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Sample records for external error field

  1. Error Field Assessment from Driven Rotation of Stable External Kinks at EXTRAP-T2R Reversed Field Pinch

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, F A; Brunsell, P R; Drake, J R; Olofsson, K E J

    2013-01-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n=10 and n=8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behavior was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic error fields of n=8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mo...

  2. Error field assessment from driven rotation of stable external kinks at EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.

    2013-04-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n = 10 and n = 8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behaviour was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic EFs of n = 8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mode rotation in response to a uniformly rotating perturbation. The results are in good agreement with theory, and the extension to lower n, to tearing modes and to tokamaks, including ITER, is discussed.

  3. Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, P

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  4. Quantum electrodynamics on background external fields

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  5. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  6. Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  7. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination.

  8. Composite Vector Particles in External Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can be additionally obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasi-static response of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within t...

  9. Ion Plasma Responses to External Electromagnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The response of ion plasmas to external radiation fields is investigated in a quantum mechanical formalism.We focus on the total electric field within the plasma. For general bandpass signals three frequency regions can be distinguished in terms of the plasma frequency. For low frequencies, the exte

  10. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpwang@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  11. Systematic error mitigation in multiple field astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gai, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Combination of more than two fields provides constraints on the systematic error of simultaneous observations. The concept is investigated in the context of the Gravitation Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME), which aims at measurement of the PPN parameter $\\gamma$ at the $10^{-7}-10^{-8}$ level. Robust self-calibration and control of systematic error is crucial to the achievement of the precision goal. The present work is focused on the concept investigation and practical implementation strategy of systematic error control over four simultaneously observed fields, implementing a "double differential" measurement technique. Some basic requirements on geometry, observing and calibration strategy are derived, discussing the fundamental characteristics of the proposed concept.

  12. Quantifying truncation errors in effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Furnstahl, R J; Phillips, D R; Wesolowski, S

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian procedures designed to quantify truncation errors in perturbative calculations of quantum chromodynamics observables are adapted to expansions in effective field theory (EFT). In the Bayesian approach, such truncation errors are derived from degree-of-belief (DOB) intervals for EFT predictions. Computation of these intervals requires specification of prior probability distributions ("priors") for the expansion coefficients. By encoding expectations about the naturalness of these coefficients, this framework provides a statistical interpretation of the standard EFT procedure where truncation errors are estimated using the order-by-order convergence of the expansion. It also permits exploration of the ways in which such error bars are, and are not, sensitive to assumptions about EFT-coefficient naturalness. We first demonstrate the calculation of Bayesian probability distributions for the EFT truncation error in some representative examples, and then focus on the application of chiral EFT to neutron-pr...

  13. Behaviour of ferrocholesterics under external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Emil; Motoc, Cornelia

    2001-08-01

    The influence of an external magnetic field on the orientational behaviour of a ferrocholesteric with a positive magnetic anisotropy is investigated. Both the phenomena arising when the field was switched on or switched off are considered. It is found that the field needed for a ferrocholesteric-ferronematic transition BFC↑ is higher when compared to that obtained for the pure cholesteric ( BC↑). A similar result was obtained when estimating the critical field for the homeotropic ferronematic-ferrocholesteric (focal conic) transition, occurring when the magnetic field was decreased or switched off. We found that BFC↓> BC↓. These results are explained when considering that the magnetic moments of the magnetic powder are not oriented parallel to the liquid crystal molecular directors, therefore hindering their orientation under a magnetic field.

  14. Composite vector particles in external electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William

    2016-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can additionally be obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasistatic responses of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within the effective theory, providing explicit expressions that can be used to match directly onto lattice QCD correlation functions. The viability of an extraction of the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the deuteron from the upcoming lattice QCD calculations of this nucleus is discussed.

  15. Dynamic diagnostics of the error fields in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2007-07-01

    The error field diagnostics based on magnetic measurements outside the plasma is discussed. The analysed methods rely on measuring the plasma dynamic response to the finite-amplitude external magnetic perturbations, which are the error fields and the pre-programmed probing pulses. Such pulses can be created by the coils designed for static error field correction and for stabilization of the resistive wall modes, the technique developed and applied in several tokamaks, including DIII-D and JET. Here analysis is based on the theory predictions for the resonant field amplification (RFA). To achieve the desired level of the error field correction in tokamaks, the diagnostics must be sensitive to signals of several Gauss. Therefore, part of the measurements should be performed near the plasma stability boundary, where the RFA effect is stronger. While the proximity to the marginal stability is important, the absolute values of plasma parameters are not. This means that the necessary measurements can be done in the diagnostic discharges with parameters below the nominal operating regimes, with the stability boundary intentionally lowered. The estimates for ITER are presented. The discussed diagnostics can be tested in dedicated experiments in existing tokamaks. The diagnostics can be considered as an extension of the 'active MHD spectroscopy' used recently in the DIII-D tokamak and the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch.

  16. A Perspective on External Field QED

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    In light of the conference Quantum Mathematical Physics held in Regensburg in 2014, we give our perspective on the external field problem in quantum electrodynamics (QED), i.e., QED without photons in which the sole interaction stems from an external, time-dependent, four-vector potential. Among others, this model was considered by Dirac, Schwinger, Feynman, and Dyson as a model to describe the phenomenon of electron-positron pair creation in regimes in which the interaction between electrons can be neglected and a mean field description of the photon degrees of freedom is valid (e.g., static field of heavy nuclei or lasers fields). Although it may appear as second easiest model to study, it already bares a severe divergence in its equations of motion preventing any straight-forward construction of the corresponding evolution operator. In informal computations of the vacuum polarization current this divergence leads to the need of the so-called charge renormalization. In an attempt to provide a bridge between...

  17. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spacial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential $A_\\mu$ are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general $A_\\mu$, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of $A_\\mu$ w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  18. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E

    2014-01-01

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to a simple example of a spherically-symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space, the pattern of lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics.

  20. Gravity field determination and error assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D. N.; Shum, C. K.; Tapley, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    Linear estimation theory, along with a new technique to compute relative data weights, was applied to the determination of the Earth's geopotential field and other geophysical model parameters using a combination of satellite ground-based tracking data, satellite altimetry data, and the surface gravimetry data. The relative data weights for the inhomogeneous data sets are estimated simultaneously with the gravity field and other geophysical and orbit parameters in a least squares approach to produce the University of Texas gravity field models. New techniques to perform calibration of the formal covariance matrix for the geopotential solution were developed to obtain a reliable gravity field error estimate. Different techniques, which include orbit residual analysis, surface gravity anomaly residual analysis, subset gravity solution comparisons and consider covariance analysis, were applied to investigate the reliability of the calibration.

  1. Holographic fermions in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J

    2011-01-01

    We study the Fermi level structure of 2+1-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. Next we compute compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators....

  2. QED in external fields, a functional point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Jean

    2001-01-01

    A functional partial differential equation is set for the proper graphs generating functional of QED in external electromagnetic fields. This equation leads to the evolution of the proper graphs with the external field amplitude and the external field gauge dependence of the complete fermion propagator and vertex is derived non-perturbativally.

  3. Violating body movement semantics: Neural signatures of self-generated and external-generated errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrao, Gonçalo; Gonzalez-Franco, Mar; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Slater, Mel; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    How do we recognize ourselves as the agents of our actions? Do we use the same error detection mechanisms to monitor self-generated vs. externally imposed actions? Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we identified two different error-monitoring loops involved in providing a coherent sense of the agency of our actions. In the first ERP experiment, the participants were embodied in a virtual body (avatar) while performing an error-prone fast reaction time task. Crucially, in certain trials, participants were deceived regarding their own actions, i.e., the avatar movement did not match the participant's movement. Self-generated real errors and false (avatar) errors showed very different ERP signatures and with different processing latencies: while real errors showed a classical frontal-central error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), peaking 100ms after error commission, false errors elicited a larger and delayed parietal negative component (at about 350-400ms). The violation of the sense of agency elicited by false avatar errors showed a strong similarity to ERP signatures related to semantic or conceptual violations (N400 component). In a follow-up ERP control experiment, a subset of the same participants merely acted as observers of the avatar correct and error movements. This experimental situation did not elicit the N400 component associated with agency violation. Thus, the results show a clear neural dissociation between internal and external error-monitoring loops responsible for distinguishing our self-generated errors from those imposed externally, opening new avenues for the study of the mental processes underlying the integration of internal and sensory feedback information while being actors of our own actions.

  4. Locked modes and magnetic field errors in MST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Kerst, D.W.

    1992-06-01

    In the MST reversed field pinch magnetic oscillations become stationary (locked) in the lab frame as a result of a process involving interactions between the modes, sawteeth, and field errors. Several helical modes become phase locked to each other to form a rotating localized disturbance, the disturbance locks to an impulsive field error generated at a sawtooth crash, the error fields grow monotonically after locking (perhaps due to an unstable interaction between the modes and field error), and over the tens of milliseconds of growth confinement degrades and the discharge eventually terminates. Field error control has been partially successful in eliminating locking.

  5. Negativity in the Extended Hubbard Model under External Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen; NING Wen-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    We exactly calculate the negativity,a measurement of entanglement,in the two-site extended Hubbard model with external magnetic field.Its behaviour at different temperatures is presented.The negativity reduces with the increasing temperature or with the increasing uniform external magnetic field.It is also found that a non-uniform external magnetic field can be used to modulate or to increase the negativity.

  6. The interaction between plasma rotation, stochastic fields and tearing mode excitation by external perturbation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBock, M. F. M.; Classen, I. G. J.; Busch, C.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Koslowski, H. R.; Unterberg, B.; TEXTOR Team

    2008-01-01

    For fusion reactors, based on the principle of magnetic confinement, it is important to avoid so-called magnetic islands or tearing modes. They reduce confinement and can be the cause of major disruptions. One class of magnetic islands is that of the perturbation field driven modes. This perturbation field can, for example, be the intrinsic error field. Theoretical work predicts a strong relationship between plasma rotation and the excitation of perturbation field modes. Experimentally, the theory on mode excitation and plasma rotation has been confirmed on several tokamaks. In those experiments, however, the control over the plasma rotation velocity and direction, and over the externally applied perturbation field was limited. In this paper experiments are presented that were carried out at the TEXTOR tokamak. Two tangential neutral beam injectors and a set of helical perturbation coils, called the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED), provide control over both the plasma rotation and the external perturbation field in TEXTOR. This made it possible to set up a series of experiments to test the theory on mode excitation and plasma rotation in detail. The perturbation field induced by the DED not only excites magnetic islands, it also sets up a layer near the plasma boundary where the magnetic field is stochastic. It will be shown that this stochastic field alters both the rotational response of the plasma on the perturbation field and the threshold for mode excitation. It therefore has to be included in an extended theory on mode excitation.

  7. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  8. Error Field Correction in DIII-D Ohmic Plasmas With Either Handedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Schaffer, Micahel J.; La Haye, Robert J.; Scoville, Timothy J.; Menard, Jonathon E.

    2011-05-16

    Error field correction results in DIII-D plasmas are presented in various configurations. In both left-handed and right-handed plasma configurations, where the intrinsic error fields become different due to the opposite helical twist (handedness) of the magnetic field, the optimal error correction currents and the toroidal phases of internal(I)-coils are empirically established. Applications of the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code to these results demonstrate that the field component to be minimized is not the resonant component of the external field, but the total field including ideal plasma responses. Consistency between experiment and theory has been greatly improved along with the understanding of ideal plasma responses, but non-ideal plasma responses still need to be understood to achieve the reliable predictability in tokamak error field correction.

  9. The external field dependence of the BCS critical temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer free energy functional for particles interacting via a two-body potential on a microscopic scale and in the presence of weak external fields varying on a macroscopic scale. We study the influence of the external fields on the critical temperature. We show...

  10. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Planar QED in External Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We investigate planar quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. We argue that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak-coupling region. We extrapolate our lattice results to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  11. Mitigating Errors in External Respiratory Surrogate-Based Models of Tumor Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Kathleen T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); McAvoy, Thomas J. [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Institute of Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dieterich, Sonja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); D' Souza, Warren D., E-mail: wdsou001@umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of tumor site, measurement precision, tumor-surrogate correlation, training data selection, model design, and interpatient and interfraction variations on the accuracy of external marker-based models of tumor position. Methods and Materials: Cyberknife Synchrony system log files comprising synchronously acquired positions of external markers and the tumor from 167 treatment fractions were analyzed. The accuracy of Synchrony, ordinary-least-squares regression, and partial-least-squares regression models for predicting the tumor position from the external markers was evaluated. The quantity and timing of the data used to build the predictive model were varied. The effects of tumor-surrogate correlation and the precision in both the tumor and the external surrogate position measurements were explored by adding noise to the data. Results: The tumor position prediction errors increased during the duration of a fraction. Increasing the training data quantities did not always lead to more accurate models. Adding uncorrelated noise to the external marker-based inputs degraded the tumor-surrogate correlation models by 16% for partial-least-squares and 57% for ordinary-least-squares. External marker and tumor position measurement errors led to tumor position prediction changes 0.3-3.6 times the magnitude of the measurement errors, varying widely with model algorithm. The tumor position prediction errors were significantly associated with the patient index but not with the fraction index or tumor site. Partial-least-squares was as accurate as Synchrony and more accurate than ordinary-least-squares. Conclusions: The accuracy of surrogate-based inferential models of tumor position was affected by all the investigated factors, except for the tumor site and fraction index.

  12. Further Investigation on Chiral Symmetry Breaking in a Uniform External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Jasinski, P

    2004-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking in QED when a uniform external magnetic field is present. We calculate higher order corrections to the dynamically generated fermion mass and find them to be small. In so doing we correct an error in the literature regarding the matrix structure of the fermion self-energy.

  13. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Colloidal dispersions have long been proven as pivotal model systems for equilibrium phase transition such as crystallization, melting and liquid-gas phase transition. The last decades have revealed that this is also true for nonequilibrium phenomena. In fact, the fascinating possibility to track the individual trajectories of colloidal particles has greatly advanced our understanding of collective behaviour in classical many-body systems and has helped to reveal the underlying physical principles of glass transition, crystal nucleation, and interfacial dynamics (to name just a few typical nonequilibrium effects). External fields can be used to bring colloids out of equilibrium in a controlled way. Different kinds of external fields can be applied to colloidal dispersions, namely shear flow, electric, magnetic and laser-optical fields, and confinement. Typical research areas can be sketched with the by now traditional complexity diagram (figure 1). The complexity of the colloidal system itself as embodied in statistical degrees of freedom is shown on the x-axis while the complexity of the problem posed, namely bulk, an inhomogeneity in equilibrium, steady state nonequilibrium and full time-dependent nonequilibrium are shown on the y-axis. The different external fields which can be imposed are indicated by the different hatched areas. figure1 Figure 1. Diagram of complexity for colloidal dispersions in external fields: while the x-axis shows the complexity of the system, the y-axis shows the complexity of the problem. Regions which can be accessed by different kinds of external fields are indicated. The arrows indicate recent research directions. Active particles are also indicated with a special complexity of internal degrees of freedom [1]. This collection of papers reflects the scientific programme of the International Conference on Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields III (CODEF III) which took place in Bonn-Bad Godesberg from 20-23 March 2012. This was the

  14. Quantum mechanics in strong time dependent external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeau, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, time dependent Hamiltonians are most often studied by perturbation methods, the amplitude of the unsteady force being assumed to be small. On two examples (two level system with a large time dependent coupling, and atoms in large external unsteady field). I show that the opposite limit (large time dependent field) can be analyzed in some details too. For a particle in a central potential and submitted to a large periodic external field, one is led to make a Kapitza averaging because the intrinsic frequency tends to zero when the external field diverges. In that way one has to introduce a steady effective potential with singular turning points.

  15. Geodesic Witten diagrams with an external spinning field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Tamaoka, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    We explore AdS/CFT correspondence between geodesic Witten diagrams and conformal blocks (conformal partial waves) with an external symmetric traceless tensor field. We derive an expression for the conformal partial wave with an external spin-1 field and show that this expression is equivalent to the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram. We also show the equivalence by using a conformal Casimir equation in embedding formalism. Furthermore, we extend the construction of the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram to an external arbitrary symmetric traceless tensor field. We show that our construction agrees with the known result of the conformal partial waves.

  16. Geodesic Witten diagrams with an external spinning field

    CERN Document Server

    Nishida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We explore AdS/CFT correspondence between geodesic Witten diagrams and conformal blocks (conformal partial waves) with an external symmetric traceless tensor field. We derive an expression for the conformal partial wave with an external spin-1 field and show that this expression is equivalent to the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram. We also show the equivalence by using conformal Casimir equation in embedding formalism. Furthermore, we extend the construction of the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram to an external arbitrary symmetric traceless tensor field. We show our construction agrees with the known result of the conformal partial waves.

  17. Separation of the Magnetic Field into External and Internal Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Jia, X.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of a planet or a planetary moon contains contributions from a variety of sources in the environment of the body (external sources) and its interior (internal sources). This chapter describes different methods that have been developed for the separation of external and internal...

  18. On the Structure of Quantum Gauge Theories with External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Falkenberg, S; Lavrov, P M; Moshin, P

    1998-01-01

    We consider generating functionals of Green's functions with external fields in the framework of BV and BLT quantization schemes for general gauge theories. The corresponding Ward identities are obtained, and the gauge dependence is studied.

  19. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  20. Superconducting Sphere in an External Magnetic Field Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give the intelligible procedure for undergraduate students to grasp proof of the fact that the magnetic field outside the hollow superconducting sphere (superconducting shell) coincides with the field of a point magnetic dipole both when an uniform external magnetic field is applied as when a ferromagnetic sphere…

  1. The theory of sternheimer shielding in molecules in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, P. W.; Lazzeretti, P.; Steiner, E.; Zanasi, R.

    1989-05-01

    A series of tensors is defined to describe the response to external electric and magnetic fields of the electric field gradient at a nucleus in a molecule. Perturbation expressions, symmetry relations and exact results for the hydrogen atom are given. The new tensors are related to derivatives of electric field shieldings with respect to motion of a test point through an electron distribution.

  2. Nonlinear Simulation of Plasma Response to the NSTX Error Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J. A.; Park, J. K.; Boozer, A. H.; Park, W.

    2008-11-01

    In order to better understand the effects of the time-varying error field in NSTX on rotation braking, which impedes RWM stabilization, we model the plasma response to an applied low-n external field perturbation using the resistive MHD model in the M3D code. As an initial benchmark, we apply an m=2, n=1 perturbation to the flux at the boundary of a non-rotating model equilibrium and compare the resulting steady-state island sizes with those predicted by the ideal linear code IPEC. For sufficiently small perturbations, the codes agree; for larger perturbations, the nonlinear correction yields an upper limit on the island width beyond which stochasticity sets in. We also present results of scaling studies showing the effects of finite resistivity on island size in NSTX, and of time-dependent studies of the interaction between these islands and plasma rotation. The M3D-C1 code is also being evaluated as a tool for this analysis; first results will be shown. J.E. Menard, et al., Nucl. Fus. 47, S645 (2007). W. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999). J.K. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 052110 (2007). S.C. Jardin, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 226, 2146 (2007).

  3. Design of a Linear Variable Differential Transformer With High Rejection to External Interfering Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, M; Losito, R; Masi, A; Danisi, A

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors to external slowly varying magnetic fields represents a critical issue when these sensors are installed close to high-current cables or electrical motors with significant fringe fields. The resulting position error can reach several hundreds of micrometers against a specified uncertainty normally below a few micrometers. In this paper, the design of a LVDT position sensor with high rejection to external constant or slowly varying magnetic fields is addressed by exploiting the finite element method (FEM) simulator FLUX. A shield, isolated from the sensor's magnetic circuit, has been considered to reduce the effect of magnetic fields on the secondary voltages of the LVDT. In addition, a dc current is used in order to polarize the magnetic circuit to reduce the sensitivity of the sensor to external interferences.

  4. Field Evaluation of the System Identification Approach for Tension Estimation of External Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of external tendons are considered to verify the applicability of tension estimation method based on the finite element model with system identification technique. The proposed method is applied to estimate the tension of benchmark numerical example, model structure, and field structure. The numerical and experimental results show that the existing methods such as taut string theory and linear regression method show large error in the estimated tension when the condition of external tendon is different with the basic assumption used during the derivation of relationship between tension and natural frequency. However, the proposed method gives reasonable results for all of the considered external tendons in this study. Furthermore, the proposed method can evaluate the accuracy of estimated tension indirectly by comparing the measured and calculated natural frequencies. Therefore, the proposed method can be effectively used for field application of various types of external tendons.

  5. Magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2017-07-01

    We obtain a family of exact solutions describing magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field. Locally the solutions can be interpreted as representing the near-horizon region of a black hole, which interacts with a surrounding matter distribution producing a strong magnetic field. Thus, the solutions reflect the influence of both a gravitational and an electromagnetic external potential in the strong field regime. The static members in the family are generalizations of the Schwarzschild solution in the described environment, while the rotating ones generalize the magnetized Reissner-Nordström solution when the influence of an external gravitational source is also taken into account. Technically, the solutions are obtained by means of a Harrison transformation, applied on the (electro-)vacuum distorted black holes constructed by Bretón et al. We examine the thermodynamical properties of the solutions, and compare them with the corresponding isolated black holes, and with the particular cases when the interaction with only one of the external potentials is taken into account. For the static black holes the influence of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is factorized in a sense, both affecting different properties, and leaving the rest intact. For the rotating solutions the external gravitational and magnetic fields are coupled through the conditions for avoiding conical singularities. The Meissner effect is observed for extremal rotating solutions only in the zero-charge limit, similar to the magnetized Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  6. Field characterization of external grease abatement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Tarek N; Holt, Leon M; Keener, Kevin M; Groninger, John W; Ducoste, Joel J

    2012-03-01

    This study characterized some of the physical and chemical features of large outside field grease abatement devices (GADs). 24-hour measurements of several food service establishments' (FSEs') influent GAD flowrates indicated highly intermittent conditions with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) that exceeded the common recommendation (30 minutes) by two to five times. Investigation into the chemical characteristics of GADs indicated highly variable influent and effluent fat, oil, and grease (FOG) concentrations. Low pH and dissolved oxygen values were measured throughout the GAD, indicating the likely occurrence of anaerobic microbial processes. Detailed spatial and temporal observations of the accumulation of FOG and food solids were also discussed. Though the FOG layer remained relatively constant for all GAD configurations investigated, results indicated that commonly-used GAD configurations with a straight submerged inlet tee or no-inlet tee configuration may result in the transport of food solids into the second compartment. The present research showed increased accumulation of food solids in the first compartment with a retro-fit flow distributive inlet. This retro-fit displays promise for potentially improving the separation characteristics of existing GADs.

  7. Tuning plasmonic cloaks with an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Pinheiro, F A; Farina, C

    2013-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to actively tune the operation of plasmonic cloaks with an external magnetic field by investigating electromagnetic scattering by a dielectric cylinder coated with a magneto-optical shell. In the long wavelength limit we show that the presence of an external magnetic field may drastically reduce the scattering cross-section at all observation angles. We demonstrate that the application of external magnetic fields can modify the operation wavelength without the need of changing material and/or geometrical parameters. We also show that applied magnetic fields can reversibly switch on and off the cloak operation. These results, which could be achieved for existing magneto-optical materials, are shown to be robust to material losses, so that they may pave the way for developing actively tunable, versatile plasmonic cloaks.

  8. Decadal period external magnetic field variations determined via eigenanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a reanalysis of hourly mean magnetic data from ground-based observatories spanning 1997-2009 inclusive, in order to isolate (after removal of core and crustal field estimates) the spatiotemporal morphology of the external fields important to mantle induction, on (long) periods of months......-the form of the decomposition is controlled by the data. We apply a spherical harmonic analysis to the EOF outputs in a joint inversion for internal and external coefficients. The results justify our assumption that the EOF procedure responds primarily to the long-period external inducing field...... contributions. Though we cannot determine uniquely the contributory source regions of these inducing fields, we find that they have distinct temporal characteristics which enable some inference of sources. An identified annual-period pattern appears to stem from a north-south seasonal motion of the background...

  9. Holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zixu; Jing, Jiliang

    2014-01-01

    We analytically study the holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in presence of an external magnetic field. We observe that Lifshitz scaling can hinder the condensation to be formed, which can be used to back up the existing numerical results. Moreover, we find that the dynamical exponent $z$ does have effects on the upper critical magnetic field. However, we note that Lifshitz scaling does not modify the well-known relation obtained from the Ginzburg-Landau theory for the upper critical magnetic field.

  10. Massless Boundary Sine-Gordon Model Coupled to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kogetsu, H

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a generalization of the massless boundary sine-Gordon model with conformal invariance, which has been used to describe an array of D-branes (or rolling tachyon). We consider a similar action whose couplings are replaced with external fields depending on the boundary coordinate. Even in the presence of the external fields, this model is still solvable, though it does not maintain the whole conformal symmetry. We obtain, to all orders in perturbation theory in terms of the external fields, a simpler expression of the boundary state and the disc partition function. As a by-product, we fix the relation between the bare couplings and the renormalized couplings which has been appeared in papers on tachyon lump and rolling tachyon.

  11. Laser ablation of titanium in liquid in external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V., E-mail: barminaev@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in liquid is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. • Applied cathodic bias leads to increase in average size of self-organized nanostructures formed upon ablation of titanium target. • Laser ablation of Ti target in external electric field results in generation of elongated titanium oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in water is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. It is demonstrated that both lateral size of nanostructures (NS) on Ti surface and their density depend on the electric field applied to the target. Scanning Electron Microscopy of NS reveals the shift of their size distribution function toward larger sizes with applied field (cathodic bias, 25 V DC). Density of mushroom-like NS with applied electric field amounts to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction of generated nanoparticles (NPs) shows difference in the crystallographic structure of NPs of non-stoichiometric Ti oxides generated with and without electric field. This conclusion is corroborated with the optical absorption spectroscopy of obtained colloids. Transmission Electron Microscopy of NPs also shows difference in morphology of particles produced with and without cathodic bias. The results are interpreted on the basis of instability of the melt on Ti surface in the electric field.

  12. Effect of superconductor filament magnetization on the field errors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, R

    1999-01-01

    One of the main source of field errors in a superconducting magnet is the magnetization M of the superconducting filaments. Screening currents, of persistent nature, are induced by any. field change during operation of the magnet. This chapter describes the models for the calculation of these effects and the parameters to be defined in ROXIE. (3 refs).

  13. Fluxon propagation in long Josephson junctions with external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1981-01-01

    of breather-like waves depending on the velocity of the incident fluxon and the magnitude of the external magnetic field. Approximations based on energy analysis describing the border lines between regions of different processes are presented. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American...... Institute of Physics....

  14. Holographic gratings in photorefractive polymers without external electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N.; Lyuksyutov, S.; Buchhave, Preben

    1997-01-01

    Using anomalous large diffusion we report a recording of reflection type gratings in a PVK-based photorefractive polymer without any external electric field. The diffraction efficiency of the gratings was measured to be 7%. An efficient modulation of beams during two-beam coupling up to 12...

  15. Thermal Reservoir coupled to External Field and Quantum Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Patriarca, M; Patriarca, Fabrizio Illuminati & Marco

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of the Caldeira-Leggett model of dissipative quantum mechanics, we investigate the effects of the interaction of the thermal reservoir with an external field. In particular, we discuss how the interaction modifies the conservative dynamics of the central particle, and the mechanism of dissipation. We briefly comment on possible observable consequencies.

  16. On the Potts Model Partition Function in an External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Leslie M.; Moffatt, Iain

    2012-03-01

    We study the partition function of the Potts model in an external (magnetic) field, and its connections with the zero-field Potts model partition function. Using a deletion-contraction formulation for the partition function Z for this model, we show that it can be expanded in terms of the zero-field partition function. We also show that Z can be written as a sum over the spanning trees, and the spanning forests, of a graph G. Our results extend to Z the well-known spanning tree expansion for the zero-field partition function that arises though its connections with the Tutte polynomial.

  17. Phase diagram of strong interactions in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mizher, Ana Julia; Chernodub, M N

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the phase diagram of strong interactions in the presence of a magnetic field within the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop, and show that the chiral and deconfinement lines can split. We also study the behavior of the chiral condensate in this magnetic environment and find an approximately linear dependence on the external field, in accordance with lattice data.

