues to be a unifying concept in nursing; however, influencing factors continue to undermine caring for emergency nurses. Caring is not subsidiary to nursing; it is the central core of nursing. Therefore, fostering a caring working environment is essential for nurses to practice holistic nursing care. It is also imperative to job satisfaction and the retention of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  3. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  4. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  5. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  6. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  7. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  8. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  9. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  11. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  12. EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCE ON INFLATION: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihnatov Iulian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to assess the main external determinants of inflation dynamics in Romania. The literature in the field of measuring inflation dynamics is wealthy and various. There are many developing country - level studies that examine inflation dynamics: Blavy (2004 - Guinea, Duma (2008 - Sri Lanka, Gottschalk et al (2008 - Sierra Leone, Moriyama (2008 - Sudan, Mwase (2006 - Tanzania, Williams and Adedeji (2004 - Dominican Republic, Hossain (2005 - Indonesia, Almounsor (2010 - Yemen. The issue of Romanian inflation dynamics is present in many and various studies, like Hammermann (2007, Pelinescu and Dospinescu (2006, Budina et al (2006 etc. There are no other recent studies that analyze the external determinants on Romanian inflation dynamics. In our paper we estimate an OLS single equation model, using a methodology derived from Almounsor (2010. The empirical analysis uses monthly data from August 2005 to January 2011. The start point of the data series is the moment of a major change in the National Bank of Romania (NBR monetary policy: adoption of the inflation targeting regime. The independent variables used in our research are: harmonized consumer price index of EU-25 countries, EUR/RON exchange rate, crude oil price index (for analyzing the external shocks effect and M2 monetary aggregate (intermediate money supply as a control variable. The outcomes suggest that inflation in Romania is driven mainly by international price shocks - harmonized consumer price index of EU-25 countries. The EUR/RON exchange rate depreciation has a small influence on domestic inflation. In the short run, the effect of the international oil price is insignificant. Money supply, used here as a control variable, is shown to have a very small effect on inflation in Romania when using OLS regressions. The results show that 66% of the domestic inflation variance is explained by the independent variables in our model.

  13. Macroeconomic Adjustment in Armenia: The Role of External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas van AARLE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a small macroeconomic model of the Armenian economy. After setting up the model and its estimation, a number of macroeconomic scenarios is analyzed in the form of out-of-sample simulations. We analyze the transmissions in the model of a number of macroeconomic shocks and policy scenarios to obtain a better understanding of their possible effects on the internal and external balance of the Armenian economy. A special focus is put on the role of exchange rate and monetary management and the inflow of remittances in the Armenian economy

  14. Macroeconomic Adjustment in Armenia: The Role of External Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Van Aarle, Bas

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a small macroeconomic model of the Armenian economy. After setting up the model and its estimation, a number of macroeconomic scenarios is analyzed in the form of out-of-sample simulations. We analyze the transmissions in the model of a number of macroeconomic shocks and policy scenarios to obtain a better understanding of their possible effects on the internal and external balance of the Armenian economy. A special focus is put on the role of exchange rate and monetary ma...

  15. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  16. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  17. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  18. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  19. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  20. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  1. Tourism Demand in Catalonia: detecting external economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Clavería González, Óscar; Datzira, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of studies on tourism demand in Catalonia. To fill the gap, this paper focuses on detecting the macroeconomic factors that determine tourism demand in Catalonia. We also analyse the relation between these factors and tourism demand. Despite the strong seasonal component and the outliers in the time series of some countries, overnight stays give a better indication of tourism demand in Catalonia than the number of tourists. The degree of linear association between the macroecon...

  2. The Influence of Organizational External Factors on Construction Risk Management among Nigerian Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Adeleke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substantial empirical research has shown conflicting results regarding the influence of organizational external factors on construction risk management, suggesting the necessity to introduce a moderator into the study. The present research confirmed whether rules and regulations matter on the relationships between organizational external factors and construction risk management. Methods: Based on discouragement and organizational control theory, this research examined the effects of organizational external factors and rules and regulations on construction risk management among 238 employees operating in construction companies in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. A personally administered questionnaire was used to acquire the data. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Results: A significant positive relationship between organizational external factors and construction risk management was asserted. This study also found a significant positive relationship between rules and regulations and construction risk management. As anticipated, rules and regulations were found to moderate the relationship between organizational external factors and construction risk management, with a significant positive result. Similarly, a significant interaction effect was also found between rules and regulations and organizational external factors. Implications of the research from a Nigerian point of view have also been discussed. Conclusion: Political, economy, and technology factors helped the construction companies to reduce the chance of risk occurrence during the construction activities. Rules and regulations also helped to lessen the rate of accidents involving construction workers as well as the duration of the projects. Similarly, the influence of the organizational external factors with rules and regulations on construction risk management has proven that most of the construction companies that implement the

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  4. External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

    2004-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

  5. External and Internal Barriers to Studying Can Affect Student Success and Retention in a Diverse Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Clement

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a majority of under-represented minority (URM students begin their postsecondary education at community colleges, little is known about barriers to success and retention for transfer-bound science students. This study focuses on some of the barriers that affect these students’ ability to study adequately for a community college “gateway” course. It tests whether instructors’ expectations of study time were realistic for community college students and whether students reported facing external barriers, such as job and family responsibilities, or internal barriers to studying, such as lack of motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive abilities, all of which have been shown to impact academic success and retention. It also tests whether students who faced such barriers were less likely to succeed in and complete the course, as well as whether time spent studying was related to course success. The findings reported here show that community college students do not have enough available time to study and that external and internal barriers are both prevalent among these students. In addition, students who faced such barriers are more likely to fail or drop the class. Results also show that study time is positively correlated with retention, but not performance, as well as with some motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive dimensions of self-regulated learning. These findings lead to new questions, including whether student success in a community college class is associated with the use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies for students with no prior degrees, and whether increased course structure may improve success for college students with lower self-regulated abilities.

  6. Radon variations in active volcanoes and in regions with high seismicity: internal and external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Cruz-Reyna, S. De la; Mena, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of 4 years of observations of radon concentrations in soils of active volcanoes of Costa Rica and a highly seismic region in Mexico are discussed. A distinction is made between the influences of external (mostly meteorological) and internal (magmatic or tectonic) factors on the variation in radon levels. The geological meaning of the radon data can be thus enhanced if the external factors are excluded. (author)

  7. External Factors Influencing Interorganizational Collaboration: The Strategic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Golonka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to present the phenomenon of interorganizational collaboration from the strategic perspective, as a complex phenomenon, infl uenced by environmental factors, such as institutions � both formal and informal. Additional aims of the paper are: to present a model including all signifi cant elements and identifying important research gaps.Methodology: The paper presents the results of literature analyses as well as the fi ndings of the latest research stu...

  8. The Internal and External Factors of Vocational Path Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanavičiūtė, Ieva

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the doctoral thesis was to analyze the features of one’s vocational path during the time of undergraduate studies. Undergraduate studies can be treated as a pathway of transition from school to the world of work. Therefore, it is especially important to identify what makes vocational choice successful during this period of time. In the study, several psychological success indicators of vocational path choice were distinguished. Moreover, the following factors were analyz...

  9. Markov model of the loan portfolio dynamics considering influence of management and external economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhalkina, Yana; Timofeeva, Galina

    2016-12-01

    Mathematical model of loan portfolio in the form of a controlled Markov chain with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that coefficients of migration matrix depend on corrective actions and external factors. Corrective actions include process of receiving applications, interaction with existing solvent and insolvent clients. External factors are macroeconomic indicators, such as inflation and unemployment rates, exchange rates, consumer price indices, etc. Changes in corrective actions adjust the intensity of transitions in the migration matrix. The mathematical model for forecasting the credit portfolio structure taking into account a cumulative impact of internal and external changes is obtained.

  10. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  11. Factors Affecting Success of Training Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Piotr; Batko, Roman; Wawak, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the key factors which influence the functioning quality and success of training companies. Based on an analysis of the requirements included in the quality management system standards for providers of education and training services, a set of twenty factors has been developed. This was followed by a survey for…

  12. External factors impacting hospital evacuations caused by Hurricane Rita: the role of situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Erin L; Andress, Knox; Schultz, Carl H

    2013-06-01

    The 2005 Gulf Coast hurricane season was one of the most costly and deadly in US history. Hurricane Rita stressed hospitals and led to multiple, simultaneous evacuations. This study systematically identified community factors associated with patient movement out of seven hospitals evacuated during Hurricane Rita. This study represents the second of two systematic, observational, and retrospective investigations of seven acute care hospitals that reported off-site evacuations due to Hurricane Rita. Participants from each hospital included decision makers that comprised the Incident Management Team (IMT). Investigators applied a standardized interview process designed to assess evacuation factors related to external situational awareness of community activities during facility evacuation due to hurricanes. The measured outcomes were responses to 95 questions within six sections of the survey instrument. Investigators identified two factors that significantly impacted hospital IMT decision making: (1) incident characteristics affecting a facility's internal resources and challenges; and (2) incident characteristics affecting a facility's external evacuation activities. This article summarizes the latter and reports the following critical decision making points: (1) Emergency Operations Plans (EOP) were activated an average of 85 hours (3 days, 13 hours) prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall; (2) the decision to evacuate the hospital was made an average of 30 hours (1 day, 6 hours) from activation of the EOP; and (3) the implementation of the evacuation process took an average of 22 hours. Coordination of patient evacuations was most complicated by transportation deficits (the most significant of the 11 identified problem areas) and a lack of situational awareness of community response activities. All evacuation activities and subsequent evacuation times were negatively impacted by an overall lack of understanding on the part of hospital staff and the IMT regarding how to

  13. Peripheral blood volume influenced by various external factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittner, A; Scheibe, J; Stoll, W [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of the peripheral blood volume upon various exogenous factors was studied in male sports students using /sup 113m/InCl. The results obtained revealed that whole-body exertions and local muscular activity produce an increase of the blood volume in the lower extremities associated with increased blood circulation. The passive measures applied caused also an increase of the blood volume, but not in all of the subjects examined. Isometric concentrations led to a highly significant reduction of the peripheral blood volume. The scintigraphic method for the visualization of the blood volume in peripheral regions of the body can be regarded as suitable for the study of hemodynamics and for the substantiation of the efficiency of measures promoting restoration.

  14. The peripheral blood volume influenced by various external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, A.; Scheibe, J.; Stoll, W.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of the peripheral blood volume upon various exogenous factors was studied in male sports students using /sup 113m/InCl. The results obtained revealed that whole-body exertions and local muscular activity produce an increase of the blood volume in the lower extremities associated with increased blood circulation. The passive measures applied caused also an increase of the blood volume, but not in all of the subjects examined. Isometric concentrations led to a highly significant reduction of the peripheral blood volume. The scintigraphic method for the visualization of the blood volume in peripheral regions of the body can be regarded as suitable for the study of hemodynamics and for the substantiation of the efficiency of measures promoting restoration. (author)

  15. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  16. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors involved in the screening process were peptone concentration, urea ... ammonium sulfate concentration, calcium nitrate concentration, yeast extract ... pH, incubation time, initial moisture content, inoculum size and substrate amount.

  17. The Factors affect equity investors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Niavand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial specialist conduct is a focal idea in the behavioral fund which breaks down the impact of different factors on singular value speculator basic leadership. The nature and centrality of these factors on financial specialist basic leadership can be unique and intriguing in different nations. This investigation, thusly, looks at the impact of financial, and behavioral, factors in molding the venture conduct of value speculators in India. The factor incorporates advocate suggestion, unbiased data, individual back requirements, bookkeeping data, established riches expansion and mental self-view/firm-picture incident. The examination found the solid impact of mental self-portrait/firm-picture occurrence, unbiased data, and supporter suggestion on value speculator basic leadership. While, no impacts of variables like great riches amplification, bookkeeping data, and individual budgetary needs are found on value financial specialist's basic leadership with regards to India.

  18. THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF STUDENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SPEAKING ACTIVITY AT SMP PROGRESIF BUMI SHALAWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Nurul Haikal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to know what factors that influence the students’ involvement in speaking activity in order to practice their speaking skill and what strategies that the teacher used to encourage those external factors. This research uses descriptive qualitative method. There are two instruments used for this research, namely, class observation and interview. Based on the results of class observation and interview, the researcher concludes that teacher factor gives the greatest impact on students’ involvement and the appropriate strategies can support those external factors.

  19. The Association Between Callous-Unemotional Traits, Externalizing Problems, and Gender in Predicting Cognitive and Affective Morality Judgments in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Cima, Maaike; Meesters, Cor

    2016-09-01

    Morality deficits have been linked to callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems in response to moral dilemmas, but these associations are still obscure in response to antisocial acts in adolescence. Limited evidence on young boys suggested that callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems were associated with affective but not cognitive morality judgments. The present study investigated these associations in a community sample of 277 adolescents (M age  = 15.35, 64 % females). Adolescents with high callous-unemotional traits showed deficits in affective but not cognitive morality, indicating that they can identify the appropriate moral emotions in others, but experience deviant moral emotions when imagining themselves committing antisocial acts. Externalizing problems and male gender were also strongly related to deficits in affective morality, but they had smaller associations with deficits in cognitive morality too. Implications for treatment and the justice system are discussed.

  20. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  1. Heat transfer in a laminar separation bubble affected by oscillating external flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissink, J.G.; Michelassi, V.; Rodi, W.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of passive heat transfer in a Laminar Separation Bubble (LSB) over a flat plate affected by oscillating external flow is presented. The oscillation imposes a periodicity which is employed for phase-averaging. The flat plate is kept at a uniform, low temperature. The local Nusselt number, Nu, is determined as a function of phase. In the dead-air region of the bubble Nu is found to be relatively small, while it peaks in the recirculation region where hot outer fluid gets entrained and is transported towards the flat plate. Each period a new separation bubble is formed, that merges with the old separation bubble. The reverse flow inside the separation bubble reaches values of up to 60% of the local free-stream velocity, which is sufficient to make the separation bubble absolutely unstable such that self-sustained turbulence can exist. For the phase-averaged flow, neither the turbulent viscosity hypothesis nor the temperature gradient-diffusion hypothesis is found to hold

  2. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  3. Global Factors that Affect the Real Estate Markets in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Švogžlys

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The place, neighbourhood, infrastructure, and apartment plan are the main factors which have an influence on price for the buyers, sellers, investors, or brokers participating in the buying and selling processes of real estate. Participants of the process forget frequently that there are more crucial factors which can affect not only the prices of property, but the prices of real estate in the whole region as well in the future. The article uses benchmarking and discuss the main external factors which affect the real estate market in the European Union, the current events and the proposals are presented and the specific conclusions are identified.

  4. ESTIMATION OF EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCE ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND RESOURCE SUPPORT OF ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Gusak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The engineering industry is characterized by deep specialization and high co-operation, which suggests a high degree of interaction with other industries and the economy, highly sensitive to external factors. Effective regulation of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support will ensure coherence of all the subsystems of the market economy, the competitive environment, a full course of the investment process and the success of the industry. Therefore there is a need for detailed estimation and analysis of the external factors’ influence on the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support. Methodology. To establish the close connection between the set of external factors of formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support the correlation analysis was used, to calculate the amount of the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support’s change under the influence of the external factors with malleability coefficient were applied. Findings. The external influence factors on the engineering industry organizational-resource support by the source of origin: industrial, economical, political, informational, and social were separated and grouped. The classification of the external factors influence on the engineering industry organizational-resource support, depending on their influence’s direction on the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support was made. The connection closeness and the amount of the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support change (the machinery index of and the sales volume machinery index under the influence of the external factors with malleability coefficient were determined. Originality. The estimation of the external factors

  5. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  6. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  7. Some factors affecting the distribution of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of the distribution of radon in the natural background radiation exposures for man is stressed. Factors which effect the distribution include the origin of the rocks, the permeability of the rocks, fractures in the rocks and ground water flow. (U.K.)

  8. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Bertelsen, Maja; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    and pigs’ earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results...

  9. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  10. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  11. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  12. French regulations for countering external violent forces affecting nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, B.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the general principles underlying nuclear safety regulations to counter external violent forces to which plants can be exposed. It then examines the statutory directives concerning external violences connected with human activities or originating from natural phenomena. 3 refs [fr

  13. Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

  14. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends...... on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines....

  15. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Ethiopia: The Impact of External Factors on the Security of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Záhořík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Ethiopia witnesses so far unseen economic growth while the transformation to democracy more or less failed. Due to the fact that the Horn of Africa belongs to the most unstable regions in Africa, external factors play a significant role in shaping and reshaping of internal politics of each state. In this study, we will focus on an analysis of external factors and their impact on security and politics in Ethiopia. As we argue, it is these factors that have a substantial impact on Ethiopian politics and security.

  17. Overview of factors affecting the leachability of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of various factors that affect the leachability of nuclear waste forms is presented. The factors affect primarily the leaching system (temperature, for example), the leachant (pH, for example), or the solid being leached (surface condition, for example). A qualitative understanding exists of the major factors affecting leaching, but further studies are needed to establish leaching mechanisms and develop predictive models. 67 refs

  18. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  19. Factors affecting accelerated testing of polymer photostability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Marek, Antonín; Horák, Zdeněk; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-422 ISSN 0141-3910. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation, Stabilization Conference /3./. Lyon, 29.08.2004-02.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA MŠk ME 543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photodegradation * photostabilization * testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  20. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character sta......, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown...