  18. Q criterion for disc stability modified by external tidal field

    CERN Document Server

    Jog, Chanda J

    2013-01-01

    The standard Q criterion (with Q > 1) describes the local stability of a disc supported by rotation and random motion. Most astrophysical discs, however, are under the influence of an external gravitational field which can affect their stability. A typical example is a galactic disc embedded in a dark matter halo. Here we do a linear perturbation analysis for a disc in an external field, and obtain a generalized dispersion relation and a modified stability criterion. An external field has two effects on the disc dynamics: first, it contributes to the unperturbed rotational field, and second, it adds a tidal field term in the stability parameter. A typical disruptive tidal field results in a higher modified Q value and hence leads to a more stable disc. We apply these results to the Milky Way, and to a low surface brightness galaxy UGC 7321. We find that in each case the stellar disc by itself is barely stable and it is the dark matter halo that stabilizes the disc against local, axisymmetric gravitational ins...

  19. Rated MW from a heliostat field on cylindrical external receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Fathalah, K.A. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dep., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Elsayed, M.M. [Kuwait Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dep., Safat (Kuwait)

    1995-12-31

    Some of the reflected beam radiation from a heliostat field bypasses the receiver surface. The spillage factor which is a measure of how much of reflected beam radiation actually intercepted by the receiver surface, is calculated and plotted for easy access. The variation of the spillage with tower height, external cylindrical receiver size, dimensionless radial distance from the tower is computed and plotted. The value of the rated MW energy absorbed by an external cylindrical receiver, is investigated, and its relations to the tower height, the site location and the field radius are given. The effect of changing the radial spacing on the rated MW and the total number of heliostats in the field is also computed and depicted. The developed set of charts for the spillage factor are believed to be very useful for solar central receiver system design. (author) 7 figs., 21 refs.

  20. Cholesteric elastomers in external mechanical and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas M.; Brand, Helmut R.

    2007-01-01

    In our studies, we focus on the reaction of cholesteric side-chain liquid single-crystal elastomers (SCLSCEs) to static external mechanical and electric fields. By means of linearized continuum theory, different geometries are investigated: The mechanical forces are oriented in a direction either parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the cholesteric helix such that they lead to a compression or dilation of the elastomer. Whereas only a homogeneous deformation of the system is found for the parallel case, perpendicularly applied mechanical forces cause either twisting or untwisting of the cholesteric helix. This predominantly depends on the direction in which the director of the cholesteric phase is anchored at the boundaries of the elastomer, and on the sign of a material parameter that describes how deformations of the elastomer couple to the relative rotations between the elastomer and the director. It is also this material parameter that leads to an anisotropy of the mechanical reaction of the system to compression and dilation, due to the liquid crystalline order. The effect of an external electric field is studied when applied parallel to the helix axis of a perfect electric insulator. Here an instability arises at a threshold value of the field amplitude, where the latter results from a competition between the effects of the external electric field on the one hand and the influences of the boundaries of the system, the cholesteric order, and the coupling between the director and the polymer network on the other hand. The instability is either homogeneous in space in the directions perpendicular to the external electric field and includes homogeneous shearing, or, for certain values of the material parameters, there arise undulations of the elastomer and the director orientation perpendicular to the direction of the external electric field at onset. This describes a qualitatively new phenomenon not observed in cholesteric systems yet, as these undulations

  1. Lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate lepton-photon interactions in a class of generalized external background fields with periodic plane-wave character. Considering the full interaction with the background, S-matrix elements are calculated exactly. We apply those general expressions to interaction schemes like Compton scattering in specific field configurations, as for instance provided in modern laser facilities, or in high intense regions of future linear colliders. Results are extended to the case of frontal colliding high-energy field photons with leptons such that new insights beyond the usual soft terms become accessible.

  2. Flow-driven cell migration under external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2016-01-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this paper, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent. PMID:26765031

  3. A model for navigational errors in complex environmental fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwaite, Claire M; Walker, Michael M

    2014-12-21

    Many animals are believed to navigate using environmental signals such as light, sound, odours and magnetic fields. However, animals rarely navigate directly to their target location, but instead make a series of navigational errors which are corrected during transit. In previous work, we introduced a model showing that differences between an animal׳s 'cognitive map' of the environmental signals used for navigation and the true nature of these signals caused a systematic pattern in orientation errors when navigation begins. The model successfully predicted the pattern of errors seen in previously collected data from homing pigeons, but underestimated the amplitude of the errors. In this paper, we extend our previous model to include more complicated distortions of the contour lines of the environmental signals. Specifically, we consider the occurrence of critical points in the fields describing the signals. We consider three scenarios and compute orientation errors as parameters are varied in each case. We show that the occurrence of critical points can be associated with large variations in initial orientation errors over a small geographic area. We discuss the implications that these results have on predicting how animals will behave when encountering complex distortions in any environmental signals they use to navigate.

  4. Error field and magnetic diagnostic modeling for W7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Sam A. [PPPL; Gates, David A. [PPPL; NEILSON, GEORGE H. [PPPL; OTTE, M.; Bozhenkov, S.; Pedersen, T. S.; GEIGER, J.; LORE, J.

    2014-07-01

    The prediction, detection, and compensation of error fields for the W7-X device will play a key role in achieving a high beta (Β = 5%), steady state (30 minute pulse) operating regime utilizing the island divertor system [1]. Additionally, detection and control of the equilibrium magnetic structure in the scrape-off layer will be necessary in the long-pulse campaign as bootstrapcurrent evolution may result in poor edge magnetic structure [2]. An SVD analysis of the magnetic diagnostics set indicates an ability to measure the toroidal current and stored energy, while profile variations go undetected in the magnetic diagnostics. An additional set of magnetic diagnostics is proposed which improves the ability to constrain the equilibrium current and pressure profiles. However, even with the ability to accurately measure equilibrium parameters, the presence of error fields can modify both the plasma response and diverter magnetic field structures in unfavorable ways. Vacuum flux surface mapping experiments allow for direct measurement of these modifications to magnetic structure. The ability to conduct such an experiment is a unique feature of stellarators. The trim coils may then be used to forward model the effect of an applied n = 1 error field. This allows the determination of lower limits for the detection of error field amplitude and phase using flux surface mapping. *Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.

  5. Time Evolution in the external field problem of Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarovici, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    A general problem of quantum field theories is the fact that the free vacuum and the vacuum for an interacting theory belong to different, non-equivalent representations of the canonical (anti-)commutation relations. In the external field problem of QED, we encounter this problem in the form that the Dirac time evolution for an external field with non-vanishing magnetic components will not satisfy the Shale-Stinespring condition, known to be necessary and sufficient for the existence of an implementation on the fermionic Fock space. Therefore, a second quantization of the time evolution in the usual way is impossible. In this thesis, we present several rigorous approaches to QED with time-dependent, external fields and analyze in what sense a time evolution can exist in the second quantized theory. We study different constructions of the fermionic Fock space and prove their equivalence. We study and compare the results of Deckert et. al. (2010), where the time evolution is realized as unitary transformations ...

  6. Jeans instability criterion modified by external tidal field

    CERN Document Server

    Jog, Chanda J

    2013-01-01

    The well-known Jeans criterion describes the onset of instabilities in an infinite, homogeneous, self-gravitating medium supported by pressure. Most realistic astrophysical systems, however, are not isolated - instead they are under the influence of an external field such as the tidal field due to a neighbour. Here we do a linear perturbation analysis for a system in an external field, and obtain a generalized dispersion relation that depends on the wavenumber, the sound speed, and also the magnitude of the tidal field. A typical, disruptive tidal field is shown to make the system more stable against perturbations, and results in a higher effective Jeans wavelength. The minimum mass that can become unstable is then higher (super-Jeans) than the usual Jeans mass. Conversely, in a compressive tidal field, perturbations can grow even when the mass is lower (sub-Jeans). This approach involving the inclusion of tidal field opens up a new way of looking at instabilities in gravitating systems. The treatment is gene...

  7. Nonlinear lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-02-09

    Nonlinear phenomena of lepton-photon interactions in external backgrounds with a generalised periodic plane-wave geometry are studied. We discuss nonlinear Compton scattering in head-on lepton-photon collisions extended properly to beyond the soft-photon regime. In addition, our results are applied to stimulated lepton-antilepton pair production in photon collisions with unrestricted energies. Derivations are considered semi-classically based on unperturbed fermionic Volkov representations encoding the full interaction with the background field. Closed expressions for total probabilities considering S-matrix elements have been derived. The general formula is applied to Compton scattering by an electron propagating in an external laser-like background. We obtain additive contributions in the extended unconstrained result which turns out to be stringently required in the highly nonlinear regime. A detailed comparison of contributing harmonics is discussed for various field parameters.

  8. Weibel instability in a plasma with nonzero external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pokhotelov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the Weibel instability is generalized for the case of a plasma immersed in a nonzero external magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of this external field modifies the dispersion relation for this mode which now possesses a nonzero frequency. The explicit expression for the real and imaginary parts of the frequency is then calculated. It turns out that the linear growth rate remains unchanged, whereas the frequency becomes nonzero due to the finite value of the electron cyclotron frequency. The frequency of the Weibel mode is found to be proportional to the electron temperature anisotropy. The formal similarity of the Weibel and drift-mirror instabilities is outlined.

  9. The electron propagator in external electromagnetic fields in low dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, Gabriela; Raya, Alfredo; Sánchez, Ángel; Reyes, Edward

    2010-07-01

    We study the electron propagator in quantum electrodynamics in one and two spatial dimensions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. In this case, the propagator is not diagonal in momentum space. We obtain the propagator on the basis of the eigenfunctions of the operator (γ ṡΠ)2 in terms of which the propagator acquires a free form. Πμ is the canonical momentum operator and γμ are the Dirac matrices. In two dimensions, we work with an irreducible representation of the Clifford algebra and consider to all orders the effects of an arbitrary magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of motion of the electrons. We then discuss the special cases of a uniform magnetic field and an exponentially damped static magnetic field. These cases are relevant to graphene in the massless limit. We further consider the electron propagator for the massive Schwinger model and incorporate the effects of a constant electric field to all orders.

  10. Magnetic Properties of Heisenberg Thin Films in an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; ZHANG Jing

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Heisenberg ferromagnetic films in an external magnetic field are investigated by means of the variational cumulant expansion (VCE). The magnetization can be in principle calculated analytically as the function of the temperature and the number of atomic layers in the film to an arbitrary order of accuracy in the VCE. We calculate the spontaneous magnetization and coercivity to the third order for spin-1/2 Heisenberg films with simple cubic lattices by using a graphic technique.

  11. Holographic equilibration in confining gauge theories under external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Demircik, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of external magnetic fields on equilibration in the improved holographic QCD theory in the deconfined phase using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular we calculate the quasinormal mode spectra in the corresponding black brane solutions and study their dependence on temperature, momentum and magnetic field, both in the scalar and the shear channels. We find complex patterns in the motion of quasinormal modes on the complex plane, including certain cross overs between the lowest lying modes under varying momentum. We also find a curious dynamical instability that arise at a certain value of momentum.

  12. External field characterization using CHAMP satellite data for induction studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Praveen Kunagu; E Chandrasekhar

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of external inducing source field morphology is essential for precise estimation of electromagnetic (EM) induction response. A better characterization of the external source field of magnetospheric origin can be achieved by decomposing it into outer and inner magnetospheric contributions, which are best represented in Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) and Solar Magnetic (SM) reference frames, respectively. Thus we propose a spherical harmonic (SH) model to estimate the outer magnetospheric contribution, following the iterative reweighted least squares approach, using the vector magnetic data of the CHAMP satellite. The data covers almost a complete solar cycle from July 2001 to September 2010, spanning 54,474 orbits. The SH model, developed using orbit-averaged vector magnetic data, reveals the existence of a stable outer magnetospheric contribution of about 7.39 nT. This stable field was removed from the CHAMP data after transforming to SM frame. The residual field in the SM frame acts as a primary source for induction in the Earth. The analysis of this time-series using wavelet transformation showed a dominant 27-day periodicity of the geomagnetic field. Therefore, we calculated the inductive EM -response function in a least squares sense considering the 27-day period variation as the inducing signal. From the estimated -response, we have determined that the global depth to the perfect substitute conductor is about 1132 km and its conductivity is around 1.05 S/m.

  13. Green's functions in an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, S.M.

    1979-04-01

    An approach to quantum electrodynamics in an intense electromagnetic field was proposed in Ref. 1 (E. S. Fradkin and D. M. Gitman, Preprint, MIT, 1978). In the case when the vacuum is unstable with respect to electron-positron pair production, an entire series of various Green's functions in an external classical field enters into the theory. In the present study these Green's functions are calculated for the case of a constant homogeneous electric field. The results are presented in the form of contour integrals over the proper time. The operator representations of the Green's functions in this field are given. Only scalar QED is considered.

  14. Bayesian analysis of truncation errors in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, J.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Klco, N.; Phillips, D. R.; Wesolowski, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the Bayesian approach to effective field theory (EFT) expansions, truncation errors are derived from degree-of-belief (DOB) intervals for EFT predictions. By encoding expectations about the naturalness of EFT expansion coefficients for observables, this framework provides a statistical interpretation of the standard EFT procedure where truncation errors are estimated using the order-by-order convergence of the expansion. We extend and test previous calculations of DOB intervals for chiral EFT observables, examine correlations between contributions at different orders and energies, and explore methods to validate the statistical consistency of the EFT expansion parameter. Supported in part by the NSF and the DOE.

  15. Mass transport model of ions within biofilms under the effect of external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; TANG Xue-xi

    2006-01-01

    A mass transport model was developed to predict the transport rate of ions within biofilms, which was experimentally verified using the fluxes ofNH4+ and Ca2+ through the heterotrophic biofilms with the thickness varying from 230 to 1430 μm under the effect of external field in the range of-20 V/m to 60 V/m. It is found that the result predicted by the model is in agreement with the experimentally obtained one, with the error less than 5 percent for the thin biofilms. The error increases with the increase of the biofilm thickness. The transport rate of ions caused by electric migration is affected by the charges, field strength, and biofilm thickness and so on.

  16. Zero modes on cosmic strings in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, F; Starkman, G D; Vachaspati, T; Ferrer, Francesc; Mathur, Harsh; Starkman, Glenn D.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2006-01-01

    A classical analysis suggests that an external magnetic field can cause trajectories of charge carriers on a superconducting domain wall or cosmic string to bend, thus expelling charge carriers with energy above the mass threshold into the bulk. We study this process by solving the Dirac equation for a fermion of mass $m_f$ and charge $e$, in the background of a domain wall and a magnetic field of strength $B$. We find that the modes of the charge carriers get shifted into the bulk, in agreement with classical expectations. However the dispersion relation for the zero modes changes dramatically -- instead of the usual linear dispersion relation, $\\omega_k =k$, the new dispersion relation is well fit by $\\omega \\approx m_f tanh(k/k_*)$ where $k_*=m_f$ for a thin wall in the weak field limit, and $k_*=eBw$ for a thick wall of width $w$. This result shows that the energy of the charge carriers on the domain wall remains below the threshold for expulsion even in the presence of an external magnetic field. If char...

  17. Behavior of Compact Toroid in the External Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, N.; Ioroi, A.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    1999-11-01

    We have investigated the possibility of refueling and density control of tokamak plasmas by the spheromak-type Compact Toroid (CT) injection in the JFT-2M tokamak in collaboration with JAERI. We demonstrated the CT injection into OH plasmas and observed the core penetration at B_T=0.8 T. The tokamak electron density increased ~0.2× 10^19m-3 at a rate of 2× 10^21m-3/s. We also observed the decrease of the CT velocity by the external magnetic field of the tokamak, which is applied across the CT acceleration region. We have examined the behavior of the CT translated in the external fields B_ext using the magnetic probes and the fast framing camera at Himeji Inst. of tech.. CT plasma in the acceleration region is deformed by the Lorentz force of Jg × B_ext, where Jg is the gun current for CT acceleration. The magnetic field structures of a long CT in the drift region has been revealed to be the mixed relaxed state of m=0 and m=1. Results from CT acceleration and injection in a transverse field will be presented.

  18. Dynamics of molecular superrotors in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Korobenko, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to the qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin-rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane in three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation.

  19. Nucleation of lysozyme crystals under external electric and ultrasonic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanev, Christo N.; Penkova, Anita

    2001-11-01

    Preferred orientation along c-axis of hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals has been observed in an external electric field. Besides, the HEWL crystals grew predominantly on the cathode side of the glass cell. These facts were explained on the basis of a concept for specific spatial distribution of the positive electric charges on the individual HEWL molecules, and thus attributed to the (preferred) orientation of individual HEWL molecules in the solution, under these conditions. Ultrasonic field redoubles the nucleation rate of HEWL crystals, but does not change the number of building units in the critical nucleus. Taking into account the intermolecular binding energy, we conclude that ultrasonic field accelerates nucleation due to breaking of the protein crystals.

  20. Locally covariant quantum field theory with external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fewster, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    We provide a detailed analysis of the classical and quantized theory of a multiplet of inhomogeneous Klein-Gordon fields, which couple to the spacetime metric and also to an external source term; thus the solutions form an affine space. Following the formulation of affine field theories in terms of presymplectic vector spaces as proposed in [Annales Henri Poincare 15, 171 (2014)], we determine the relative Cauchy evolution induced by metric as well as source term perturbations and compute the automorphism group of natural isomorphisms of the presymplectic vector space functor. Two pathological features of this formulation are revealed: the automorphism group contains elements that cannot be interpreted as global gauge transformations of the theory; moreover, the presymplectic formulation does not respect a natural requirement on composition of subsystems. We therefore propose a systematic strategy to improve the original description of affine field theories at the classical and quantized level, first passing ...

  1. Van der Waals torque induced by external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R; Palomono-Ovando, M

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for inducing and controlling van der Waals torques between two parallel slabs using a constant magnetic field. The torque is calculated using the Barash theory of dispersive torques. In III-IV semiconductors such as $InSb$, the effect of an external magnetic field is to induce an optical anisotropy, in an otherwise isotropic material, that will in turn induce a torque. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, with the magnetic field parallel to the surface of the slabs. As a case study we consider a slab made of calcite and a second slab made of $InSb$. In the absence of magnetic field there is no torque. As the magnetic field increases, the optical anisotropy of $InSb$ increases and the torque becomes different from zero, increasing with the magnetic field. The resulting torque is of the same order of magnitude as that calculated using permanent anisotropic materials when the magnetic fields is close to 1 T.

  2. Nonlinear subelliptic Schrodinger equations with external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyril Tintarev

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To account for an external magnetic field in a Hamiltonian of a quantum system on a manifold (modelled here by a subelliptic Dirichlet form, one replaces the the momentum operator $frac 1i d$ in the subelliptic symbol by $frac 1i d-alpha$, where $alphain TM^*$ is called a magnetic potential for the magnetic field $eta=dalpha$. We prove existence of ground state solutions (Sobolev minimizers for nonlinear Schrodinger equation associated with such Hamiltonian on a generally, non-compact Riemannian manifold, generalizing the existence result of Esteban-Lions [5] for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a constant magnetic field on $mathbb{R}^N$ and the existence result of [6] for a similar problem on manifolds without a magnetic field. The counterpart of a constant magnetic field is the magnetic field, invariant with respect to a subgroup of isometries. As an example to the general statement we calculate the invariant magnetic fields in the Hamiltonians associated with the Kohn Laplacian and for the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the Heisenberg group.

  3. Van der Waals torque induced by external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Cocoletzi, G. H.; Palomino-Ovando, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for inducing and controlling van der Waals torques between two parallel slabs using a constant magnetic field. The torque is calculated using the Barash theory of dispersive torques. In III–IV semiconductors such as InSb, the effect of an external magnetic field is to induce an optical anisotropy, in an otherwise isotropic material, that will in turn induce a torque. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, with the magnetic field parallel to the surface of the slabs. As a case study we consider a slab made of calcite and a second slab made of InSb. In the absence of magnetic field there is no torque. As the magnetic field increases, the optical anisotropy of InSb increases and the torque becomes different from zero, increasing with the magnetic field. The resulting torque is of the same order of magnitude as that calculated using permanent anisotropicmaterials when the magnetic fields is close to 1 T.

  4. Fuel magnetization without external field coils (AutoMag)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen; Jennings, Christopher; Awe, Thomas; Shipley, Gabe; Lamppa, Derek; McBride, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) has produced fusion-relevant plasma conditions on the Z accelerator where the fuel was magnetized using external field coils. We present a novel concept that does not need external field coils. This concept (AutoMag) magnetizes the fuel during the early part of the drive current by using a composite liner with helical conduction paths separated by insulating material. The drive is designed so the current rises slowly enough to avoid electrical breakdown of the insulators until a sufficiently strong magnetic field is established. Then the current rises more quickly, which causes the insulators to break down allowing the drive current to follow an axial path and implode the liner. Low inductance magnetically insulated power feeds can be used with AutoMag to increase the drive current without interfering with diagnostic access. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Mean-field approximation for the potts model of a diluted magnet in the external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, S. V.; Smagin, V. P.

    2016-07-01

    The Potts model of a diluted magnet with an arbitrary number of states placed in the external field has been considered. Phase transitions of this model have been studied in the mean-field approximation, the dependence of the critical temperature on the external field and the density of magnetic atoms has been found, and the magnetic susceptibility has been calculated. An improved mean-field technique has been proposed, which provides more accurate account of the effects associated with nonmagnetic dilution. The influence of dilution on the first-order phase transition curve and the magnetization jump at the phase transition has been studied by this technique.

  6. An Investigation of Coupling of the Internal Kink Mode to Error Field Correction Coils in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Edward Alan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of the internal kink to an external m/=1/1 pertubation if studied for profiles that are known to result in a saturated internal kink in the limit of a cylindrical tokamak. It is found from 3D equilibrium calculations that, for A 30 circular plasmas and A=3 elliptical shapes, this coupling of the boundary perturbation to the internal kink is strong; the amplitude of the m/n=1/1 structure at q=1 is large compared to the amplitude applied at the plasma boundary. It is proposed that this excitation, which could readily be applied with error field correction coils, be explored as a mechanism for controlling sawtooth amplitudes in high performance tokamak discharges. This saturated internal kink, resulting from small field errors in proposed as an explanation for the TEXTOR measurements of q0 and the distinction between sawtooth effects on the q-profile observed in TEXTOR and DIII-D.

  7. Periodic Orbit Theory for Rydberg Atoms in External Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Owen, S. M.

    1998-03-01

    Although hydrogen in external fields is a paradigm for the application of periodic orbits and the Gutzwiller trace formula to a real system, the trace formula has never been applied successfully to other Rydberg atoms. We show that spectral fluctuations of general Rydberg atoms are given with remarkable precision by the addition of diffractive terms. Previously unknown features in atomic spectra are exposed: there are new modulations that are neither periodic orbits nor combinations of periodic orbits; ``core shadowing'' generally decreases primitive periodic orbit amplitudes but can also lead to increases.

  8. Periodic Orbit Theory for Rydberg Atoms in External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Dando, P A; Owen, S M

    1998-01-01

    Although hydrogen in external fields is a paradigm for the application of periodic orbits and the Gutzwiller trace formula to a real system, the trace formula has never been applied successfully to other Rydberg atoms. We show that spectral fluctuations of general Rydberg atoms are given with remarkable precision by the addition of diffractive terms. Previously unknown features in atomic spectra are exposed: there are new modulations that are neither periodic orbits nor combinations of periodic orbits; `core-shadowing' generally decreases primitive periodic orbit amplitudes but can also lead to increases.

  9. A Conceptual Framework to use Remediation of Errors Based on Multiple External Remediation Applied to Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maici Duarte Leite

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of some concepts of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS to elaborate a conceptual framework that uses the remediation of errors with Multiple External Representations (MERs in Learning Objects (LO. To this is demonstrated a development of LO for teaching the Pythagorean Theorem through this framework. This study explored the remediation process of error by a classification of error in mathematical, providing support for the use of MERs with the remediation of error. The main objective of the proposed framework is to assist the individual learner in the recovery of a mistake made during the interaction with the LO, either through carelessness or lack of knowledge. Initially, we present the compilation of the classification of mathematical errors and their relationship with MERs. Later the concepts involved with conceptual framework proposed. Finally, an experiment with LO developed with a authoring tool called FARMA, using the conceptual framework for teaching the Pythagorean Theorem is presented.

  10. Phase separation in fluids exposed to spatially periodic external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, R L C; Archer, A J

    2012-03-01

    When a fluid is confined within a spatially periodic external field, the liquid-vapor transition is replaced by a different transition called laser-induced condensation (LIC) [Götze et al., Mol. Phys. 101, 1651 (2003)]. In d=3 dimensions, the periodic field induces an additional phase, characterized by large density modulations along the field direction. At the triple point, all three phases (modulated, vapor, and liquid) coexist. At temperatures slightly above the triple point and for low (high) values of the chemical potential, two-phase coexistence between the modulated phase and the vapor (liquid) is observed; by increasing the temperature further, both coexistence regions terminate in critical points. In this paper, we reconsider LIC using the Ising model to resolve a number of open issues. To be specific, we (1) determine the universality class of the LIC critical points and elucidate the nature of the correlations along the field direction, (2) present a mean-field analysis to show how the LIC phase diagram changes as a function of the field wavelength and amplitude, (3) develop a simulation method by which the extremely low tension of the interface between modulated and vapor or liquid phase can be measured, (4) present a finite-size scaling analysis to accurately extract the LIC triple point from finite-size simulation data, and (5) consider the fate of LIC in d=2 dimensions.

  11. Coherent destruction of tunneling with optimally designed polychromatic external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Subhasree, E-mail: subhasree81@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Serampore College, Hooghly (India); Talukder, Srijeeta; Sen, Shrabani; Chaudhury, Pinaki [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: • We design polychromatic fields causing CDT. • The field intensity is kept very low (∼10{sup 5} a.u). • We have used Floquet analysis for determining the two lowest quasi-energy states. • SA method is used as a stochastic optimizer to minimize the energy gap. • Quantum phase space dynamics has been obtained by using TDFGH method. - Abstract: A suitably designed polychromatic field with a very low field strength and low frequency (∼10{sup -5} atomic unit) can bring about coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) in a symmetric double well system. It is analyzed that in the presence of an external perturbation the difference of energy between the two lowest quasi-energy states may increase or decrease depending on the spatial and temporal nature of the perturbation. We have designed sets of polychromatic fields both spatially symmetric and antisymmetric, which cause CDT in symmetric double well system. A stochastic optimizer (Simulated Annealing) has been used to design such a polychromatic field periodic in time. Both spatial symmetry preserving or symmetry breaking perturbations may cause CDT for a symmetric double well potential.

  12. Formation of Organized Protein Thin Films with External Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cecília Fabiana da G; Camargo, Paulo C; Benelli, Elaine M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of an external electric field on the formation of protein GlnB-Hs films and on its buffer solution on siliconized glass slides has been analyzed by current versus electric field curves and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Herbaspirillum seropedicae GlnB protein (GlnB-Hs) is a globular, soluble homotrimer (36 kDa) with its 3-D structure previously determined. Concentrations of 10 nM native denatured GlnB-Hs protein were deposited on siliconized glass slides under ambient conditions. Immediately after solution deposition a maximum electric field of 30 kV/m was applied with rates of 3 V/s. The measured currents were surface currents and were analyzed as transport current. Electric current started to flow only after a minimum electric field (critical value) for the systems analyzed. The AFM images showed films with a high degree of directional organization only when the proteins were present in the solution. These results showed that the applied electric field favored directional organization of the protein GlnB-Hs films and may contribute to understand the formation of protein films under applied electric fields.

  13. The effective potential of composite fields in weakly coupled QED in a uniform external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, D S; Ng, Y J; Shovkovy, I A

    1999-01-01

    The effective potential for the composite fields responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in weakly coupled QED in a magnetic field is derived. The global minimum of the effective potential is found to acquire a non-vanishing expectation value of the composite fields that leads to generating the dynamical fermion mass by an external magnetic field. The results are compared with those for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model.

  14. Orientational hysteresis in swarms of active particles in external field

    CERN Document Server

    Romensky, Maksym

    2015-01-01

    Structure and ordering in swarms of active particles have much in common with condensed matter systems like magnets or liquid crystals. A number of important characteristics of such materials can be obtained via dynamic tests such as hysteresis. In this work, we show that dynamic hysteresis can be observed also in swarms of active particles and possesses similar properties to the counterparts in magnetic materials. To study the swarm dynamics, we use computer simulation of the active Brownian particle model with dissipative interactions. The swarm is confined to a narrow linear channel and one-dimensional polar order parameter is measured. In an oscillating external field, the order parameter demonstrates dynamic hysteresis with the shape of the loop and its area varying with the amplitude and frequency of the applied field, swarm density and the noise intensity. We measure the scaling exponents for the hysteresis loop area, which can be associated with the controllability of the swarm. Although the exponents...

  15. On the MOND External Field Effect in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the internal dynamics of a gravitating system s embedded in a larger one S is affected by the external background field E of S even if it is constant and uniform, thus implying a violation of the Strong Equivalence Principle: it is the so-called External Field Effect (EFE). In the case of the solar system, E would be A_cen\\approx 10^-10 m s^-2 because of its motion through the Milky Way: it is orders of magnitude smaller than the main Newtonian monopole terms for the planets. We address here the following questions in a purely phenomenological manner: are the Sun's planets affected by an EFE as large as 10^-10 m s^-2? Can it be assumed that its effect is negligible for them because of its relatively small size? Does $\\bds E$ induce vanishing net orbital effects because of its constancy over typical solar system's planetary orbital periods? It turns out that a constant and uniform acceleration, treated perturbatively, does induce non-vanishing long-pe...

  16. Flavoured Large N Gauge Theory in an External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Filev, V G; Rashkov, R C; Viswanathan, K S; Filev, Veselin G.; Johnson, Clifford V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a D7-brane probe of AdS$_{5}\\times S^5$ in the presence of pure gauge $B$-field. In the dual gauge theory, the $B$-field couples to the fundamental matter introduced by the D7-brane and acts as an external magnetic field. The $B$-field supports a 6-form Ramond-Ramond potential on the D7-branes world volume that breaks the supersymmetry and enables the dual gauge theory to develop a non-zero fermionic condensate. We explore the dependence of the fermionic condensate on the bare quark mass $m_{q}$ and show that at zero bare quark mass a chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. A study of the meson spectrum reveals a coupling between the vector and scalar modes, and in the limit of weak magnetic field we observe Zeeman splitting of the states. We also observe the characteristic $\\sqrt{m_{q}}$ dependence of the ground state corresponding to the Goldstone boson of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry.

  17. Particle Production under External Fields and Its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hojin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents studies of vacuum pair productions and its applications in early universe cosmology and high energy astrophysics. Vacuum often becomes unstable and spontaneously decays into pairs of particles in rapidly expanding universes or under strong external electromagnetic fields. Theoretically, spontaneous pair productions due to such non-trivial backgrounds of spacetimes or electromagnetic fields are well-understood. However, the effect of particle productions has not been observed so far because of experiemtal difficulties in obtaining large curvatures of space-times or strong electric fields. Although it may be impossible to observe the pair productions directly via laboratory experiments, there are still powerful sources of space-time curvatures or electric fields in cosmology and astrophysics, which result in observations. In Part I, we explore the inflationary models in early universe utilizing pair productions through gravity. We study observable signatures on the cosmic microwave background, such as isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities, generated from the particle production of WIMPzillas and axions during or after inflation. In Part II, we investigate the electron-positron pair production in the magnetosphere of pulsars whose electromagnetic fields are expected to close to or even greater than the pair production threshold. In particular, we demonstrate that the pair production may be responsible for giant pulses from the Crab pulsar.

  18. Generalized local frame transformation theory for Rydberg atoms in external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakeas, P; Robicheaux, F

    2016-01-01

    A rigorous theoretical framework is developed for a generalized local frame transformation theory (GLFT). A first test application to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field demonstrates dramatic improvement over the first version of the local frame transformation theory developed initially by Fano and Harmin. This revised GLFT theory yields non-trivial corrections because it now includes the full on-shell Hilbert space without adopting the truncations in the original theory. Comparisons of the semi-analytical GLFT Stark spectra with {\\it ab initio} numerical simulations yields errors in the range of a few tens of MHz, an improvement over the original Fano-Harmin theory whose errors are 10-100 times larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet most modern experimental standards.

  19. Surface field in an ensemble of superconducting spheres under external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Peñaranda, A; Ramírez-Piscina, L

    1999-01-01

    We perform calculations of the magnetic field on the surface of an ensemble of superconducting spheres when placed into an external magnetic field, which is the configuration employed in superheated superconducting granule detectors. The Laplace equation is numerically solved with appropriate boundary conditions by means of an iterative procedure and a multipole expansion.

  20. Distinct Frontal Networks Are Involved in Adapting to Internally and Externally Signaled Errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, T.E.; Boissezon, de X.; Leff, A.; Beckmann, C.F.; Hughes, E.; Kinnunen, K.; Leech, R.; Sharp, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Errors trigger changes in behavior that help individuals adapt to new situations. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is thought to be central to this response, but more lateral frontal regions are also activated by errors and may make distinct contributions. We investigated error processing

  1. The Research and Development of the External Magnetic Field Acting on Electro-Deposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Menghua; Jia Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The research and development status of the electro-deposition technology under the action of external magnetic field are introduced. The basic characteristics and applied manners of external magnetic field in electro-deposition process are summarized. The acting principle of external magnetic field, the effects of magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD) caused by the Lorentz force, and the acting of magnetic force on the metal ions and particles are described. The main actions of external magnetic field...

  2. Spontaneous axisymmetry breaking of Saturn's external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Goldreich, Peter; Farmer, Alison J.

    2006-01-01

    Saturn's magnetic field is remarkably axisymmetric. Its dipole axis is inclined by less than 0.2 deg with respect to its rotation axis. Rotationally driven convection of magnetospheric plasma breaks the axisymmetry of its external magnetic field. Field aligned currents transfer angular momentum from the planet to a tongue of outflowing plasma. This transfer slows the rate of rotation of the ionosphere relative to that of the underlying atmosphere. The currents are the source for the non-axisymmetric components of the field. The common rotation rates of these components and Saturn's kilometric radio (SKR) bursts is that of the plasma near the orbit of Enceladus, and by extension the rotation rate in the ionosphere to which this plasma is coupled. That rate tells us nothing about the rotation rate of Saturn's deep interior. Of that we remain ignorant. Magnetic perturbations with magnitudes similar to those observed by Cassini are produced for Mdot ~ 10^4 g/s, a value similar to estimates for the rate of product...

  3. Holographic description of strongly correlated electrons in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J

    2013-01-01

    We study the Fermi level structure of (2+1)-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. We compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators. As expecte...

  4. CURVATURE RELATION OF WAVE FRONT AND WAVE CHANGING IN EXTERNAL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shen-quan; SONG Le

    2005-01-01

    The changing of wave structure in excitable media in external field is studied and the curvature relation of wave front is analyzed. Under external stimulus the normal velocity of wave front has linear relation with mean curvature of wave front, plane velocity and external field. The simulation methods have been used to analyze BarEiswirth model with external field and obtain the wave pattern of excitable media contained external stimulus. These theoretical analysis and simulation results are identical with experiments of BZ reaction. So the results here theoretically explain the BZ phenomenon under external field and the simulation results here have rich wave patterns.

  5. Interfacing external sensors with Android smartphones through near field communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikanger, Tore; Häkkinen, Juha; Schuss, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present and evaluate a new approach to communicate with inter-integrated circuit (I2C) enabled circuits such as sensors over near field communication (NFC). The NFC-to-I2C interface was designed using a non-standard NFC command to control the I2C bus directly from a smartphone, which was controlling both, the read and write operations on the I2C bus. The NFC-to-I2C interface was reporting back the data bytes on the bus to the smartphone when the transaction was completed successfully. The proposed system was tested experimentally, both, with write and read requests to a commercial microcontroller featuring a hardware I2C port, as well as reading a commercial I2C enabled humidity and temperature sensor. We present experimental results of the system which show that our approach enables an easy interface between smartphones and external sensors. Interfacing external sensors is useful and beneficial for smartphone users, especially, if certain types of sensors are not available on smartphones.

  6. Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshghi, M. [Islamic Azad University, Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehraban, H. [Semnan University, Faculty of Physics, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ikhdair, S.M. [An-Najah National University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Near East University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus (Turkey)

    2016-07-15

    We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states. (orig.)

  7. Ferrofluid nucleus phase transitions in an external uniform magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. M. Tanygin; S. I. Shulyma; V. F. Kovalenko; M. V. Petrychuk

    2015-01-01

    The phase transition between a massive dense phase and a diluted superparamagnetic phase has been studied by means of a direct molecular dynamics simulation. The equilibrium structures of the ferrofluid aggregate nucleus are obtained for different values of a temperature and an external magnetic field magnitude. An approximate match of experiment and simulation has been shown for the ferrofluid phase diagram coordinates “field–temperature”. The provided phase coexistence curve has an opposite trend comparing to some of known theoretical results. This contradiction has been discussed. For given experimental parameters, it has been concluded that the present results describe more precisely the transition from linear chains to a dense globes phase. The theoretical concepts which provide the opposite binodal curve dependency trend match other experimental conditions:a diluted ferrofluid, a high particle coating rate, a high temperature, and/or a less particles coupling constant value.

  8. Recurrence spectra of He atoms in strong external fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Shenglu; LI Hongyun; WANG Dehua; ZHAO Wenli; GAO Feng

    2004-01-01

    By employing a model potential including the electron exchange energy, we extend the semiclassical closed orbit theory to study the multielectron atoms. Using special region-splitting consistent and iterative method, we figure out the closed orbits in the corresponding classical system and calculate the recurrence spectra of triplet helium atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields at scaled energy ε = -0.03, n≈40, m = 0.The core-scattering effects have been taken into account, which lead to more peaks in the spectra. It has also been confirmed by means of the direct comparison between the spectral portrait in such a plot and those of hydrogen case. In order to compare the theoretic results with experiment, we investigate the closed orbits and recurrence spectra of helium atoms for the similar exchange potential but applied only by single electric field at scaled energy s= -2.7 case. The spectra are in good agreement with the experimental observation. We conclude that our model is correct and it is necessary to consider the exchange effect for determining the photoabsorption spectra of multielectron atoms in strong external fields.

  9. Explicit Piecewise Smooth Solutions of Landau-Lifshitz Equation with Discontinuous External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan-shan Yang; Yun-zhang Zhang; Li-min Liu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we shall construct some explicit piecewise smooth(global continuous)solutions as well as blow up solutions to the multidimensional Landau-Lifshitz equation,subject to the external magnetic fields being both discontinuous and unbounded.When the external magnetic field is continuous,some explicit exact smooth solutions and blow up solution are also constructed.We also establish some necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure that the solution of multidimensional Landau-Lifshitz equation with external magnetic field converges to the solution of equation without external magnetic field when the external magnetic field tends to zero.

  10. Supporting Dictation Speech Recognition Error Correction: The Impact of External Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongmei; Zhou, Lina

    2011-01-01

    Although speech recognition technology has made remarkable progress, its wide adoption is still restricted by notable effort made and frustration experienced by users while correcting speech recognition errors. One of the promising ways to improve error correction is by providing user support. Although support mechanisms have been proposed for…

  11. Supporting Dictation Speech Recognition Error Correction: The Impact of External Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongmei; Zhou, Lina

    2011-01-01

    Although speech recognition technology has made remarkable progress, its wide adoption is still restricted by notable effort made and frustration experienced by users while correcting speech recognition errors. One of the promising ways to improve error correction is by providing user support. Although support mechanisms have been proposed for…

  12. The Electron Propagator in External Electromagnetic Fields in Lower Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Murguia, Gabriela; Sanchez, Angel; Reyes, Edward

    2009-01-01

    We study the electron propagator in quantum electrodynamics in lower dimensions. In the case of free electrons, it is well known that the propagator in momentum space takes the simple form $S_F(p)=1/(\\gamma\\cdot p-m)$. In the presence of external electromagnetic fields, electron asymptotic states are no longer plane-waves, and hence the propagator in the basis of momentum eigenstates has a more intricate form. Nevertheless, in the basis of the eigenfunctions of the operator $(\\gamma\\cdot \\Pi)^2$, where $\\Pi_\\mu$ is the canonical momentum operator, it acquires the free form $S_F(p)=1/(\\gamma\\cdot \\bar{p}-m)$ where $\\bar{p}_\\mu$ depends on the dynamical quantum numbers. We construct the electron propagator in the basis of the $(\\gamma\\cdot \\Pi)^2$ eigenfunctions. In the (2+1)-dimensional case, we obtain it in an irreducible representation of the Clifford algebra incorporating to all orders the effects of a magnetic field of arbitrary spatial shape pointing perpendicularly to the plane of motion of the electrons...

  13. Adaptive tracking control for double-pendulum overhead cranes subject to tracking error limitation, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menghua; Ma, Xin; Rong, Xuewen; Tian, Xincheng; Li, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    In a practical application, overhead cranes are usually subjected to system parameter uncertainties, such as uncertain payload masses, cable lengths, frictions, and external disturbances, such as air resistance. Most existing crane control methods treat the payload swing as that of a single-pendulum. However, certain types of payloads and hoisting mechanisms result in double-pendulum dynamics. The double-pendulum effects will make most existing crane control methods fail to work normally. Therefore, an adaptive tracking controller for double-pendulum overhead cranes subject to parametric uncertainties and external disturbances is developed in this paper. The proposed adaptive tracking control method guarantees that the trolley tracking error is always within a prior set of boundary conditions and converges to zero rapidly. The asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system's equilibrium point is assured by Lyapunov techniques and Barbalat's Lemma. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive tracking control method is robust with respect to system parametric uncertainties and external disturbances.

  14. Detection of reflector surface error from near-field data: Effect of edge diffracted field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrette, Alan R.; Lee, Shong W.; Acosta, Roberto J.

    1987-01-01

    The surface accuracy of large reflector antennas must be maintained within certain tolerances if high gain/low sidelobe performance is to be achieved. Thus the measurement of the surface profile is an important part of the quality control procedure when constructing antennas of this type. An efficient method for surface profile measurement has been proposed, i.e., the reflector surface is calculated from the measured near-field phase data using the theory of geometric optics. For a surface profile calculation of this kind, it is necessary to know the margin of error built into the method of calculation. This will enable a specification of the tolerance from which the surface profile can be determined. When calculating the surface profile from near-field phase data, there are two main sources of error. The first is the measurement error in near-field phase data. The second arises from the edge diffracted fields that are superimposed on the reflected fields in the measured near-field data. The error in the calculated surface profile produced by the edge diffracted fields is examined.

  15. Generalized local-frame-transformation theory for excited species in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakeas, P.; Greene, Chris H.; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-07-01

    A rigorous theoretical framework is developed for a generalized local-frame-transformation theory (GLFT). The GLFT is applicable to the following systems: Rydberg atoms or molecules in an electric field and negative ions in any combination of electric and/or magnetic fields. A first test application to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field demonstrates dramatic improvement over the first version of the local-frame-transformation theory developed initially by U. Fano [Phys. Rev. A 24, 619 (1981), 10.1103/PhysRevA.24.619] and D. A. Harmin [Phys. Rev. A 26, 2656 (1982), 10.1103/PhysRevA.26.2656]. This revised GLFT theory yields nontrivial corrections because it now includes the full on-shell Hilbert space without adopting the truncations in the original theory. Comparisons of the semianalytical GLFT Stark spectra with ab initio numerical simulations yield errors in the range of a few tens of MHz, an improvement over the original Fano-Harmin theory, whose errors are 10-100 times larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet most modern experimental standards.

  16. A hint on the external field problem for matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhov, L. (Steklov Mathematical Inst., Moscow (USSR)); Makeenko, Y. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark) Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-03-26

    We reexamine the external field problem for NxN hermitian one-matrix model. We prove an equivalence of the models with the potentials tr ((1/2N)X{sup 2}+log X-{Lambda}X) and {Sigma}{sub k=1}{sup {infinity}}t{sub k} to X{sup k} provided the matrix {Lambda} is related to {l brace}t{sub k}{r brace} by t{sub k}=(1/k)tr{Lambda}{sup -k}-(N/2){delta}{sub k2}. Based on this equivalence we formulate a method for calculating the partition function by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations order by order of genus expansion. Explicit calculations of the partition function and of correlators of conformal operators with the puncture operator are presented in genus one. These results support the conjecture that our models are associated with the c=1 case in the same sense as the Kontsevich model describes c=0. (orig.).

  17. Effect of External Disturbing Gravity Field on Spacecraft Guidance and Surveying Line Layout for Marine Gravity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Motao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Centred on the support requirement of flying track control for a long range spacecraft, a detail research is made on the computation of external disturbing gravity field, the survey accuracy of gravity anomaly on the earth' surface and the program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey. Firstly, the solution expression of navigation error for a long range spacecraft is analyzed and modified, and the influence of the earth's gravity field on flying track of spacecraft is evaluated. Then with a given limited quota of biased error of spacecraft drop point, the accuracy requirement for calculating the external disturbing gravity field is discussed and researched. Secondly, the data truncation error and the propagated data error are studied and estimated, and the quotas of survey resolution and computation accuracy for gravity anomaly on the earth' surface are determined. Finally, based on the above quotas, a corresponding program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey is proposed. A numerical test has been made to prove the reasonableness and validity of the suggested program.

  18. Error field penetration and locking to the backward propagating wave

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, John M; Brennan, Dylan P

    2015-01-01

    Resonant field amplification or error field penetration involves driving a weakly stable tearing perturbation in a rotating toroidal plasma. In this paper it is shown that the locking characteristics for modes with finite real frequencies $\\omega_{r}$ are quite different from the conventional results. A calculation of the tearing mode amplitude assuming modes with frequencies $\\pm\\omega_{r}$ in the plasma frame shows that it is maximized when the frequency of the stable backward propagating mode ($-\\omega_{r}$) in the lab frame is zero, i.e. when $v=\\omega_{r}/k$. Even more importantly, the locking torque is exactly zero at the mode phase velocity, with a pronounced peak at just higher rotation, leading to a locked state with plasma velocity $v$ just above the mode phase velocity in the lab frame. Real frequencies $\\pm\\omega_{r}$, leading to a $v\\rightarrow-v$ symmetry, are known to occur due to the Glasser effect [A.H. Glasser, J.M. Greene, and J.M. Johnson, Phys. Fluids {\\bf 19}, 567 (1976).] for modes in t...

  19. The dynamics of coupled atom and field assisted by continuous external pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlak, G.; Hernandez, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Starostenko, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Electronica, Sistemas y Mecatronica, Universidad de las Americas, 72820 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The dynamics of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field (driving Jaynes-Cummings model) is studied. When the initial field is prepared in a coherent state, the dynamics strongly depends on the algebraic sum of both fields. If this sum is zero (the compensative case) in the system, only the vacuum Rabi oscillations occur. The results with dissipation and external field detuning from the cavity field are also discussed. (Author)

  20. Entanglement in Anisotropic Heisenberg Model with Non-Uniform External Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-Feng; CAO Jun-Peng; WANG Yu-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study entanglement properties of the three-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model with both uniform and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Analytic expressions for the measures of entanglement at the ground state are obtained. We show that the pairwise entanglement and global entanglement of the system at the ground state clearly depend on the strength and configuration of external fields. The entanglement between some pairs can be enhanced by non-uniform external fields.

  1. Galois Field Based Very Fast and Compact Error Correcting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Sindhu.A,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the technology is improving the memory devices are becoming larger, so powerful error correction codes are needed. Error correction codes are commonly used to protect memories from soft errors, which change the logical value of memory cells without damaging the circuit. These codes can correct a large number of errors, but generally require complex decoders. In order to avoid this decoding complexity, in this project it uses Euclidean geometry LDPC codes with one step majority decoding technique. This method detects words having error in the first iteration of the majority logic decoding process and reduces the decoding time by stopping the decoding process when no errors are detected as well as reduces the memory access time. And the result obtained through this technique also proves that it is an effective and compact error correcting technique.

  2. Entropic repulsion of an interface in an external field

    OpenAIRE

    Velenik, Yvan Alain

    2004-01-01

    We consider an interface above an attractive hard wall in the complete wetting regime, and submitted to the action of an external increasing, convex potential, and study its delocalization as the intensity of this potential vanishes. Our main motivation is the analysis of critical prewetting, which corresponds to the choice of a linear external potential. We also present partial results on critical prewetting in the two dimensional Ising model, as well as a few (weak) results on pathwise esti...

  3. Using field inversion to quantify functional errors in turbulence closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand Pratap; Duraisamy, Karthik

    2016-04-01

    A data-informed approach is presented with the objective of quantifying errors and uncertainties in the functional forms of turbulence closure models. The approach creates modeling information from higher-fidelity simulations and experimental data. Specifically, a Bayesian formalism is adopted to infer discrepancies in the source terms of transport equations. A key enabling idea is the transformation of the functional inversion procedure (which is inherently infinite-dimensional) into a finite-dimensional problem in which the distribution of the unknown function is estimated at discrete mesh locations in the computational domain. This allows for the use of an efficient adjoint-driven inversion procedure. The output of the inversion is a full-field of discrepancy that provides hitherto inaccessible modeling information. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by applying it to a number of problems including channel flow, shock-boundary layer interactions, and flows with curvature and separation. In all these cases, the posterior model correlates well with the data. Furthermore, it is shown that even if limited data (such as surface pressures) are used, the accuracy of the inferred solution is improved over the entire computational domain. The results suggest that, by directly addressing the connection between physical data and model discrepancies, the field inversion approach materially enhances the value of computational and experimental data for model improvement. The resulting information can be used by the modeler as a guiding tool to design more accurate model forms, or serve as input to machine learning algorithms to directly replace deficient modeling terms.

  4. RANDOM AND SYSTEMATIC FIELD ERRORS IN THE SNS RING: A STUDY OF THEIR EFFECTS AND COMPENSATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER,C.J.; LEE,Y.Y.; WENG,W.T.

    1998-06-22

    The Accumulator Ring for the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l] is to accept a 1 ms beam pulse from a 1 GeV Proton Linac at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. For each beam pulse, 10{sup 14} protons (some 1,000 turns) are to be accumulated via charge-exchange injection and then promptly extracted to an external target for the production of neutrons by spallation. At this very high intensity, stringent limits (less than two parts in 10,000 per pulse) on beam loss during accumulation must be imposed in order to keep activation of ring components at an acceptable level. To stay within the desired limit, the effects of random and systematic field errors in the ring require careful attention. This paper describes the authors studies of these effects and the magnetic corrector schemes for their compensation.

  5. Effects of Potassium Currents upon Action Potential of Cardiac Cells Exposed to External Electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Ying Zhang; Xiao-Feng Pang

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to high-voltage electric fields would influence the electro cardiogram both in experimental animate and human beings. The effects of the external electric fields upon action potential of cardiac cells are studied in this paper based on the dynamical model, LR91. Fourth order Runger-Kuta is used to analyze the change of potassium ion channels exposed to external electric fields in detail. Results indicate that external electric fields could influence the current of potassium ion by adding an induced component voltage on membrane. This phenomenon might be one of the reasons of heart rate anomaly under the high-voltage electric fields.

  6. Generalized local frame transformation theory for Rydberg atoms in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakeas, Panagiotis; Robicheaux, Francis; Greene, Chris H.

    2016-05-01

    In this work a rigorous theoretical framework is developed generalizing the local frame transformation theory (GLFT) and it is applied to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field. The resulting development is compared with previous theoretical treatments, including the first version of local frame transformation theory, developed initially by Fano and Harmin. Our revised version of the theory yields non-trivial corrections because we now take into account the full Hilbert space on the energy shell without adopting truncations utilized by the original Fano-Harmin theory. The semi-analytical calculations from GLFT approach are compared with ab initio numerical simulations yielding errors of few tens of MHz whereas the errors in the original Fano-Harmin theory are one or two orders of magnitude larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet modern experimental standards. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award numbers DE-SC0010545 (for PG and CHG) and DE-SC0012193 (for FR).

  7. External-field shifts in precision spectroscopy of hydrogen molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [INRNE, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Korobov, Vladimir [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schiller, Stephan [Heinrich-Heine-Universitat Dusseldorf, Institut fur Experimentalphysik (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    The Effective Hamiltonian of the hydrogen molecular ions is a convenient tool for the evaluation of the shift of the energy levels of the ro-vibrational states and the frequencies of the transitions between them, due to external electric and magnetic fields. Using the Effective Hamiltonian, composite frequencies of suppressed susceptibility to external fields are constructed.

  8. Linear response of a pre- and post-selected system to an external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Masashi, E-mail: ban.masashi@ocha.ac.jp

    2015-02-06

    Linear response to an external field is studied for a quantum system with pre- and post-selection. Effects of an external field on strong and weak values of a system observable are found. The external field applied after the measurement of the observable influences the linear response of the system through post-selection. A time-symmetric property in the linear response is found. - Highlights: • The linear response theory is applied to a quantum system with pre-selection and post-selection. • It is found how an external field affects strong and weak values of a measured system observable • Not only an external field before measurement but also one after measurement influences the linear response due to the post-selection.

  9. Macro-Behaviour of Agents' Opinion under Influence of an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yun-Feng; CAI Xu

    2007-01-01

    @@ We propose a model to study the evolution of opinion under the influence of an external field on small world network. The macro-behaviour of agents' opinion and the relative change rate as time elapses are studied. The external field is found to play an important role in making the opinion s(t) balance or increase, and without the influence of the external field, the relative change rate γ(t) shows nonlinear increasing behaviour as time runs.What is more, this nonlinear increasing behaviour is independent of the initial condition, the strength of the external field and the time that we cancel the external field. The results may reflect some phenomena in our society, such as the function of the macro-control in China or the mass media in our society.

  10. Multi-field nanoindentation apparatus for measuring local mechanical properties of materials in external magnetic and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Hao; Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Faxin; Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Nano/micro-scale mechanical properties of multiferroic materials can be controlled by the external magnetic or electric field due to the coupling interaction. For the first time, a modularized multi-field nanoindentation apparatus for carrying out testing on materials in external magnetostatic/electrostatic field is constructed. Technical issues, such as the application of magnetic/electric field and the processes to diminish the interference between external fields and the other parts of the apparatus, are addressed. Tests on calibration specimen indicate the feasibility of the apparatus. The load-displacement curves of ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric materials in the presence/absence of external fields reveal the small-scale magnetomechanical and electromechanical coupling, showing as the Delta-E and Delta-H effects, i.e. the magnetic/electric field induced changes in the apparent elastic modulus and indentation hardness.

  11. External Fields and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2008-01-01

    Using the Sakai-Sugimoto model we study the effect of an external magnetic field on the dynamics of fundamental flavours in both the confined and deconfined phases of a large N_c gauge theory. We find that an external magnetic field promotes chiral symmetry breaking, consistent with the ``magnetic catalysis'' observed in the field theory literature, and seen in other studies using holographic duals. The external field increases the separation between the deconfinement temperature and the chiral symmetry restoring temperature. In the deconfined phase we investigate the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram and observe, for example, there exists a maximum critical temperature (at which symmetry is restored) for very large magnetic field. We find that this and certain other phenomena persist for the Sakai-Sugimoto type models with probe branes of diverse dimensions. We comment briefly on the dynamics in the presence of an external electric field.

  12. Glassy behaviour of random field Ising spins on Bethe lattice in external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Bannora; Galal Ismail; Wafaa Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamics and the phase diagram of random field Ising model (RFIM) on Bethe lattice are studied by using a replica trick. This lattice is placed in an external magnetic field (B). A Gaussian distribution of random field (hi) with zero mean and variance = H2RF is considered. The free-energy (F), the magnetization (M) and the order parameter (q) are investigated for several values of coordination number (z). The phase diagram shows several interesting behaviours and presents tricritical point at critical temperature TC = J/k and when HRF = 0 for finite z. The free-energy (F) values increase as T increases for different intensities of random field (HRF) and finite z. The internal energy (U) has a similar behaviour to that obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations. The ground state of magnetization decreases as the intensity of random field HRF increases. The ferromagnetic (FM)-paramagnetic (PM) phase boundary is clearly observed only when z →∞. While FM-PM-spin glass (SG) phase boundaries are present for finite z. The magnetic susceptibility (X) shows a sharp cusp at TC in a small random field for finite z and rounded different peaks on increasing HRF.