  1. Factors Associated With External and Internal Lymphedema in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jie, E-mail: jie.deng@vanderbilt.edu [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Ridner, Sheila H. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Dietrich, Mary S. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A. [School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Murphy, Barbara A. [Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: The sample included 81 patients {>=}3 months after HNC treatment. Physical and endoscopic examinations were conducted to determine if participants had external, internal, and/or combined head-and-neck lymphedema. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. Results: The following factors were statistically significantly associated with presence of lymphedema: (1) location of tumor associated with presence of external (P=.009) and combined lymphedema (P=.032); (2) time since end of HNC treatment associated with presence of external (P=.004) and combined lymphedema (P=.005); (3) total dosage of radiation therapy (P=.010) and days of radiation (P=.017) associated with the presence of combined lymphedema; (4) radiation status of surgical bed was associated with the presence of internal lymphedema, including surgery with postoperative radiation (P=.030) and (salvage) surgery in the irradiated field (P=.008); and (5) number of treatment modalities associated with external (P=.002), internal (P=.039), and combined lymphedema (P=.004). No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample. Conclusions: Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC.

  2. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  3. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  4. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: ... methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were ... The high performance liquid chromatography ..... Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Investigate Regional.

  5. Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ranking and evaluating the factors affecting the success of management team in construction projects. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The project management team is one of these important factors.

  6. Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting the organization and management of emergency mass casualty ... service all under a unified command of leadership with a specified job description. Factors identified were: Political will, human resource planning, appropriate ...

  7. Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K.; ITE, Merlewood; CEN, Mol; MLURI, Aberdeen; ENEA-DISP, Rome; MPRC, Fermoy; RPII, Dublin; Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics; Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Agricultural Univ., Aas

    1993-01-01

    The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

  8. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  9. Does Varying Attentional Focus Affect Skill Acquisition in Children? A Comparison of Internal and External Focus Instructions and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Charles; Humphries, Charlotte A.; Naquin, Millie; Hebert, Edward; Wood, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Recently, researchers have concluded that motor skill performance is enhanced when learners adopt an external attentional focus, compared to adopting an internal focus. We extended the line of inquiry to children and examined if skill learning in children was differentially affected by providing instructions and feedback that direct attentional…

  10. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine what sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to explore how these sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to investigate whether there are any consumer segments according to their overall acceptability on different nail polishes and to scrutinize how the consumer segments are related to the sensory factors. Ninety-eight females participated in a nail polish consumer study at Kansas State University. Eight commercial products belonging to four categories - regular (REG), gel (GEL), flake (FLK) and water-based (WAT) - were evaluated. Each nail polish sample was evaluated twice by each participant in two different tasks - a task devoted to applying and evaluating the product and a task devoted to observing the appearance and evaluating the product. Pearson's correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), external preference mapping, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping were applied for data analysis. Participants' scores of overall liking of the nail polishes were similar in the application task and in the observation task. In general, participants liked the REG and GEL product samples more than the FLK and WAT samples. Among all the sensory attributes, appearance attributes were the major factors that affected participants' overall liking. Aroma seemed to be a minor factor to participants' overall liking. Some sensory attributes, such as runny, shininess, opacity, spreadability, smoothness, coverage and wet appearance, were found to drive participants' overall acceptability positively, whereas others such as pinhole, fatty-edges, blister, brushlines, pearl-like, flake-protrusion, glittery and initial-drag impacted participants' overall acceptability negatively. Four clusters of participants were identified according to their overall liking scores from both the application task and the observation task. Participants' acceptability, based on different

  11. A review of privacy and usability issues in mobile health systems: Role of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusiime, Jane; Pinkwart, Niels

    2017-10-01

    The increased penetration of mobile devices has created opportunities in the health sector and led to emerging of mobile health systems. As much as the mobile health systems have registered tremendous progress, they have been faced with privacy and usability issues. Due to the sensitivity of health information, there is an ethical need to equip mobile health systems with adequate privacy measures. However, these systems should also be useable by the intended users. Even though many researchers are working on solutions, the issues still persist. External factors such as cultural differences have also contributed to the issues, yet they have been under researched. In this article, we conduct a systematic literature review of 22 articles, categorize and present privacy and usability issues and possible solutions. We then discuss the relevance and implications of external factors to the findings on privacy and usability. We end with recommendations to address these external factors.

  12. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  13. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

  14. Steinberg knew it : authoritative parenting does affect teen externalizing problems. But how does it work?

    OpenAIRE

    Masche-No, Johanna G.

    2017-01-01

    Research on preventive effects of authoritative parenting against externalizing problems (Steinberg, 2001) has been criticized for invalid measurements of parental control (Stattin & Kerr, 2000), and that findings might reflect parental reactions rather than parental influences (Glatz et al., 2012; Kerr et al., 2012). However, few studies have assessed bidirectional effects between parenting and externalizing problems, and even less have attempted to explore how the parent-adolescent rela...

  15. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  16. Perceived Factors Affecting Performance Of Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on perceived factors affecting performance of extension workers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are ...

  17. Factors affecting the runoff response of watersheds to precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    DROZDOVÁ, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the factors that affect the drainage basin of the response. It contains a literature review, which deals with the hydrological cycle characteristics of precipitation, surface runoff and flood and erosion protection. The aim of the work is to evaluate the factors that adversely affect the runoff from the catchment.

  18. Factors Affecting Prenatal Care Utilization in East Wollega Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of prenatal care and skilled birth attendant in East Wollega zone. Prenatal care and skilled birth attendant are crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn and help the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, ...

  19. The relationship between affective factors and the academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between affective factors and the academic achievement of students at the University of Venda. To this end, self-concept, motivation and attitude are the affective factors selected for the study. The general aim of the study is to determine the role of self-concept, ...

  20. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants.

  1. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  2. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remick, F J [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-07-01

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it.

  3. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M. J.; de Groot, Christianne J.; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the

  4. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing

  5. Determining eyeball surface area directly exposed to the effects of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliszewski, Tadeusz; Kadłuczka, Filip; Kiełbasa, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses determining the surface area of eyeballs of men and women exposed to the direct effects of external factors in the working environment. For one eye, the mean surface is 172-182 mm(2). The determined surface area can be used in formulas for calculating the exposure of eyeballs to harmful chemical substances in workplace air.

  6. The Effects of Demographic, Internal and External University Environment Factors on Faculty Job Satisfaction in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Quang

    2016-01-01

    University faculty members with higher job satisfaction are more productive, creative and positive attitude towards their job. Even less is known about university faculty job satisfaction in developing countries like Vietnam. This study examines the effects of demographic, internal and external university environment factors on faculty job…

  7. Individual differences in very young children’s English acquisition in China : Internal and external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Tendeiro, Jorge; de Bot, Kees

    This study assesses the impact of internal and external factors on very young EFL learners in an instructional setting. 71 child English learners in China (onset age: 2;0 - 5;6) were involved: their receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary and receptive grammar were taken as outcome variables,

  8. School-External Factors in Finnish Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Sophie; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the English language competence of Finnish bilingual pupils and school-external factors such as parental expectations, home involvement, and exposure to English outside the classroom. Data on the pupils' language competence was collected from n?=?122 6th graders in bilingual education, and compared…

  9. Incidence and risk factors for pin tract infection in external fixation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and risk factors for pin tract infection in external fixation of fractures ... for pin tract infection, there were 93 pins scored grade 1, 32 pins grade 2, 15 ... The incidence increased from 20.5% in closed fractures to 75.9% in open fractures.

  10. Relationship Domain of Form Six Teachers Thinking in Teaching with External Factors of Form Six Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Pet, Mokhtar; Sihes, Ahmad Johari Hj

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the external factors of form six teachers who can influence thinking domain form six teachers in their teaching. This study was conducted using a quantitative approach using questionnaires. A total of 300 form six teacher schools in Johor were chosen as respondents. The findings were obtained as student background…

  11. Divergent composition of algal-bacterial biofilms developing under various external factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barranguet, C.; Veuger, B.; van Beusekom, S.A.M.; Marvan, P.; Sinke, J.J.; Admiraal, W.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of external factors other than nutrients on biofilm development and composition was studied with a combination of optical (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PAM fluorometry) and chemical methods (EPS extraction, HPLC, TOC determination). The development of algal-bacterial biofilms

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING FINANCIAL CONSUMERS’ PRIVATE PENSION PLAN DECISIONS: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK PROPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Elif Aydın

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to propose a framework related to financial consumers’ private pension plan decisions. Specifically, we review the factors affecting consumers’ participation, contribution and asset allocation decisions regarding private pensions. The factors discussed include situational and dispositional factors, personality, motivation, financial literacy, and external influences. Based on this survey of literature, we develop a number of propositions, which are expected to benefit individual retirement planners and pension institutions in gaining a better understanding of retirement saving decisions.

  13. External anal sphincter atrophy on endoanal magnetic resonance imaging adversely affects continence after sphincteroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briel, J. W.; Stoker, J.; Rociu, E.; Laméris, J. S.; Hop, W. C.; Schouten, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    There is still considerable debate about the value of preoperative anorectal physiological parameters in predicting the clinical outcome after sphincteroplasty. Recently it has been reported that atrophy of the external anal sphincter can be clearly shown with endoanal magnetic resonance imaging

  14. How the Parent-Child Relationship Affects Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behavior Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Lauren Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent-child relationship characteristics (attachment, involvement, discipline practices, parenting confidence, and relational frustration) and behavioral outcomes (internalizing, externalizing, and adaptive) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD presents pervasive…

  15. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

  16. The dynamics of immunologic reactions in rats affected by repeated external γ-irradiation and internal irradiation with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Livshits, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Nonspecific factors of immunity and formation of autoantibodies in rats exposed to comparable doses of repeated external γ-irradiation and of internal irradiation with Cs 137 , Sr 90 and I 131 chronically administered to animals have been studied comparatively. No essential variations have been found in changes induced in the immunologic reactions by chronic external and even internal γ-irradiation. Certain peculiarities have been revealed in the character of changes in the immunologic reactions depending on biophysical properties of the radionuclides used in the experiments

  17. Factors Associated With External and Internal Lymphedema in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jie; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Murphy, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: The sample included 81 patients ≥3 months after HNC treatment. Physical and endoscopic examinations were conducted to determine if participants had external, internal, and/or combined head-and-neck lymphedema. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. Results: The following factors were statistically significantly associated with presence of lymphedema: (1) location of tumor associated with presence of external (P=.009) and combined lymphedema (P=.032); (2) time since end of HNC treatment associated with presence of external (P=.004) and combined lymphedema (P=.005); (3) total dosage of radiation therapy (P=.010) and days of radiation (P=.017) associated with the presence of combined lymphedema; (4) radiation status of surgical bed was associated with the presence of internal lymphedema, including surgery with postoperative radiation (P=.030) and (salvage) surgery in the irradiated field (P=.008); and (5) number of treatment modalities associated with external (P=.002), internal (P=.039), and combined lymphedema (P=.004). No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample. Conclusions: Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC.

  18. Factors associated with external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Ridner, Sheila H; Dietrich, Mary S; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A; Sinard, Robert J; Cmelak, Anthony J; Murphy, Barbara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). The sample included 81 patients ≥3 months after HNC treatment. Physical and endoscopic examinations were conducted to determine if participants had external, internal, and/or combined head-and-neck lymphedema. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. The following factors were statistically significantly associated with presence of lymphedema: (1) location of tumor associated with presence of external (P=.009) and combined lymphedema (P=.032); (2) time since end of HNC treatment associated with presence of external (P=.004) and combined lymphedema (P=.005); (3) total dosage of radiation therapy (P=.010) and days of radiation (P=.017) associated with the presence of combined lymphedema; (4) radiation status of surgical bed was associated with the presence of internal lymphedema, including surgery with postoperative radiation (P=.030) and (salvage) surgery in the irradiated field (P=.008); and (5) number of treatment modalities associated with external (P=.002), internal (P=.039), and combined lymphedema (P=.004). No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample. Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AT THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Sargsyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of the external environment, which have a key influence on the economic activities of organizations in the food industry, are discussed in the article. The influence of certain external environment factors is examined by the example of the Republic of Armenia with taking into account the characteristics of the industry. The rates of development, the leading market indicators are analysed, as well as the key components that form the socio-economic system of the industry are considered.

  20. Estimation of integrated public risks for nonseismic external events affecting the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, W.S.; robinette, R.J.; Kirchner, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    In essence, this study was envisioned as the ''combination'' of existing accident dose and risk calculations from safety analyses of individual facilities. However, because of the extended time period over which the safety analyses were prepared, calculational assumptions and methodologies differed between the analyses. The scope of this study therefore included the standardization of assumptions and calculations as necessary to insure that the analytical logic was consistent for all the facilities. Each of the nonseismic external events considered in the analyses are addressed in individual sections in this report. In Section 2, extreme straight-line winds are examined. Section 3 addresses tornadoes, and Section 4 addresses other external events [floods, other extreme weather events (lightning, hail, and extremes in temperature or precipitation), vehicle impact, accidents involving adjacent facilities, aircraft impact, and meteorite impact]. Section 5 provides a summary of the general conclusions of the report

  1. Change of magnetic properties of nanocrystalline alloys under influence of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Jozef; Holková, Dominika; Dekan, Julius; Novák, Patrik

    2016-10-01

    Nanocrystalline (Fe3Ni1)81Nb7B12 alloys were irradiated using different types of radiation and subsequently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. External magnetic field of 0.5 T, electron-beam irradiation up to 4 MGy, neutron irradiation up to 1017 neutrons/cm2 and irradiation with Cu ions were applied on the samples. All types of external factors had an influence on the magnetic microstructure manifested as a change in the direction of the net magnetic moment, intensity of the internal magnetic field and volumetric fraction of the constituent phases. The direction of the net magnetic moment was the most sensitive parameter. Changes of the microscopic magnetic parameters were compared after different external influence and results of nanocrystalline samples were compared with their amorphous precursors.

  2. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  3. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about ... attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS ...

  4. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job performance of two oil palm companies' ...

  5. Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement: evidence from prePIRLS 2011. ... achievement among Grade 4 learners in South Africa by utilising aspects of Carroll's model of school learning. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the spawning, transport and nursery. ... and are inversely linked to high rates of gonad atresia in anchovy and reduced subsequent recruitment. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  8. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre and ... Small, micro and medium entrepreneurs play an important role in economic ... such as production, marketing and management to adequately service the ...

  9. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  10. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  11. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  12. An Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branscome, Tersa A; Swoboda, Jennifer C; Fatkin, Linda T

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment...

  13. Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Community Participation in O and OD Planning and ... great success at start but later dropped in number of cattle taken for dipping. ... and to establish the measures taken by the district leadership in addressing the problems.

  14. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher educational institutions in Kenya ... communication Technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet, Learning ...

  16. factors affecting antenatal care service utilization in yem special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jhon

    assess antenatal care utilization and factors that affect it in Yem Special Woreda, South Western Ethiopia. METHODS: A ... A pre-tested structured questionnaire consisting of information on socio- ..... model and access to medical care: does it.

  17. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-12-01

    Results: It was found that the 45.5% of nurses participated in the study were in the 23-53 age group, 79.5% were women, 76.9% married, 41.1% associate degree graduates. 42.3% of nurses' durations of professional experience were 0-5 years, 22.4% of nurses were clinical chief, 69.2% were working as shifts. Participants believe that the factors affecting the labor productivity were respectively organizational factors, ergonomic factors and personal factors. When organizational factors was examined; nurses stated that the lack of working personnel in the section, the low wages and unequal wages for the same work, the long working hours and the system which based on personal relations instead of merit were affecting productivity. The factors affecting labor productivity of nurses were not different according to age, gender, education level and marital status (p>0.05, but different according to mode of operation and years of experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, it was found that there are many factors that affect the efficiency of the nurses. The most important factors affecting nurses' efficiency were determined as wage and working conditions. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 334-342

  18. Disentangling interoception: insights from focal strokes affecting the perception of external and internal milieus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Blas; Adolfi, Federico; Sedeño, Lucas; Salles, Alejo; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Alvarez-Abut, Pablo; Garcia-Cordero, Indira; Pietto, Marcos; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is the moment-to-moment sensing of the physiological condition of the body. The multimodal sources of interoception can be classified into two different streams of afferents: an internal pathway of signals arising from core structures (i.e., heart, blood vessels, and bronchi) and an external pathway of body-mapped sensations (i.e., chemosensation and pain) arising from peripersonal space. This study examines differential processing along these streams within the insular cortex (IC) and their subcortical tracts connecting frontotemporal networks. Two rare patients presenting focal lesions of the IC (insular lesion, IL) or its subcortical tracts (subcortical lesion, SL) were tested. Internally generated interoceptive streams were assessed through a heartbeat detection (HBD) task, while those externally triggered were tapped via taste, smell, and pain recognition tasks. A differential pattern was observed. The IC patient showed impaired internal signal processing while the SL patient exhibited external perception deficits. Such selective deficits remained even when comparing each patient with a group of healthy controls and a group of brain-damaged patients. These outcomes suggest the existence of distinguishable interoceptive streams. Results are discussed in relation with neuroanatomical substrates, involving a fronto-insulo-temporal network for interoceptive and cognitive contextual integration. PMID:25983697

  19. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68 who worked in centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18 in Croatia. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. RESULTS: The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  20. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Mustapić, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68) who worked in Centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18) in Croatia. Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  1. TAM-based external factors related to ERP solutions acceptance in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zabukovsek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ERP solutions use, understanding of critical success factors of ERP solutions assimilation in organizations is crucial. The technology acceptance model (TAM proposed by Davis (1989 has been the most widely used model for researching user acceptance and usage of IT/IS. The purpose of this paper is to extend the original TAM with groups of external factors which impact actual ERP system use. First, we focus on ERP system use in companies’ maturity phase. Second, we expose and examine three groups of external factors which influence ERP usage. The model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of ERP users in 44 organizations. Survey data have been collected from ERP users who have been exposed to an ERP system which has operated for more than one year. The proposed research model was analyzed using the PLS approach.