  13. Effects of external fields, dimension and polarization on the resonance fluorescence of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaseghi, B., E-mail: vaseghi@mail.yu.ac.ir; Razavi, S.M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper simultaneous effects of external electric and magnetic fields, dimension and polarization on the resonance fluorescence spectrum and photon statistics of a spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement are investigated. With special attention to the optical scattering processes resonance fluorescence spectrum and second-order correlation function are calculated and plotted for different external parameters. Our results show the occurrence of resonance fluorescence similar to atomic systems and considerable effects of external fields, quantum confinement and light polarization on the resonance fluorescence spectrum and second-order correlation function in the quantum dot systems. The existence of Mollow triplets and photon antibunching are strongly depend on these external agents.

  14. Effects of external fields, dimension and polarization on the resonance fluorescence of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, B.; Razavi, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper simultaneous effects of external electric and magnetic fields, dimension and polarization on the resonance fluorescence spectrum and photon statistics of a spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement are investigated. With special attention to the optical scattering processes resonance fluorescence spectrum and second-order correlation function are calculated and plotted for different external parameters. Our results show the occurrence of resonance fluorescence similar to atomic systems and considerable effects of external fields, quantum confinement and light polarization on the resonance fluorescence spectrum and second-order correlation function in the quantum dot systems. The existence of Mollow triplets and photon antibunching are strongly depend on these external agents.

  15. Influence of External Magnetic Fields on Tunneling of Spin-1 Bose Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhao-Xian; JIAO Zhi-Yong; SUN Jin-Zuo

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the influence of the external magnetic fields on tunneling of the spin-1 Bose condensate. We find that the population transfer between spin-0 and spin-±1 exhibits the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field and a combination of static and cosinusoidal one, respectively. Compared with the longitudinal component of the external magnetic field, the smaller the transverse component of the magnetic field is, the larger the time scale of exhibiting the step structure does. The tunneling current may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior when the ratio of the transverse component of the magnetic field is smaller than that of the longitudinal component, otherwise it exhibits a damply oscillating behavior. This means that the dynamical spin localization can be adjusted by the external magnetic fields.

  16. External magnetic fields affect the biological impacts of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Ghavami, Mahdi; Azhdarzadeh, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are recognized as one of the promising nanomaterials for applications in various field of nanomedicine such as targeted imaging/drug delivery, tissue engineering, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Besides their suitable biocompatibility, SPIONs' unique magnetic properties make them an outstanding candidate for theranostic nanomedicine. Very recent progress in the field revealed that the presence of external magnetic fields may cause considerable amount of SPIONs' agglomeration in their colloidal suspension. As variation of physicochemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles has strong effect on their biological outcomes, one can expect that the SPIONs' agglomeration in the presence of external magnetic fields could change their well-recognized biological impacts. In this case, here, we probed the cellular uptake and toxicity of the SPIONs before and after exposure to external magnetic fields. We found that the external magnetic fields can affect the biological outcome of magnetic nanoparticles.

  17. "Charged" phonons in an external field: a QED analog with Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Leizerovitch, Shay

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for using ultracold atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, to form an analog model of a relativistic massive field that carries "charge" and interacts with an external non-dynamical gauge field. Such a "scalar QED" analog model, may be useful for simulating certain of QFT involving charged particles. In particular, the Schwinger pair-creation of "charged" phonons in a constant external field, and vacuum instability.

  18. Influence of External Magnetic Field on Anomalous Skin Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ming; WANG You-Nian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using a one-dimensional slab model, we study the influence of the external static magnetic field on the anomalous skin effects in the inductively coupled plasma. The rf electromagnetic field in the plasma is determined by solving the linearized Boltzmann equation incorporating with the Maxwell equations. The numerical results show that,due to the existence of the external magnetic field, the anomalous skin effects are greatly enhanced and the number of regions with negative absorption is decreased.

  19. Effects of high external electric fields on protein conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bramanti, Alessandro; Maruccio, Giuseppe; del Mercato, Loretta Laureana; Chiuri, Rocco; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross

    2005-06-01

    Resistance of biomolecules to high electric fields is a main concern for nanobioelectronics/nanobiosensing applications, and it is also a relevant issue from a fundamental perspective, to understand the dielectric properties and structural dynamics of proteins. In nanoscale devices, biomolecules may experience electric fields as high as 107 V/m in order to elicit charge transport/transfer. Understanding the effects of such fields on their structural integrity is thus crucial to assess the reliability of biomolecular devices. In this study, we show experimental evidence for the retention of native-like fold pattern by proteins embedded in high electric fields. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, deposited onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying high static electric fields (up to 106-107 V/m). The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. This behavior is also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the intrinsic intra-protein electric fields. As the general features of such inner fields are not peculiar of azurin, the conclusions presented here should have general validity.

  20. Constant External Fields in Gauge Theory and the Spin 0, 1/2, 1 Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, M; Schubert, C; Reuter, Martin; Schmidt, Michael G.; Schubert, Christian

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the usefulness of the ``string-inspired technique'' for gauge theory calculations in a constant external field background. Our approach is based on Strassler's worldline path integral approach to the Bern-Kosower formalism, and on the construction of worldline (super--) Green's functions incorporating external fields as well as internal propagators. The worldline path integral representation of the gluon loop is reexamined in detail. We calculate the two-loop effective actions induced for a constant external field by a scalar and spinor loop, and the corresponding one-loop effective action in the gluon loop case.

  1. Bandgap engineering of rippled MoS2 monolayer under external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jingshan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Xiaofeng; Feng, Ji

    2013-04-01

    In this letter we propose a universal strategy combining external electric field with the ripple of membrane to tune the bandgap of semiconducting atomic monolayer. By first-principles calculations we show that the bandgap of rippled MoS2 monolayer can be tuned in a large range by vertical external electric field, which is expected to have little effect on MoS2 monolayer. This phenomenon can be explained from charge redistribution under external electric field by a simple model. This may open an avenue of optimizing monolayer MoS2 for electronic and optoelectronic applications by surface patterning.

  2. Quantum transport of the semiconductor pump: Due to an axial external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yun-Chang, E-mail: phyxiaofan@163.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Wang, Ri-Xing, E-mail: wangrixing@sina.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Deng, Wei-Ying, E-mail: weiyindeng@gmail.com [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Parametric semiconductor pump modulated by the external field is investigated. The pump center attaching to two normal leads is driven by the potentials formed in the interfaces. With the Floquet scattering matrix method, the pumped currents modulated by the parameters are studied. Results reveal that the charge and spin currents pumped from the system can be strengthen by the external field besides the potentials. Directed spin currents can be pumped more strongly than the charge currents, and even the pure spin currents can be achieved in some external field couplings to the pump parameters.

  3. Thermodynamics of relativistic Newton—Wigner particle in external potential field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, A. S.; Filinov, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic properties of relativistic spinless particle described by the Klein-Gordon equation have been studied using the Newton-Wigner theory of particle in external potential field. Concept of Wiener path integral was extended on relativistic case. A new path integral Monte-Carlo method was developed for relativistic particle in external potential field. The bounds of applicability of available analytical approaches and related results have been specified by comparison with Monte-Carlo calculations. Developed path integral formalism can be directly extended on systems of many identical Newton-Wigner particles, which interact with external field and each other.

  4. Disorder Chaos in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model with External Field

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Consider a spin system obtained by coupling two distinct Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) models with the same temperature and external field whose Hamiltonians are correlated. The disorder chaos conjecture for the SK model states that the overlap under the corresponding Gibbs measure is essentially concentrated at a single value. In the absence of external field, this statement was first confirmed by Chatterjee. In the present paper, using Guerra's replica symmetry-breaking bound, we prove that the SK model is also chaotic in the presence of external field and the position of the overlap is determined by an equation related to Guerra's bound and the Parisi measure.

  5. Phase diagrams of mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2014-11-14

    We present a mean field theory to describe phase behaviors in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external magnetic or electric field. Taking into account a chiral coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal under the external field, we examine twist-untwist phase transitions and phase separations in the mixtures. It is found that a cholesteric-nematic phase transition can be induced by not only the external field but also concentration and temperature. Depending on the strength of the external field, we predict cholesteric-paranematic (Ch+pN), nematic-paranematic (N+pN), cholesteric-nematic (Ch+N) phase separations, etc., on the temperature-concentration plane. We also discuss mixtures of a non-chiral nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant.

  6. Accommodation: The role of the external muscles of the eye: A consideration of refractive errors in relation to extraocular malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, B K

    2014-11-01

    Speculation as to optical malfunction has led to dissatisfaction with the theory that the lens is the sole agent in accommodation and to the suggestion that other parts of the eye are also conjointly involved. Around half-a-century ago, Robert Brooks Simpkins suggested that the mechanical features of the human eye were precisely such as to allow for a lengthening of the globe when the eye accommodated. Simpkins was not an optical man but his theory is both imaginative and comprehensive and deserves consideration. It is submitted here that accommodation is in fact a twofold process, and that although involving the lens, is achieved primarily by means of a give - and - take interplay between adducting and abducting external muscles, whereby an elongation of the eyeball is brought about by a stretching of the delicate elastic fibres immediately behind the cornea. The three muscles responsible for convergence (superior, internal and inferior recti) all pull from in front backwards, while of the three abductors (external rectus and the two obliques) the obliques pull from behind forwards, allowing for an easy elongation as the eye turns inwards and a return to its original length as the abducting muscles regain their former tension, returning the eye to distance vision. In refractive errors, the altered length of the eyeball disturbs the harmonious give - and - take relationship between adductors and abductors. Such stresses are likely to be perpetuated and the error exacerbated. Speculation is not directed towards a search for a possible cause of the muscular imbalance, since none is suspected. Muscles not used rapidly lose tone, as evidenced after removal of a limb from plaster. Early attention to the need for restorative exercise is essential and results usually impressive. If flexibility of the external muscles of the eyes is essential for continuing good sight, presbyopia can be avoided and with it the supposed necessity of glasses in middle life. Early attention

  7. Facets of Tunneling Particle production in external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of particle production in an uniform electric field and Schwarzchild-like spacetimes. Both problems can be reduced to solving an effective one-dimensional Schrodinger equation with a potential barrier. In the electric field case, the potential is that of an inverted oscillator -x^2 while in the case of Schwarchild-like spacetimes, the potential is of the form -1/x^2 near the horizon. The transmission and reflection coefficients can easily be obtained for both potentials. To describe particle production, these coefficients have to be suitably interpreted. In the case of the electric field, the standard Bogoliubov coefficients can be identified and the standard gauge invariant result is recovered. However, for Schwarzchild-like spacetimes, such a tunnelling interpretation appears to be invalid. The Bogoliubov coefficients cannot be determined by using an identification process similar to that invoked in the case of the electric field. The reason for such a discrepancy appea...

  8. Infrared polarimetry and the magnetic field in external galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay

    1990-01-01

    Here researchers report for the first time infrared polarimetry of the normal edge on spiral NGC 4565 and the interacting pair NGC 3690/IC 694 (Arp 299). These observations, as well as previous observations, were made with the Minnesota Infrared Polarimeter on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility during the past year. The goal is to explore the magnetic field geometry in these galaxies and to determine the extent to which the field is ordered and uniform.

  9. On the string-inspired approach to QED in external field

    CERN Document Server

    Shaisultanov, R Z

    1995-01-01

    Strassler's formulation of the string-derived Bern-Kosower formalism is extended to consider QED processes in homogeneous constant external field. A compact expression for the contribution of the one-loop with arbitrary number of external photon lines is given for scalar QED. Extension to spinor QED is shortly discussed.

  10. Wetting of sessile water drop under an external electrical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancauwenberghe, Valerie; di Marco, Paolo; Brutin, David; Amu Collaboration; Unipi Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    The enhancement of heat and mass transfer using a static electric field is an interesting process for industrial applications, due to its low energy consumption and potentially high level of evaporation rate enhancement. However, to date, this phenomenon is still not understood in the context of the evaporation of sessile drops. We previously synthesized the state of the art concerning the effect of an electric field on sessile drops with a focus on the change of contact angle and shape and the influence of the evaporation rate [1]. We present here the preliminary results of an new experiment set-up. The novelty of the set-up is the drop injection from the bottom that allows to generate safety the droplet under the electrostatic field. The evaporation at room temperature of water drops having three different volumes has been investigated under an electric field up to 10.5 kV/cm. The time evolutions of the contact angles, volumes and diameters have been analysed. As reported in the literature, the drop elongate along the direction of the electric field. Despite the hysteresis effect of the contact angle, the receding contact angle increases with the strength of the electric field. This is clearly observable for the small drops for which the gravity effect can be neglected.

  11. Pull-in control due to Casimir forces using external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R; Cocoletzi, G H

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of the pull-in control in capacitive micro switches actuated by Casimir forces, using external magnetic fields. The external magnetic fields induces an optical anisotropy due to the excitation of magneto plasmons, that reduces the Casimir force. The calculations are performed in the Voigt configuration, and the results show that as the magnetic field increases the system becomes more stable. The detachment length for a cantilever is also calculated for a cantilever, showing that it increases with increasing magnetic field. At the pull-in separation, the stiffness of the system decreases with increasing magnetic field.

  12. Engineering Topological Surface State of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 under external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Lian, Ruqian; Yang, Yanmin; Xu, Guigui; Zhong, Kehua; Huang, Zhigao

    2017-03-01

    External electric field control of topological surface states (SSs) is significant for the next generation of condensed matter research and topological quantum devices. Here, we present a first-principles study of the SSs in the magnetic topological insulator (MTI) Cr-doped Bi2Se3 under external electric field. The charge transfer, electric potential, band structure and magnetism of the pure and Cr doped Bi2Se3 film have been investigated. It is found that the competition between charge transfer and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) will lead to an electrically tunable band gap in Bi2Se3 film under external electric field. As Cr atom doped, the charge transfer of Bi2Se3 film under external electric field obviously decreases. Remarkably, the band gap of Cr doped Bi2Se3 film can be greatly engineered by the external electric field due to its special band structure. Furthermore, magnetic coupling of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 could be even mediated via the control of electric field. It is demonstrated that external electric field plays an important role on the electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 film. Our results may promote the development of electronic and spintronic applications of magnetic topological insulator.

  13. Effects of an external magnetic field in pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM), Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, C.P. 09790, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: tupacgarcia@yahoo.com; Posada, E. de [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73, Cordemex, C.P. 97130 Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Villagran, M. [CCADET, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico DF (Mexico); Ll, J.L. Sanchez [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Bartolo-Perez, P.; Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73, Cordemex, C.P. 97130 Merida, Yuc. (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    Thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition, PLD, on Si (1 0 0) substrates by the ablation of a sintered ceramic SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} target with and without the presence of a nonhomogeneous magnetic field of {mu}{sub 0}H = 0.4 T perpendicular to substrate plane and parallel to the plasma expansion axis. The field was produced by a rectangular-shaped Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet and the substrate was just placed on the magnet surface (Aurora method). An appreciable increment of optical emission due to the presence of the magnetic field was observed, but no film composition change or thickness increment was obtained. It suggests that the increment of the optical emission is due mainly to the electron confinement rather than confinement of ionic species.

  14. Foucault imaging and small-angle electron diffraction in controlled external magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kotani, Atsuhiro; Harada, Ken; Ishii, Yui; Mori, Shigeo

    2016-12-01

    We report a method for acquiring Foucault images and small-angle electron diffraction patterns in external magnetic fields using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any modification. In the electron optical system that we have constructed, external magnetic fields parallel to the optical axis can be controlled using the objective lens pole piece under weak excitation conditions in the Foucault mode and the diffraction mode. We observe two ferromagnetic perovskite-type manganese oxides, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3, in order to visualize magnetic domains and their magnetic responses to external magnetic fields. In rhombohedral-structured LSMO, pinning of magnetic domain walls at crystallographic twin boundaries was found to have a strong influence on the generation of new magnetic domains in external applied magnetic fields.

  15. A Mechanism of ELM Mitigation by External Magnetic Field Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raghvendra; Jhang, H.; Kim, J.-H.; Hahm, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the impact of external magnetic perturbations (EMP) on the stability of ballooning mode (BM). We use: 1) the two-step process; 2) standard four wave interactions. In two-step process, we consider EMP are long wave-length perturbations interacting with short scale BM and generating side-bands of higher harmonics. This calculates contributions from all the high toroidal mode numbers. EMP can modify the dispersion characteristics of BM - the growth spectrum becomes broader in kBM space. The increase in high kBM can lead to the mitigation of an ELM crash by increasing turbulent transport. New nonlinear instability is also found even below the BM threshold at large EMP amplitude. In four wave interaction, EMP act like a short scale pump wave interacting with BM and creating two sidebands. The side-bands couple with the pump and produce the ponderomotive force, magnetic stress at BM frequency. EMP may enhance the BM instability threshold if RMP K->BM RMP and reduce the threshold if K->BM >K->RMP .

  16. Quantum Dynamics of Biological Plasma in the External Coulomb Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasukov, V. V.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lasukova, O. V.

    2013-10-01

    A quantum solution to the truncated Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation with Coulomb convection and linear diffusion is derived. The quantum radiation of biological systems, individual microorganisms (cells, bacteria), and dust plasma particles in the Coulomb field is studied using the foregoing solution.

  17. Surface paraconductivity induced by an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B.Y. (Jack and Pearl Resnik Institute of Advance Technology, Physics Department, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel))

    1993-12-01

    The fluctuating properties of the surface superconducting layers created by an electric field perpendicular to the surface are investigated. Shifts of the critical temperature, heat capacity, and the conductivity above the critical temperature have been calculated for arbitrary relations between the screening and coherence lengths.

  18. An Importance Sampling Scheme for Models in a Strong External Field

    CERN Document Server

    Molkaraie, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    We propose Monte Carlo methods to estimate the partition function of the two-dimensional Ising model in the presence of an external magnetic field. The estimation is done in the dual of the Forney factor graph representing the model. The proposed methods can efficiently compute an estimate of the partition function in a wide range of model parameters. As an example, we consider models that are in a strong external field.

  19. The Potts Model on a Bethe Lattice in an External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, S. V.; Smagin, V. P.

    2017-02-01

    A solution for the Potts model with arbitrary number of states on a Bethe lattice in a nonzero external field has been obtained. A line of first-order phase transitions has been constructed in the temperature - external-field plane, terminating at the point of the second-order phase transition. The magnitude of the magnetization jump on the phase-transition lines has been found, as well as some of the critical exponents characterizing this phase transition.

  20. Investigation of Multiscale Non-equilibrium Flow Dynamics Under External Force Field

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Tianbai

    2016-01-01

    The multiple scale non-equilibrium gaseous flow behavior under external force field is investigated. Both theoretical analysis based on the kinetic model equation and numerical study are presented to demonstrate the dynamic effect of external force on the flow evolution, especially on the non-equilibrium heat flux. The current numerical experiment is based on the well-balanced unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS), which presents accurate solutions in the whole flow regime from the continuum Navier-Stokes solution to the transition and free molecular ones. The heat conduction in the non-equilibrium regime due to the external forcing term is quantitatively investigated. In the lid-driven cavity flow study, due to the external force field the density distribution inside cavity gets stratified and a multiscale non-equilibrium flow transport appears in a single gas dynamic system. With the increment of external forcing term, the flow topological structure changes dramatically, and the temperature gradient, shearing s...

  1. Numerical simulation of a backward-facing step flow in a microchannel with external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-He Yao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A backward-facing step flow in the microchannel with external electric field was investigated numerically by a high-order accuracy upwind compact difference scheme in this work. The Poisson–Boltzmann and Navier–Stokes equations were computed by the high-order scheme, and the results confirmed the ability of the new solver in simulation of micro-scale electric double layer effects. The flow fields were displayed for different Reynolds numbers; the positions of the vortex saddle point of model with external electric field and model without external electric field were compared. The average velocity increases linearly with the electric field intensity; however, the Joule heating effects cannot be neglected when the electric field intensity increases to a certain level.

  2. Thermal entanglement in a mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ model under a nonuniform external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The thermal entanglement in (1/2,1) mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ model is investigated under an external nonuniform magnetic field. In the uniform magnetic field system,the critical magnetic field Bc and critical temperature Tc are increased by increasing the anisotropic parameter k. The degree of magnetic field b plays an important role in improving the critical temperature and enlarging the region of entan-glement in the nonuniform magnetic field system.

  3. The Research and Development of the External Magnetic Field Acting on Electro-Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Menghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development status of the electro-deposition technology under the action of external magnetic field are introduced. The basic characteristics and applied manners of external magnetic field in electro-deposition process are summarized. The acting principle of external magnetic field, the effects of magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD caused by the Lorentz force, and the acting of magnetic force on the metal ions and particles are described. The main actions of external magnetic field include MHD effect, magnetizing force, affecting the physical and chemical properties of the bath, affecting the disperse ability and coverage capacity of bath, affecting the mass transfer process of electro-deposition, affecting the chemical reaction process and current distribution of electrode surface. Some examples of electro-depositing single metal coatings, alloy coatings and composite coatings under action of magnetic field are explained. During the electro-depositing process, the external magnetic field has different degrees of impact on solution properties, mass transfer, charge transfer, content of composited nanoparticles, crystal growth and crystal orientation etc. The specific impact of magnetic field during the electro-depositing is also classified and summarized. The problems that existed in electro-deposition process while applying magnetic field and the next development trend were summarized.

  4. The impact of androgen deprivation therapy on setup errors during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem; Dolek, Yemliha; Ozdemir, Yurday [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Research and Treatment Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Adana (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether setup errors during external beam radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer are influenced by the combination of androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) and RT. Data from 175 patients treated for prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment was as follows: concurrent ADT plus RT, 33 patients (19%); neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT plus RT, 91 patients (52%); RT only, 51 patients (29%). Required couch shifts without rotations were recorded for each megavoltage (MV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, and corresponding alignment shifts were recorded as left-right (x), superior-inferior (y), and anterior-posterior (z). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare shifts by group. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the correlation of couch shifts between groups. Mean prostate shifts and standard deviations (SD) were calculated and pooled to obtain mean or group systematic error (M), SD of systematic error (Σ), and SD of random error (σ). No significant differences were observed in prostate shifts in any direction between the groups. Shifts on CBCT were all less than setup margins. A significant positive correlation was observed between prostate volume and the z-direction prostate shift (r = 0.19, p = 0.04), regardless of ADT group, but not between volume and x- or y-direction shifts (r = 0.04, p = 0.7; r = 0.03, p = 0.7). Random and systematic errors for all patient cohorts and ADT groups were similar. Hormone therapy given concurrently with RT was not found to significantly impact setup errors. Prostate volume was significantly correlated with shifts in the anterior-posterior direction only. (orig.) [German] Ziel war zu untersuchen, ob Konfigurationsfehler bei der externen Radiotherapie (RT) des Prostatakarzinoms durch die Kombination aus Androgendeprivationstherapie (ADT) und RT beeinflusst werden. Retrospektiv wurden die Daten von 175 wegen eines Prostatakarzinoms behandelten Patienten

  5. Use of Earth's magnetic field for mitigating gyroscope errors regardless of magnetic perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Haris; Renaudin, Valérie; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Most portable systems like smart-phones are equipped with low cost consumer grade sensors, making them useful as Pedestrian Navigation Systems (PNS). Measurements of these sensors are severely contaminated by errors caused due to instrumentation and environmental issues rendering the unaided navigation solution with these sensors of limited use. The overall navigation error budget associated with pedestrian navigation can be categorized into position/displacement errors and attitude/orientation errors. Most of the research is conducted for tackling and reducing the displacement errors, which either utilize Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) or special constraints like Zero velocity UPdaTes (ZUPT) and Zero Angular Rate Updates (ZARU). This article targets the orientation/attitude errors encountered in pedestrian navigation and develops a novel sensor fusion technique to utilize the Earth's magnetic field, even perturbed, for attitude and rate gyroscope error estimation in pedestrian navigation environments where it is assumed that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) navigation is denied. As the Earth's magnetic field undergoes severe degradations in pedestrian navigation environments, a novel Quasi-Static magnetic Field (QSF) based attitude and angular rate error estimation technique is developed to effectively use magnetic measurements in highly perturbed environments. The QSF scheme is then used for generating the desired measurements for the proposed Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based attitude estimator. Results indicate that the QSF measurements are capable of effectively estimating attitude and gyroscope errors, reducing the overall navigation error budget by over 80% in urban canyon environment.

  6. Use of Earth’s Magnetic Field for Mitigating Gyroscope Errors Regardless of Magnetic Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haris Afzal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most portable systems like smart-phones are equipped with low cost consumer grade sensors, making them useful as Pedestrian Navigation Systems (PNS. Measurements of these sensors are severely contaminated by errors caused due to instrumentation and environmental issues rendering the unaided navigation solution with these sensors of limited use. The overall navigation error budget associated with pedestrian navigation can be categorized into position/displacement errors and attitude/orientation errors. Most of the research is conducted for tackling and reducing the displacement errors, which either utilize Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR or special constraints like Zero velocity UPdaTes (ZUPT and Zero Angular Rate Updates (ZARU. This article targets the orientation/attitude errors encountered in pedestrian navigation and develops a novel sensor fusion technique to utilize the Earth’s magnetic field, even perturbed, for attitude and rate gyroscope error estimation in pedestrian navigation environments where it is assumed that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS navigation is denied. As the Earth’s magnetic field undergoes severe degradations in pedestrian navigation environments, a novel Quasi-Static magnetic Field (QSF based attitude and angular rate error estimation technique is developed to effectively use magnetic measurements in highly perturbed environments. The QSF scheme is then used for generating the desired measurements for the proposed Extended Kalman Filter (EKF based attitude estimator. Results indicate that the QSF measurements are capable of effectively estimating attitude and gyroscope errors, reducing the overall navigation error budget by over 80% in urban canyon environment.

  7. Properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔帅帅; 彭光雄; 陆振烟; 彭程; 徐建峰

    2015-01-01

    The properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field are investigated in a quark model with density-dependent quark masses. Parameters are determined by stability arguments. It is found that the minimum energy per baryon of the color-flavor locked (MCFL) matter decreases with increasing magnetic-field strength in a certain range, which makes MCFL matter more stable than other phases within a proper magnitude of the external magnetic field. However, if the energy of the field itself is added, the total energy per baryon will increase.

  8. Stainless steel surface wettability control via laser ablation in external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkov, A. A.; Shafeev, G. A.; Barmina, E. V.; Loufardaki, A.; Stratakis, E.

    2016-12-01

    Laser ablation of stainless steel in external electric field (up to 10 kV/cm) is experimentally studied. The dependencies of both morphology and chemical properties of surface structures on laser parameters and electric field strength are investigated. Surface wettability properties of the laser-treated samples are considered by means of contact angle measurement. It is shown that under certain conditions laser irradiation in external electric field can render the surface superhydrophobic. Influence of electric field on the laser surface treatment is discussed on basis of its impact on melt solidification and oxidation processes.

  9. Total cross-section for photon-axion conversions in external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Soa, D V; Tham, T D

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider the conversion of the photon into axion in the external electromagnetic fields, namely in the static fields and in a periodic field of the wave guide. The total cross-sections for the conversion are evaluated in detail. The result shows that with strong strength of external electromagnetic fields, the cross-sections are large enough to measure the axion production. In the wave guide there exists the resonant conversion at the low energies, in which the value of cross-sections is much enhanced

  10. Electron-positron pair production in space-time varying external electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, I A; Shabaev, V M

    2016-01-01

    The Schwinger mechanism of the electron-positron pair production in the presence of strong external electric fields is analyzed numerically for the case of one- and two-dimensional field configurations where the external field depends both on time and one spatial coordinate. In order to provide this analysis, a new efficient numerical approach was developed. The number of particles created is obtained numerically and also compared with the analytical results for several exactly solvable one-dimensional backgrounds. For the case of two-dimensional field configurations a few generic properties of pair-creation process are found. The method employed is described in detail.

  11. Vortex String Dynamics in an External Antisymmetric Tensor Field

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K; Shin, H J

    1999-01-01

    We study the Lund-Regge equation that governs the motion of strings in a constant background antisymmetric tensor field by using the duality between the Lund-Regge equation and the complex sine-Gordon equation. Similar to the cases of vortex filament configurations in fluid dynamics, we find various exact solitonic string configurations which are the analogue of the Kelvin wave, the Hasimoto soliton and the smoke ring. In particular, using the duality relation, we obtain a completely new type of configuration which corresponds to the breather of the complex sine-Gordon equation.

  12. Global-scale external magnetic fields at Mars from Mars Global Surveyor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among those of the terrestrial planets. It is the net result of the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere. Internal fields of crustal origin have been the subject of extensive studies; the focus of our work is identification and characterization of contributions from external magnetic fields using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data. We investigate the magnitude, average spatial structure and temporal variability of the external magnetic field at the MGS mapping altitude of 400 km by first subtracting expected contributions from crustal fields using existing global crustal field models. We identify contributions to the residual dayside fields from two sources: the draped IMF and a source that we interpret to be of ionospheric origin. As observed in previous work, nightside external fields are minimal at mapping orbit altitudes. The IMF contribution changes polarity every 13 days due to the geometry of the heliospheric magnetic field and Mars' orbit. This allows us to calculate the amplitude of the IMF at mapping orbit altitudes. The ionospheric contribution results in a quasi-steady dayside signal in the MGS observations because of the limited local time sampling of the MGS mapping orbit. The ionospheric contribution can be isolated by averaging the external fields over timescales longer than several Carrington rotations, to average out the IMF contribution. We present a global average of the ionopsheric field for the duration of the mapping orbit (2000-2006) and analyze daytime and nightime fields separately. We show that some structure in the time-averaged ionospheric field is organized in the Mars body-fixed frame, due for example, to the influence of crustal fields. We also show that the ionospheric fields vary in amplitude and geometry with martian season. Broader local time coverage over a restricted latitude

  13. Earth's external magnetic fields at low orbital altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Under our Jun. 1987 proposal, Magnetic Signatures of Near-Earth Distributed Currents, we proposed to render operational a modeling procedure that had been previously developed to compute the magnetic effects of distributed currents flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. After adaptation of the software to our computing environment we would apply the model to low altitude satellite orbits and would utilize the MAGSAT data suite to guide the analysis. During the first year, basic computer codes to run model systems of Birkeland and ionospheric currents and several graphical output routines were made operational on a VAX 780 in our research facility. Software performance was evaluated using an input matchstick ionospheric current array, field aligned currents were calculated and magnetic perturbations along hypothetical satellite orbits were calculated. The basic operation of the model was verified. Software routines to analyze and display MAGSAT satellite data in terms of deviations with respect to the earth's internal field were also made operational during the first year effort. The complete set of MAGSAT data to be used for evaluation of the models was received at the end of the first year. A detailed annual report in May 1989 described these first year activities completely. That first annual report is included by reference in this final report. This document summarizes our additional activities during the second year of effort and describes the modeling software, its operation, and includes as an attachment the deliverable computer software specified under the contract.

  14. Externally imposed electric field enhances plant root tip regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Nicolas; Hanna Ougolnikova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In plants, shoot and root regeneration can be induced in the distinctive conditions of tissue culture (in vitro) but is also observed in intact individuals (in planta) recovering from tissue damage. Roots, for example, can regenerate their fully excised meristems in planta, even in mutants with impaired apical stem cell niches. Unfortunately, to date a comprehensive understanding of regeneration in plants is still missing. Here, we provide evidence that an imposed electric field can perturb apical root regeneration in Arabidopsis. Crucially, we explored both spatial and temporal competences of the stump to respond to electrical stimulation, by varying respectively the position of the cut and the time interval between excision and stimulation. Our data indicate that a brief pulse of an electric field parallel to the root is sufficient to increase by up to two‐fold the probability of its regeneration, and to perturb the local distribution of the hormone auxin, as well as cell division regulation. Remarkably, the orientation of the root towards the anode or the cathode is shown to play a role. PMID:27606066

  15. Electron-positron pair production in external electric fields varying both in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, I. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Schwinger mechanism of electron-positron pair production in the presence of strong external electric fields is analyzed numerically for the case of one- and two-dimensional field configurations where the external field depends both on time and one spatial coordinate. In order to provide this analysis, a new efficient numerical approach is developed. The number of particles created is obtained numerically and also compared with the analytical results for several exactly solvable one-dimensional backgrounds. For the case of two-dimensional field configurations the effects of the spatial finiteness are examined, which confirms their importance and helps us to attest our approach further. The corresponding calculations are also performed for several more interesting and nontrivial combinations of temporal and spatial inhomogeneities. Finally, we discuss the case of a spatially periodic external field when the approach is particularly productive. The method employed is described in detail.

  16. Materials Bound by Non-Chemical Forces: External Fields and the Quantum Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, John; Srivastava, Yogendra

    2014-01-01

    We discuss materials which owe their stability to external fields. These include: 1) external electric or magnetic fields, and 2) quantum vacuum fluctuations in these fields induced by suitable boundary conditions (the Casimir effect). Instances of the first case include the floating water bridge and ferrofluids in magnetic fields. An example of the second case is taken from biology where the Casimir effect provides an explanation of the formation of stacked aggregations or "rouleaux" by negatively charged red blood cells. We show how the interplay between electrical and Casimir forces can be used to drive self-assembly of nano-structured materials, and could be generalized both as a probe of Casimir forces and as a means of manufacturing nanoscale structures. Interestingly, all the cases discussed involve the generation of the somewhat exotic negative pressures. We note that very little is known about the phase diagrams of most materials in the presence of external fields other than those represented by the ...

  17. Phase diagram of hot QCD in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Eduardo; Mizher, Ana Julia [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 RJ (Brazil); Chernodub, Maxim [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique - LMPT, CNRS UMR 6083 Tours, Federation Denis Poisson, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Francois Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2010-07-01

    The structure of the phase diagram for strong interactions becomes richer in the presence of a magnetic background, which enters as a new control parameter for the thermodynamics, and can exhibit new phases and interesting features. Motivated by the relevance of this physical setting for current and future high-energy heavy ion collision experiments and for the cosmological QCD transitions, we use the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to Polyakov loops as an effective theory to investigate how the chiral and the deconfining transitions are affected, and present a general picture for the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram. We compute and discuss each contribution to the effective potential for the approximate order parameters, and uncover new phenomena such as the para-magnetically-induced breaking of Z(3). (authors)

  18. Liquid-vapor interface of the Stockmayer fluid in a uniform external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stan G; Stevens, Mark J; Grest, Gary S

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a uniform (nonspatially varying) external field on the liquid-vapor interface of the Stockmayer fluid (Lennard-Jones particles embedded with a point dipole) has been investigated by molecular-dynamics simulations. The long-ranged parts of both the dipole and Lennard-Jones interactions are treated using an Ewald summation, which removes the effects of the cutoff. The direction of the field shifts the critical point and interfacial properties in different directions. For an external field parallel to the interface, the critical temperature increases, while for a field applied perpendicular to the interface, it decreases. The effects of the field on surface tension and interfacial width are also investigated. For zero field, dipoles near the liquid-vapor interface show a weak orientation parallel to the interface. For fields parallel to the interface, ordering in the liquid phase is greater than the vapor, while for fields perpendicular to the interface, the opposite is true.

  19. Progress in understanding error-field physics in NSTX spherical torus plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gates, D.A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Park, J.-K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Berkery, J.W. [Columbia University; Egan, A. [University of Pennsylvania; Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaye, S. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Science Center, Abington, UK; Sontag, Aaron C [ORNL; Swanson, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics; Zhu, W. [Credit Suisse, New York, NY

    2010-01-01

    The low-aspect ratio, low magnetic field and wide range of plasma beta of NSTX plasmas provide new insight into the origins and effects of magnetic field errors. An extensive array of magnetic sensors has been used to analyse error fields, to measure error-field amplification and to detect resistive wall modes (RWMs) in real time. The measured normalized error-field threshold for the onset of locked modes shows a linear scaling with plasma density, a weak to inverse dependence on toroidal field and a positive scaling with magnetic shear. These results extrapolate to a favourable error-field threshold for ITER. For these low-beta locked-mode plasmas, perturbed equilibrium calculations find that the plasma response must be included to explain the empirically determined optimal correction of NSTX error fields. In high-beta NSTX plasmas exceeding the n = 1 no-wall stability limit where the RWM is stabilized by plasma rotation, active suppression of n = 1 amplified error fields and the correction of recently discovered intrinsic n = 3 error fields have led to sustained high rotation and record durations free of low-frequency core MHD activity. For sustained rotational stabilization of the n = 1 RWM, both the rotation threshold and the magnitude of the amplification are important. At fixed normalized dissipation, kinetic damping models predict rotation thresholds for RWM stabilization to scale nearly linearly with particle orbit frequency. Studies for NSTX find that orbit frequencies computed in general geometry can deviate significantly from those computed in the high-aspect ratio and circular plasma cross-section limit, and these differences can strongly influence the predicted RWM stability. The measured and predicted RWM stability is found to be very sensitive to the E x B rotation profile near the plasma edge, and the measured critical rotation for the RWM is approximately a factor of two higher than predicted by the MARS-F code using the semi-kinetic damping model.

  20. Progress in Understanding Error-field Physics in NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Menard, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.P. Gerhardt, J.-K. Park, S.A. Sabbagh, J.W. Berkery, A. Egan, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B. LeBlanc, Y.Q. Liu, A. Sontag, D. Swanson, H. Yuh, W. Zhu and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-05-19

    The low aspect ratio, low magnetic field, and wide range of plasma beta of NSTX plasmas provide new insight into the origins and effects of magnetic field errors. An extensive array of magnetic sensors has been used to analyze error fields, to measure error field amplification, and to detect resistive wall modes in real time. The measured normalized error-field threshold for the onset of locked modes shows a linear scaling with plasma density, a weak to inverse dependence on toroidal field, and a positive scaling with magnetic shear. These results extrapolate to a favorable error field threshold for ITER. For these low-beta locked-mode plasmas, perturbed equilibrium calculations find that the plasma response must be included to explain the empirically determined optimal correction of NSTX error fields. In high-beta NSTX plasmas exceeding the n=1 no-wall stability limit where the RWM is stabilized by plasma rotation, active suppression of n=1 amplified error fields and the correction of recently discovered intrinsic n=3 error fields have led to sustained high rotation and record durations free of low-frequency core MHD activity. For sustained rotational stabilization of the n=1 RWM, both the rotation threshold and magnitude of the amplification are important. At fixed normalized dissipation, kinetic damping models predict rotation thresholds for RWM stabilization to scale nearly linearly with particle orbit frequency. Studies for NSTX find that orbit frequencies computed in general geometry can deviate significantly from those computed in the high aspect ratio and circular plasma cross-section limit, and these differences can strongly influence the predicted RWM stability. The measured and predicted RWM stability is found to be very sensitive to the E × B rotation profile near the plasma edge, and the measured critical rotation for the RWM is approximately a factor of two higher than predicted by the MARS-F code using the semi-kinetic damping model.

  1. Nonlinearity in Electro- and Magneto-statics with and without External Field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Gitman, D M; Shabad, A E

    2014-01-01

    Due to the nonlinearity of QED, a static charge becomes a magnetic dipole if placed in a magnetic field. Already without external field, the cubic Maxwell equation for the field of a point charge has a soliton solution with a finite field energy. Equations are given for self-coupling dipole moments. Any theoretically found value for a multipole moment of a baryon or a meson should be subjected to nonlinear renormalization.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichioroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz . The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6in the strong direct current field.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz .The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6 in the strong direct current field.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Error of Method of Thermocouple with Controlled Profile of Temperature Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Su; Kochan, O.; Chunzhi, Wang; Kochan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton's law of cooling. They converge well.

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Error of Method of Thermocouple with Controlled Profile of Temperature Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Su; Kochan O.; Chunzhi Wang; Kochan R.

    2015-01-01

    The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton’s law of cooling. They converge well.

  6. New parameterization of external and induced fields in geomagnetic field modeling, and a candidate model for IGRF 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.J.; Lowes, F.

    2005-01-01

    When deriving spherical harmonic models of the Earth's magnetic field, low-degree external field contributions are traditionally considered by assuming that their expansion coefficient q(1)(0) varies linearly with the D-st-index, while induced contributions are considered assuming a constant ratio...

  7. Low External Electric Field Periodic Poling of Thick LiTaO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A promising method of ferroelectric domain inverted structures was demonstrated, which allows us to fabricate thicker domain inverted patterns by applying a lower external electric field in LiTaO3 crystal. The external field for the domain reversal of the 1.5 mm thick LiTaO3 at 500 ℃ was only 6 V·mm-1, which is lower by three orders of magnitude than that in LiTaO3 crystal at room temperature. The process of the domain inversion structure was also studied. The fabrication techniques are based on controlled temperature and field duration time.

  8. Controlling three-dimensional vortices using multiple and moving external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nirmali Prabha; Dutta, Sumana

    2017-08-01

    Spirals or scroll wave activities in cardiac tissues are the cause of lethal arrhythmias. The external control of these waves is thus of prime interest to scientists and physicians. In this article, we demonstrate the spatial control of scroll waves by using external electric fields and thermal gradients in experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We show that a scroll ring can be made to trace cyclic trajectories under a rotating electric field. Application of a thermal gradient in addition to the electric field deflects the motion and changes the nature of the trajectory. Our experimental results are analyzed and corroborated by numerical simulations based on an excitable reaction diffusion model.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy in Fe-25Cr-12Co-1Si alloy induced by external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Liang; SUN Xue-yin; XU Cheng-yan; GAO Run-sheng; XU Ren-gen; QIN Lu-chang

    2007-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of Fe-25Cr-12Co-1Si alloy thermo-magnetically treated under different external magnetic field conditions were investigated. Orientation and morphology of the ferromagnetic α1 phase embedded in α2 phase matrix before and after step ageing are characterized by transmission electron microscope(TEM). The results show that the ellipsoidal particles of ferromagnetic α1 phase are aligned along the direction of external magnetic field during isothermal magnetic ageing. Approximately 28% of the total coercivity can be attributed to the shape anisotropy of α1 phase particles induced by external magnetic field for Fe-25Cr-12Co-1Si alloy thermo-magnetically treated with a parallel magnetic field.

  10. Molecules Near Absolute Zero and External Field Control of Atomic and Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Krems, R V

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of the art in the field of cold and ultracold molecules and demonstrates that chemical reactions, inelastic collisions and dissociation of molecules at subKelvin temperatures can be manipulated with external electric or magnetic fields. The creation of ultracold molecules may allow for spectroscopy measurements with extremely high precision and tests of fundamental symmetries of nature, quantum computation with molecules as qubits, and controlled chemistry. The probability of chemical reactions and collisional energy transfer can be very large at temperatures near zero Kelvin. The collision energy of ultracold atoms and molecules is much smaller than perturbations due to interactions with external electric or magnetic fields available in the laboratory. External fields may therefore be used to induce dissociation of weakly bound molecules, stimulate forbidden electronic transitions, suppress the effect of centrifugal barriers in outgoing reaction channels or tune Feshbac...

  11. Effect of external fields on the energies of hydrogenic donor with the anharmonic confinement potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aciksoz, E.; Bayrak, O. [Department of Physics, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya (Turkey); Soylu, A., E-mail: asimsoylu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nigde University, 51240 Nigde (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    The impurity binding energy in the GaAs−Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As system is studied with an anharmonic type confinement potential by taking into account the influence of the external electric and magnetic fields within the framework of the effective mass approximation and asymptotic iteration method (AIM). The influence of the external electromagnetic fields and anharmonicity on a donor binding energy is examined systematically. It is shown that the donor binding energy is highly dependent on the external electric and magnetic fields and the confinement potential shapes. Both the electric and magnetic fields are increased, the binding energies increase for each of them. However, the behaviors of increase in the weak and strong fields’ regimes have different character a bit. Furthermore, when the more anharmonicity is considered, the binding energy of donor slightly increases as well.

  12. Relativistic Two-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator Plus Cornell Potentials in External Magnetic and AB Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Ikhdair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein-Gordon (KG equation for the two-dimensional scalar-vector harmonic oscillator plus Cornell potentials in the presence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB flux fields is solved using the wave function ansatz method. The exact energy eigenvalues and the wave functions are obtained in terms of potential parameters, magnetic field strength, AB flux field, and magnetic quantum number. The results obtained by using different Larmor frequencies are compared with the results in the absence of both magnetic field (ωL = 0 and AB flux field (ξ=0 cases. Effect of external fields on the nonrelativistic energy eigenvalues and wave function solutions is also precisely presented. Some special cases like harmonic oscillator and Coulombic fields are also studied.

  13. Processes in suspensions of nanocomposite microcapsules exposed to external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A. V.; Lomova, M. V.; Kim, V. P.; Chumakov, A. S.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Gorin, D. A.; Glukhovskoy, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Microcapsules with and without magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in the polyelectrolyte shell were prepared. The effect of external electric field on the nanocomposite polyelectrolyte microcapsules containing magnetite nanoparticles in the shell was studied in this work as a function of the electric field strength. Effect of electric fields on polyelectrolyte microcapsules and the control over integrity of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with and without inorganic nanoparticles by constant electric field has been investigated. Beads effect, aggregation and deformations of nanocomposite microcapsule shell in response to electric field were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thus, a new approach for effect on the nanocomposite microcapsule, including opening microcapsule shell by an electric field, was demonstrated. These results can be used for creation of new systems for drug delivery systems with controllable release by external electric field.

  14. Simulations of polymer brushes with charged end monomers under external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huanda; Duan, Chao; Tong, Chaohui

    2017-01-01

    Using Langevin dynamics simulations, the response of neutral polymer brushes with charged terminal monomers to external electric fields has been investigated. The external electric field is equivalent to the field generated by the opposite surface charges on two parallel electrodes. The effects of charge valence of terminal monomers on the structure of double layers and overall charge balance near the two electrodes were examined. Using the charge density distributions obtained from simulations, the total electric field normal to the electrodes was calculated by numerically solving the Poisson equation. Under external electric fields, the total electric field across the two electrodes is highly non-uniform and in certain regions within the brush, the total electric field nearly vanishes. The probability distribution of electric force acting on one charged terminal monomer was obtained from simulations and how it affects the probability density distribution of terminal monomers was analyzed. The response of polymer brushes with charged terminal monomers to a strongly stretching external electric field was compared with that of uniformly charged polymer brushes.

  15. Tunable defect modes in 2D photonic crystals by means of external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Vala, A., E-mail: asoltani@tabrizu.ac.i [Physics Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, B. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalafi, M. [Physics Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the tunable defect modes in 2D photonic crystal of silicon rods in air background in which one of the rods is replaced by ferrite material and an external static magnetic field is applied in the ferrite rod direction. Using the supercell method, the dependence of E-polarized defect modes on the magnetic field has been reported.

  16. Using global magnetospheric models for simulation and interpretation of Swarm external field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We have used a global model of the solar wind magnetosphere interaction to model the high latitude part of the external contributions to the geomagnetic field near the Earth. The model also provides corresponding values for the electric field. Geomagnetic quiet conditions were modeled to provide...

  17. Near field communications technology and the potential to reduce medication errors through multidisciplinary application

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Connell, Emer

    2016-07-01

    Patient safety requires optimal management of medications. Electronic systems are encouraged to reduce medication errors. Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may be used to develop novel medication management systems.

  18. Non-relativistic correspondence of Dirac equation with external electromagnetic field and space-time torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno; Dias Junior, Mario Marcio [Instituto Federal de Educacacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Sudeste de Minas Gerais, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The discussion of experimental manifestations of torsion at low energies is mainly related to the torsion-spin interaction. In this respect the behavior of Dirac field and the spinning particle in an external torsion field deserves and received very special attention. In this work, we consider the combined action of torsion and magnetic field on the massive spinor field. In this case, the Dirac equation is not straightforward solved. We suppose that the spinor has two components. The equations have mixed terms between the two components. The electromagnetic field is introduced in the action by the usual gauge transformation. The torsion field is described by the field S{sub μ}. The main purpose of the work is to get an explicit form to the equation of motion that shows the possible interactions between the external fields and the spinor in a Hamiltonian that is independent to each component. We consider that S{sub 0} is constant and is the unique non-vanishing term of S{sub μ}. This simplification is taken just to simplify the algebra, as our main point is not to describe the torsion field itself. In order to get physical analysis of the problem, we consider the non-relativistic approximation. The final result is a Hamiltonian that describes a half spin field in the presence of electromagnetic and torsion external fields. (author)

  19. Lopsidedness of Self-consistent Galaxies Caused by the External Field Effect of Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xufen; Wang, Yougang; Feix, Martin; Zhao, HongSheng

    2017-08-01

    Adopting Schwarzschild’s orbit-superposition technique, we construct a series of self-consistent galaxy models, embedded in the external field of galaxy clusters in the framework of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). These models represent relatively massive ellipticals with a Hernquist radial profile at various distances from the cluster center. Using N-body simulations, we perform a first analysis of these models and their evolution. We find that self-gravitating axisymmetric density models, even under a weak external field, lose their symmetry by instability and generally evolve to triaxial configurations. A kinematic analysis suggests that the instability originates from both box and nonclassified orbits with low angular momentum. We also consider a self-consistent isolated system that is then placed in a strong external field and allowed to evolve freely. This model, just like the corresponding equilibrium model in the same external field, eventually settles to a triaxial equilibrium as well, but has a higher velocity radial anisotropy and is rounder. The presence of an external field in the MOND universe generically predicts some lopsidedness of galaxy shapes.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty in climatological fields from GPS radio occultation: an empirical-analytical error model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Scherllin-Pirscher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the measurement principle of the radio occultation (RO technique, RO data are highly suitable for climate studies. Single RO profiles can be used to build climatological fields of different atmospheric parameters like bending angle, refractivity, density, pressure, geopotential height, and temperature. RO climatologies are affected by random (statistical errors, sampling errors, and systematic errors, yielding a total climatological error. Based on empirical error estimates, we provide a simple analytical error model for these error components, which accounts for vertical, latitudinal, and seasonal variations. The vertical structure of each error component is modeled constant around the tropopause region. Above this region the error increases exponentially, below the increase follows an inverse height power-law. The statistical error strongly depends on the number of measurements. It is found to be the smallest error component for monthly mean 10° zonal mean climatologies with more than 600 measurements per bin. Due to smallest atmospheric variability, the sampling error is found to be smallest at low latitudes equatorwards of 40°. Beyond 40°, this error increases roughly linearly, with a stronger increase in hemispheric winter than in hemispheric summer. The sampling error model accounts for this hemispheric asymmetry. However, we recommend to subtract the sampling error when using RO climatologies for climate research since the residual sampling error remaining after such subtraction is estimated to be 50 % of the sampling error for bending angle and 30 % or less for the other atmospheric parameters. The systematic error accounts for potential residual biases in the measurements as well as in the retrieval process and generally dominates the total climatological error. Overall the total error in monthly means is estimated to be smaller than 0.07 % in refractivity and 0.15 K in temperature at low to mid latitudes, increasing towards

  1. Analysis of Omni-directivity Error of Electromagnetic Field Probe using Isotropic Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartansky, Rene

    2016-12-01

    This manuscript analyzes the omni-directivity error of an electromagnetic field (EM) probe and its dependence on frequency. The global directional characteristic of a whole EM probe consists of three independent directional characteristics of EM sensors - one for each coordinate. The shape of particular directional characteristics is frequency dependent and so is the shape of the whole EM probe's global directional characteristic. This results in systematic error induced in the measurement of EM fields. This manuscript also contains quantitative formulation of such errors caused by the shape change of directional characteristics for different types of sensors depending on frequency and their mutual arrangement.

  2. N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields: staggered fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    We investigate N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields on the lattice. The background field is introduced by means of the so-called Schrödinger functional. We adopt standard staggered fermions with constant bare mass am=0.025 and magnetic fields with constant magnetic flux up to a{sup 2}eH≃2.3562. We find that the the deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration temperatures do not depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our method allow us to easily study the effects of the external magnetic fields on the QCD thermodynamics. We determine the influences of applied magnetic fields to the free energy, pressure, and equation of state of strongly interacting matter.

  3. Self-assembly of colloidal bands driven by a periodic external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, André S.; Araújo, Nuno A. M., E-mail: nmaraujo@fc.ul.pt; Telo da Gama, Margarida M. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, P-1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal and Centro de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade de Lisboa, P-1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-01-21

    We study the formation of bands of colloidal particles driven by periodic external fields. Using Brownian dynamics, we determine the dependence of the band width on the strength of the particle interactions and on the intensity and periodicity of the field. We also investigate the switching (field-on) dynamics and the relaxation times as a function of the system parameters. The observed scaling relations were analyzed using a simple dynamic density-functional theory of fluids.

  4. Self-assembly of colloidal bands driven by a periodic external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, André S.; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the formation of bands of colloidal particles driven by periodic external fields. Using Brownian dynamics, we determine the dependence of the band width on the strength of the particle interactions and on the intensity and periodicity of the field. We also investigate the switching (field-on) dynamics and the relaxation times as a function of the system parameters. The observed scaling relations were analyzed using a simple dynamic density-functional theory of fluids.

  5. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Providencia, Constanca; Yamamura, Masatoshi; Bohr, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with axial vector-type four-point interaction or tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks. In the axial vector-type interaction, it is shown that a quark spin polarized phase is realized in all region of the quark chemical potential under a strong external magnetic field within the lowest Landau level approximation. Each phase is characterized by the chiral condensate or dynamical quark mass. On the other hand, in the tensor-type interaction, it is also shown that the quark spin polarized phase does not appear even if there exists the strong external magnetic field. However, if the anomalous magnetic moment of quark is taken into account, it may be possible to realize the quark spin polarized phase.

  6. Hysteresis analysis in dye-sensitized solar cells based on external bias field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Li, Xiaoyi; Tong, Yanhua; Zhang, Tiansheng

    2017-02-01

    The current density-voltage (J-V) hysteresis phenomenon occurs in perovskite solar cells as well as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs); however, it has received little attention in DSCs. We consider that the trapping-detrapping-induced variation of the charge collection efficiency might cause J-V hysteresis. Therefore, we conduct a systematic study on the influence of an external bias field during and before J-V measurements in typical DSCs. We find that the J-V performance of DSCs significantly depends on the scan bias direction and the external bias field before and during measurements. Our results indicate that the external-bias-field-modulated charge injection, trapping-detrapping, and accumulation processes in DSCs are possible causes for the anomalous J-V behavior.

  7. Cu Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Enhanced by ICP and External Magnetic Field Confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xuelian; REN Chunsheng; MA Tengcai; WANG Younian

    2008-01-01

    Metallic copper(Cu) films were deposited on a Si (100) substrate by unbalanced magnetron sputtering enhanced by radio-frequency plasma and external magnetic field confine-ment. The morphology and structure of the films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface average rough-ness of the deposited Cu films was characterized by AFM data and resistivity was measured by a four-point probe. The results show that the Cu films deposited with radio-frequency discharge enhanced ionization and external magnetic field confinement have a smooth surface, low surface roughness and low resistivity. The reasons may be that the radio-frequency discharge and external magnetic field enhance the plasma density, which further improves the ion bombardment effect under the same bias voltage conditions. Ion bombardment can obviously influence the growth features and characteristics of the deposited Cu films.

  8. Bandgap engineering of different stacking WS2 bilayer under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Tianxing; Dai, Xianqi; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhai, Caiyun; Ma, Yaqiang; Chang, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Effective modulation of physical properties via external control is a tantalizing possibility that would bring two-dimensional material-based electronics a step closer. By means of density functional theory calculations, we systematically examined the effect of external electric field on the bandgap of different stacking WS2 bilayer. It shows that for all cases, the most stable stacking order is the AB conformation, followed by the AA‧ stacking fault, which is by only 2.06 meV/supercell less stable than AB. The band gaps of both AB and AA‧ configurations decrease monotonically with an increasing vertical external electric field strength except for external electric field along -z direction in the AB conformation. Applying external electric field along +z direction and -z directions has different effects on the band gap of AB conformation, while it has the same effect on the AA‧ configuration. The different effects are caused by the spontaneous electrical polarization existing between the two monolayers of AB conformation. This may provide a new perspective on the formation of WS2-based electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  9. Determination of errors in derived magnetic field directions in geosynchronous orbit: results from a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Cunningham, Gregory; Henderson, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to statistically estimate the errors in local magnetic field directions that are derived from electron directional distributions measured by Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous (LANL GEO) satellites. First, by comparing derived and measured magnetic field directions along the GEO orbit to those calculated from three selected empirical global magnetic field models (including a static Olson and Pfitzer 1977 quiet magnetic field model, a simple dynamic Tsyganenko 1989 model, and a sophisticated dynamic Tsyganenko 2001 storm model), it is shown that the errors in both derived and modeled directions are at least comparable. Second, using a newly developed proxy method as well as comparing results from empirical models, we are able to provide for the first time circumstantial evidence showing that derived magnetic field directions should statistically match the real magnetic directions better, with averaged errors ˜ 5°. In addition, our results suggest that the errors in derived magnetic field directions do not depend much on magnetospheric activity, in contrast to the empirical field models. Finally, as applications of the above conclusions, we show examples of electron pitch angle distributions observed by LANL GEO and also take the derived magnetic field directions as the real ones so as to test the performance of empirical field models along the GEO orbits, with results suggesting dependence on solar cycles as well as satellite locations. This study demonstrates the validity and value of the method that infers local magnetic field directions from particle spin-resolved distributions.