  2. The influence of external factors on the credit risk in leasing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Farsad Amanollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk consists of probability of non-return, which may be in the form of bankruptcy or a decrease in financial and credit situation of the lessee. The variables are extracted from the Central Bank. In this study the independent variables are measured with six factors that are called external factors. The external factors are size of leasing, ownership interest rate, foreign exchange, inflation, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The present study uses related observations from 31 leasing companies from 2008 to 2013 to find out the determinants of the credit risk. The combined evidences suggest that internal factors such as upfront prepayment, credit insurance contract, security deposits, time and period contract, collateral and guarantees, contract amount, as well as external factors such as interest rate, inflation, foreign exchange, Gross Domestic Product infrastructure, and credit risk are determinants in the policy-making process involving the industrial leasing. Furthermore, the empirical results indicate the size of leasing and ownership are not the significant determinants of credit risk. The results of this dissertation provide several implications for policy-makers in the leasing industry. Policy-makers will be better off employing different procedures for leasing activities in the leasing industry.

  3. The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lovett, Neil B.; Everitt, Matthew; Heath, Robert M.; Kendon, Viv

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the effic...

  4. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdanur Dikmen; Dilek Kara Yilmaz; Handenur Basaran; Nasibe Yagmur Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the labor productivity of nurses. Material and Methods: The study which was planned as descriptive and analytical was carried out with 156 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study in a public hospital in the northwest of Turkey. Data was collected with the and ldquo;Participant Presentation Form and rdquo; and the questionnaire including the factors affecting labor productivity which was developed by Ozkoc (2005). ...

  5. Estimates of external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors for selected radionuclides released from fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Togawa, Orihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    This report provides a tabulation of both external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors using radioactive decay data in the updated Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for selected 26 radionuclides and all their daughter radionuclides of potential importance in safety assessments of fusion facilities. The external dose-rate conversion factors for 21 target organs are tabulated for three exposure modes that are immersion in contaminated air, irradiation at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface and immersion contaminated water. For internal exposure, committed dose equivalents, based on the methodology of ICRP Publication 30, in the same target organs per intake of unit activity are given for the inhalation and ingestion exposure pathways. The data presented here is intended to be generally used for safety assessments of fusion reactors. Comparisons of external effective dose-rate conversion factors and committed effective dose equivalents are made with the previous data from the independent data bases to provide quality assurance on our calculated results. There is generally good agreement among data from the independent data bases. The differences in the values of both effective dose-rate and dose conversion factors appeared are primarily due to differences in calculational methodology, the use of different radioactive decay data, and compilation errors. (author)

  6. Factors affecting dignity of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF AN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Salikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For successful functioning and development of the enterprise is a need to strive as possible deeper and more dynamic influence on parameters and objects OK-environmental management, primarily due to increase their innovation activity. Innovative activity of enterprises influenced by many factors. They can be classified on the factors of direct influence (micro and factors of indirect impacts (macro. Factors of direct impact of the influence on the pace and scale of development of the enterprise, on its effectiveness, because the whole spectrum of these factors acts as a limiter. Macro factors create the General conditions of existence of the enterprise in the external environment. To analyses these factors approach was used to SNW-analysis. As a result of analysis, factors of micro and macro-were classified on: stimulating, it minesweepers and dissuasive. Also studied were the degree of influence of these factors on the innovative activity of the enterprise. Reviewed rating factors hindering the development of innovation activity of industrial enterprise in Russia. In the result of which identified factors that hinder the development of innovative activity, and justified in the direction of overcoming them. It should be noted that the distinction between enabling and constraining factors is rather thin and conditional. So, the factors initially restraining innovation, at a certain point can be transformed into a stimulus for its development. Accounting for these factors, creation of necessary conditions and introduction of innovations in various aspects of the functioning of industrial enterprises will allow them to provide competitor-term benefits and sustainable development in a rapidly changing environment and the external environment.

  8. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M J; de Groot, Christianne J; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the Netherlands. With the data of this trial, we performed a cohort study among women attempting vaginal delivery after successful ECV. We evaluated whether maternal age, gestational age, parity, time interval between ECV and delivery, birth weight, neonatal gender, and induction of labor were predictive for a vaginal delivery on one hand or a CS or instrumental vaginal delivery on the other hand. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among 301 women who attempted vaginal delivery after a successful external cephalic version attempt, the cesarean section rate was 13% and the instrumental vaginal delivery rate 6%, resulting in a combined instrumental delivery rate of 19%. Nulliparity increased the risk of cesarean section (OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-6.1)) and instrumental delivery (OR 4.2 (95% CI 2.1-8.6)). Maternal age, gestational age at delivery, time interval between external cephalic version and delivery, birth weight and neonatal gender did not contribute to the prediction of failed spontaneous vaginal delivery. In our cohort of 301 women with a successful external cephalic version, nulliparity was the only one of seven factors that predicted the risk for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery.

  9. Preliminary Assessment for the Effects of the External Hazard Factors on the Safety of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, So Beom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Sung Kyu; Hur, Youl

    2010-01-01

    The Ch.etsu Offshore Earthquake(2007.7.16) in Japan caused damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa(K-K) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with seismic ground motion that exceeded the design level. This incident drew the interest of the safety evaluation studies for NPPs subjected to earthquakes exceeding the design basis around the world. Also, the Indian Ocean Tsunami(2004.12.26) tripped the Madras NPP by reason of flooding of the intake pump house and inundated the construction site of a fast breeder reactor site in India. In addition, from the various man-made and natural hazards such as the oil spill accident near Mallipo, Taean, Chungnam (2007.12), the forest fire near the Ulchin NPP site, the several inflows of marine organism into the intake of the Ulchin NPP, it was confirmed that the safety of NPPs may be affected by natural and human induced disasters. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been warned about global warming; the average temperature rose about 1.5 .deg. C during the 20th century and the damages caused by typhoons and heavy rains have also increased in Korea. Accordingly, a natural disaster prevention research team(hereafter team) ,which have been organized and operated since 2009, has assessed the impact of various hazards such as earthquakes and environmental changes due to global warming on the safety of NPP and has discussed to establish countermeasures. This paper introduces that the preliminary assessment for the effects of the external hazard factors on the safety of NPPs was conducted by the team

  10. Evaluation of dose from external irradiation for individuals living in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Ishii, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively and appropriately manage external radiation doses in the affected areas of Fukushima, it is important to identify when, where and how much exposure occurred. It is also necessary to quantitatively measure external exposure and air dose rates for different activity patterns in individuals living and working in Japanese-style buildings. The authors used a new personal dosemeter (D-shuttle) along with a global positioning system and geographical information system to relate personal dose rate with activity patterns and air dose rate. Hourly individual doses obtained by D-shuttle can provide an effective communication tool for those who want to identify when and how much exposure occurs. Personal monitoring of 26 volunteers showed that personal doses obtained from D-shuttle were ∼30 % of cumulative air dose estimated by data from the airborne monitoring survey. This analysis showed that, for most study volunteers, the exposure from staying at home represented about half of the total cumulative dose. This suggests that even though the peak exposure doses may be observed outside of working hours, to develop appropriate countermeasures for external dose reduction, it is thus important to identify the contributions of individuals' time-activities. This study provides a valuable basis for developing a realistic and pragmatic method to estimate external doses of individuals in Fukushima. (authors)

  11. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  12. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  13. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  14. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  15. ANALYSIS AND PARTICULARITIES OF EXTERNAL FACTORS IMPACT ON ECONOMICAL RESULTS OF STRATEGIC OBJECTS PLANNING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gromov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The relevance of the scientific problem described in the article are: to determine changes in economic performance, the effectiveness of the sectoral components of the service sector from the effects of environmental factors, which allows them to reach the planned long-term economic performance; management decision-making about structural and organizational changes, implementation of investment projects in the renovation and modernization of fixed capital, the creation of technology, process and product innovations directly connected with the impact analysis of such external factors as economic, socio-cultural, legal, political, innovative. The structure of the article is formed on the basis of presentation of the impact of specific groups of environmental factors on the competitiveness and economic performance of industry components of services based on the technology of strategic planning; complience of logical sequence of presentation of materials, establishing a causal relationship, the interaction of factors and elements of studied problems and objects. Features of external factors impact on the effectiveness of macro-economic entities, sectoral components of services are to the adequacy of the measures and strategies to counter the negative impact on the economic development of the objects of strategic development. Features of status changes and influence of internal factors on local and sectoral socio-economic systems dictate the need for a part of the available resources, the level of efficiency of the use of labor resources, fixed and current assets. The contribution of the author in a scientific perspective of this topic is to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the main groups of external factors on economic activities of the service sector development; identifying features of internal factors impact on the economic and innovative development of strategic planning objects.

  16. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  17. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors...

  18. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-04-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  19. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  20. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  1. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured ques...

  2. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Naito

    Full Text Available The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses

  3. Theory of Reasoned Action and the role of external factors in organic food purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Myresten, Emma; Setterhall, Mikaela

    2015-01-01

    This study examines a current phenomenon and behavioural shift amongst consumers’, namely the accelerating growth of organic food sales in Sweden. By combining the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), with the logic of value co-creation, an appropriate research tool has been developed stemmed from two related sub-studies. Based on TRA’s argument that additional factors, referred to as external, only can influence behavioural intention indirectly, combined with the proposed impact of value co-crea...

  4. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  5. The role of internal and external factors on management students’ subject choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AL Coldwell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate undergraduates’ perceptions of the comparative worth/utility of studying Business Science disciplines at a prominent South African University in terms of: (i internal factors comprising aptitudes, values and interests; and (ii external factors comprising job attractiveness (job prospects, earning potential, non-salary benefits and work-life balance, and (iii university and discipline academic reputations. The study utilises a specifically designed instrument to measure internal and external factors impinging on career choice. A purposive non-random sample, consisting of 130 second and third year students in Human Resource Management (HRM and Management, is used. Findings suggest that, while perceptions of aspects of careers, such as job and career prospects generally dominate the choice of major subjects, students studying HRM majors hold community orientated values that distinguish them from their peers. Many students are found to make choices primarily on the basis of their perceptions of ‘external factors’, rather than their interests. The findings are discussed in terms of extant theory and potential practical outcomes.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEPARATISM IN XINJIANG OF PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А С Мавлонова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the important geostrategic position of Xinjiang, located at the in-tersection of foci of instability, at least having a common border with Afghanistan and Pakistan. The large-scale military conflict in the Middle East has definitely influenced the geostrategic posi-tion of Xinjiang. The analysis shows that the peculiarity of this conflict lies in the fact that it affects not only the political, but also the economic situation of Xinjiang. The aim of the study is to identify and analyze the main external factors that influence the activation of separatism in Xinjiang. As for the political aspect, the emergence of a new active force in the Middle East represented by ISIS creates certain risks for China, given the presence of radical young people, and the possibility of religious extremists from penetrating into its territory through Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics. China does not benefit from the prolonged destabilization of the political situation in Syria, the disintegration of the state or the victory of religious extremists. The author also comes to the conclusion that the military conflict in the Middle East can negatively affect the implementation of the project of the new Silk Road. Its starting point is Xinjiang. Successful implementation of the project will stimulate trade, economic and energy exchanges with the Central Asian republics and positively influence the stabilization of the situation in Xinjiang. But the problem lies in the fact that the road itself lies close to the Middle Eastern regions, where conflicts with the ISIS occur in the acute phase. The article also examines the US influence on the situation in Xinjiang and support for the Uyghur separatist movement. In the future, the Uyghur issue is more likely to be used by the Americans to weaken and gain concessions from China on various issues. This research is based on the principles of general scientific system and structural approaches, as

  7. Factors Affecting the Survival of SMEs: A Study of Biotechnology Firms in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsoo Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies examining survival factors of biotechnology firms have focused on pioneer countries, such as the USA, the UK and Germany. However, as the biotechnology industry in Asia is reaching the take-off stage and showing a high growth rate, the research on survival factors in the context of Asian latecomers is needed. The present research investigates internal and external factors affecting the survival of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in the biotechnology industry in South Korea. The Cox hazard model was employed to perform a robust estimation in survival analysis. The analysis of internal factors showed that the origin of a firm (i.e., having prior experience or spin-offs and the business sub-sector (i.e., platform-based affect the hazard rates of biotechnology firms. In terms of external factors, unlike strategic alliances, government R&D funding lowered hazard rates for the firm’s survival. Additionally, considering that the reasons of firm exit can be divided into bankruptcy and M&A (Mergers and Acquisitions, the different effects of origins from other firms and strategic alliance for firm survival are confirmed. The results suggest that prior experience, platform-based and constant government R&D funding contribute to the sustainable development of SMEs in the biotechnology industry.

  8. Factors affecting e-Commerce adoption in Danish and Australian SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating environmental, organizational and technological factors influencing adoption of electronic commerce in small and medium size enterprises in Denmark and Australia. A total of eight companies have been interviewd, four located in the area....... The main organizational factors affecting e-commerce adoption in the two countries are the CEO and employees' knowledge and attitude. Finally a number of technology related factors affect e-commerce adoption in the two countries as for example the ability to stream information out to the clients...... of Copenhagen, Denamrk and four in Brisbane area, Australia. The results show many interesting similarities and few differences between the two countries. For example, in both countries the external environment has an influence mainly through customer pressure and availability of ICT consulting services...

  9. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  10. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Factors affecting strategic plan implementation using interpretive structural modeling (ISM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tajik, Hamidreza; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2018-06-11

    Purpose Strategic planning is the best tool for managers seeking an informed presence and participation in the market without surrendering to changes. Strategic planning enables managers to achieve their organizational goals and objectives. Hospital goals, such as improving service quality and increasing patient satisfaction cannot be achieved if agreed strategies are not implemented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting strategic plan implementation in one teaching hospital using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive study involving experts and senior managers; 16 were selected as the study sample using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed and prepared based on previous studies. Data were analyzed using ISM. Findings Five main factors affected strategic plan implementation. Although all five variables and factors are top level, "senior manager awareness and participation in the strategic planning process" and "creating and maintaining team participation in the strategic planning process" had maximum drive power. "Organizational structure effects on the strategic planning process" and "Organizational culture effects on the strategic planning process" had maximum dependence power. Practical implications Identifying factors affecting strategic plan implementation is a basis for healthcare quality improvement by analyzing the relationship among factors and overcoming the barriers. Originality/value The authors used ISM to analyze the relationship between factors affecting strategic plan implementation.

  12. Management of Internal and External Factors of Decisive Policies in Agriculture in Macroeconomic Crisis Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanghele Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of internal and external factors directly influencing the decisions implemented by the managerial act at the macroeconomic analysis of the relations within this branch and sub-branches, of the disturbing factors with the implementation of some decisions to stop the phenomena of soil degradation and agricultural land and to preserve and develop their productive potential, a production surplus for ash consumption and ensuring a productive production for industrial consumption with the result of gaining added value and net profit as much as possible for the exploitation farms.

  13. [Clinic-internal and -external factors of length of hospital stay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schariatzadeh, R; Imoberdorf, R; Ballmer, P E

    2011-01-19

    In the context of forthcoming initiation of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) in Switzerland, the objective of the study was to find factors having an impact on the inpatient's length of hospital stay. The study was performed on two general-medical wards of the Kantonsspital Winterthur, where all admitted patients were included in the study over two months. The various periods of diagnostic and therapeutic management of the patients and all diagnostic and therapeutic measures plus the arrangements after hospitalization were recorded. The determinants influencing the length of hospital stay were classified in clinic-internal or -external. 124 inpatients entered the study. 91 (73.4%) had a length of hospital stay without delay, whereas 33 (26.6%) patients had an extended length of hospital stay. The cumulative length of hospital stay of all patients was 1314 days, whereof 216 days (16.4%) were caused by delays. 67 days were caused by clinic-internal (5.1%) and 149 days by clinic-external factors (11.3%). Delays were substantially more generated by clinic-internal than -external factors. Clinic-internal factors were mainly weekends with interruption of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, dead times waiting for diagnostic results and waiting times for consultations. Clinic-external factors were caused by delayed transfer in nursing homes or rehabilitation institutions, waiting for family members for the backhaul and by indetermination of the patient. Also factors relating to the patients' characteristics had an influence on the length of hospital stay. Summing up, a substantial part of the length of hospital stay was caused by delays. However, the many different clinic-internal factors complicate solutions to lower the length of hospital stay. Moreover, factors that cannot be influenced such as waiting for microbiological results, contribute to extended length of hospital stay. Early scheduling of post-hospital arrangements may lower length of hospital stay

  14. Investigation of occupational health and safety application using the internal and external factor assessment matrix: SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Material and Method: IIn this study, the threats, opportunities, weaknesses and strengths were evaluated by one of the tools named SWOT, in one of the assembly industries company in Iran, in order to controlling the operations in this company considering to safety and health standard (OHSAS18001. A comparison of the company’s performance in implementing the safety and health standards was done between years 1387 and 1388 contain in the Company considered, and weighted scoring weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities using the matrix of internal factors (strengths and weaknesses and external factors (treats and opportunities then, the importance of each factor were determined in the company’s implementation and enforcement of those standards. . Result: Focusing on the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, some strategies to improve the implementation were presented. Any points were weighted based on the most important weaknesses identified as the lack of monitoring contractors, lack of management commitment for implementation of OHSAS18001, no attempt to identify the risks of change, lack of training needs assessment, main strengths identified in the context of adequate budget health and safety, environmental efforts, identify risk for abnormal conditions, the most important threats for immediate delivery customer orders and the opportunity to support the safety and health plans, were determined. . Conclusion: Sum of the weighted scores in year 87 were obtained for the external factors (opportunities and threats, 2.16 and internal factors (strengths and weaknesses 1.66. Both of these scores were less than 2.5 (minimum amount of the acceptable rate so, the company has been poor performance in the implementation of this standard for the year 87 and a weak reaction in the use of opportunities and the minimize threats has. In case of internal factors, it was worse than external one and the situation was more bold of the weaknesses companies to

  15. Empirical Analysis on Factors Affecting User Behavior in Social Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiayi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] This paper aims to discover the factors affecting user behavior in the derivative situation of e-commerce, social commerce, and explore the sustainable development and related marketing advice of it. [Method/process]This paper put forward a theoretical model of factors affecting user behavior in social commerce by integrating emotional state impact into the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R framework. 277 valid samples were collected by questionnaires and PLS. [Result/conclusion]The results show that information quality and tie strength significantly affect user emotional states, while emotional states positively affect user behavior. In addition, graphic features of business information have indirect effects on user emotional states, while it has direct effect on purchase intention.