  10. Diffusion of external magnetic fields into the cone-in-shell target in the fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunahara, Atsushi; Johzaki, Tomoyui; Nagatomo, Hideo; Sakata, Shouhei; Matsuo, Kazuki; Lee, Seungho; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Firex-Project Team

    2016-10-01

    We simulated the diffusion of externally applied magnetic fields into cone-in-shell target in the fast ignition. In this ignition scheme, the externally magnetic fields up to kilo-Tesla is used to guide fast electrons to the high-dense imploded core, and understanding diffusion of the magnetic field is one of the key issues for increasing the coupling efficiency from the heating laser to the imploded core. In order to study the magnetic field, we have developed 2D cylindrical Maxwell equation solver with Ohm's law, and carried out simulations of diffusion of externally applied magnetic fields into a cone-in-shell target. Also, we estimated the conductivity of the cone and shell target based on the assumption of Saha-ionization equilibrium. We present our results of diffusion of magnetic fields. We also show that the target is heated by the eddy current. Because of the density and temperature dependence of the conductivity, the magnetic fields diffuse into the material with varying conductivity. Consequently, the magnetic fields into the cone-in-shell target depend on the temporal profile of the magnetic fields as well as the electrical and thermal properties of the material.

  11. Enhancement of critical current in mesoscopic superconducting strips by external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Luck, Yannick; Fuchs, Lea; Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Current crowding in superconducting mesoscopic strips with bends results in decrease of critical current in these structures with respect to the strips without geometrical non-uniformities. Recently it has been shown that Meissner currents induced by externally applied magnetic field of appropriate direction allow to suppress this effect so that I{sub c}(B) can exceed I{sub c}(0). Experimental dependencies of critical current in mesoscopic bended strips made from ultra-thin superconducting films on externally applied magnetic field and their comparison to the theoretical predictions are presented and discussed.

  12. Effects of Complex System Structure and External Field in Opinion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Cai, Xu

    Around us, the society structure and external field, such as government policy, the newspaper, the internet and other mass media, play a special role in shaping the attitudes, beliefs and public opinion. For studying the role of the society structure and the external field, we propose a new opinion model based on the former models. With computer simulations of opinion dynamics, we find that the smaller the clustering coefficient and the society size, the easier the consensus phase is reached and other interesting results.

  13. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027 (Japan); Kojima, K. [Department of Education, Yokohama Soei University, 1 Miho-tyou, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-0015 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  14. Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhao-xian; Jiao, Zhi-yong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-$\\pm1$, spin-0 and spin-$\\pm2$ exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$. The tunneling current among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$ may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-$\\p...

  15. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts: A DFT study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kundan Baruah; Pradip Kr Bhattacharyya

    2015-06-01

    Effect of external electric fields on the interaction energy between cyclodextrin and alcohol was analyzed in the light of density functional theory (DFT) and density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). Stability of the cyclodextrin-alcohol adducts was measured in terms of DFT based reactivity descriptor, global hardness, electrophilicity, and energy of the HOMO. Stability of adducts was observed to be sensitive towards the strength as well as direction of the applied external electric field. In addition, reactivity pattern follows the maximum hardness and minimum electrophilicity principles.

  16. Soybean Hydrophobic Protein Response to External Electric Field: A Molecular Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular dynamic (MD modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of an external electric field on soybean hydrophobic protein and surface properties. Nominal electric field strengths of 0.002 V/nm and 0.004 V/nm had no major effect on the structure and surface properties of the protein isolate but the higher electric field strength of 3 V/nm significantly affected the protein conformation and solvent accessible surface area. The response of protein isolate to various external field stresses demonstrated that it is necessary to gain insight into protein dynamics under electromagnetic fields in order to be able to develop the techniques utilizing them for food processing and other biological applications.

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a spherical quantum dot with hydrogenic impurity in the external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Vladan; Stevanović, Ljiljana

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we analyzed the realization of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in the spherical quantum dot with on-center hydrogenic impurity under the influence of the external magnetic field. Three energy levels of hydrogen impurity 1s0, 2p-1, and 3d-2, together with the probe and control laser fields, which induce σ- transitions between the given states, form a ladder configuration. Optical Bloch equations for such a system are solved in a stationary regime. Dependence of the susceptibility for such a system on the Rabi frequency of the control field, intensity of the external magnetic field, detuning of the control field, and decay rates coefficients are then discussed in detail. Finally, the explanation in dressed state picture is given.

  18. Frustrating a correlated superconductor: the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Engelbrecht, Jan R.

    2000-03-01

    At the Mean Field level (G. Murthy and R. Shankar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 7) (1995), the frustration due to an external field first makes the uniform BCS ground state unstable to an incommensurate (qne0) superconducting state and then to a spin-polarized Fermi Liquid state. Our interest is how fluctuations modify this picture, as well as the normal state of this system which has a quantum critical point. We use the Fluctuation-Exchange Approximation for the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model, to study this system beyond the Mean-Field level. Earlier work in zero field has shown that this numerical method successfully captures the critical scaling of the KT superconducting transition upon cooling in the normal state. Here we investigate how the pair-breaking external field modifies this picture, and the development of incommensurate pairing.

  19. BEHAVIOUR OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL UNIAXIAL MAGNET NEAR THE CRITICAL POINT IN AN EXTERNAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Kozlovskii

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of a three-dimensional magnet with a one-component order parameter near the critical point in a homogeneous external field is investigated. The calculations are performed in the case when the field and temperature are dependent and related by some expression (the system tends to the critical point along some trajectory. The high- and low-temperature regions in the vicinity of Tc (Tc is the phase transition temperature in the absence of an external field are considered. It is shown that in the weak fields the system behaviour is described in general by the temperature variable, but in the case of the strong fields the role of the temperature variable is not dominant. The corresponding expressions for the free energy, susceptibility and other characteristics of the system are obtained for each of these regions.

  20. Properties of the Schrödinger Theory for Electrons in External Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Viraht; Pan, Xiao-Yin

    We consider electrons in external electrostatic boldsymbol calE (r) = - boldsymbol∇ v (r) and magnetostatic B (r) = boldsymbol∇ × A (r) fields. (The case of solely an electrostatic field constitutes a special case.) Via the `Quantal Newtonian' first law for the individual electron we prove the following: (i) In addition to the external electric and Lorentz fields, each electron experiences an internal field representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb repulsion, the kinetic energy, the density, and the magnetic field; (ii) the scalar potential v (r) arises from a curl-free field and is thus path-independent; (iii) the magnetic field B (r) appears explicitly in the Schrödinger equation in addition to the vector potential A (r) ; (iv) The Schrödinger equation can be written to exhibit its intrinsic self-consistent form. (The generalization of the conclusions to time-dependent external fields via the `Quantal Newtonian' second law follows.)

  1. Field-balanced adaptive optics error function for wide field-of-view space-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.; Friedman, Edward J.

    2002-03-01

    Adaptive optics are regularly used in ground-based astronomical telescopes. These applications are characterized by a very narrow (approximately 1 arcmin) field of view. For economic reasons, commercial space-based earth-observing optical systems must have a field of view as large as possible. We develop a new error function that is an extension of conventional adaptive optics for wide field-of-view optical systems and show that this new error function enables diffraction-limited performance across a large field of view with only one deformable mirror. This new error function allows for reprogramming of aberration control algorithms for particular applications by the use of an addressable weighting function.

  2. Electron Weibel instability in relativistic counterstreaming plasmas with flow-aligned external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, A.; Grech, M.; Amiranoff, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Macchi, A.; Riconda, C.

    2017-02-01

    The Weibel instability driven by two symmetric counterstreaming relativistic electron plasmas, also referred to as current-filamentation instability, is studied in a constant and uniform external magnetic field aligned with the plasma flows. Both the linear and nonlinear stages of the instability are investigated using analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. While previous studies have already described the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field, we show here that the saturation stage is only weakly affected. The different mechanisms responsible for the saturation are discussed in detail in the relativistic cold fluid framework considering a single unstable mode. The application of an external field leads to a slight increase of the saturation level for large wavelengths, while it does not affect the small wavelengths. Multimode and temperature effects are then investigated. While at high temperature the saturation level is independent of the external magnetic field, at low but finite temperature the competition between different modes in the presence of an external magnetic field leads to a saturation level lower with respect to the unmagnetized case.

  3. Reduction of truncation errors in planar, cylindrical, and partial spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano-Fácila, Francisco José; Pivnenko, Sergey; Sierra-Castaner, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A method to reduce truncation errors in near-field antenna measurements is presented. The method is based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis iterative algorithm used to extrapolate band-limited functions and it is able to extend the valid region of the calculatedfar-field pattern up to the whole forward...

  4. A new method to reduce truncation errors in partial spherical near-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano-Facila, F J; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    angular sector as well as a truncation error is present in the calculated far-field pattern within this sector. The method is based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm used to extrapolate functions and it is able to extend the valid region of the calculated far-field pattern up to the whole forward...

  5. A new method to reduce truncation errors in partial spherical near-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano-Facila, F J; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    angular sector as well as a truncation error is present in the calculated far-field pattern within this sector. The method is based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm used to extrapolate functions and it is able to extend the valid region of the calculated far-field pattern up to the whole forward...

  6. Biopolymers under large external forces and mean-field RNA virus evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Syed Amir

    The modeling of the mechanical response of single-molecules of DNA and RNA under large external forces through statistical mechanical methods is central to this thesis with a small portion devoted to modeling the evolutionary dynamics of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. In order to develop and test models of biopolymer mechanics and illuminate the mechanisms underlying biological processes where biopolymers undergo changes in energy on the order of the thermal energy, , entails measuring forces and lengths on the scale of piconewtons (pN) and nanometers (nm), respectively. A capacity achieved in the past two decades at the single-molecule level through the development of micromanipulation techniques such as magnetic and optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy, coupled with advances in micro- and nanofabrication. The statistical mechanical models of biopolymers developed in this dissertation are dependent upon and the outcome of these advancements and resulting experiments. The dissertation begins in chapter 1 with an introduction to the structure and thermodynamics of DNA and RNA, highlighting the importance and effectiveness of simple, two-state models in their description as a prelude to the emergence of two-state models in the research manuscripts. In chapter 2 the standard models of the elasticity of polymers and of a polymer gel are reviewed, characterizing the continuum and mean-field models, including the scaling behavior of DNA in confined spaces. The research manuscript presented in the last section of chapter 2 (section 2.5), subsequent to a review of a Flory gel and in contrast to it, is a model of the elasticity of RNA as a gel, with viral RNA illustrating an instance of such a network, and shown to exhibit anomalous elastic behavior, a negative Poisson ratio, and capable of facilitating viral RNA encapsidation with further context provided in section 5.1. In chapter 3 the experimental methods and behavior of DNA and RNA under mechanical

  7. Communication: Polarizable polymer chain under external electric field in a dilute polymer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkov, Yu. A., E-mail: urabudkov@rambler.ru [G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy and Numerical Investigations of Liquids, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Mathematics, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolesnikov, A. L. [Institut für Nichtklassische Chemie e.V., Universitat Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Kiselev, M. G. [G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy and Numerical Investigations of Liquids, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-28

    We study the conformational behavior of polarizable polymer chain under an external homogeneous electric field within the Flory type self-consistent field theory. We consider the influence of electric field on the polymer coil as well as on the polymer globule. We show that when the polymer chain conformation is a coil, application of external electric field leads to its additional swelling. However, when the polymer conformation is a globule, a sufficiently strong field can induce a globule-coil transition. We show that such “field-induced” globule-coil transition at the sufficiently small monomer polarizabilities goes quite smoothly. On the contrary, when the monomer polarizability exceeds a certain threshold value, the globule-coil transition occurs as a dramatic expansion in the regime of first-order phase transition. The developed theoretical model can be applied to predicting polymer globule density change under external electric field in order to provide more efficient processes of polymer functionalization, such as sorption, dyeing, and chemical modification.

  8. Laser-field-induced magnon amplification in a magnetic semiconductor quantum well under an external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Feng

    2003-01-01

    The laser-field induced magnon amplification in a magnetic semiconductor quantum well under an external magnetic field was discussed, it is shown that when the laser frequency is near to the electron cyclotron frequency, no matter how weaker the laser field is, the magnon amplification always occurs. In case of fixed laser frequency, the optical absorption of magnons obeys the definite selection rule to the laser field strength. The rate of change of magnon occupation is calculated, and the amplification condition is given.

  9. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of metal oxides. Reactions in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Aguas, M D

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of metal oxides by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis is reported. The reactions are started with a point source of ignition; typically a hot wire. A synthesis wave is observed moving out from the point source and reactions terminate in seconds. Products obtained can be classified into ferrites (magnetic applications) and stannates (gas sensing applications). Ferrites were synthesised under variable external magnetic fields. The synthesis wave is hotter in the presence of an external magnetic field for hard ferrite synthesis. For spinel ferrites the opposite was observed. Materials synthesised in the field show differences in their bulk magnetic properties (coercivity and saturation magnetisation), structures and microstructures. Combustion reactions in large fields revealed changes in unit cell volume (shrinkage was observed for hard ferrites while expansion was observed for spinel ferrites). SHS synthesised hard ferrites show two distinct components; one has large grain structure co...

  10. High Mach-number collisionless shock driven by a laser with an external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Collisionless shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas with an external magnetic field. The shocks are generated due to an electrostatic field generated in counter-streaming laser-irradiated plasmas, as reported previously in a series of experiments without an external magnetic field [T. Morita et al., Phys. Plasmas, 17, 122702 (2010, Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 175002 (2011] via laser-irradiation of a double-CH-foil target. A magnetic field is applied to the region between two foils by putting an electro-magnet (∼10 T perpendicular to the direction of plasma expansion. The generated shocks show different characteristics later in time (t > 20ns.

  11. Sakata-Taketani spin-0 theory with external field interactions - Lagrangian formalism and causal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, R. F.; Wilson, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    To illustrate that a relativistic field theory need not be manifestly covariant, Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian densities are constructed that yield the equation satisfied by an interacting (two-component) Sakata-Taketani spin-0 field. Six types of external field couplings are considered, two scalars, two vectors, an antisymmetric second-rank tensor, and a symmetric second-rank tensor, with the results specialized to electromagnetic interactions. For either of the two second-rank couplings, the equation is found to describe noncausal wave propagation, a property that is apparent from the dependence of the coefficients of the space derivatives on the external field; in contrast, the noncausality of the corresponding manifestly covariant Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau spin-0 equation is not so obvious. The possibilities for generalizing the results to higher spin theories involving only the essential 2(2J + 1) components for a particle with a definite spin J and mass m are discussed in considerable detail.

  12. Numerical simulation of a helical shape electric arc in the external axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, R. M.; Urusova, I. R.

    2016-10-01

    Within the frameworks of non-stationary three-dimensional mathematical model, in approximation of a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium, a numerical calculation was made of characteristics of DC electric arc burning in a cylindrical channel in the uniform external axial magnetic field. The method of numerical simulation of the arc of helical shape in a uniform external axial magnetic field was proposed. This method consists in that that in the computational algorithm, a "scheme" analog of fluctuations for electrons temperature is supplemented. The "scheme" analogue of fluctuations increases a weak numerical asymmetry of electrons temperature distribution, which occurs randomly in the course of computing. This asymmetry can be "picked up" by the external magnetic field that continues to increase up to a certain value, which is sufficient for the formation of helical structure of the arc column. In the absence of fluctuations in the computational algorithm, the arc column in the external axial magnetic field maintains cylindrical axial symmetry, and a helical form of the arc is not observed.

  13. Exact solutions for quantum mechanical particle with spin 1 in the external homogeneous magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kisel, V V; Red'kov, V M

    2010-01-01

    With the use of the general covariant matrix 10-dimensional Petiau -- Duffin -- Kemmer formalism in cylindrical coordinates and tetrad there are constructed exact solutions of the quantum-mechanical equation for a particle with spin 1 in presence of an external homogeneous magnetic field. There are separated three linearly independent types of solutions; in each case the formula for energy levels has been found.

  14. Tuning the Colloidal Crystal Structure of Magnetic Particles by External Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, Antara; Malik, Vikash; He, Le; Erne, Ben H.; Yin, Yadong; Kegel, Willem K.; Petukhov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of the self-assembly of magnetic colloidal particles by an externally applied magnetic field paves a way toward developing novel stimuli responsive photonic structures. Using microradian X-ray scattering technique we have investigated the different crystal structures exhibited by self-a

  15. Critical values of the external magnetic field leading biological effects in the human organism

    CERN Document Server

    Kanokov, Zakirjon

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the simplified stochastic model the critical values of an induction of the external magnetic field leading to sharp increase of fluctuations of a casual current of biologically important ions in different blood vessels of a human body are calculated.

  16. Planar supersymmetric quantum mechanics of a charged particle in an external electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoal, Ricardo C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Centro de Tecnologia da Industria Quimica e Textil, SENAI/CETIQT, Rua Dr. Manoel Cotrim 195, 20961-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: paschoal@cbpf.br; Helayel-Neto, Jose A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, P.O. Box 91933, 25685-970 Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: helayel@cbpf.br; Assis, Leonardo P.G. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, P.O. Box 91933, 25685-970 Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lpgassis@cbpf.br

    2006-01-09

    The supersymmetric quantum mechanics of a two-dimensional non-relativistic particle subject to external magnetic and electric fields is studied in a superfield formulation and with the typical non-minimal coupling of (2+1) dimensions. Both the N=1 and N=2 cases are contemplated and the introduction of the electric interaction is suitably analysed.

  17. Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay А.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.

  18. Plasma excitations in a single-walled carbon nanotube with an external transverse magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Vijayalakshmi; T P Nafeesa Baby

    2013-02-01

    The effect of different uniform transverse external magnetic fields in plasma frequency when propagated parallel to the surface of the single-walled metallic carbon nanotubes is studied. The classical electrodynamics as well as Maxwell’s equations are used in the calculations. Equations are developed for both short- and long-wavelength limits and the variations are studied graphically.

  19. Effect of an External Electric Field on Positronium Formation in Positron Spur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.

    1975-01-01

    The decrease of positronium (Ps) formation in condensed matter caused by the presence of an external electric field is discussed in terms of the spur reaction model of Ps formation. The rather few experimental results available are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of the model...

  20. Bogomolnyi-type bounds in unconventional superconductors without external magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Manes, JL

    1996-01-01

    Following Bogomolnyi's classical. treatment of vortices, we develop a method for finding rigorous lower bounds to the Landau-Ginzburg free energy, describing unconventional superconductors in the absence of external magnetic fields. This allows a more precise description of the magnetic instabilitie

  1. Nonlinear evolution of electron shear flow instabilities in the presence of an external guide magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation mechanism by which the magnetic field reconnects in the presence of an external (guide) magnetic field in the direction of the main current is not well understood. In thin electron current sheets (ECS) (thickness ~ an electron inertial length) formed in collisionless magnetic reconnection, electron shear flow instabilities (ESFI) are potential candidates for providing an anomalous dissipation mechanism which can break the frozen-in condition of the magnetic field affecting the structure and rate of reconnection. We investigate the evolution of ESFI in guide field magnetic reconnection. The properties of the resulting plasma turbulence and their dependence on the strength of the guide field are studied. Utilizing 3-D electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of ECS we show that, unlike the case of ECS self-consistently embedded in anti-parallel magnetic fields, the evolution of thin ECS in the presence of a guide field (equal to the asymptotic value of the reconnecting magnetic field or larger) ...

  2. Quantification of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a Coriolis mass-flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, van de L.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; Dijk, van J.; Lötters, J.C.; Boer, de A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM) for low flows is investigated and quantified. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how external vibrations affect the mass-flow measurement val

  3. Deriving comprehensive error breakdown for wide field adaptive optics systems using end-to-end simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Rousset, G.; Gratadour, D.

    2016-07-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) adaptive optics (AO) systems will aim at wide field correction and large sky coverage. Their performance will be improved by using post processing techniques, such as point spread function (PSF) deconvolution. The PSF estimation involves characterization of the different error sources in the AO system. Such error contributors are difficult to estimate: simulation tools are a good way to do that. We have developed in COMPASS (COMputing Platform for Adaptive opticS Systems), an end-to-end simulation tool using GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) acceleration, an estimation tool that provides a comprehensive error budget by the outputs of a single simulation run.

  4. $(1+3)$D topological superconductors: screening and confinement in presence of external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the gauge-invariant and path-dependent variables formalism, we compute the interaction energy for a topological field theory describing $(1+3)$D topological superconductors in presence of external fields. As a result, in the case of a constant electric field- strength expectation value, we show that the interaction energy describes a purely screening phase, encoded in a Yukawa potential. On the other hand, in the case of a constant magnetic field-strength and for a very small Josephson coupling constant, the particle-antiparticle binding potential displays a linear term leading to the confinement of static charge probes along with a screening contribution.

  5. Effects of external fields on two-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle under pseudoharmonic oscillator interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhdair, Sameer M

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of the perpendicular magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of a two-dimensional (2D) Klein-Gordon (KG) particle subjects to equal scalar and vector pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO). We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and normalized wave functions in terms of chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. The non-relativistic limit, PHO and harmonic oscillator solutions in the existence and absence of external fields are also obtained.

  6. Electron beam guiding by external magnetic fields in imploded fuel plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johzaki, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Sunahara, A.; Sakagami, H.; Fujioka, S.; Shiraga, H.; Endo, T.; FIREX project Group

    2016-05-01

    For enhancing the core heating efficiency in fast ignition laser fusion, we proposed the fast electron beam by externally-applied the kilo-tesla (kT) class longitudinal magnetic field. We evaluated the imploded core and the magnetic field profiles formed through the implosion dynamics by resistive MHD radiation hydro code. Using those profiles, the guiding effect was evaluated by fast electron transport simulations, which shows that in addition to the feasible field configuration (moderate mirror ratio), the kT-class magnetic field is required at the fast electron generation point. In this case, the significant enhancement in heating efficiency is expected.

  7. Retention of nativelike conformation by proteins embedded in high external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Bramanti, A.; Maruccio, G.; Cingolani, R.; De Rienzo, F.; Corni, S.; Di Felice, R.; Rinaldi, R.

    2005-05-01

    In this Communication, we show that proteins embedded in high external electric fields are capable of retaining a nativelike fold pattern. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, immobilized onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying static fields up to 106-107V/m. The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. Such results are also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the inner protein fields.

  8. Deconfinement Phase Transition with External Magnetic Field in the Friedberg—Lee Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shi-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The deconfinement phase transition with external magnetic field is investigated in the Friedberg-Lee model. In the frame of functional renormalization group, we extend the often used potential expansion method for continuous phase transitions to the first-order phase transition in the model. By solving the flow equations we find that, the magnetic field displays a catalysis effect and it becomes more difficult to break through the confinement in hot and dense medium.

  9. Effect of an External Oriented Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation in Natural Convection

    OpenAIRE

    Atef El Jery; Nejib Hidouri; Mourad Magherbi; Ammar Ben Brahim

    2010-01-01

    The influence of an external oriented magnetic field on entropy generation in natural convection for air and liquid gallium is numerically studied in steady-unsteady states by solving the mass, the momentum and the energy conservation equations. Entropy generation depends on five parameters which are: the Prandtl number, the irreversibility coefficients, the inclination angle of the magnetic field, the thermal Grashof and the Hartmann numbers. Effects of these parameters on total and local ir...

  10. Oscillator strength reduction induced by external electric fields in self-assembled quantum dots and rings

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out continuous wave and time resolved photoluminescence experiments in self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum dots and quantum rings embedded in field effect structure devices. In both kinds of nanostructures, we find a noticeable increase of the exciton radiative lifetime with the external voltage bias that must be attributed to the field-induced polarizability of the confined electron hole pair. The interplay between the exciton radiative recombination and the electronic carrier tu...

  11. Deconfinement Phase Transition with External Magnetic Field in Friedberg-Lee Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Shijun

    2015-01-01

    The deconfinement phase transition with external magnetic field is investigated in the Friedberg-Lee model. In the frame of functional renormalization group, we extend the often used potential expansion method for continuous phase transitions to the first-order phase transition in the model. By solving the flow equations we find that, the magnetic field displays a catalysis effect and it becomes more difficult to break through the confinement in hot and dense medium.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy of single Mn acceptors in GaAs in an external magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, M Murat; Mahani, MR; Studer, P; Tang, J-M; Schofield, SR; Curson, NJ; Flatté, ME Michael; Silov, AY Andrei; Hirjibehedin, CF; Canali, CM; Koenraad, PM Paul

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the physical properties of the acceptor hole states associated with single Mn acceptors placed near the (110) surface of GaAs. Crosssectional scanning tunneling microscopy images of the acceptor local density of states (LDOS) show that the strongly anisotropic hole wavefunction is not significantly affected by a magnetic field up to 6 T. These experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations based on a tightbinding model...

  13. The Effect of External Magnetic Fields on the MRT Instability in MagLIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mark; Peterson, Kyle; Weis, Matthew; Lau, Yue Ying

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments on MagLIF which incorporate an external B-field suggest that the MRT instability within the liner has a different behavior than without the B-field. Previous work by Chandrasekhar and Harris have illustrated how the MRT growth rate, assuming fixed liner density and fixed acceleration, can change due to the presence of an external B-field. In this work, we show how the growth rate of the MRT instability is dynamically affected by the rapidly varying acceleration, liner density, and surface magnetic field, which is composed of the external B-field and the drive B-field of the liner in the MagLIF experiments. In addition, we also examine the effects of finite liner resistivity on MRT growth, which gives rise to an additional time scale corresponding to magnetic diffusion. We discuss the implications of this result for future MagLIF designs. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Dielectric-spectroscopy approach to ferrofluid nanoparticle clustering induced by an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, Michal; Kurimsky, Juraj; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kopcansky, Peter; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Taculescu-Moaca, Elena Alina; Timko, Milan

    2014-09-01

    An experimental study of magnetic colloidal particles cluster formation induced by an external electric field in a ferrofluid based on transformer oil is presented. Using frequency domain isothermal dielectric spectroscopy, we study the influence of a test cell electrode separation distance on a low-frequency relaxation process. We consider the relaxation process to be associated with an electric double layer polarization taking place on the particle surface. It has been found that the relaxation maximum considerably shifts towards lower frequencies when conducting the measurements in the test cells with greater electrode separation distances. As the electric field intensity was always kept at a constant value, we propose that the particle cluster formation induced by the external ac electric field accounts for that phenomenon. The increase in the relaxation time is in accordance with the Schwarz theory of electric double layer polarization. In addition, we analyze the influence of a static electric field generated by dc bias voltage on a similar shift in the relaxation maximum position. The variation of the dc electric field for the hysteresis measurements purpose provides understanding of the development of the particle clusters and their decay. Following our results, we emphasize the utility of dielectric spectroscopy as a simple, complementary method for detection and study of clusters of colloidal particles induced by external electric field.

  15. Magnetic-field sensing with quantum error detection under the effect of energy relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Benjamin, Simon

    2017-03-01

    A solid state spin is an attractive system with which to realize an ultrasensitive magnetic field sensor. A spin superposition state will acquire a phase induced by the target field, and we can estimate the field strength from this phase. Recent studies have aimed at improving sensitivity through the use of quantum error correction (QEC) to detect and correct any bit-flip errors that may occur during the sensing period. Here we investigate the performance of a two-qubit sensor employing QEC and under the effect of energy relaxation. Surprisingly, we find that the standard QEC technique to detect and recover from an error does not improve the sensitivity compared with the single-qubit sensors. This is a consequence of the fact that the energy relaxation induces both a phase-flip and a bit-flip noise where the former noise cannot be distinguished from the relative phase induced from the target fields. However, we have found that we can improve the sensitivity if we adopt postselection to discard the state when error is detected. Even when quantum error detection is moderately noisy, and allowing for the cost of the postselection technique, we find that this two-qubit system shows an advantage in sensing over a single qubit in the same conditions.