  16. Effects of Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on external adaptation of restorations in caries-affected cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Saad, José Roberto Cury; Campos, Edson Alves de; Neto, Sizenando de Toledo Porto; De Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the external adaptation of composite resin restorations in caries-affected cavities. Mixed class V cavity preparations were performed in 36 intact human third molars, in half of which caries was artificially induced. Both healthy and carious dentin were etched with 35% phosphoric acid (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, Utah, USA), and the teeth were divided into three groups, i.e., (a) untreated etched dentin, (b) application of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and (c) use of chlorhexidine as an adjunct in the bonding process. Restorations were fabricated with Z350 XT FiltekTM composite resin (3M ESPE) and subsequently the specimens were subjected to thermocycling to simulate artificial ageing. Quantitative analysis of external adaptation was performed by scanning electron microscopy in both healthy and affected dentin using epoxy resin replicas. It was concluded that the application of laser and chlorhexidine did not affect the percentages of marginal adaptation of class V restorations. Furthermore, thermocycling may influence adaptation values. (letter)

  17. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  18. Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, T; Morinari, H; Oono, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    Various factors affecting /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer were studied in 38 patients with liver cancer (19 with hepatocellular carcinoma and 19 with metastatic liver cancer) who had received /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy and liver scintigraphy. Besides histological types, the size, necrosis, vascularity and treatments of liver cancer, concentrations of transferrin (/sup 67/Ga binding protein) and iron in blood probably affected /sup 67/Ga accumulation in liver cancer.

  19. Factors Affecting Placement of a Child with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor.

  20. Martensitic transformations in Ni-Mn-Ga system affected by external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernenko, V.; Babii, O.; L'vov, V.; McCormick, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial stress and magnetic field on the martensitic transformation temperatures for the ferromagnetic single crystalline Ni-Mn-Ga alloys is studied. It is shown that the experimental results are satisfactorily described by the Landau theory. Ni-Mn-Ga L2 1 -type ordered alloys exhibit a number of the first order and weak first order structural transformations in a ferromagnetic or paramagnetic parent phase depending on the alloy composition and being either thermally or stress activated. Most of these phase transformations are of the martensitic type, i.e., they are accompanied by the spontaneous elastic strains forming a multicomponent order parameter in the Landau expansion for the Gibbs potential. In this work we analyze the influence of the external fields (mechanical and magnetic) on the martensitic transformation (MT) from cubic parent phase (P) to five-layered martensitic one (5M-martensite) usually exhibited by the ferromagnetic ordered Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. In accordance with, we treat the 5M-martensite as a twinned tetragonal phase and, so, describe the experimental results in the framework of the theory of cubic-tetragonal MT. The original experimental data of high magnetic field influence on MT in near stoichiometric Ni 2 MnGa compound are presented to compare with the theoretical estimations. (orig.)

  1. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  2. Factors Which Affect Academic Achievement of University Students

    OpenAIRE

    RENÇBER, Bahman Alp

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate by analysing factors affecting academic achievement of university students. Also effects of these factors are studied. For this purpose, the students attending “Statistics and Transport Technology” course at Gazi University, Industrial Arts Education and Arts Faculty, Industrial Technology Education Department, in the 2008-2009 academic year have been identified as the study universe. Analysis has been done by taking examples for this universe. The ...

  3. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (proot resorption (proot resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  4. Internal and External Factors That Support Children's Minority First Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Tipton, Timothy

    2018-05-22

    Sequential bilingual children in the United States often speak 2 languages that have different social statuses (minority-majority) and separate contexts for learning (home-school). Thus, distinct factors may support the development of each language. This study examined which child internal and external factors were related to vocabulary skills in a minority language versus English. Participants included 69 children, aged 5-8 years, who lived in Southern California, spoke Vietnamese as the home language, and received school instruction in English. All participants had at least 1 foreign-born parent, and most mothers reported limited English proficiency. Parents completed a telephone survey, and children completed measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary in each language. Using correlations and stepwise regression, we examined predictors of vocabulary skills in each language that were internal to the child (age, gender, analytical reasoning, phonological memory) or that pertained to the surrounding environment (cumulative exposure, quantity and quality of input/output). Vietnamese vocabulary outcomes were related to multiple external factors, of which input and enrichment activities were the best predictors. In contrast, English vocabulary outcomes were related to internal factors, of which age and phonological memory were the best predictors. Parental use of Vietnamese contributed to children's Vietnamese vocabulary outcomes but was not related to children's English vocabulary outcomes. Vietnamese exposure does not hinder English development. Children from immigrant families are learning English with or without familial support. Rich and frequent exposure and opportunities for practice are essential for the continued development of a minority first language.

  5. Formal Classroom Observations: Factors That Affect Their Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zeba

    2017-01-01

    Formal class room observation is a very delicate topic in any educational institution. It involves a series of emotions and sentiments that come with the package. In this paper, the researcher will attempt to analyze the factors that affect the process in a relatively significant manner and thereby contribute greatly to the success or failure of…

  6. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  7. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  8. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  9. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  10. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  11. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  12. Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja Hospital ... twenty children and all (ten) health workers at Jinja Hospital paediatric HIV clinic. ... and child attending psychosocial support group (OR 7.4 CI 3.6-15.3 p < 0.001).

  13. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  14. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  15. Identifying factors affecting about outsourcing in paraclinical services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Outsourcing refers to the transfer of services or functions to an outsider supplier, which controls them through a contract or cooperative. The main problem of senior managers in health organizations is determining the services which should be outsourced. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect ...

  16. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  17. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified factors affecting loan utilization and repayment patterns by small holder farmers of the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Osogbo branch in Osun State. Two Local Government Areas with large number of loan beneficiaries from 2003 to 2008 in NACRDB were ...

  18. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  19. Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking: the ... which information technologies are accepted are of the research studies. ... Customers' understanding of the ease of use of e-banking systems has a significant impact on perceived usefulness and their attitude had. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burns continue to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study we aimed to determine the factors affecting mortality and epidemiological data by examining the records of burned patients. Method. The hospital records of 980 patients who were hospitalised in the ...

  1. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  2. Factors Affecting Quality of Audit; Empirical Evidence from Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...

  3. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties in Borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study investigated the factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties in the ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... decision of the farmers, however, inappropriate chain of supply/distributing the input or ...

  4. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  5. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  6. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  7. Factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigation schemes of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... those factors affecting farmers' participation in irrigated agriculture at the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) in Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty (160) respondents were selected from communities around LNRBDA site at Oke Oyi for this study through a two-stage sampling procedures.

  8. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ofstudents in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in ChristianReligious Knowledge. A total of three hundred students in SS III from five secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sample for the study. Five hypotheses were tested, ...

  9. Teachers' Perception of the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    perception of salary as a factor affecting job satisfaction. Also, there .... Thus workers now have higher purchasing power, are given opportunity to use their .... Z-Cal. Z-Crit Significant. Level decision. Female. 70 12.73 3.23. Teachers. 0.32. 1.96.

  10. Factors affecting sports participation among female students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...

  11. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  12. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  13. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...

  14. Factors affecting guidance and counseling programme in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish the factors that affect guidance and counseling in primary schools. Guidance and counseling seems not to be adequately helping pupils with physical and psychological problems in Nairobi province of Kenya. Many primary schools are faced with indiscipline and poor performance ...

  15. Factors affecting mortality of critical care trauma patients | Hefny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (72.3 %). The overall mortality was 13.9%. A direct logistic regression model has shown that factors that affected mortality were decreased GCS (p < 0.0001), mechanism of injury (p = 0.004) with burns having the highest mortality, increased age (p = 0.004), ...

  16. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  17. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  18. Factors affecting the utilisation of electronic medical records system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal 29 (3): September 2017. Electronic medical ... care, as they enable storage of large amounts of data and ... EMRs. This study assessed factors that affect the use of EMRs in Malawi, particularly at Queen Elizabeth and Kamuzu Central ..... paperless hospitals in Norway : A socio-technical perspective.

  19. Factors Affecting Conservation Practice Behavior of CRP Participants in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Shannon Hendrix

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the factors that affect conservation practice choices of CRP farmers in Alabama. From over 9,000 contracts enrolled in the state between 1986 and 1995, 594 were randomly selected for the study. A multiple-regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that education, ratio ofcropland in CRP, farm size, gender, prior crop...

  20. Factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Ehlanzeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Mpumalanga Province in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality (BLM) of Ehlanzeni District. The study was conducted between July and September 2014. A random sampling technique was used in selecting 31 key informants from the projects.

  1. Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  2. Factors affecting quality of life in cancer patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. ... Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL in cancer patients with solid tumors and at the different chemotherapy cycles (CT). ... Results: A significant relationship between the cancer type, pain intensity, and fatigue was found.

  3. Factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND:This study aimed to determine the factors affecting compliance to treatment among children with epilepsy in Enugu,Nigeria. METHODS: Children with diagnosis of epilepsy were consecutively recruited.Their 6 months retrospective and 1 month prospective data were collected;and analyzed using SPSS ...

  4. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  5. Factors Affecting Time, Cost and Quality Management in Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is an assessment of time, cost and quality management in the Nigerian construction industry, and it aims to explore time cost and quality management in the construction industry. The objective of the study is to identify factors affecting time; cost and quality management in building construction projects. This study ...

  6. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  7. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  8. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  9. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  10. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  11. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  12. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Naseer, M.Z.; Baig, I.A.; Asma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  13. An examination of human factors in external beam radiation therapy: Findings and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.E. Jr.; Morisseau, D.S.; Persensky, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the contributing factors to human error in external beam radiation therapy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken a series of human factors evaluations. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted visits to 24 radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of human-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. Representative findings and implications for improvement are discussed within the context of a dynamic model which holds that misadministration likely results from the unanticipated interaction of several necessary but singly insufficient conditions

  14. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  15. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  16. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 104 to 109 provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°.

  17. The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Banking to the SMEs Financing for BPRS in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkholis Yasmin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises had a strategic role in economic growth. One of the main problems faced by SMEs in Indonesia was the limited financial capital and access to finance. Islamic Rural Banks (BPRS could play a significant role in providing financing for the development of the real sector through SMEs. This study aimed to analyze the influence of internal and external factors of banking to the SMEs financing for BPRS in Indonesia 2011-2016 periods using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM method. In the long-term of VECM estimation result showed that third party funds, FDR, inflation,and IPI had a significant positive effect on SMEs financing, while BOPO, NPF, ERP, and BSBIS variables negatively affected SMEs financing. This study recommended the importance of increasing the proportion of SMEs financing in line with the increase in the number of third party funds and putting more funds in the real sector than in the monetary sector.

  18. External Stakeholders' Roles and Factors Influencing Their Participation in Developing Generic Skills for Students in Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Tran Le Huu

    2018-01-01

    External stakeholders have increasingly participated in instructional and training activities in higher education; however, their contribution has not yet been adequately documented, especially in non-Western university contexts. This article reports a study that examined external stakeholders' roles and factors influencing their participation in…

  19. Exploring paraprofessional and classroom factors affecting teacher supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard

    2018-02-01

    Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influential Factors Affecting Materials Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Zairra Mat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are more often than not plagued by poor performances such as delays, cost overrun, low productivity, construction wastes and compromised quality. Amongst the critical contributory factors of poor project performances, is the ineffectiveness of materials management occurring in the construction sites. Indeed, materials management is a very important component for construction projects. However, there are only limited numbers of research available regarding this topic. Thus, this research focuses its study on materials management, specifically in identifying the influential factors that affect materials management in the construction project activities. Literatures from books, journal articles and conference papers related to poor project performances and materials management have been reviewed. Consequently, this study sorted the salient influential factors and categorized them based on their specific group. Out of 47 factors identified, they are classified into 8 groups. They are (1 site condition; (2 planning and handling on site; (3 management; (4 materials; (5 supplier and manufacturer default; (6 transportation; (7 contractual; and (8 governmental interferences. In conclusion, this study contends that by identifying the influential factors affecting materials management, it will help construction players to avoid the occurrence of those factors and will minimize the negative impacts on the overall performance of construction projects. Hence, the handling-over of project will be according to schedule and not delayed by materials mismanagement.

  1. A review of affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-12-01

    Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women's' sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational.

  2. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  3. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  4. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Holland

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  5. Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Tanni; Yeatts, Dale E; Cready, Cynthia M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Metabolic factors affecting enhanced phosphorus uptake by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, W H; Gottfried, R J; Sinclair, N A; Yall, I

    1971-10-01

    Activated sludges obtained from the Rilling Road plant located at San Antonio, Tex., and from the Hyperion treatment plant located at Los Angeles, Calif., have the ability to remove all of the orthophosphate normally present in Tucson sewage within 3 hr after being added to the waste water. Phosphorus removal was independent of externally supplied sources of energy and ions, since orthophosphate and (32)P radioactivity were readily removed from tap water, glass-distilled water, and deionized water. Phosphorus uptake by Rilling sludge in the laboratory appears to be wholly biological, as it has an optimum pH range (7.7 to 9.7) and an optimum temperature range (24 to 37 C). It was inhibited by HgCl(2), iodoacetic acid, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, NaN(3), and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (compounds that affect bacterial membrane permeability, sulfhydryl enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate synthesis). Uptake was inhibited by 1% NaCl but was not affected by 10(-3)m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (a chelating agent for many metallic ions).

  7. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-02-01

    Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers' satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered.

  8. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  9. Analysis of the influence of external irradiation component on the patients with thyroid cancer affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepla, O.V.; Kovalenko, O.M.

    2006-01-01

    The definition possible relationship between the latent period and doses of external irradiation component on the thyroid gland in patients was estimated. Dose reconstruction from external irradiation component on the thyroid gland was applied in 99 patients with thyroid cancer affected by the Chernobyl accident. External irradiation component does not always correspond to the range of the doses that increase risk of thyroid cancer. No linear relation between the latent period duration and the dose of the external irradiation component on thyroid was revealed

  10. Calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are presented for the calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radioactive decay. A dose-rate conversion factor is defined as the dose-equivalent rate per unit radionuclide concentration. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each radiation type and exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors are derived for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. In addition, photon dose-rate conversion factors are estimated for 22 body organs. The calculations are based on the assumption that the exposure medium is infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration is uniform. The dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air and water then follow from the requirement that all of the energy emitted in the radioactive decay is absorbed in the infinite medium. Dose-rate conversion factors for ground-surface exposure are calculated at a reference location above a smooth, infinite plane using the point-kernel integration method and known specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in air

  11. Factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Iman; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Sedghi, Shahram; Azad, Mohsen; Roudbari, Masoud

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to acquire knowledge about the factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings in Iranian Hospitals. A qualitative and quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 medical residents and interns in 2013 to identify determinant factors for smartphone adoption. Afterwards, nine relationships were hypothesised. We developed a questionnaire to test these hypotheses and to evaluate the importance of each factor. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the causal relations between model parameters and to accurately identify determinant factors. Eight factors were identified in the qualitative phase of the study, including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, training, internal environment, personal experience, social impacts, observability and job related characteristics. Among the studied factors, perceived usefulness, personal experience and job related characteristics were significantly associated with attitude to use a smartphone which accounted for 64% of the variance in attitude. Perceived usefulness had the strongest impact on attitude to use a smartphone. The factors that emerged from interviews were consistent with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and some previous studies. TAM is a reliable model for understanding the factors of smartphone acceptance in medical settings. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  12. Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

  13. Factors Affecting Surgical Decision-making—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gunaratnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Guidelines and Class 1 evidence are strong factors that help guide surgeons’ decision-making, but dilemmas exist in selecting the best surgical option, usually without the benefit of guidelines or Class 1 evidence. A few studies have discussed the variability of surgical treatment options that are currently available, but no study has examined surgeons’ views on the influential factors that encourage them to choose one surgical treatment over another. This study examines the influential factors and the thought process that encourage surgeons to make these decisions in such circumstances. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 senior consultant surgeons, surgical fellows, and senior surgical residents at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals. An e-mail was sent out for volunteers, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Results Broadly speaking there are five groups of factors affecting surgeons’ decision-making: medical condition, information, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors. When information factors such as guidelines and Class 1 evidence are lacking, the other four groups of factors—medical condition, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors (the last-mentioned likely being the most powerful—play a significant role in guiding surgical decision-making. Conclusions This study is the first qualitative study on surgeons’ perspectives on the influential factors that help them choose one surgical treatment option over another for their patients.

  14. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients....... A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related...

  15. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Gemina; Titiek Tjahya Andari; Indra Cahya Kusuma

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1) formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2) formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3) formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on...

  16. Are we aware of the external factors that influence our food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Herman, C Peter; Wansink, Brian

    2008-09-01

    This research examines the extent to which people accurately report some of the external influences on their food intake. In two studies, specific factors (the presence and behavior of others) were manipulated in order to influence the amount of food that individuals consumed. The main outcomes of interest were participants' spontaneously generated explanations for their food intake (Study 1; n = 122), and their ratings of the importance of several potential determinants of food intake (Study 2; n = 75). In Study 1, there was high concordance between the amounts eaten by members of a dyad, but very few participants indicated that they were influenced by their partner's behavior; they instead identified hunger and taste as the primary determinants of intake. Study 2 showed that participants' intake was strongly influenced by the behavior of others, but people rated taste and hunger as much more important influences on their intake. If external environmental factors influence people's food intake without their awareness or acknowledgment, then maintaining a healthy diet can be a challenge, with long-term consequences for health and well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Settlement behavior of municipal solid waste due to internal and external environmental factors in a lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Márcio C; Caribé, Rômulo M; Ribeiro, Libânia S; Sousa, Raul B A; Monteiro, Veruschka E D; de Paiva, William

    2016-12-05

    Long-term settlement magnitude is influenced by changes in external and internal factors that control the microbiological activity in the landfill waste body. To improve the understanding of settlement phenomena, it is instructive to study lysimeters filled with MSW. This paper aims to understand the settlement behavior of MSW by correlating internal and external factors that influence waste biodegradation in a lysimeter. Thus, a lysimeter was built, instrumented and filled with MSW from the city of Campina Grande, the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Physicochemical analysis of the waste (from three levels of depth of the lysimeter) was carried out along with MSW settlement measurements. Statistical tools such as descriptive analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were also performed. The settlement/compression, coefficient of variation and PCA results indicated the most intense rate of biodegradation in the top layer. The PCA results of intermediate and bottom levels presented fewer physicochemical and meteorological variables correlated with compression data in contrast with the top layer. It is possible to conclude that environmental conditions may influence internal indicators of MSW biodegradation, such as the settlement.

  18. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  19. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  20. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  1. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  2. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  3. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pacik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period.

  4. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Yousef; Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  5. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugan, M.A.

    1990-03-01

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  6. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ANASTOMOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjani; Amit; Vikram Singh; Rajesh; Jalaj

    2014-01-01

    : Aim of this prospective study to identify the factor which affects the morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal anastomosis. This prospective study was conducted in G.R. Medical College from November 2012 to October 2013. Our study plan was approved by Ethical Committee of our institute 80 patients were included in this study who underwent gastrointestinal anastomosis whether elective or emergency irrespective of age and gender. A detailed history and relevant preoper...

  7. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  8. Factors affecting customer satisfaction of online travel agencies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Sabyasachi; Kumar Chauhan, Ram; Chauhan, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting customer satisfaction for online travel agencies in India. It will help guide existing online travel agencies and future entrants to have an in-depth understanding of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in their domain. It will also help to improve their business operations and investment focus, which in turn will lead to greater customer satisfaction and loyalty. Design – This paper defines the concept of cust...

  9. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  10. Factors affecting polyamide prototypes design of Albedo dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.M.; Mauricio, C.L.P.; Fonseca, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    This work studies the most important factors which affect the response of albedo neutron dosemeters containing LiF TLDs with the aim to improve their sensitivity. It includes tests of thickness and shape of the polyamide moderator body prototypes, albedo window diameter and TLD position inside the moderator. Analyzing the results, an albedo neutron dosemeter prototype, B 4 C covered, was developed. The prototype has a response three times higher than the albedo dosemeter now in use in Brazil. (author)

  11. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN; Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP; Seung-Joo Lim, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using...

  12. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  13. Parallel factor analysis PARAFAC of process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewanchuk, A.M.; Ulrich, A.C.; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Alostaz, M. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of oil sands process-affected water was presented. Naphthenic acids (NA) are traditionally described as monobasic carboxylic acids. Research has indicated that oil sands NA do not fit classical definitions of NA. Oil sands organic acids have toxic and corrosive properties. When analyzed by fluorescence technology, oil sands process-affected water displays a characteristic peak at 290 nm excitation and approximately 346 nm emission. In this study, a parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to decompose process-affected water multi-way data into components representing analytes, chemical compounds, and groups of compounds. Water samples from various oil sands operations were analyzed in order to obtain EEMs. The EEMs were then arranged into a large matrix in decreasing process-affected water content for PARAFAC. Data were divided into 5 components. A comparison with commercially prepared NA samples suggested that oil sands NA is fundamentally different. Further research is needed to determine what each of the 5 components represent. tabs., figs.

  14. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  15. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  16. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  17. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  18. Factors affecting midwives' confidence in intrapartum care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Carol; McGowan, Linda; Lavender, Tina

    2015-01-01

    midwives are frequently the lead providers of care for women throughout labour and birth. In order to perform their role effectively and provide women with the choices they require midwives need to be confident in their practice. This study explores factors which may affect midwives' confidence in their practice. hermeneutic phenomenology formed the theoretical basis for the study. Prospective longitudinal data collection was completed using diaries and semi-structured interviews. Twelve midwives providing intrapartum care in a variety of settings were recruited to ensure a variety of experiences in different contexts were captured. the principal factor affecting workplace confidence, both positively and negatively, was the influence of colleagues. Perceived autonomy and a sense of familiarity could also enhance confidence. However, conflict in the workplace was a critical factor in reducing midwives' confidence. Confidence was an important, but fragile, phenomenon to midwives and they used a variety of coping strategies, emotional intelligence and presentation management to maintain it. this is the first study to highlight both the factors influencing midwives' workplace confidence and the strategies midwives employed to maintain their confidence. Confidence is important in maintaining well-being and workplace culture may play a role in explaining the current low morale within the midwifery workforce. This may have implications for women's choices and care. Support, effective leadership and education may help midwives develop and sustain a positive sense of confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  20. Factors affecting aggression in South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p decision-making competency (r = -.25, p emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A Pattern to Evaluation of Motivational Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Hajian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the motivational factors affecting the willingness of employees to share knowledge and examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and influences on attitudes toward knowledge sharing and explicit and implicit knowledge sharing intention. Planned behavior pattern is used as a theoretical framework. This research was conducted in two phases. First, factors were identified according to the literature review and exploratory interviews. Then the impact of each factor was evaluated in terms of structural equation modeling. This is an empirical research and the research method is descriptive survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study was on the staff working in administrative units of Tehran Municipality and the number of staff at the time of study was 2230. Cluster sampling method and sample size based on population and using Cochran formula of 328 people determined that 35 persons were not held accountable. To determine the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to 0.824 which was found at a high level. Data was analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed pattern was confirmed. The results showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on the attitude of employees and the attitude influence on tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intention. Also, extrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention. Extrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention by the attitude and tacit knowledge sharing intention influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention.

  2. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  3. Computation of External Quality Factors for RF Structures by Means of Model Order Reduction and a Perturbation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.

  4. The outcomes and risk factors of fetal bradycardia associated with external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Fumio; Ogawa, Kohei; Tazaki, Yukiko; Miwa, Terumi; Taniguchi, Kosuke; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Satomi; Tanigaki, Shinji; Sago, Haruhiko

    2017-11-02

    The objective of this study is to assess the outcomes and risk factors of fetal bradycardia after external cephalic version (ECV). We performed a retrospective study of women who underwent ECV after 35 weeks of gestation in 2010-2016. We assessed the birth outcomes, including umbilical cord artery pH, according to the duration of fetal bradycardia and the risk factors for bradycardia. Among 390 cases, 189 (48.5%) cases showed fetal bradycardia during or immediately after ECV. The duration of fetal bradycardia was 10 min occurred in three cases; emergency cesarean section was performed in each case, with delivery after 12-4 min of bradycardia. Two of three cases showed low Apgar scores at 5 min, with an umbilical cord arterial pH of 10 min after ECV was a risk factor for asphyxia. Thus, delivery should be completed within 10 min after bradycardia. A low maternal BMI and a prolonged ECV procedure were risk factors for bradycardia after ECV.

  5. Stress intensity factors for complete internal and external cracks in spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.J.; Chen, H.

    1989-01-01

    Cracks or flows found in the nuclear structure must be fully evaluated to assure the safety of the plant. The weight function method has been widely used in the determination of stress intensity factors for cracks under stress gradient e.g. for thermal shock loading. The unique features of the weight function method is that once the weight function for a particular cracked geometry is determined the stress intensity factors at the crack tip for any loading applied to the flawed structure can be calculated by a simple integration. In this paper the stress intensity factors of the complete, part-through internal and external cracks in a spherical shell are determined. The finite element method was used to develop the weight functions for the flawed geometry. The approximate crack surface profile was used to derive the weight functions. The stress intensity factors associated with the cracks in spherical shells under internal pressure are determined by both the weight functions and the direct finite element method

  6. Factors associated with the success of external cephalic version (ECV) of breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, N; Lataifeh, I; Al-Khateeb, M; Zayed, F; Khriesat, W; Amarin, Z

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the predictors of success of ECV for breech presentation at term. A retrospective study was conducted over a 3-year period from 2005-2007, where 101 patients who had singleton breech presentation at term were undergoing external cephalic version (ECV) after 37 weeks of gestation at two major teaching hospitals in the North of Jordan. Comparative analysis was made between the successful ECV and unsuccessful ECV groups. The collected data were analysed by using statistical analysis Sudent's t-test and Mann-Whitney test as appropriate and on discrete results chi square or Fisher's exact test when appropriate. The differences were considered significant at a p value of breeches (74% vs 26%, p = 0.002), posterior placenta (38.6% vs 16.4%, p = 0.0001) and anterior fetal back (53.4% vs 34.8%, p = 0.03). Once turned the babies remained cephalic until delivery. All the 28 cases who had failed ECV had caesarean section. Among those who had a successful external cephalic version, the incidence of intrapartum caesarean section was only 8.2% which was lower than that of the average of both units caesarean rate (28%). There were no complications related to the ECV procedure in the study. Multiparity, flexed breech, posterior placenta, and anterior foetal back were the most favourable factors for successful ECV in our study. Moreover, with careful evaluation of individual predictors patient selection and success rates can be optimised.

  7. Relative contributions of external forcing factors to circulation and hydrographic properties in a micro-tidal bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokjin; Kasai, Akihide

    2017-11-01

    The dominant external forcing factors influencing estuarine circulation differ among coastal environments. A three-dimensional regional circulation model was developed to estimate external influence indices and relative contributions of external forcing factors such as external oceanic forcing, surface heat flux, wind stress, and river discharge to circulation and hydrographic properties in Tango Bay, Japan. Model results show that in Tango Bay, where the Tsushima Warm Current passes offshore of the bay, under conditions of strong seasonal winds and river discharge, the water temperature and salinity are strongly influenced by surface heat flux and river discharge in the surface layer, respectively, while in the middle and bottom layers both are mainly controlled by open boundary conditions. The estuarine circulation is comparably influenced by all external forcing factors, the strong current, surface heat flux, wind stress, and river discharge. However, the influence degree of each forcing factor varies with temporal variations in external forcing factors as: the influence of open boundary conditions is higher in spring and early summer when the stronger current passes offshore of the bay, that of surface heat flux reflects the absolute value of surface heat flux, that of wind stress is higher in late fall and winter due to strong seasonal winds, and that of river discharge is higher in early spring due to snow-melting and summer and early fall due to flood events.

  8. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  9. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  10. External tagging does not affect the feeding behavior of a coral reef fish, Chaetodon vagabundus (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2009-11-10

    Increasingly, the ability to recognize individual fishes is important for studies of population dynamics, ecology, and behavior. Although a variety of methods exist, external tags remain one of the most widely applied because they are both effective and cost efficient. However, a key assumption is that neither the tagging procedure nor the presence of a tag negatively affects the individual. While this has been demonstrated for relatively coarse metrics such as growth and survival, few studies have examined the impact of tags and tagging on more subtle aspects of behavior. We tagged adult vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus) occupying a 30-ha insular reef in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, using a commonly-utilized t-bar anchor tag. We quantified and compared feeding behavior (bite rate), which is sensitive to stress, of tagged and untagged individuals over four separate sampling periods spanning 4 months post-tagging. Bite rates did not differ between tagged and untagged individuals at each sampling period and, combined with additional anecdotal observations of normal pairing behavior and successful reproduction, suggest that tagging did not adversely affect individuals. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  11. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  12. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Akiyoshi; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Utsumi, Hiromoto; Ota, Masaji; Nakanishi, Takashi

    1979-01-01

    In the study of possible reduction in irradiation dose to patients during medical treatments, the following two methods can be considered: (1) To obtain absorbed doses for each part of a body in diagnostic X-ray examinations. (2) To obtain data on factors such as the tube voltage which may affect patient dose. There are a number of reports both at home and abroad concerning the above (1), but very few reports are available concerning the above (2). Moreover, most of them are on fragmentary aspects of each factor and no systematic reports have been made. For this reason, we have taken up, as factors affecting the patient dose, the field size, the tube voltage, and by checking them again, we wanted to obtain some systematic data. Our aim has been fully attained by conducting an experiment. In the ICRP's Publ. 26 issued last year, the idea of the critical organ which had not been fully elucidated in the Publ. 9 was abandoned. As a result, assessment of the irradiation doses has become more rational and the total risk for an individual was obtained. In Japan, the idea proposed in the Publ. 9 is adopted. Therefore, in this paper, we will raise some questions regarding the assessment of the irradiation doses, pointing out at the same time the rationality of the idea put forward in Publ. 26. (author)

  13. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  14. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral by physician specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L; Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is widely underutilized because of multiple factors including physician referral practices. Previous research has shown CR referral varies by type of provider, with cardiologists more likely to refer than primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral in primary care physicians versus cardiac specialists. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 510 primary care physicians and cardiac specialists (cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons) in Ontario identified through the Canadian Medical Directory Online was administered. One hundred four primary care physicians and 81 cardiac specialists responded to the 26-item investigator-generated survey examining medical, demographic, attitudinal, and health system factors affecting CR referral. Primary care physicians were more likely to endorse lack of familiarity with CR site locations (P negatively impacting CR referral practices than cardiac specialists. Cardiac specialists were significantly more likely to perceive that their colleagues and department would regularly refer patients to CR than primary care physicians (P Marketing CR site locations, provision of standardized referral forms, and ensuring discharge summaries are communicated to primary care physicians may improve their willingness to refer to CR.

  16. Academic failure and students' viewpoint: The influence of individual, internal and external organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Arash; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Amini, Mehdi Mohammad; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood

    2013-01-01

    Educational failure is one of the most important problems in higher education institutes in Iran. This study was performed to investigate the factors affecting students' academic failure in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 280 students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied in 2009. They were chosen using multiple cluster sampling. The students' demographic characteristics and study information were collected by a valid and reliable questionnaire. Data were analyzed with SPSS (15) software. The most important factors affecting educational failure from students' point of view were: curriculum (4.23 ± 0.63), factors related to educator (3.88 ± 0.55), learning environment (3.63 ± 0.62), family factors (3.53 ± 0.6), socioeconomic factors (3.45 ± 0.69). There is a significant relationship between attitudes of students in two sexes and educator (P = 0.03) and socioeconomic environment (P = 0.003). In addition, the results did not show a significant difference between attitudes of students with age, marital status and employment status (P > 0.05). More attention to curriculum, factors related to educator and learning environment can prevent students' educational failure, in addition to preventing loss of resources and contribute to develop a more effective educational system.

  17. Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Use of Urban Green Spaces and External Factors Contributing to Their Use in Central Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces encourage outdoor activity and social communication that contribute to the health of local residents. Examining the relationship between the use of urban green spaces and factors influencing their utilization can provide essential references for green space site selection in urban planning. In contrast to previous studies that focused on internal factors, this study highlights the external factors (traffic convenience, population density and commercial facilities contributing to the use of urban green spaces. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the distribution of visitors in 208 selected green spaces in central Beijing. We examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of visitor distribution within urban green spaces and external factors, using the Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation, and geographical detectors. The results of the study were as follows. The spatial distribution of visitors within central Beijing’s green spaces was concentrated, forming different agglomerations. The three examined external factors are all associated with the use of green spaces. Among them, commercial facilities are the important external factor associated with the use of green spaces. For the selection of sites for urban green spaces, we recommend consideration of external factors in order to balance urban green space utilization.

  18. A holistic approach to factors affecting depression in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogianni, Georgia; Kouzoupis, Anastasios; Grapsa, Eirini

    2018-05-19

    Depression in dialysis populations is affected by co-morbid diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and immune dysfunction, and it also includes high suicide risk and frequent hospitalizations. Depressive disorders have a close association with malnutrition and chronic inflammation, as well as with cognitive impairment. Impaired cognitive function may be manifested as low adherence to dialysis treatment, leading to malnutrition. Additionally, chronic pain and low quality of sleep lead to high rates of depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients, while an untreated depression can cause sleep disturbances and increased mortality risk. Depression can also lead to sexual dysfunction and non-adherence, while unemployment can cause depressive disorders, due to patients' feelings of being a financial burden on their family. The present review provides a holistic approach to the factors affecting depression in haemodialysis, offering significant knowledge to renal professionals.