  16. EVALUATION OF ERRORS IN PARAMETERS DETERMINATION FOR THE EARTH HIGHLY ANOMALOUS GRAVITY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Staroseltsev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper presents research results and the simulation of errors caused by determining the Earth gravity field parameters for regions with high segmentation of gravity field. The Kalman filtering estimation of determining errors is shown. Method. Simulation model for the realization of inertial geodetic method for determining the Earth gravity field parameters is proposed. The model is based on high-precision inertial navigation system (INS at the free gyro and high-accuracy satellite system. The possibility of finding the conformity between the determined and stochastic approaches in gravity potential modeling is shown with the example of a point-mass model. Main Results. Computer simulation shows that for determining the Earth gravity field parameters gyro error model can be reduced to two significant indexes, one for each gyro. It is also shown that for regions with high segmentation of gravity field point-mass model can be used. This model is a superposition of attractive and repulsive masses - the so-called gravitational dipole. Practical Relevance. The reduction of gyro error model can reduce the dimension of the Kalman filter used in the integrated system, which decreases the computation time and increases the visibility of the state vector. Finding the conformity between the determined and stochastic approaches allows the application of determined and statistical terminology. Also it helps to create a simulation model for regions with high segmentation of gravity field.

  17. A method for sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of measurement error in multiple exposure variables using external validation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Agogo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. Methods We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association, due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data. The method combines prior information on the validity of the self-report instrument with the observed data to adjust for the bias in the association. We compared the proposed method with the method that ignores the confounder effect, and with the method that ignores measurement errors completely. We assessed the sensitivity of the estimates to various magnitudes of measurement error, error correlations and uncertainty in the literature-reported validation data. We applied the methods to fruits and vegetables (FV intakes, cigarette smoking (confounder and all-cause mortality data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results Using the proposed method resulted in about four times increase in the strength of association between FV intake and mortality. For weakly correlated errors, measurement error in the confounder minimally affected the hazard ratio estimate for FV intake. The effect was more pronounced for strong error correlations. Conclusions The proposed method permits sensitivity analysis on measurement error structures and accounts for uncertainties in the reported validity coefficients. The method is useful in assessing the direction and quantifying the magnitude of bias in the association due to measurement errors in the confounders.

  18. Electron Raman scattering in a double quantum well tuned by an external nonresonant intense laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiutiunnyk, A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Morales, A. L.; Duque, C. M.; Restrepo, R. L.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we shall present a study of inelastic light scattering involving inter-subband electron transitions in coupled GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells. Calculations include the electron related Raman differential cross section and Raman gain. The effects of an external nonresonant intense laser field are used in order to tune these output properties. The confined electron states will be described by means of a diagonalization procedure within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. It is shown that the application of the intense laser field can produce values of the intersubband electron Raman gain above 400 cm-1. The system proposed here is an alternative choice for the development of AlxGa1-xAs semiconductor laser diodes that can be tuned via an external nonresonant intense laser field.

  19. Matter-induced magnetic moment and neutrino helicity rotation in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternov, Alexei I.

    2016-11-01

    The induced magnetic moment that arises due to the propagation of neutrinos in a dispersive medium can affect the dynamics of the neutrino spin in an external electromagnetic field. In particular, it can cause a helicity flip of a massive neutrino in a magnetic field. In some astrophysical media, this helicity transition mechanism could be more effective than a similar process caused by the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutrino. If the neutrino energy is sufficiently high, the two helicity transition mechanisms mentioned above can compensate each other. Then a helicity flip in an external field will not occur. Calculations are carried out using both the methods of relativistic quantum mechanics and the quasiclassical Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation.

  20. Forcing a unitary transformation by an external field comparing two approaches based on optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    A quantum gate is realized by specific unitary transformations operating on states representing qubits. Considering a quantum system employed as an element in a quantum computing scheme, the task is therefore to enforce the pre-specified unitary transformation. This task is carried out by an external time dependent field. Optimal control theory has been suggested as a method to compute the external field which alters the evolution of the system such that it performs the desire unitary transformation. This study compares two recent implementations of optimal control theory to find the field that induces a quantum gate. The first approach is based on the equation of motion of the unitary transformation. The second approach generalizes the state to state formulation of optimal control theory. This work highlight the formal relation between the two approaches.

  1. Describing pair production in inhomogeneous external fields with the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berényi Dániel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present results on pair production from vacuum in QED in case of inhomogeneous external electric fields. The central tool of our description is the relativistic one particle single-time Wigner-function, that describes the evolution of the e+e− densities in phase-space. We compare the influence of homogeneous and inhomogeneous external fields, and find that the inhomogeneity near the Compton-scale increases particle production proportionally to the duration of the electric pulse. We also find, that when the inhomogeneity is restricted to a single direction, a significant component of the pair yield originates from the edge or surface where the electric field gradients are large, in agreement with the prediction of Heisenberg.

  2. Supersymmetric Dynamics of a Spin-1/2 Particle in an Extended External Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gilmar de Souza

    2011-01-01

    We consider a electron in a external field in D=5, through the Dirac equation in the Galilean symmetry approach, and in the Lorentz symmetry approach; from these we perform the nonrelativistic limit, then we procede the supersymmetry of the same that is associated with the Galilean symmetry, we identify as a supersymmetry sector from the quantum-mechanical dynamics, and we got the algebra of fermionic charges. We naturally define as extra electrical vector E, and interpret the terms of energy coming from the fifth dimension. The energy from the fifth dimension, criate this extra electrical vector E, associated with the fifth component of the external electrical field A, this makes the energy flow from the fifth dimension to the usual three-dimensional space, when some symmetries of the usual space are broken, giving a preferential direction in the space, even though the standard electrical and magnetic fields are null.

  3. Defect Formation in Superconducting Rings: External Fields and Finite-Size Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. J.; Monaco, R.; Rivers, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    Consistent with the predictions of Kibble and Zurek, scaling behaviour has been seen in the production of fluxoids during temperature quenches of superconducting rings. However, deviations from the canonical behaviour arise because of finite-size effects and stray external fields. Technical developments, including laser heating and the use of long Josephson tunnel junctions, have improved the quality of data that can be obtained. With new experiments in mind we perform large-scale 3D simulations of quenches of small, thin rings of various geometries with fully dynamical electromagnetic fields, at nonzero externally applied magnetic flux. We find that the outcomes are, in practise, indistinguishable from those of much simpler Gaussian analytical approximations in which the rings are treated as one-dimensional systems and the magnetic field fluctuation-free.

  4. On Cluster Properties of Classical Ferromagnets in an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Jürg; Rodríguez, Pierre-François

    2017-02-01

    Correlation functions of ferromagnetic spin systems satisfying a Lee-Yang property are studied. It is shown that, for classical systems in a non-vanishing uniform external magnetic field h, the connected correlation functions decay exponentially in the distances between the spins, i.e., the inverse correlation length ("mass gap"), m( h), is strictly positive. Our proof is very short and transparent and is valid for complex values of the external magnetic field h, provided that Re h not = 0. It implies a mean-field lower bound on m( h), as h searrow 0, first established by Lebowitz and Penrose for the Ising model. Our arguments also apply to some quantum spin systems.

  5. Topology optimized and 3D printed polymer-bonded permanent magnets for a predefined external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Pfaff, C.; Kriwet, J.; Groenefeld, M.; Teliban, I.; Vogler, C.; Suess, D.

    2017-08-01

    Topology optimization offers great opportunities to design permanent magnetic systems that have specific external field characteristics. Additive manufacturing of polymer-bonded magnets with an end-user 3D printer can be used to manufacture permanent magnets with structures that had been difficult or impossible to manufacture previously. This work combines these two powerful methods to design and manufacture permanent magnetic systems with specific properties. The topology optimization framework is simple, fast, and accurate. It can also be used for the reverse engineering of permanent magnets in order to find the topology from field measurements. Furthermore, a magnetic system that generates a linear external field above the magnet is presented. With a volume constraint, the amount of magnetic material can be minimized without losing performance. Simulations and measurements of the printed systems show very good agreement.

  6. In situ and remote characterization of the external field temporal variations at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    Since there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the temporal variability of the external field as it is done on Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this paper we examine two indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First, we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We sort the measurements on a fine spatial mesh, 0.8° × 0.8° at the equator. We then subtract for each bin and measurement the internal, crustal (static) field without any a priori modeling. We finally compute daily averages of the individual residuals to obtain a time series of an in situ proxy. Second, we use the Advanced Composition Explorer mission which measures the solar wind about 1 h upstream of the Earth at the L1 Lagrange point. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the average velocity of particles carrying the interplanetary magnetic field to obtain a remote proxy time series. We compare these time series and demonstrate that they are complementary. When Mars and the Earth are close to the same Parker spiral arm, in situ and remote series have correlation coefficients close to 0.5. We show how these series, or proxies, can help to select magnetic field measurements on Mars. This dual approach and these proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  7. External field-assisted solution synthesis and selectively catalytic properties of amorphous iron nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jianguo; Yan, Gongqin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2012-03-07

    This work describes an easy and flexible approach for the synthesis of 2D nanostructures by external composite field-induced self-assembly. Amorphous iron nanoplatelets with a large aspect ratio were prepared by reducing a concentrated FeSO4 solution with NaBH4 without any templates or surfactants under a magnetic field and a shear field, and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the morphological dependence of the resultant iron nanostructures on the kinetic parameters such as reactant concentration, reaction temperature, external fields as well as reaction time, etc., a novel conceivable formation mechanism of the iron nanoplatelets was substantiated to be a self-assembly of concentrated iron nuclei induced by the synergistic effect of both a magnetic field and a shear field. Due to the amorphous nature and shape anisotropy, the as-synthesized iron nanoplatelets exhibit quite different magnetic properties with an enhanced coercivity of >220 Oe from isotropic iron nanoparticles. In the oxidation of cyclohexane with hydrogen peroxide as a 'green' oxidant, the as-obtained amorphous iron nanoplatelets show a conversion more than 84% and a complete selectivity for cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone due to the unique structure. Moreover, their catalytic performances are strongly influenced by their morphology, and the iron atoms located on the faces tend to catalyze the formation of cyclohexanol while those on the sides tend to catalyze the formation of cyclohexanone. The external composite field-induced solution synthesis reported here can be readily explored for fabricating other 2D magnetic nanoplatelets, and the resulting iron nanoplatelets are promising for a number of applications such as high efficient selective catalysis, energy, environment fields and so forth.

  8. Graphene nanoflakes in external electric and magnetic in-plane fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szałowski, Karol, E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl

    2015-05-15

    The paper discusses the influence of the external in-plane electric and magnetic fields on the ground state spin phase diagram of selected monolayer graphene nanostructures. The calculations are performed for triangular graphene nanoflakes with armchair edges as well as for short pieces of armchair graphene nanoribbons with zigzag terminations. The mean field approximation (MFA) is employed to solve the Hubbard model. The total spin for both classes of nanostructures is discussed as a function of external fields for various structure sizes, for charge neutrality conditions as well as for weak charge doping. The variety of nonzero spin states is found and their stability ranges are determined. For some structures, the presence of antiferromagnetic orderings is predicted within the zero-spin phase. The process of magnetization of nanoflakes with magnetic field at constant electric field is also investigated, showing opposite effect of electric field at low and at high magnetic fields. - Highlights: • Magnetic ground-state phase diagram of graphene nanoflakes was constructed. • The combined effect of in-plane electric and magnetic fields on total spin was studied. • A rich phase diagram with both disordered and ordered (nonzero spin) phases was found. • The importance of size and edge geometry of the nanostructure was emphasized.

  9. Effects of external magnetic field on biodistribution of nanoparticles: A histological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hua, M.-Y. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Chen Jyhping [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Wei, K.-C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jung, S.-M. [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-J. [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jou, M.-J. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ma, Y.-H. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yhma@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of external magnetic fields on the biodistribution of nanoparticles (NP). A NdFeB magnet of 2.4 kG was externally applied over the left femoral artery or right kidney. The 250 nm dextran-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NP was injected via tail vein in healthy rats, and organs were taken 1 or 24 h later. Prussian blue stain revealed that NP were more rapidly retained in the liver and spleen than in the lungs. NP aggregation observed in the kidney and femoral artery after application of external magnets was time dependent. Hollow organs such as the intestine, colon, and urinary bladder retained little NP.

  10. Release of charges under external fields of PbLa(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chong-Hui; Xu Zhuo; Gao Jun-Jie; Yao Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the pyroelectric of poled antiferroelectric (AFE) ceramic Pb0.97La0.02 (Zr0.69Sn0.196 Ti0.114)O3 and its remnant polarization dependence of hydrostatic pressure. The results show that the bound charges of poled sample can be released in short time by temperature field or pressure field. The released charge abruptly forms a large pulse current. The phenomena of released charge under external fields result in the ferroelectric-AFE phase transition induced by temperature or hydrostatic pressure.

  11. Modeling of external electric field effect on the carbon and silicon carbide nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokina, Veronika, E-mail: ansonika@mail.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, Konstantin, E-mail: knikiforov@cc.spbu.ru [Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”, 5 Prof. Popova, St. Petersburg, 197376 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    Studying emission characteristics of nanotubes is extremely important for development of electronics. Compared to other electron sources nanotube-based field emitters allow obtaining significant emission currents at relatively low values of the applied field. It is possible due to their unique structure. This article is devoted to theoretical investigation how external electric field effects several samples of open single-wall nanotubes from carbon and silicon carbide. Total energies, dipole moments and band gaps for five types of nanotubes were calculated from the first principles. The numerical experiment results indicate the adequacy of modeling. It was concluded that considered configurations of achiral carbon nanotubes should be semiconductors.

  12. Parametric instabilities in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimachkov, D.A., E-mail: klimachkovdmitry@gmail.com [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Petrosyan, A.S. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskyi per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    This article deals with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a thin rotating layer of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field. We use the shallow water approximation to describe thin rotating plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field. The MHD shallow water equations with external vertical magnetic field are revised by supplementing them with the equations that are consequences of the magnetic field divergence-free conditions and reveal the existence of third component of the magnetic field in such approximation providing its relation with the horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of a vertical magnetic field significantly changes the dynamics of the wave processes in astrophysical plasma compared to the neutral fluid and plasma layer in a toroidal magnetic field. The equations for the nonlinear wave packets interactions are derived using the asymptotic multiscale method. The equations for three magneto-Poincare waves interactions, for three magnetostrophic waves interactions, for the interactions of two magneto-Poincare waves and for one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave interactions are obtained. The existence of parametric decay and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of parametric decay instabilities: magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare wave and one magnetostrophic wave, magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave. Following mechanisms of parametric amplifications are found: parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave amplification in magnetostrophic wave presence and magnetostrophic wave amplification in magneto-Poincare wave presence. The instabilities growth rates

  13. Plasma expansion into a vacuum with an arbitrarily oriented external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rubio, F., E-mail: fernando.garcia.rubio@upm.es; Sanz, J. [E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ruocco, A. [Universitá degli studi di Napoli Federico II, 80138 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Plasma expansion into a vacuum with an external magnetic field is studied under the ideal magnetohydrodynamic hypothesis. The inclination of the magnetic field with respect to the expansion direction is arbitrary, and both the perpendicular and the oblique cases are separately analyzed. A self-similar solution satisfying the boundary conditions is obtained. The interface with the vacuum is treated as a fluid surface, and jump conditions concerning the momentum conservation are imposed. The effect of the intensity of the magnetic field and its inclination is thoroughly studied, and the consistency of the solution for small and large inclinations is investigated.

  14. The Mass of Kerr-Newman Black Holes in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Astorino, M; Oliveri, R; Vandevoorde, N

    2016-01-01

    The explicit solution for a Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in an external magnetic field, sometimes called the Melvin-Kerr-Newman black hole, has been derived by Ernst and Wild in 1976. In this paper, we clarify the first law and Smarr formula for black holes in a magnetic field. We then define the unique mass which is integrable and reduces to the Kerr-Newman mass in the absence of magnetic field. This defines the thermodynamic potentials of the black hole. Quite strikingly, the mass coincides with the standard Christodoulou-Ruffini mass of a black hole as a function of the entropy, angular momentum and electric charge.

  15. Multiple Bit Error Tolerant Galois Field Architectures Over GF (2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Poolakkaparambil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiation induced transient faults like single event upsets (SEU and multiple event upsets (MEU in memories are well researched. As a result of the technology scaling, it is observed that the logic blocks are also vulnerable to malfunctioning when they are deployed in radiation prone environment. However, the current literature is lacking efforts to mitigate such issues in the digital logic circuits when exposed to natural radiation prone environment or when they are subjected to malicious attacks by an eavesdropper using highly energized particles. This may lead to catastrophe in critical applications such as widely used cryptographic hardware. In this paper, novel dynamic error correction architectures, based on the BCH codes, is proposed for correcting multiple errors which makes the circuits robust against radiation induced faults irrespective of the location of the errors. As a benchmark test case, the finite field multiplier circuit is considered as the functional block which can be the target for major attacks. The proposed scheme has the capability to handle stuck-at faults that are also a major cause of failure affecting the overall yield of a nano-CMOS integrated chip. The experimental results show that the proposed dynamic error detection and correction architecture results in 50% reduction in critical path delay by dynamically bypassing the error correction logic when no error is present. The area overhead for the larger multiplier is within 150% which is 33% lower than the TMR and comparable to 130% overhead of single error correcting Hamming and LDPC based techniques.

  16. Trans-dimensional matched-field geoacoustic inversion with hierarchical error models and interacting Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E

    2012-10-01

    This paper develops a trans-dimensional approach to matched-field geoacoustic inversion, including interacting Markov chains to improve efficiency and an autoregressive model to account for correlated errors. The trans-dimensional approach and hierarchical seabed model allows inversion without assuming any particular parametrization by relaxing model specification to a range of plausible seabed models (e.g., in this case, the number of sediment layers is an unknown parameter). Data errors are addressed by sampling statistical error-distribution parameters, including correlated errors (covariance), by applying a hierarchical autoregressive error model. The well-known difficulty of low acceptance rates for trans-dimensional jumps is addressed with interacting Markov chains, resulting in a substantial increase in efficiency. The trans-dimensional seabed model and the hierarchical error model relax the degree of prior assumptions required in the inversion, resulting in substantially improved (more realistic) uncertainty estimates and a more automated algorithm. In particular, the approach gives seabed parameter uncertainty estimates that account for uncertainty due to prior model choice (layering and data error statistics). The approach is applied to data measured on a vertical array in the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Possible role of external radial electric field on ion heating in an FRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Trask, E.; Korepanov, S.; Granstedt, E.; Osin, D.; Roche, T.; Deng, B.; Beall, M.; Zhai, K.; TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    In C-2/C-2U FRCs, a radial electric field is applied by either plasma guns or biased electrodes inside the divertors, at both ends of the machine. The electric field plays an important role in stabilizing the FRC; thus, providing a favorable target condition to a neutral beam injection. In addition, it is also observed that the application of radial electric field may lead to a heating of ions. Radial profile of impurity ion emission, azimuthal velocity and temperature are measured under different configurations. The conditions and evidences of ion heating due to the electric field biasing will be presented and discussed. Radial momentum balance equation of oxygen impurity ions is used with these measurements to estimate the radial electric field profile. Parameters affecting the ion heating due to biasing will also be discussed with some correlations. The external radial electric field is planned to be applied by biased electrodes and plasma guns in C-2W inner/outer divertors.

  18. Photon-radion conversion cross-sections in external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, P V; Soa, D V; Thao, N H; 10.1007/JHEP10(2011)018

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to present some experimental predictions of the Randall-Sundrum model, where compactification radius of the extra dimension is stabilized by the radion, which is a scalar field lighter than the graviton Kaluza-Klein states. We calculate the conversion cross-sections of the photons into the radions in the external electromagnetic fields, namely, in the static fields and in a periodic field of the wave guide. Numerical evaluations of the total cross-sections are also given. Our result shows that the conversion cross-section in the static electric field is quite small. But, in the static magnetic and periodic fields, the radion productions are much enhanced.

  19. Holographic Superconductors with Logarithmic Nonlinear Electrodynamics in an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, A.; Shamsi, F.

    2017-03-01

    Based on the matching method, we explore the effects of adding an external magnetic field on the s-wave holographic superconductors when the gauge field is in the form of the logarithmic nonlinear source. First, we obtain the critical temperature as well as the condensation operator in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics and understand that they depend on the nonlinear parameter b. We show that the critical temperature decreases with increasing b, which implies that the nonlinear gauge field makes the condensation harder. Then, we turn on the magnetic field in the bulk and find the critical magnetic field, B c , in terms of the temperature, which also depends on the nonlinear parameter b. We observe that for temperature smaller than the critical temperature, T superconductor with magnetic field in Maxwell theory.

  20. Analysis of the 3D magnetic field and its errors for undulators with iron poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingold, G.; Bahrdt, J.; Gaupp, A. [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The attainable field strength and field quality, such as the optical phase error, the electron beam displacement within the undulator and higher order multipoles of the magnetic field, are discussed. These issues are critical to the design and construction of short period undulators for use in short wavelength FEL or for operation in third generation light sources. We discuss two approaches: (i) For superferric undulators the construction of a full length device would rely on the optimum sorting of precision machined undulator segments. Magnetic data on segments with 20 periods (period length 8.80mm) will be presented. (ii) For hybrid undulators the sorting has to be done on individual poles and magnets. For this approach typical error sources such as machining tolerances, magnetization errors of the permanent magnet material and assembly errors are modeled in 3D and compared to induced errors on an existing hybrid undulator segment. In case of undulators having a full length of hundred periods at least five times as many individual parts have to be characterized. This should be done automatically where both the mechanical and magnetic data before and after the assembly of the magnetic structure are recorded in one step. A CNC programmable measuring device suitable for this task will shortly be presented.

  1. Classical spin glass system in external field with taking into account relaxation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Abajyan, H. G.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistical properties of disordered spin systems under the influence of an external field with taking into account relaxation effects. For description of system the spatial 1D Heisenberg spin-glass Hamiltonian is used. In addition, we suppose that interactions occur between nearest-neighboring spins and they are random. Exact solutions which define angular configuration of the spin in nodes were obtained from the equations of stationary points of Hamiltonian and the corresponding conditions for the energy local minimum. On the basis of these recurrent solutions an effective parallel algorithm is developed for simulation of stabile spin-chains of an arbitrary length. It is shown that by way of an independent order of N 2 numerical simulations (where N is number of spin in each chain) it is possible to generate ensemble of spin-chains, which is completely ergodic which is equivalent to full self-averaging of spin-chains' vector polarization. Distributions of different parameters (energy, average polarization by coordinates, and spin-spin interaction constant) of unperturbed system are calculated. In particular, analytically is proved and numerically is shown, that for the Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, the distribution of spin-spin interaction constants as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution satisfies Levy alpha-stable distribution law. This distribution is nonanalytic function and does not have variance. In the work we have in detail studied critical properties of an ensemble depending on value of external field parameters (from amplitude and frequency) and have shown that even at weak external fields the spin-glass systemis strongly frustrated. It is shown that frustrations have fractal behavior, they are selfsimilar and do not disappear at scale decreasing of area. By the numerical computation is shown that the average polarization of spin-glass on a different coordinates can have values which can lead to

  2. Parametric instabilities in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimachkov, D. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a thin rotating layer of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field. We use the shallow water approximation to describe thin rotating plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field. The MHD shallow water equations with external vertical magnetic field are revised by supplementing them with the equations that are consequences of the magnetic field divergence-free conditions and reveal the existence of third component of the magnetic field in such approximation providing its relation with the horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of a vertical magnetic field significantly changes the dynamics of the wave processes in astrophysical plasma compared to the neutral fluid and plasma layer in a toroidal magnetic field. The equations for the nonlinear wave packets interactions are derived using the asymptotic multiscale method. The equations for three magneto-Poincare waves interactions, for three magnetostrophic waves interactions, for the interactions of two magneto-Poincare waves and for one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave interactions are obtained. The existence of parametric decay and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of parametric decay instabilities: magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare wave and one magnetostrophic wave, magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave. Following mechanisms of parametric amplifications are found: parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave amplification in magnetostrophic wave presence and magnetostrophic wave amplification in magneto-Poincare wave presence. The instabilities growth rates

  3. Signal amelioration of electrophoretically deposited whole-cell biosensors using external electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Yoav, Hadar, E-mail: benyoav@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Amzel, Tal [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sternheim, Marek [Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Belkin, Shimshon [Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Rubin, Adi [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Shacham-Diamand, Yosi [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Freeman, Amihay [Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > We present an electrochemical whole-cell biochip that can apply electric fields. > We examine the integration of cells on a biochip using electrophoretic deposition. > The effect of electric fields on the whole-cell biosensor has been demonstrated. > Relatively short DC electric pulse improves the performance of whole-cell biosensors. > Prolonged AC electric fields deteriorated the whole-cell biosensor performance. - Abstract: This paper presents an integrated whole-cell biochip system where functioning cells are deposited on the solid micro-machined surfaces while specially designed indium tin oxide electrodes that can be used to apply controllable electric fields during various stages; for example during cell deposition. The electrodes can be used also for sensing currents associated with the sensing mechanisms of electrochemical whole-cell biosensors. In this work a new approach integrating live bacterial cells on a biochip using electrophoretic deposition is presented. The biomaterial deposition technique was characterized under various driving potentials and chamber configurations. An analytical model of the electrophoretic deposition kinetics was developed and presented here. The deposited biomass included genetically engineered bacterial cells that may respond to toxic material exposure by expressing proteins that react with specific analytes generating electrochemically active byproducts. In this study the effect of external electric fields on the whole-cell biochips has been successfully developed and tested. The research hypothesis was that by applying electric fields on bacterial whole-cells, their permeability to the penetration of external analytes can be increased. This effect was tested and the results are shown here. The effect of prolonged and short external electric fields on the bioelectrochemical signal generated by sessile bacterial whole-cells in response to the presence of toxins was studied. It was demonstrated that relatively

  4. External Fields and the Dynamics of Fundamental Flavours in Holographic Duals of Large N Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Arnab

    2010-01-01

    Using the gauge-gravity duality we study strongly coupled dynamics of fundamental flavours in large N_c gauge theories in a constant external field. We primarily focus on the effects of an external magnetic field. We use two holographic models realized in the Type IIB and Type IIA supergravity and present a comparative case study. In both these models, by studying the dynamics of probe branes, we explicitly demonstrate and discuss the magnetically induced chiral symmetry breaking effect ("magnetic catalysis") in the flavour sector. We also study the associated thermodynamics and the meson spectrum and realize e.g. Zeeman splitting, stability enhancement of the mesons in the presence of an external magnetic field etc. By studying the quasinormal modes of the probe brane fluctuation in the hydrodynamic limit we also obtain an analytic dispersion relation in the presence of a magnetic field in the Type IIA model. This dispersion relation consists of a propagating sound mode in the otherwise diffusive channel and...

  5. Properties of a Si2N molecule under an external electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Guo-Liang; Xie Hui-Xiang; Yuan Wei; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Liu Yu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    In the present work,we adopt the ccsd/6-31g(d)method to optimize the ground state structure and calculate the vibrational frequency of the Si2N molecule.The calculated frequencies accord satisfactorily with the experimental values,which helps confirm the ground state structure of the molecule.In order to find how the external electric field affects the Si2N molecule,we use the density functioual method B3P86/6-31g(d)to optimize the ground state structure and the time-dependent density functional theory TDDFT/6-31g(d)to study the absorption spectra,the excitation energies,the oscillator strengths,and the dipole moments of the Si2N molecule under different external electric fields.It is found that the absorption spectra,the excitation energies,the oscillator strengths,and the dipole moments of the Si2N molecule are affected by the external electric field.One of the valuable results is that the absorption spectra of the yellow and the blue-violet light of the Si2N molecule each have a red shift under the electric field.The luminescence mechanism in the visible light region of the Si2N molecule is also investigated and compared with the experimental data.