  19. Divestments in Banking. Preliminary Evidence on the Role of External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jackowicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Divestment constitutes an important method of corporate restructuring. Despite this fact, the banking literature on divestment is very limited. In this text, we try to remediate partially to the shortcomings of the existing literature by examining empirically the role of external factors. Using a large sample of 313 transactions, we have established that parent companies originate from countries with relatively high accumulated wealth, slow GDP growth, stable macroeconomic situation and dominant bank intermediation in financial system. The acquirers in turn come from poorer countries with faster economic growth and relatively more market-oriented financial systems. Those results broadly conform with the predictions of three hypotheses formulated in the text, namely the weak performance hypothesis, the corporate governance hypothesis and the rebalancing hypothesis.

  20. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  1. Factors affecting management accounting and control systems. A critical review of empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dyczkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of management accounting & control systems and factors which may affect the design of such systems has become crucial due to emerging changes both in the external and internal business environment. Therefore it is necessary to conduct comprehensive, long-term basic research in order to prove previously formulated hypotheses in new conditions and fulfil the research gap. Based on critical review of empirical studies published in prestigious scientific journals this paper aims at validating the assumed hypotheses and at generalising research findings on impacts of various determinants on man-agement accounting & control systems. The predominant contingent factors include: type of strategy implemented, national culture, perceived environment uncertainty and integrated information system.

  2. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  3. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  4. The concept of and factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dąbrowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility of seaports is a frequently studied area in economic research. In practice, port operators and authorities use it to promote their services and compete in the market. Up to this day, theoretical basis of seaports transport accessibility has not been properly described. The article attempts to systematize and expend the knowledge in this field. New definitions of transport availability from wider and narrower perspectives were suggested; different types of accessibility and their mutual relations were explained. These ideas were complemented by introducing classification of factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports.

  5. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  6. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  7. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  8. Job satisfaction and factors affecting motivation at Posti Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...

  9. Factors Affecting Tourist Expenditure Coming To Mugla Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehime Korkmaz Bingöl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing tourist expenditure is a means to increase tourism income, which is extremely important for local economies. The purpose of this study is to understand the expending pattern of tourists coming to Mugla Region and provide empirical background for the policies to increase per tourist expenditure. The survey conducted at Dalaman International Airport and the data has been analyzed using OLS method. Nationality, age, accommodation type, pension type, credit card usage, availability of shopping facilities, standard of night life and entertainment, quality of food and beverage, length of holiday and group size has been found as significant factors affecting tourist expenditure

  10. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  11. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTOR INFLUENCE ICT ADOPTION: A CASE of INDONESIAN SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Chairoel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The using of Information Communication Technology (ICT in the industry is growing fast. Ne­ver­theless, Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Indonesia do not follow these conditions. The in­fluen­cing factor of ICT adoption has been identified as internal and external factors. Accordingly, the objective of the study is to identify the influence factor of using ICT adoption in Indonesian SMEs. The conceptual model in this study was the combination between Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory and The Technology-Or­ganization-Environment (TEO theory. The survey method for 146 SMEs selected conve­nient­ly in Indonesia. The distribution of data by online and data obtained is analysed using SEM/Smart-PLS program. The study has exogenous variable including technology, organization, mana­ge­rial charac­te­ris­tic, and envi­ron­ment. The endogen variable is ICT adoption. The research found that ICT used was pre­dic­ted by charac­teristic of management, organizational and technology.

  12. Predisposing factors to severe external root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço, Gracemia Vasconcelos; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabricio Pinelli; Picanço, Paulo Roberto Barroso; Feijão, Camila Pontes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4), on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. Ninety-nine patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (Malmgren's grades 0 and 1) at the end of the treatment, with mean initial age of 16.79 years and mean treatment time of 3.21 years; G2 - 49 patients presenting moderate or severe root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4) at the end of treatment on the maxillary incisors, with mean initial age of 19.92 years and mean treatment time of 3.98 years. Periapical radiographs and lateral cephalograms were evaluated. Factors that could influence the occurrence of severe root resorption were also recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and independent t tests. The results demonstrated significant difference between the groups for the variables: Extractions, initial degree of root resorption, root length and crown/root ratio at the beginning, and cortical thickness of the alveolar bone. It can be concluded that: Presence of root resorption before the beginning of treatment, extractions, reduced root length, decreased crown/root ratio and thin alveolar bone represent risk factors for severe root resorption in maxillary incisors during orthodontic treatment.

  13. Factors affecting intra-oral pH - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, C; Lee, J; Sander, S; Mei, L; Farella, M

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern dentistry is the progressive destruction of tooth material due to chemical erosion. Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissue, without the action of bacteria, in which demineralisation of enamel and dentine results due to a decrease in intra-oral pH. The aim of this review was to appraise the scientific literature on the factors that can affect intra-oral pH. The review will examine (i) the protective role of human saliva, in terms of its mineral composition, flow rates and buffering systems and (ii) sources of in-mouth acids such as extrinsic acids, which are derived from the diet and environment, as well as intrinsic acids, which are related to disorders of the gastro-oesophageal tract. This review may assist clinicians to identify the risk factors for tooth wear and to recommend adequate preventive measures to patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  15. Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

    In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

  16. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

  17. Factors affecting the employability in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-12-01

    People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family

  18. COLLABORATION PRACTICE BETWEEN NURSES AND PHYSICIAN AND THE AFFECTING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Collaboration is basically discuss about togetherness, cooperation, sharing tasks, equality, responsibility, and accountability. Purpose of this research was to learn the collaboration practice beetwen nurses and physician and the factors affecting. Method: Design of this research was correlational and comparational study, and population were the physician who work in Ngudi Waluyo Blitar hospitals, intensive cooperation with the nurse in the room, not holding structural positions and not studying, there are 19 peoples taken by total population and nurses who work in Ngudi Waluyo hospitals, not holding structural positions (Head of Division or Head of Section, having relationship with the physician and the samples were 31 peoples taken by probability proportional to size (PPS. Methods of data collection by giving questionnaire about the characteristics of respondents (nurses and physician and practice of collaboration scale. Data characteristics and attitudes of nurses and physicians about the practice of collaboration is analyzed with descriptive statistics, to know the differences between nurses and physicians attitude using mann whitney u test. To know affecting characteristic with nurses and physician attitude by multivariate analysis. Result: Results of mann whitney test p value is 0.611, which means that there is no difference between nurses and physician attitude in practice collaboration, and result of multivariate analysis the influence of nurse characteristics (age, education, functional potition, length of working with attitude are 0.460 or 46%, while 54% influenced by other factors, and the influence of physician characteristics (age, education, length of working with attitude are 0.435 or 43.5%, while 56.5% influenced by other factors. Discussion: Further need to study other factors that influence and research by observation the impact of collaboration between the nurse with physician on the service quality.

  19. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  20. Factors Affecting Husband Participation in Antenatal Care Attendance and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.

  1. How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

    2013-12-01

    Intertidal coastal environments are prone to changes induced by sea level rise, increases in storminess, and anthropogenic disturbances. It is unclear how changes in external drivers may affect the dynamics of low energy coastal environments because their response is non-linear, and characterized by many thresholds and discontinuities. As such, process-based modeling of the ecogeomorphic processes underlying the dynamics of these ecosystems is useful, not only to predict their change through time, but also to generate new hypotheses and research questions. Here, a three-point dynamic model was developed to investigate how internal and external processes affect the behavior of coupled marsh mudflat systems. The model directly incorporates ecogeomorphological feedbacks between wind waves, salt marsh vegetation, allochthonous sediment loading, tidal flat vegetation and sea level rise. The model was applied to examine potential trajectories of salt marshes on the Eastern seaboard of the United States, including those in the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE), Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR) and Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) long term ecological research (LTER) sites. While these sites are undergoing similar rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR), they have distinct differences in site specific environmental drivers including tides, wind waves, allochthonous sediment supply and the presence or absence of seagrass. These differences lead to the emergence of altered behaviors in the coupled salt marsh-tidal flat system. For marsh systems without seagrass or significant riverine sediment supply, conditions similar to those at PIE, results indicated that horizontal and vertical marsh evolution respond in opposing ways to wave induced processes. Marsh horizontal retreat is triggered by large mudflats and strong winds, whereas small mudflats and weak winds reduce the sediment supply to the salt marsh, decreasing its capability to keep pace with sea level rise. Marsh expansion and

  2. Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen

    2018-03-01

    Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

  3. The main factor affecting the competitiveness of Contractor Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurisra; Malahayati, Nurul; Mahmuddin

    2018-05-01

    Contractor companies must have the competitive advantage to compete in maintaining the survival of the company. Problems arise because quite a lot of advantages can be used and these advantages must be used appropriately to produce competitiveness for the company to continue to compete and to win the competition. This study aims to determine the main factors affecting the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data collection was obtained through questionnaires distributed to 31 middle-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data processing and analysis is done by using descriptive analysis. Based on the result of descriptive analysis, it can be concluded that the most important competitiveness factor with a mean score value 4.52 is the relationship, and the factor that has the highest mean score value is the relationship with the government of 4.97, while the result of the ranking analysis is obtained 25 factor that is critical to the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh.

  4. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  5. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  6. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  7. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  8. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  9. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.

    1990-01-01

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  11. THE ESTIMATION OF HUMAN-OPERATOR CYBERNETIC ABILITIES DURING THE IMPACT OF DESTABILIZING FACTORS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii T. Polishchuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The method of estimation of human-operator cybernetics abilities during of the impacting of destabilizing factors of external environment is suggested. It was proved that up-to-date biomedical approach for periodical health examination of pilots in civil aviation isn’t guarantees theirs cybernetics abilities in cases of influence of destabilizing factors.

  12. Evaluation of factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inai, Takuma; Takabayashi, Tomoya; Edama, Mutsuaki; Kubo, Masayoshi

    2018-03-01

    Decreasing the daily cumulative hip moments in the frontal and sagittal planes may lower the risk of hip osteoarthritis. Therefore, it may be important to evaluate factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait. It is unclear what factors affect hip moment impulse during gait. This systematic review aimed to evaluate different factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait in healthy adults and patients with hip osteoarthritis. Four databases (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and PEDro) were searched up to August 2017 to identify studies that examined hip moment impulse during gait. Data extracted for analysis included the sample size, age, height, body mass, type of intervention, and main findings. After screening, 10 of the 975 studies identified were included in our analysis. Several factors, including a rocker bottom shoe, FitFlop™ sandals, ankle push-off, posture, stride length, body-weight unloading, a rollator, walking poles, and a knee brace, were reviewed. The main findings were as follows: increasing ankle push-off decreased both the hip flexion and extension moment impulses; body-weight unloading decreased both the hip extension and adduction moment impulses; the FitFlop™ sandal increased the sum of the hip flexion and extension moment impulses; long strides increased the hip extension moment impulse; and the use of a knee brace increased hip flexion moment impulse. Of note, none of the eligible studies included patients with hip osteoarthritis. The hip moment impulses can be modified by person-specific factors (ankle push-off and long strides) and external factors (body-weight unloading and use of the FitFlop™ sandals and a knee brace). Effects on the progression of hip osteoarthritis remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Companion of choice at birth: factors affecting implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Portela, Anayda

    2017-08-31

    Two recent recommendations made by the World Health Organization confirm the benefits of companion of choice at birth on labour outcomes; however institutional practices and policies do not always support its implementation in different settings around the world. We conducted a review to determine factors that affect implementation of this intervention considering the perspectives and experiences of different stakeholders and other institutional, systemic barriers and facilitators. Forty one published studies were included in this review. Thirty one publications were identified from a 2013 Cochrane review on the effectiveness of companion of choice at birth. We also reviewed 10 qualitative studies conducted alongside the trials or other interventions on labour and birth companionship identified through electronic searches. The SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework was used to guide the thematic analysis of implementation factors. Women and their families expressed appreciation for the continuous presence of a person to provide support during childbirth. Health care providers were concerned about the role of the companion and possible interference with activities in the labour ward. Allocation of resources, organization of care, facility-related constraints and cultural inclinations were identified as implementation barriers. Prior to introducing companion of choice at birth, understanding providers' attitudes and sensitizing them to the evidence is necessary. The commitment of the management of health care facilities is also required to change policies, including allocation of appropriate physical space that respects women's privacy. Implementation research to develop models for different contexts which could be scaled up would be useful, including documentation of factors that affected implementation and how they were addressed. Future research should also focus on documenting the costs related to implementation, and on measuring the impact of

  14. Subdural hematoma in infants without accidental or nonaccidental injury: benign external hydrocephalus, a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Partha S; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2011-10-01

    Benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) is considered a self-limiting condition in infants. Subdural hematoma (SDH) in infants without a history of trauma indicates nonaccidental injury (NAI). The authors studied whether SDH can complicate BEH without apparent trauma. Out of 45 children younger than 3 years with nontraumatic SDH, 9 (7 boys) with mean age 6 months had BEH as risk factor. Symptoms included increasing head size (8), fussiness, and irritability (3). Three had up-gaze restriction, 1 axial hypotonia, and 6 normal examination. Neuroimaging showed prominent extra-axial spaces; SDH was bilateral (6), subacute (5). Other etiological workup for SDH was negative except NAI in 1. Two required evacuation of SDH and subdural-peritoneal shunt; others managed conservatively. Development was normal in 8 on follow-up. On follow-up imaging of 8, SDH completely resolved in 3, markedly reduced in 3, and remained stable in 2. BEH is a risk factor for SDH in infants, thus not always benign.

  15. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  16. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  17. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  18. [Factors affecting re-smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2005-05-01

    This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking

  19. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  20. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  1. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  2. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  3. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  4. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  5. Risk factors for suicide in offspring bereaved by sudden parental death from external causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Lisa Victoria; Mehlum, Lars; Qin, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Parentally bereaved offspring have an increased suicide risk as a group, but the ability to identify specific individuals at risk on the basis of risk and protective factors is limited. The present study aimed to investigate to what degree different risk factors influence suicide risk in offspring bereaved by parental death from external causes. Based on Norwegian registers, individual-level data were retrieved for 375 parentally bereaved suicide cases and 7500 parentally bereaved gender- and age-matched living controls. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Bereaved offspring with low social support, indicated by offspring's single status and repeated changes in marital status and residence, had a significantly increased suicide risk compared to bereaved offspring with high social support. Moreover, low socioeconomic status, having an immigration background, having lost both parents and loss due to suicide significantly increased suicide risk. Several variables relevant to bereavement outcome, such as coping mechanisms and the quality of the parent-offspring relationship are impossible to examine by utilizing population registers. Moreover, the availability of data did not enable the measurement of marital stability and residence stability across the entire lifespan for older individuals. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the additional risk posed by the identified risk factors and incorporate this knowledge into existing practice and risk assessment in order to identify individuals at risk and effectively target bereaved family and friends for prevention and intervention programs. Ideal follow-up for bereaved families should include a specific focus on mobilizing social support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural Equation Model for Evaluating Factors Affecting Quality of Social Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the constructed social infrastructure project has been considered a necessary measure for the sustainability of projects. Studies on factors affecting project quality have used various techniques and methods to explain the relationships between particular variables. Unexpectedly, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM has acquired very little concern in factors affecting project quality studies. To address this limitation in the body of knowledge, the objective of this study was to apply the SEM approach and build a model that explained and identified the critical factors affecting quality in social infrastructure projects. The authors developed a quantitative approach using smart-PLS version 3.2.7. This study shed light on the views of different experts based on their experience in public construction projects in Pakistan. Particularly, the authors aimed to find out the relationships between construction, stakeholders, materials, design, and external factors, and how these relate to project quality. The findings of this study revealed that the R2 value of the model was scored at 0.749, which meant that the five exogenous latent constructs collectively explained 74.9% of the variance in project quality. The Goodness-of-Fit of the model was 0.458. The construction related factor was the most important out of the five constructs. This study determined that better planning and monitoring and evaluation should be developed to better address and control the quality defects by decision-makers, project managers as well as contractors. These findings might support practitioners and decision makers to focus on quality related problems that might occur in their current or future projects.

  7. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students' sociodemographic and academic factors. Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties - 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498-6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  8. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  9. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective

  10. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  11. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  12. Analysis of factors affecting the effect of stope leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The industrial test and industrial trial production of stope leaching were carried out at Taoshan orefield of Dabu deposit. The results of test and trial production showed obvious differences in leaching rate and leaching time. Compared with industrial trial production of stope leaching, the leaching rate of industrial test was higher, and leaching time was shorter. It was considered that the blasting method and liquid arrangement were the main factors affecting the leaching rate and leaching time according to analysis. So we put forward the following suggestions: the technique of deep hole slicing tight-face blasting was used to reduce the yield of lump ores, the effective liquid arrangement methods were adopted to make the lixiviant infiltrating throughout whole ore heap, and bacterial leaching was introduced. (authors)

  13. Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehqanian, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

  14. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  15. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  16. Factors affecting the electrostatic charge of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorite, I.; Romero, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of electrostatic charge in ceramic powders takes place when the particle surfaces enter in contact between them or with the containers. The accumulation of electrostatic charge is of relevance in ceramic powders in view of their insulating character and the risk of explosions during the material handling. In this work the main factors that affect the appearance of intrinsic charge and tribo-charge in ceramic powder have been studied. In ceramic powders of alumina it has been verified that the smallest particle sizes present an increase of the electrostatic charge of negative polarity. A correlation has been observed between the nature of the OH -surface groups and the electrostatic charge. The intrinsic charge and the tribocharge in ceramic powders can be diminished by compensating the surface groups that support the charge. The dry dispersion of nanoparticles on microparticles allows surface charge compensation with a noticeable modification of the powder agglomeration. (Author) 19 refs.

  17. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  18. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  19. Factors Affecting Daily Cochlear Implant Use in Children: Datalogging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Sanfilippo, Joseph; Papsin, Blake; Gordon, Karen

    Children with profound hearing loss can gain access to sound through cochlear implants (CIs), but these devices must be worn consistently to promote auditory development. Although subjective parent reports have identified several factors limiting long-term CI use in children, it is also important to understand the day-to-day issues which may preclude consistent device use. In the present study, objective measures gathered through datalogging software were used to quantify the following in children: (1) number of hours of CI use per day, (2) practical concerns including repeated disconnections between the external transmission coil and the internal device (termed "coil-offs"), and (3) listening environments experienced during daily use. This study aimed to (1) objectively measure daily CI use and factors influencing consistent device use in children using one or two CIs and (2) evaluate the intensity levels and types of listening environments children are exposed to during daily CI use. Retrospective analysis. Measures of daily CI use were obtained from 146 pediatric users of Cochlear Nucleus 6 speech processors. The sample included 5 unilateral, 40 bimodal, and 101 bilateral CI users (77 simultaneously and 24 sequentially implanted). Daily CI use, duration, and frequency of coil-offs per day, and the time spent in multiple intensity ranges and environment types were extracted from the datalog saved during clinic appointments. Multiple regression analyses were completed to predict daily CI use based on child-related demographic variables, and to evaluate the effects of age on coil-offs and environment acoustics. Children used their CIs for 9.86 ± 3.43 hr on average on a daily basis, with use exceeding 9 hr per day in ∼64% of the children. Daily CI use reduced significantly with increasing durations of coil-off (p = 0.027) and increased significantly with longer CI experience (p Listening environments of all children typically ranged between 50 and 70 d

  20. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  1. Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din, M.R.E.; Ramadan, A.B.; Atta, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10 -8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg 24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60 Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60 Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

  2. Factors Affecting Antenatal Corticosteroid Administration from the Obstetricians’ Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Kurtoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the factors affecting antenatal corticosteroid administration from the obstetricians’ viewpoint. STUDY DESIGN: The pregnant women who delivered between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were divided into two groups: Group 1, pregnant patients given corticosteroid therapy; Group 2, pregnant patients who were not given corticosteroid therapy. The indications for delivery, gestational week at administration, dosing, residence and manner of transfer of the patients to the tertiary center, and the interval between admission to hospital and delivery were evaluated. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who received antenatal corticosteroid treatment was 68.4%, whereas 31.6% of the pregnant women didn’t receive corticosteroid therapy. The most common indications for preterm delivery were preterm labor and severe preeclampsia. The interval between admission to hospital and delivery was significantly higher in group 1. CONCLUSION: Even though obstetricians are aware of the importance of corticosteroid treatment in preterm deliveries, indications for impending delivery can affect administration of the therapy.

  3. Factors affecting the diagnostic delay in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Eleonora; Spataro, Rossella; Taiello, Alfonsa Claudia; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive disorder, early diagnosis allows a prompt start with the specific drug riluzole and an accurate palliative care planning. ALS at onset may however mimic several disorders, some of them treatable (e.g., multifocal motor neuropathy) or epidemiologically more frequent (e.g., cervical myelopathy). To study the delay from onset to diagnosis in a cohort of ALS patients and to the variables that may affect it. We performed a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic delays in a cohort of 260 patients affected by ALS (M/F = 1.32) followed at our tertiary referral ALS Center between 2000 and 2007. The median time from onset to diagnosis was 11 months (range: 6-21) for the whole ALS cohort, 10 months (range: 6-15) in bulbar-onset (n = 65) and 12 months (range: 7-23) in spinal-onset (n = 195) patients (p = 0.3). 31.1% of patients received other diagnoses before ALS and this led to a significant delay of the correct diagnosis in this group (other diagnoses before ALS, n = 81: median delay, 15 months [9.75-24.25] vs ALS, n = 179, median delay, 9 months [6-15.25], p heuristics might represent an important contributing factor. Furthermore, the length of the differential diagnosis from other disorders and delays in referral to the neurologist seems to be positively associated with the delay in diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R

    2010-01-01

    The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  6. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  7. Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teslime Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%. Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6% of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4% died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors.

  8. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee; Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee; Sohn, Tae Yong

    1997-01-01

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  9. Validating YouTube Factors Affecting Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Yoga; Hartanto, Rudy; Suning Kusumawardani, Sri

    2018-03-01

    YouTube is often used as a companion medium or a learning supplement. One of the educational places that often uses is Jogja Audio School (JAS) which focuses on music production education. Music production is a difficult material to learn, especially at the audio mastering. With tutorial contents from YouTube, students find it easier to learn and understand audio mastering and improved their learning performance. This study aims to validate the role of YouTube as a medium of learning in improving student’s learning performance by looking at the factors that affect student learning performance. The sample involves 100 respondents from JAS at audio mastering level. The results showed that student learning performance increases seen from factors that have a significant influence of motivation, instructional content, and YouTube usefulness. Overall findings suggest that YouTube has a important role to student learning performance in music production education and as an innovative and efficient learning medium.

  10. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  11. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Immigrant Korean Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Young; Cha, Sunkyung; Moon, Hyunjung; Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Jang, Haeran

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of foreign-born nurses are working in the United States. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical issue for quality patient care. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of immigrant Korean nurses. We used a cross-sectional mailed survey design. A convenience sample (n = 105) of members of the Greater New York Korean Nurses Association currently working or had previously worked in the United States completed the questionnaires. We used hierarchical regression to test the effects of acculturation and life satisfaction on job satisfaction. Most participants were female (n = 98, 93.3%) aged 27 to 70 years (mean = 52.27 years, SD = 10.67). In the regression model, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived stress predicted job satisfaction (F = 5.127, p job satisfaction. U.S. nurses need to gain insight into factors influencing job satisfaction in Korean nurses to promote retention and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalon, Elena; Maes, Dominiek; Piepers, Sofie; Taylor, Polly; van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Millet, Sam; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-05-01

    To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. Prospective, randomized validation. Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269 kg). Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3 minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. The MNTs (±SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 ± 1.2 N) than with the actuator (21.3 ± 1.2 N; p testing compared with day 1 (p < 0.001). The mean CV (±SE) was 38.9% (±1.1%). MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  13. Factors affecting RAIU in hyperthyroidism patients: an analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yi; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Xiuli

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the factors affecting thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU) of hyperthyroidism patients. Methods; RAIU was performed in 106 hyperthyroidism patients. Some factors were studied to analyze influences on the peak of RAIU, including patients' age and sex, gland weight, taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or not, time of ATD taking and withdrawal. Results: Patients' RAIU peak had no significant difference for different ages and sex (F=1.68, P=0.1439). If preparation was performed according to the requirements before RAIU measurement, taking ATD or not had no influence on RAIU (t=1.1362, P=0.2625). RAIU peak was different between patients whose gland weight was ≤ 30 g and >30 g. Conclusions: Age and sex have no influence on RAIU. As long as ATD was discontinued at least one week before RAIU measurement, time of taking ATD and discontinuation have no influence on RAIU, and the result of measurement coincide with that of patients who do not take medicine. RAIU peak has relation with gland weight, and RAIU of people with gland weight ≤30 g was lower than that of people with gland weight >30 g

  14. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  15. Critical Causes and Consequences of Construction Project Interruption: Client, Contractor, Consultant and External Factors Standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbasirah Mohamed Alias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It should be pointed out that the dilemma of interruption and stoppage in the construction industry is a large-scale trend. Construction interruption and stoppage is considered one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry. Construction Interruption and stoppage is always measured as costly to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth of construction sector. The objective of the research work that underpins this paper was to investigate the Factors and Consequences of construction projects on local contractors. A construction project is commonly acknowledged as successful when the aim of the project is achieved in terms of predetermined objectives that are mainly completed the project on time, within budget and specified quality in accordance with the specifications and to stakeholders’ satisfaction. One of the most important problems that may arise in the construction project is delays and the magnitude of these delays varies considerably from project to project. According to delay categories that were contractor related, client related, consultant related, labour related and external related, the study revealed the six major effects of delay that were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, total abandonment, and litigation.

  16. Is climate change an unforeseen, irresistible and external factor - A force majeure in marine environmental law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Roxanne; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Several environmental laws include provisions on natural causes or force majeure, which except States from their commitments if it can be proven that the failure to meet the commitment is due to factors outside their control. The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has a pivotal role in managing EU marine waters. This paper analyses natural causes and force majeure provisions of the MFSD and other marine legislation, and addresses their interaction with climate change and its consequences, especially the effect on the obligation of ensuring seas are in Good Environmental Status. Climate change is an exogenic unmanaged pressure in that it emanates from outside the area being managed but in which the management authority has to respond to the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and temperature elevation, rather than its causes. It is suggested that a defence by a Member State of force majeure may be accepted if an event was proven to be due to an externality of control, irresistible and unforeseeable. The analysis contends that countering such a legal defence would centre on the fact that climate change is a well-accepted phenomenon, is foreseen with an accepted level of confidence and probability and is due to human actions. However, as yet, this has not been legally tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Need for Cognition and False Memory: Can One's Natural Processing Style Be Manipulated by External Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootan, Samantha S; Leding, Juliana K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to provide an enhanced understanding of need for cognition (NFC) and its influence on one's memory accuracy. People who are high in NFC tend to put more cognitive effort into their mental processes than their low-NFC counterparts. To determine whether one's natural processing tendencies, as determined by NFC, can be influenced by external factors, manipulations to levels of processing were added. Participants viewed word lists from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and were instructed to process half of the DRM lists deeply and the other half shallowly. After all the lists were presented, participants completed 3 successive recall tests. The deep processing condition produced higher rates of false memories for both NFC groups than the shallow processing condition. In addition, the high-NFC group produced higher rates of target recall in both the deep and shallow conditions than the low-NFC group. However, the high-NFC group also produced higher rates of false recall for the shallowly processed lists. These data indicate that high-NFC people exhibit enhanced target recall for word lists, which may come at the expense of overall accuracy due to the increase of false recall.

  18. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  19. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  20. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  1. Internal and External Factors Affecting The Size of Paddy Field Sold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Rostiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted  to identify internal condition of the farmers who sold their paddy field and analyze the effects of age, education level, number of family members, field productivity, location, and production cost to the total area of paddy field sold. This study used quantitative descriptive method. This research found that age, education level, number of family members, and location of the land had positive relation to the total area of paddy field sold. On the other hand, production cost and field productivity had negative relation to the total area of paddy field sold. Partially, field production and number of family members had no significant effect to the total area of paddy field sold.

  2. Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis Using a Rigid External Distractor: Which Clinical Factors Are Related With Relapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeenam; Uhm, Ki-Il; Shin, Donghyeok; Lee, Jina; Choi, Hyungon

    2015-06-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is a reliable treatment for cleft lip and palate with midfacial retrusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of long-term follow-up in patients with cleft lip and palate after maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to find clinical factors related to relapse. From February 2002 to June 2008, 21 patients with severe class III malocclusion were treated at our hospital. We performed distraction osteotomy with a rigid external distractor device. The distraction length was more than 15 mm in all patients. Preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalometric radiographs were used for analysis. The sella-nasion-subnasale, sella-nasion-supramentale, and point-A-point-B-nasion (sella-nasion-subnasale-sella-nasion-supramentale) angles were recorded. The timelines for follow-up were preoperatively, after distraction, after consolidation, at 3 years, and once fully grown (5- to 8-year follow-ups). A comparative analysis of clinical factors was performed for the relapsing and nonrelapsing groups. Of the 21 patients, 14 had relapsed. The mean age in the relapsing group was 9.1 years (7 boys and 7 girls) with 9 patients with unilateral cleft palate and 5 c bilateral cleft palate. The mean age in the nonrelapsing group was 11.7 years (4 boys and 3 girls) with 5 patients with unilateral cleft palate and 2 patients with bilateral cleft palate. Despite greater anterior overcorrection, relapse occurred owing to scar tissue retraction and mandibular compensatory hypertrophy. The results suggest that the younger the patient, the more likely relapse will occur.

  3. Specifics of heat and mass transfer in spherical dimples under the effect of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, A. V.; Il'inkov, A. V.; Takmovtsev, V. V.; Khabibullin, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    The specifics are examined of heat transfer enhancement with spherical dimples under the effect of factors important for practice and characteristic of cooling systems of gas-turbine engines and power units. This experimental investigation deals with the effect of the following factors on the flow in a channel with hemispherical dimples: continuous air swirl in an annulus with dimples on its concave wall, dimples on the convex or concave wall of a curved rectangular channel, imposition of regular velocity fluctuations on the external flow in a straight rectangular channel, and adverse or favorable pressure gradient along the flow direction. The flow is turbulent. Reynolds numbers based on the channel hydraulic diameter are on the order of 104. Results of the investigation of a model of a two-cavity diffuser dimple proposed by the authors are presented. It has been found that results for channels with spherical dimples and for smooth channels differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, if the effect of centrifugal mass forces on convex and concave surfaces with hemispherical dimples and in a smooth channel is almost the same (quantitative and qualitative indicators are identical), the pressure gradient in the flow direction brings about the drastically opposite results. At the same time, the quantitative contribution to a change in heat transfer in hemispherical dimples is different and depends on the impact type. The results are discussed with the use of physical models created on the basis of the results of flow visualization studies and data on the turbulence intensity, pressure coefficient, etc. Results of the investigations suggest that application of spherical dimples under nonstandard conditions requires the calculated heat transfer to be corrected to account for one or another effect.

  4. The Influence of External and Internal Factors on Forming the System of Managers' Professional Development at Transnational Corporations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banit, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The author performs analysis of external and internal factors that influence organization of the system of Polish managers' professional development. These factors can be united into two groups. We will attribute the factors formed under the influence of external factors to the first group, to the second--the internal ones. So, due to the dynamic…

  5. Qualitative assessment to determine internal and external factors influencing the origin of styrene oligomers pollution by polystyrene plastic in coastal marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Chung, Seon-Yong; Park, Seung-Shik; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the qualitative contribution of internal and external factors of the area contaminated by polystyrene (PS) in coastal marine environments. This study is based on the extensive results of monitoring the styrene oligomers (SOs) present in sand and seawater samples along various coastlines of the Pacific Ocean. Here, anthropogenic SOs is derived from PS during manufacture and use, and can provide clues about the origin of SOs by PS pollution. The monitoring results showed that, if the concentration of SOs in water is higher than those concentrations in beach sand, this area could be affected by PS plastic caused by an external factor. On the other hand, if the concentration of SOs is higher in the beach sand, the region can be mainly influenced by PS plastic derived from its own area. Unlike the case of an external factor, in this case (internal influence), it is possible to take policy measures of the area itself for the PS plastic problem. Thus, this study is motivated by the need of policy measures to establish a specific alternative to the problems of PS plastic pollution in ocean environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  7. Recurrens Rates and Affecting Factors in Patients Operated for Endometrioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Eftal Taner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate reurrens rates and affecting factors in patients operated for endometrioma.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: The cases operated for over cyst diagnosis and pathologically endometrioma diagnosis between the years 2000-2004 has been reviewed retrospectively. Cases’s age, cyst diameter, endometriosis stage and operation procedure have been recorded and the cases that have recurrence and factors affecting recurrence are evaluated.\tRESULTS: Results: 51 of 137 (37.3% cases with endometrioma that have average age of 29.1 in course of operation ± 5.4 had left side, 37 of 137(27% had right side and 49 of 137 (35.7% had bilateral endometrioma. Average diameter of endometriomas was 5.1 ±1.9 cm (1-1.5 cm. After average 3.3±1.8 years from first operation time in 42 cases(30.6% had recurrence. in the left over recurrence rate was signifciantly high (10.8% to 41.2% than right over. For recurrence rate There were no significiant diference between the 102 cases that had laparoscopy and 35 cases that had laparotomy according to cyst diameter, case ages and type of operation.\tWhen the cases were reviewed according to endometriozis staging, There were significiantly high recurrence rate at stage III (28.9% and stage IV(46.0%. With respect to the operation type, patients that had one-sided ooferektomi,relapse is not seen. Patients that had fenestration and ablation as operation, relapse rate is 52.9% significiantly higher than patients that had kistektomi (26.9%.Despite decrease in preoperative complaints (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain in early postoperative period, they recurred in late postoperative period. 47(56% of 84 patients who have fertility desire gave live birth unfortunately 12(14.3% of them.\tCONCLUSION: Recurrence rates were signifiantly higher in cases with lift sided endometrioma, advanced stafe of endometriosis and in patient udergone fenestration and ablation for treatment.

  8. Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols

  9. Contextual factors affecting autonomy for patients in Iranian hospitals: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Efat; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Crowley, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of patient autonomy is an essential element in individualized, patient-centered, ethical care. Internal and external factors associated with patient autonomy are related to culture and it is not clear what they are in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors affecting the autonomy of patients in Iranian hospitals. This was a qualitative study using conventional content analysis methods. Thirty-four participants (23 patients, 9 nurses, and 2 doctors) from three Iranian teaching hospitals, selected using purposive sampling, participated in semi-structured interviews. Unstructured observation and filed notes were other methods for data collection. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis and analyzed using the MAXQDA-10 software. Five categories and sixteen subcategories were identified. The five main categories related to patient autonomy were: Intrapersonal factors, physical health status, supportive family and friends, communication style, and organizational constraints. In summary, this study uncovered contextual factors that the care team, managers, and planners in the health field should target in order to improve patient autonomy in Iranian hospitals.

  10. Contextual factors affecting autonomy for patients in Iranian hospitals: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Efat; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Crowley, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consideration of patient autonomy is an essential element in individualized, patient-centered, ethical care. Internal and external factors associated with patient autonomy are related to culture and it is not clear what they are in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors affecting the autonomy of patients in Iranian hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study using conventional content analysis methods. Thirty-four participants (23 patients, 9 nurses, and 2 doctors) from three Iranian teaching hospitals, selected using purposive sampling, participated in semi-structured interviews. Unstructured observation and filed notes were other methods for data collection. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis and analyzed using the MAXQDA-10 software. Results: Five categories and sixteen subcategories were identified. The five main categories related to patient autonomy were: Intrapersonal factors, physical health status, supportive family and friends, communication style, and organizational constraints. Conclusions: In summary, this study uncovered contextual factors that the care team, managers, and planners in the health field should target in order to improve patient autonomy in Iranian hospitals. PMID:27186203

  11. Fournier’s gangrene: our experience with 50 patients and analysis of factors affecting mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fournier’s gangrene is a rare, rapidly progressive, necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia and perineum. Case series have shown a mortality rate of 20% to 40% with an incidence of as high as 88% in some reports. In this study we aimed to share our experience in the management of Fournier’s gangrene and to identify risk factors that affect mortality. Methods The medical records of 50 patients with Fournier’s gangrene who presented at the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez from January 2003 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively to analyze the outcome and identify the risk factors and prognostic indicators of mortality. Results Ten males and five females were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 54 years (range 23–81). The most common predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus (34%). E. coli was the most frequent bacterial organisms cultured. All patients were treated with a common approach of resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and wide surgical excision. The mortality rate was 24%. The advanced age, renal failure on admission, extension of infection to the abdominal wall, occurrence of septic shock and need for postoperative mechanical ventilation are the main prognostic factors of mortality. In multivariate analysis, none of these variables is an independent predictor of mortality. Conclusions Fournier’s gangrene is still a very severe disease with high mortality rates. Early recognition of infection associated with invasive and aggressive treatment is essential for attempting to reduce these prognostic indices. PMID:23547796

  12. External beam irradiation for choroid metastases: identification of factors predisposing to long-term sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudoler, Shari B.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Shields, Carol L.; De Potter, Patrick; Hyslop, Terry; Shields, Jerry A.; Curran, Walter J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To improve overall quality of life, palliative treatments should attempt to minimize associated complications while effectively controlling specific symptoms. We reviewed our experience treating posterior uveal metastases with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to determine the complication rate and to identify the relationship between patient, tumor, or treatment-related factors and the development of ocular complications. Methods and Materials: 483 consecutive patients (pts) (578 eyes) were diagnosed with intraocular metastatic disease from solid tumors between 1972-1995. Of these, 233 eyes (188 pts) had lesions of the posterior uveal tract and received EBRT. Median follow-up time was 5.8 months (range: 0.7-170.0 months). Follow-up information regarding the development of complications was documented for 230 eyes. Complete EBRT details were available for 189 eyes. Seventy-two percent of the patients received 30.0-40.0 Gy in 2.0-3.0 Gy fractions. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated to allow meaningful comparisons between various fractionation regimens and total doses. Concurrent chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy was used for 101 eyes (44%). Results: Median BED was 61 Gy 3 (range, 6.7-105 Gy 3 ), and 80% of treated eyes received BED 50-70 Gy 3 . EBRT energies included photons (70%), 60 Co (19%), electrons (6%), mixed energies (3%), and orthovoltage (2%). Lens-sparing techniques were used in 136 eyes (71%). At last follow-up 28 eyes (12%) developed one or more significant complications, including cataracts (16 eyes), radiation retinopathy (6 eyes), optic neuropathy (5 eyes), exposure keratopathy (5 eyes), and neovascularization of the iris (4 eyes). Two eyes developed narrow-angle glaucoma, and one of these required enucleation. On univariate analysis, Caucasian race (vs. Black/Hispanic, p = 0.03), increased intraocular pressure at diagnosis (>21 mmHg, p = 0.02), and diagnosis by biopsy (vs. no biopsy, p = 0.03) predisposed toward the

  13. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  14. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  15. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  16. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, J S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to

  17. Factors affecting the adoption of quality assurance technologies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, John

    2013-01-01

    In the light of public concern and of strong policy emphasis on quality and safety in the nursing care of patients in hospital settings, this paper aims to focus on the factors affecting the adoption of innovative quality assurance technologies. Two sets of complementary literature were mined for key themes. Next, new empirical insights were sought. Data gathering was conducted in three phases. The first involved contact with NHS Technology Hubs and other institutions which had insights into leading centres in quality assurance technologies. The second phase was a series of telephone interviews with lead nurses in those hospitals which were identified in the first phase as comprising the leading centres. The third phase comprised a series of face to face interviews with innovators and adopters of healthcare quality assurance technologies in five hospital trusts. There were three main sets of findings. First, despite the strong policy push and the templates established at national level, there were significant variations in the nature and robustness of the quality assurance toolkits that were developed, adapted and adopted. Second, in most of the adopting cases there were important obstacles to the full adoption of the toolkits that were designed. Third, the extent and nature of the ambition of the developers varied dramatically - some wished to see their work impacting widely across the health service; others had a number of different reasons for wanting to restrict the impact of their work. The general concerns about front-line care and the various inquiries into care quality failures emphasise the need for improved and consistent care quality assurance methodologies and practice. The technology adoption literature gives only partial insight into the nature of the challenges; this paper offers specific insights into the factors inhibiting the full adoption of quality assurance technologies in ward-based care.

  18. Risk factors affecting injury severity determined by the MAIS score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sara; Amorim, Marco; Couto, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, called the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the factors that affect injury severity as classified by the MAIS score. In this study, the MAIS score was derived from the International Classification of Diseases. The European Union adopted an MAIS score equal to or greater than 3 as the definition for a serious traffic crash injury. Gains are expected from using both police and hospital data because the injury severities of the victims are detailed by medical staff and the characteristics of the crash and the site of its occurrence are also provided. The data were obtained by linking police and hospital data sets from the Porto metropolitan area of Portugal over a 6-year period (2006-2011). A mixed logit model was used to understand the factors that contribute to the injury severity of traffic victims and to explore the impact of these factors on injury severity. A random parameter approach offers methodological flexibility to capture individual-specific heterogeneity. Additionally, to understand the importance of using a reliable injury severity scale, we compared MAIS with length of hospital stay (LHS), a classification used by several countries, including Portugal, to officially report injury severity. To do so, the same statistical technique was applied using the same variables to analyze their impact on the injury severity classified according to LHS

  19. Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Five Years by Child and Parental Factors in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K.; Tamminen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4-10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks…

  20. A study on Factors Affecting Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT by Faculty Members of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Biglari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors affecting on ICT application by faculty members of University of Razi. A descriptive-correlative research survey method was used. The statistical population of this research consist of faculty members of University of Kermanshah (N=271. Sampling method was stratified randomization (n=116. Questionnaire was used for data collection, the validity of which was confirmed by the opinions of some of professionals and faculty members of Agriculture Education and Extension and for determining reliability Cronbach's Alpha (0.83 was used. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The findings reveal that there’s a significant positive relationship between the number of published papers in internal and external journals and conferences, familiarity with internet services, skill in driving computer, skill in using internet services, using internet for meeting educational and research needs, skill in English language, attitude towards using ICT in education and research, scientific rank and use of internet for supervising over  thesis and dissertation, on the one hand, and the variable of application of ICT by faculty members of University of Kermanshah. In regression analysis, the predicting variables of factors affecting on application of ICT by faculty members, including skill in using internet services, attitude towards using ICT in research and education and the number of published papers in foreign journals and conferences were entered in 3 stages, which in total explain 25.1 percent variance of dependent variable. 

  1. [Factors affecting biological removal of iron and manganese in groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang; He, Sheng-Bing; Wang, Xin-Ze

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting biological process for removing iron and manganese in groundwater were analyzed. When DO and pH in groundwater after aeration were 7.0 - 7.5 mg/L and 6.8 - 7.0 respectively, not only can the activation of Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria be maintained, but also the demand of iron and manganese removal can be satisfied. A novel inoculating approach of grafting mature filter material into filter bed, which is easier to handle than selective culture media, was employed in this research. However, this approach was only suitable to the filter material of high-quality manganese sand with strong Mn2+ adsorption capacity. For the filter material of quartz sand with weak adsorption capacity, only culturing and domesticating Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria by selective culture media can be adopted as inoculation in filter bed. The optimal backwashing rate of biological filter bed filled with manganese sand and quartz sand should be kept at a relatively low level of 6 - 9 L/(m2 x s) and 7 -11 L/( m2 x s), respectively. Then the stability of microbial phase in filter bed was not disturbed, and iron and manganese removal efficiency recovered in less than 5h. Moreover, by using filter material with uniform particle size of 1.0 - 1.2 mm in filter bed, the filtration cycle reached as long as 35 - 38h.

  2. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  3. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadi, T.A.N.; Khan, N.H.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

  5. Statistical factors affecting the success of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Stephenson, J.R.; Hochman, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a statistical analysis to determine the operational, financial, technical, and managerial factors that most significantly affect the success of nuclear operations. The study analyzes data for over 70 nuclear plants and 40 operating companies over a period of five years in order to draw conclusions that they hope will be of interest to utility companies and public utility commissions as they seek ways to improve rates of success in nuclear operations. Some of these conclusions will not be surprising--for example, that older plants have heavier maintenance requirements--but others are less intuitive. For instance, the observation that operators of fewer plants have lower costs suggests that any experience curve benefits associated with managing multiple nuclear facilities is overshadowed by the logistic problems of multiple facilities. After presenting a brief history of nuclear power in America, the authors outline the motivations of the study and the methodology of their analysis. They end the article with the results of the study and discuss some of the managerial implications of these findings

  6. Nonfocal renal biopsies: adequacy and factors affecting a successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Mark A; Atri, Mostafa; O'Malley, Martin; Jacks, Lindsay; John, Rohan; Herzenberg, Andrew; Reich, Heather; Ghai, Sangeet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the success of ultrasound-guided core biopsy of kidneys and determine the optimum number of passes. This retrospective study evaluated 484 nonfocal renal biopsies performed with 18-gauge side-notch biopsy needles. Number of biopsy passes, serum creatinine, body mass index, needle type, transplant age, kidney size, diabetic status, and operator were evaluated as predictors of the number of biopsy passes. Four hundred seventy-four biopsies (338 transplant, 136 native) were included with mean number of passes 2.87 (3.1 native vs 2.78 transplant; P = 0.002). Mean number of glomeruli yielded per pass was 6.9 (7.2 transplant vs 6.1 native; P = 0.0002) with 3 passes adequate for histological diagnosis in 84% of biopsies. Native kidney, increasing serum creatinine level, trainee biopsy operator, and use of a Temno needle were found to be independent predictors of having more than 3 biopsy passes on multivariate analysis. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetic status, and kidney size were not associated with the number of biopsy passes. The success of a nonfocal renal biopsy has many influencing variables, and in the absence of an on-site electron microscopy technologist to immediately evaluate biopsy samples, 3 passes with an 18-gauge needle would be adequate in 84% of kidneys to achieve a histological diagnosis, with 2 passes needed for transplant kidneys to meet the Banff 97 criteria.

  7. Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, M.Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T 2 -weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  9. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  10. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  11. Mechanical factors affecting reliability of pressure components (fatigue, cracking)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Garnier, C.; Roche, R.; Barrachin, B.

    1978-01-01

    The reliability of a pressure component can be seriously affected by the formation and development of cracks. The experimental studies presented in this paper are devoted to three different aspects of crack propagation phenomena which have been relatively little described. In close connection with safety analyses of PWR, the authors study the influence of the environment by carrying out fatigue tests with samples bathed in hot pressurized water. Ferritic, austenitic and Incolloy 800 steels were used and the results are presented in the form of fatigue curves in the oligocyclic region. The second part of the paper relates to crack initiation cirteria in ductile steels weakened by notches. The CT samples used make it possible to study almost all types of fracture (ductile, intermediate and brittle). The use of two criteria based on the load limit and on the toughness of the material constitutes a practical way of evaluating crack propagation conditions. A series of tests carried out on notched spherical vessels of different size shows that large vessels are relatively brittle; fast unstable fracture is observed as size increases. Crack growth rate in PWR primary circuits (3/6 steel) is studied on piping elements (0.25 scale) subjected to cyclic stress variations (285 0 C and with pressure varying between 1 and 160 bar in each cycle). By calculating the stress intensity factor, correlation with results obtained in the laboratory on CT samples is possible. (author)

  12. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  13. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  14. Some factors affecting acceptance of family planning in Manus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avue, B; Freeman, P

    1991-12-01

    This paper examines selected factors affecting the acceptance and delivery of modern family planning from health centres in Manus. A survey was carried out of mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics and a written questionnaire was given to health workers. The survey of mothers demonstrated the importance of the husband's approval for contraceptive practice and showed that knowledge about traditional methods of family planning is widespread. The health workers' questionnaire demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with the current family planning program delivered by health clinics: 45% found the program ineffective; 68% wrote that health workers' attitudes discouraged mothers from attending for family planning. The perceived and actual benefits and costs of children and the role of men should be assessed locally before planning future family planning programs. Widespread retraining and motivating of health workers is essential if improved coverage is to be achieved through health services. The efficacy of alternative methods of delivery of family planning such as local community-based and social marketing programs should also be investigated.

  15. Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailović, Aleksandra; Vučinić Vasić, Milica; Todorović, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Airborne 210 Pb, daughter of 222 Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210 Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210 Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO 3 , and available phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210 Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210 Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210 Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil. - Highlights: • 210 Pb and 137 Cs were measured in samples of urban soil. • Organic matter, free CaCO 3 content, available phosphorus, and lead were measured in soil samples. • There is no statistically significant correlation between 210 Pb and lead, CaCO 3 and phosphorus. • A strong positive correlation between 210 Pb and organic matter was observed

  16. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Eissa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients. The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4; 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2, and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44. The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75 and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given.

  17. Psychosocial Factors Affecting Smartphone Addiction in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Servet; Şahin, Mustafa Kürşat; Sezgin, Serap; Oğuz, Gülay

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate psychosocial factors affecting smartphone addiction in university students. The study was performed among students at the Ondokuz Mayis University Samsun School of Health (Samsun, Turkey) on October-December 2015. Four hundred ninety-four students possessing smartphones and agreeing to participate were included. A sociodemographic data form produced by the authors and consisting of 10 questions was administered together with a questionnaire involving the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV), the Flourishing Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The questionnaires were applied in a class environment at face-to-face interviews. SAS-SV scores of 6.47% of students were "significantly higher" than the participating group mean SAS-SV score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that depression, anxiety and insomnia, and familial social support statistically, significantly predicted smartphone addiction. Further studies of smartphone addiction in different age groups and with different educational levels are now needed.

  18. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  19. Affective and cognitive factors influencing sensitivity to probabilistic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Sawicki, Przemyslaw

    2011-11-01

    In study 1 different groups of female students were randomly assigned to one of four probabilistic information formats. Five different levels of probability of a genetic disease in an unborn child were presented to participants (within-subject factor). After the presentation of the probability level, participants were requested to indicate the acceptable level of pain they would tolerate to avoid the disease (in their unborn child), their subjective evaluation of the disease risk, and their subjective evaluation of being worried by this risk. The results of study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that an experience-based probability format decreases the subjective sense of worry about the disease, thus, presumably, weakening the tendency to overrate the probability of rare events. Study 2 showed that for the emotionally laden stimuli, the experience-based probability format resulted in higher sensitivity to probability variations than other formats of probabilistic information. These advantages of the experience-based probability format are interpreted in terms of two systems of information processing: the rational deliberative versus the affective experiential and the principle of stimulus-response compatibility. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Factors affecting groundnut yield in pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Tariq, S.A.; Nasir, M.; Saeed, R.; Mahmood, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut being an important oilseed crop in the Pothwar region of Pakistan has the productivity level of 609 kg ha/sup -1/ , much lower from the potential yield of 3000 kg ha/sup -1/. Present study was designed to explore factors affecting productivity of groundnut along with its profitability analysis. The sample farms were classified into small, medium and large farms. Farm-level crop data were gathered during two cropping seasons i.e., rabi 2008-09 and kharif 2009. One hundred and forty groundnut producers were selected for collecting data using the well-structured questionnaire from two important districts recognised for area and production of groundnut. Results showed that large farmers allocated significantly higher area (34 percent) to groundnut cultivation compared to other categories of farmers. The gross margins were also significantly higher at large farms. Ploughing frequency, seed rate and labor man-days have positive relationship with groundnut productivity. Therefore, the provision of improved groundnut production technologies package and improved seed to groundnut growers may enhance the productivity and area under this crop. (author)