  6. Active contour external force using vector field convolution for image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Acton, Scott T

    2007-08-01

    Snakes, or active contours, have been widely used in image processing applications. Typical roadblocks to consistent performance include limited capture range, noise sensitivity, and poor convergence to concavities. This paper proposes a new external force for active contours, called vector field convolution (VFC), to address these problems. VFC is calculated by convolving the edge map generated from the image with the user-defined vector field kernel. We propose two structures for the magnitude function of the vector field kernel, and we provide an analytical method to estimate the parameter of the magnitude function. Mixed VFC is introduced to alleviate the possible leakage problem caused by choosing inappropriate parameters. We also demonstrate that the standard external force and the gradient vector flow (GVF) external force are special cases of VFC in certain scenarios. Examples and comparisons with GVF are presented in this paper to show the advantages of this innovation, including superior noise robustness, reduced computational cost, and the flexibility of tailoring the force field.

  7. Ground-State Behavior of the Quantum Compass Model in an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ke-Wei; CHEN Qing-Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ground-state(GS)properties of the two-dimensional(2D)quantum compass model in an external field on a square 5×5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization(ED)method.We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions,nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter.As the external field is presented,the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.%Ground-state (GS) properties of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum compass model in an external Geld on a square 5x5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization (ED) method. We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions, nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter. As the external Geld is presented, the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.

  8. Derivation of a non-local interfacial model for 3D wetting in an external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardino, N R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Parry, A O [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rascon, C [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Romero-Enrique, J M [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado de Correos 1065, E-41080 Seville (Spain)

    2009-11-18

    We extend recent studies of 3D short-ranged wetting transitions by deriving an interfacial Hamiltonian in the presence of an arbitrary external field. The binding potential functional, describing the interaction of the interface and the substrate, can still be written in a diagrammatic form, but now includes new classes of diagrams due to the coupling to the external potential, which are determined exactly. Applications to systems with long-ranged (algebraically decaying) and short-ranged (exponentially decaying) external potentials are considered at length. We show how the familiar 'sharp-kink' approximation to the binding potential emerges, and determine the corrections to this arising from interactions between bulk-like fluctuations and the external field. A connection is made with earlier local effective interfacial Hamiltonian approaches. It is shown that, for the case of an exponentially decaying potential, non-local effects have a particularly strong influence on the approach to the critical regime at second-order wetting transitions, even when they appear to be sub-dominant. This is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation studies of a discretized version of a non-local interfacial model.

  9. Error analysis for satellite gravity field determination based on two-dimensional Fourier methods

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Lin; Hsu, Houtse; Gao, Fang; Zhu, Zhu; Luo, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The time-wise and space-wise approaches are generally applied to data processing and error analysis for satellite gravimetry missions. But both the approaches, which are based on least-squares collocation, address the whole effect of measurement errors and estimate the resolution of gravity field models mainly from a numerical point of indirect view. Moreover, requirement for higher accuracy and resolution gravity field models could make the computation more difficult, and serious numerical instabilities arise. In order to overcome the problems, this study focuses on constructing a direct relationship between power spectral density of the satellite gravimetry measurements and coefficients of the Earth's gravity potential. Based on two-dimensional Fourier transform, the relationship is analytically concluded. By taking advantage of the analytical expression, it is efficient and distinct for parameter estimation and error analysis of missions. From the relationship and the simulations, it is analytically confir...

  10. An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)

  11. Reduction of truncation errors in partial spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Cano Facila, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, a new and effective method for reduction of truncation errors in partial spherical near-field (SNF) antenna measurements is proposed. This method is based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm used to extrapolate functions and it is able to extend the valid region of the far...

  12. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; P. de Vries,; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C.M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J. K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K. I.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized m

  13. Effects of External Magnetic Fields on the Excited States of (ND)8 Metal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Charles Alan

    Large changes in the steady state emissions and lifetimes as a function of external magnetic field strength have been observed for (nd)^8 mononuclear and binuclear complexes. These unusually pronounced effects are attributed to a field-induced symmetry reduction leading to a relaxation of transition dipole selection rules. Both spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field strength appear to play a role in determining the magnitude of the observed effect. A theoretical model has been developed to rationalize the results obtained for the Pt_2(H _2P_2O _5)_sp{4}{4-} ion. An analogous model should pertain to the mononuclear systems. Closed-shell (La(III), Lu(III)) rare earth salts of the Pt_2(H_2P _2O_5)_sp{4 }{4-} ion show the same dependence on an externally applied magnetic field as the previously examined K and Ba analogs, in all respects. However, the luminescence properties of the openshell salts are markedly different, even in the absence of a magnetic field. The zero-field phosphorescence lifetime of GdKPt_2 (H_2P_2O _5)_4 is one-tenth that of the closed-shell lifetime, but the position of the phosphorescence is unchanged from the closed-shell case. The application of an external magnetic field produces no further changes in the electronic properties of the open-shell salts. Salts containing rare earth ions with low-lying atomic states (Eu(III)) exhibit complete quenching of the Pt _2(H_2P_2 O_5)_sp{4}{4 -} phosphorescence, indicating efficient energy transfer. Results from complexes containing rare earth ions are analyzed in terms of an angular momentum coupling scheme. A recently published derivation of basis functions for the Pt_2(H_2 P_2O_5)_sp {4}{4-} ion including spin-orbit interactions was repeated and confirmed.

  14. 高校网站外宣翻译失误探讨%University website external publicity translation errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岑沛

    2015-01-01

    高校网站外宣翻译存在的问题主要体现为忽视受众。本文指出,高校网站外宣翻译应充分考虑受众的审美诉求、文化背景和实际需求,有效发挥外宣文本的交际功能,试图为提高高校英文网站建设水平提供借鉴。%University’s website problems of external publicity translation mainly embodied in ignoring the audience. This paper points out that the translation website external publicity of colleges and universities should fully consider the audience aesthetic appeal and cultural background and the actual demand, effective play communicative functions of external propaganda text, trying to raise the level of college English website construction for reference.

  15. Manipulating Majorana zero modes on atomic rings with an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Neupert, Titus; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Non-Abelian quasiparticles have been predicted to exist in a variety of condensed matter systems. Their defining property is that an adiabatic braid between two of them results in a non-trivial change of the quantum state of the system. The simplest non-Abelian quasiparticles--the Majorana bound states--can occur in one-dimensional electronic nano-structures proximity-coupled to a bulk superconductor. Here we propose a set-up, based on chains of magnetic adatoms on the surface of a thin-film superconductor, in which the control over an externally applied magnetic field suffices to create and manipulate Majorana bound states. We consider specifically rings of adatoms and show that they allow for the creation, annihilation, adiabatic motion and braiding of pairs of Majorana bound states by varying the magnitude and orientation of the external magnetic field.

  16. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor......-type interaction under the strong external magnetic field, it is shown that a quark spin polarized phase is realized in all regions of the quark chemical potential under consideration within the lowest Landau level approximation. In the axial-vector-type interaction, it is also shown that the quark spin polarized...... phase appears in the wide range of the quark chemical potential. In both the interactions, the quark mass in zero and small chemical potential regions increases which indicates that the chiral symmetry breaking is enhanced, namely the magnetic catalysis occurs....

  17. Orientational instabilities in nematics with weak anchoring under combined action of steady flow and external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nasibullayev, I S; Krekhov, A P; Kramer, L

    2005-01-01

    We study the homogeneous and the spatially periodic instabilities in a nematic liquid crystal layer subjected to steady plane {\\em Couette} or {\\em Poiseuille} flow. The initial director orientation is perpendicular to the flow plane. Weak anchoring at the confining plates and the influence of the external {\\em electric} and/or {\\em magnetic} field are taken into account. Approximate expressions for the critical shear rate are presented and compared with semi-analytical solutions in case of Couette flow and numerical solutions of the full set of nematodynamic equations for Poiseuille flow. In particular the dependence of the type of instability and the threshold on the azimuthal and the polar anchoring strength and external fields is analysed.

  18. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-01

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  19. The Behavior of Ultrafine Particles in the Absence and Presence of External Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Hancock, Bruno; Bentham, Craig; Elliott, James

    2007-03-01

    Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultrafine particles (0.1 - 1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical ihalation applications. We develop a numerical model for these systems using the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction between the particles and their contact mechanical interactions. We study the dynamics of these systems in the absence and presence of gravity by controlling the particle size, and thereby, the surface properties of the particles. Finally, we explore the response of these systems to external fields by studying the evolution of the internal microstructure under contant load and shear strain.

  20. On the interaction between the external magnetic field and nanofluid inside a vertical square duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we numerically study how the external magnetic field influences the flow and thermal characteristics of nanofluid inside a vertical square duct. The flow is considered to be laminar and hydrodynamically as well as thermally developed, whereas the thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux per unit axial length with constant peripheral temperature at any cross section, is assumed. The governing equations are solved using the spectral method and the finite difference method. Excellent comparison is noted in the numerical results given by the two methods but the spectral method is found to be superior in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. We have noted that the flow reversal due to high Raleigh number may be controlled by applying an external magnetic field of suitable strength. Moreover, the Nusselt number is found to be almost a linear function of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, for different values of the Raleigh number and the magnetic parameter.

  1. Effects of external magnetic field on oblique propagation of ion acoustic cnoidal wave in nonextensive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad Kiyaei, Forough; Dorranian, Davoud

    2017-01-01

    Effects of the obliqueness and the strength of external magnetic field on the ion acoustic (IA) cnoidal wave in a nonextensive plasma are investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the corresponding KdV equation for the IA wave. Sagdeev potential is extracted, and the condition of generation of IA waves in the form of cnoidal waves or solitons is discussed in detail. In this work, the domain of allowable values of nonextensivity parameter q for generation of the IA cnoidal wave in the plasma medium is considered. The results show that only the compressive IA wave may generate and propagate in the plasma medium. Increasing the strength of external magnetic field will increase the frequency of the wave and decrease its amplitude, while increasing the angle of propagation will decrease the frequency of the wave and increase its amplitude.

  2. Effects of magnetic nanoparticles and external magnetostatic field on the bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  3. Transport properties of a charged hot spot in an external electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S., E-mail: sergeyb@ariel.ac.il; Komoshvili, K.; Prygarin, A.

    2016-06-15

    We investigate adiabatic expansion of a charged and rotating fluid element consisting of weakly interacting particles, which is initially perturbed by an external electromagnetic field. A framework for the perturbative calculation of the non-equilibrium distribution function of this fluid volume is considered and the distribution function is calculated to the first order in the perturbative expansion. This distribution function, which describes the evolution of the element with constant entropy, allows to calculate momentum flux tensor and viscosity coefficients of the expanding system. We show, that these viscosity coefficients depend on the initial angular velocity of the spot and on the strength of its initial perturbation by the external field. Obtained results are applied to the phenomenology of the viscosity to the entropy ratio calculated in lattice models.

  4. On the interaction between the external magnetic field and nanofluid inside a vertical square duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kashif; Ahmad, Shabbir; Ahmad, Shahzad, E-mail: shahzadahmadbzu@gmail.com; Ashraf, Muhammad; Asif, Muhammad [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Postal Code: 60800) (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we numerically study how the external magnetic field influences the flow and thermal characteristics of nanofluid inside a vertical square duct. The flow is considered to be laminar and hydrodynamically as well as thermally developed, whereas the thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux per unit axial length with constant peripheral temperature at any cross section, is assumed. The governing equations are solved using the spectral method and the finite difference method. Excellent comparison is noted in the numerical results given by the two methods but the spectral method is found to be superior in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. We have noted that the flow reversal due to high Raleigh number may be controlled by applying an external magnetic field of suitable strength. Moreover, the Nusselt number is found to be almost a linear function of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, for different values of the Raleigh number and the magnetic parameter.

  5. Transport properties of a charged drop in an external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, S; Prygarin, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigate adiabatic expansion of a charged and rotating fireball consisting of weekly interacting particles, which is initially perturbed by an external electromagnetic field. A framework for the perturbative calculation of the non-equilibrium distribution function of the fireball is considered and the distribution function is calculated to the first order in the perturbative expansion. This distribution function, which describes the evolution of the droplet with constant entropy, allows to calculate momentum flux tensor and viscosity coefficients of the expanding system. We show, that these viscosity coefficients depend on the initial angular velocity of the fireball and on the strength of its initial perturbation by the external field. Obtained results are applied to the phenomenology of the viscosity to the entropy ratio calculated in lattice models.

  6. Enhancement of wave and acceleration of electron in plasma in the external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the enhancement of Langmuir and ion-acoustic wave and the acceleration of the electron in collisionless plasma.in the presence of an external transverse field.Based on hydrodynamic equations,an equation formulizing the parametric instability was derived.Furthermore,the formula for ponderomotive force and the expression that describes the electron acceleration were obtained.The results show that Langmuir and ion-acoustic wave are enhanced and the charged particles can be accelerated by the coupling of wave-wave.In addition,it can be concluded that ponderomotive force,due to the coupling of the external field(pump)to the Langmuir wave(ion-acoustic wave),is the driving force to excite the parametric instability and comprises the high- and low-frequency components.

  7. Si3O cluster: excited properties under external electric field and oxygen-deficient defect models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Guo-Liang; Liu Xue-Feng; Xie Hui-Xiang; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Liu Yu-Fang

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the excited states of Si3O molecule by using the single-excitation configuration interaction and density functional theory. It finds that the visible light absorption spectrum of SisO molecule comprises the yellow and the purple light without external electric field, however all the visible light is included except the green light under the action of external electric field. Oxygen-deficient defects, which also can be found in Si3O molecule, have been used to explain the luminescence from silicon-based materials but the microstrnctures of the materials are still uncertain.Our results accord with the experimental values perfectly, this fact suggests that the structure of Si3O molecule is expected to be one of the main basic structures of the materials, so the oxygen-deficient defect structural model for Si3O molecule also has been provided to research the structures of materials.

  8. Complete Form of Fermion Self-energy in NJL Model with External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Song; Cui, Zhu-Fang; Xia, Yong-Hui; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to study the complete form of self-energy in fermion propagator within two-flavor NJL model in the case of finite temperature, chemical potential and external magnetic field. Through self-consistency analysis we prove that the self-energy is not simply proportional to dynamical mass in the presence of chemical potential, moreover, it could be more complicated after introducing external magnetic field. We find out the appropriate and complete form of self-energy and establish new gap equations. The numerical results show that the dynamical mass only has small quantitative modification rather than qualitative change by using these new gap equations, but the new self-energy does generate split in the dispersion relation with fixed momentum and Landau level.

  9. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from -1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  10. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from −1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  11. Flexible magnetic filaments under the influence of external magnetic fields in the limit of infinite dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Joan J; Sánchez, Pedro A; Lüsebrink, Daniel; Kantorovich, Sofia; Sintes, Tomàs

    2016-05-14

    In the present work we use Langevin dynamics computer simulations to understand how the presence of a constant external magnetic field modifies the conformational phase diagram of magnetic filaments in the limit of infinite dilution. We have considered the filaments immersed in either a good (non-sticky filaments) or a poor (Stockmayer polymers) solvent. It has been found that in the presence of an applied field, filaments turn out to be much more susceptible to parameters such as temperature and solvent conditions. Filaments owe this increased susceptibility to the fact that the external magnetic field tends to level the free energy landscape as compared to the zero-field case. The field induces equalization in the free energy of competing conformational states that were separated by large energy differences in the zero-field limit. In this new scenario multistability arises, and manifests itself in the existence of broad regions in the phase diagram where two or more equilibrium configurations coexist. The existence of multistability greatly enhances the possibility of tuning the properties of the filament.

  12. Effects of External Radiation Fields on Line Emission—Application to Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzikos, Marios; Ferland, G. J.; Williams, R. J. R.; Porter, Ryan; van Hoof, P. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background, as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus. These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field and show that about 60% of its emission lines are sensitive to background subtraction. We argue that this geometric approach could provide an additional tool toward understanding the complex radiation fields of starburst galaxies.

  13. Gauge Covariant Fermion Propagator in the Presence of Arbitrary External Gauge Field and Its Schwinger-Dyson Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; WANG Qing

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gauge covariance for Green's functions of a gauge theory through a fermion propagator in the presence of arbitrary external gauge field is proven and a formalism of gauge and Lorentz covariant Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion propagator with external gauge field is built up within ladder approximation.

  14. The response of metal clusters to q- and L-dependent external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ll.; Garcias, F. (Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Dept. de Fisica); Barberan, N.; Barranco, M. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Estructura y Constituyentes de la Materia); Navarro, J. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular); Rubio, A. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear)

    1991-01-01

    We have calculated the static polarizability and mean excitation energy of metal clusters submitted to q-and L-dependent external fields of j{sub L} (qr) Y{sub LO}({Omega}) type. Use has been made of an Extended Random-Phase Approximation which includes exchange and correlation effects within a local model, and of the spherical jellium model to describe the neutralizing positive background. (orig.).

  15. Particle with spin 2 and anomalous magnetic moment in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kisel, V V; Red'kov, V M

    2011-01-01

    Tensor 50-component form of the first order relativistic wave equation for a particle with spin 2 and anomalous magnetic moment is extended to the case of an arbitrary curved space-time geometry. An additional parameter considered in the presence of only electromagnetic field as related to anomalous magnetic moment, turns to determine additional interaction terms with external geometrical background through Ricci R_{kl} and Riemann R_{klmn} tensors.

  16. Schwinger pair creation in Dirac semimetals in the presence of external magnetic and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramchuk, R. A.; Zubkov, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the Schwinger pair creation process for the system of massless Dirac fermions in the presence of constant external magnetic and electric fields. The pair production rate remains finite unlike the vacuum decay rate. In the recently discovered Dirac semimetals, where the massless Dirac fermions emerge, this pair production may be observed experimentally through the transport properties. We estimate its contribution to the ordinary conductivity of the semimetals.

  17. Wave Grouping of a Drifting Spiral Wave in the Presence of an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hu-Jiang; YANG Jun-Zhong; HU Gang

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of wave grouping, in which the dense waves and the sparse waves can form groups in front of the spiral tip when the spiral wave is meandering, has been reported in a chemical reaction system recently. We present a method to realize the phenomenon of wave grouping by applying an external field to the system. The numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations.

  18. Certain Properties of a Quantum Information Network Driven by External Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Qiao; FANG Jin-Qing; ZOU Qin

    2006-01-01

    @@ A quantum information network with the structure of the Gaussian channel is proposed. The network topological property and information characteristic is studied. Under the catastrophic and exponential external field driving,the degree distribution has the spatial and temporal characteristics, and the positive or negative power index appears, which can influence the assortativity coefficient. This is possibly helpful to open a way to using the different type of driving to introduce the expected properties for the network.

  19. Effect of external magnetic field on the coexistence of SC and AFM in iron based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goi, S. K.; Pradhan, B.; Behera, Srikanta; Parida, P. K.; Mishra, R. N.

    2017-03-01

    We have studied the interplay of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in presence of an applied external magnetic field for the iron based superconductors. For the purpose we have proposed a model Hamiltonian and solved it self-consistently by using the Zubarev's technique of double time Green's function technique. The self-consistent gap equations are solved numerically and interpreted the gap values from the of density of states plots.

  20. $Er^{3+}$ luminescence as a sensor of high pressure and strong external magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valiente, R.; Millot, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Gonzalez, J.; Broto, J-M.; George, S.; Garcia-Revilla, S.; Romanyuk, Y.; Pollnau, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of the combined effect of high pressure (up to 7.5 GPa) and strong external magnetic fields (up to 28.5 T) on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of $Er^{3+}–Yb^{3+}$ co-doped single-crystal thin films of well-oriented $KY(WO_4)_2$ at low temperat

  1. Electronic properties of bilayer graphenes strongly coupled to interlayer stacking and an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changwon; Ryu, Junga; Hong, Suklyun; Sumpter, Bobby; Kim, Gunn; Yoon, Mina

    2015-03-01

    In the design of bilayer graphene (BLG)-based switching devices, it is critical to understand the complex stacking structures observed experimentally and their impact on the overall electronic properties. Using a maximally localized Wannier function, a highly accurate tight-binding Hamiltonian based on density functional theory was constructed and the stacking-dependent evolution of BLGs electronic band structures and their response to an external electric field were systematically investigated. Although the crossing band structures remain at any stacking configurations (i.e., no energy gap opens), the wavefunction characteristics around the Fermi level can differ qualitatively for different stackings. This difference is conveyed to energy gap opening properties in the presence of an external electric field. We, for the first time, established a phase diagram summarizing the stacking-dependent electronic structures of BLG, separating metallic and semiconducting characteristics for a given external field. The research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  2. First measurements of error fields on W7-X using flux surface mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Samuel A.; Otte, Matthias; Bozhenkov, Sergey; Biedermann, Christoph; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; the W7-X Team

    2016-10-01

    Error fields have been detected and quantified using the flux surface mapping diagnostic system on Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). A low-field ‘{\\rlap- \\iota} =1/2 ’ magnetic configuration ({\\rlap- \\iota} =\\iota /2π ), sensitive to error fields, was developed in order to detect their presence using the flux surface mapping diagnostic. In this configuration, a vacuum flux surface with rotational transform of n/m  =  1/2 is created at the mid-radius of the vacuum flux surfaces. If no error fields are present a vanishingly small n/m  =  5/10 island chain should be present. Modeling indicates that if an n  =  1 perturbing field is applied by the trim coils, a large n/m  =  1/2 island chain will be opened. This island chain is used to create a perturbation large enough to be imaged by the diagnostic. Phase and amplitude scans of the applied field allow the measurement of a small ∼ 0.04 m intrinsic island chain with a {{130}\\circ} phase relative to the first module of the W7-X experiment. These error fields are determined to be small and easily correctable by the trim coil system. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher, by accepting the article for publication acknowledges, that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  3. Quantitative estimation of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a coriolis mass-flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, van de L.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; Dijk, van J.; Lötters, J.C.; Boer, de A.; Dimitrovova, Z.; Almeida, de J.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the quantitative influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter for low flows is investigated, with the eventual goal to reduce the influence of vibrations. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how ext

  4. 2D and 3D fault basis for fuel cell diagnosis by external magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifrek, Lyes; Cauffet, Gilles; Chadebec, Olivier; Bultel, Yann; Rosini, Sébastien; Rouveyre, Luc

    2017-07-01

    An original approach used for the identification of faults in fuel cell stacks is presented. It is based on the 3D reconstruction of the current density from external magnetic field measurements which is an ill-posed magnetostatic linear inverse problem. A suitable and original current density and magnetic field basis are proposed in order to define both local and global faults on a fuel cell stack. The inverse problem is regularized by truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) to ensure the uniqueness of the solution. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2016)", edited by Adel Razek

  5. Hadronic matter under an external magnetic field: in medium modification of the pion mass

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, R

    2016-01-01

    The covariant propagator of a fermion with anomalous magnetic moment interacting with an uniform external magnetic field at finite temperature and baryonic density is presented . The case of a scalar boson is also considered. The final expressions are given in terms of a 4-dimensional momentum representation. These results, which take account of the full effect of the magnetic field, are used to evaluate the modification of the pion mass at zero temperature as a function of the density and the magnetic intensity. For this purpose a self-consistent calculation, including one and two pion vertices, is employed.

  6. Electronic properties of pentaorgano[60]fullerenes under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Sho; Okada, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    The electronic properties of pentaorgano[60]fullerene under an external electric field were studied by combining the density functional theory with the effective screening medium method. Pentaorgano[60]fullerene possess a dipole moment because of their asymmetric molecular form owing to their five functionalized groups. When electrons and holes are injected into the molecule, the magnetic states of the molecule change from S = 1/2 to nonmagnetic and S = 1 triplet states for electron and hole doping, respectively. The asymmetric molecular shape causes the unusual distribution of the accumulated carriers depending on their mutual molecular arrangement in the electric field.

  7. Recurrence relations for the three-dimensional Ising-like model in the external field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Kozlovskii

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for calculation of the partition function of lattice model for the magnet in the external field near critical point (CP is proposed. The recurrence relations and their explicit solution near the critical point are founded. It is shown that dependence on temperature of thermodynamic functions near CP, when the field value comes down to zero, is in good agreement with the previous results obtained using the collective variable method. The phase transition temperature (when h=0 is calculated and the dependence on parameters of interaction potential is found.

  8. On Equations for a Spin-2 Particle in External Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bogush, A A; Tokarevskaya, N G; Redkov, V M

    2003-01-01

    30-component, of the first order, equation for a spin 2 particle, equivalent to the second order Pauli-Fierz one, is generalized to presence of an external electromagnetic field as well as a curved background space-time geometry. The essential property of the generally covariant wave equation obtained is that here from the very beginning, in accordance with requirement of the Pauli-Fierz approach, a set of additional relations on 30-component wave function for eliminating complementary spin 0 and spin 1 fields is present at the starting equation.

  9. Geometric Phase of Polarized Hydrogenlike Atoms in an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhong; Finkelstein, David

    1995-04-01

    We show that the motion of polarized hydrogenlike atoms in an external magnetic field B is a cyclic evolution. The geometric phase they exhibit is dependent on both the initial state and the Hamiltonian. Properties of the geometric phase in the cases of weak (called Zeeman limit) and strong (called Paschen-Back limit) magnetic fields are presented. We point out that the results of the two limits are interpolated in the intermediate B region. Some observable effects in a specially devised interferometer are predicted.

  10. Modulated systems in external fields: Conditions for the presence of reentrant phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Coto, Alejandro; Billoni, Orlando V.; Cannas, Sergio A.; Stariolo, Daniel A.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a coarse-grained model capable of describing the phase behavior of two-dimensional ferromagnetic systems with competing exchange and dipolar interactions, as well as an external magnetic field. An improved expression for the mean-field entropic contribution allows us to compute the phase diagram in the whole temperature versus external field plane. We find that the topology of the phase diagram may be qualitatively different depending on the ratio between the strength of the competing interactions. In the regime relevant for ultrathin ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy we confirm the presence of inverse-symmetry breaking from a modulated phase to a homogeneous one as the temperature is lowered at constant magnetic field, as reported in experiments. For other values of the competing interactions we show that reentrance may be absent. Comparing thermodynamic quantities in both cases, as well as the evolution of magnetization profiles in the modulated phases, we conclude that the reentrant behavior is a consequence of the suppression of domain wall degrees of freedom at low temperatures at constant fields.

  11. Phase transitions of two-dimensional dipolar fluids in external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2011-03-21

    In this work, we study condensation phase transitions of two-dimensional Stockmayer fluids under additional external fields using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble. We employ two recently developed methods to determine phase transitions in fluids, namely Wang-Landau (WL) MC simulations and successive-umbrella (SU) sampling. Considering first systems in zero field (and dipolar coupling strengths μ(2)∕εσ(3) ≤ 6), we demonstrate that the two techniques yield essentially consistent results but display pronounced differences in terms of efficiency. Indeed, comparing the computation times for these systems on a qualitative level, the SU sampling turns out to be significantly faster. In the presence of homogeneous external fields, however, the SU method becomes plagued by pronounced sampling difficulties, yielding the calculation of coexistence lines essentially impossible. Employing the WL scheme, on the other hand, we find phase coexistence even for strongly field-aligned systems. The corresponding critical temperatures are significantly shifted relative to the zero-field case.

  12. Phase transitions of two-dimensional dipolar fluids in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we study condensation phase transitions of two-dimensional Stockmayer fluids under additional external fields using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble. We employ two recently developed methods to determine phase transitions in fluids, namely Wang-Landau (WL) MC simulations and successive-umbrella (SU) sampling. Considering first systems in zero field (and dipolar coupling strengths μ2/ɛσ3 ⩽ 6), we demonstrate that the two techniques yield essentially consistent results but display pronounced differences in terms of efficiency. Indeed, comparing the computation times for these systems on a qualitative level, the SU sampling turns out to be significantly faster. In the presence of homogeneous external fields, however, the SU method becomes plagued by pronounced sampling difficulties, yielding the calculation of coexistence lines essentially impossible. Employing the WL scheme, on the other hand, we find phase coexistence even for strongly field-aligned systems. The corresponding critical temperatures are significantly shifted relative to the zero-field case.

  13. Residential magnetic field: Accounting for external sources and residential grounding circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D.A.

    1989-06-14

    A project to characterize the sources of magnetic fields in residential locations was established as part of Ontario Hydro's program to assess the risks, if any, posed by fields due to the electric power system. In this report, a simple model for the strength of the magnetic field at 60 Hz found inside houses is developed to account for the house wiring, and for sources external to the house. In the model the house wiring is reduced to a single circuit carrying the net current on the service drop to the house and the service grounding current. All sources external to the house are combined and represented as a single ambient field assumed to be spatially uniform throughout the volume of the house. This model and a measurmement procedure were tested on 5 houses in locations inside the houses remote from appliances, which were not included in the model. In the main, good agreement was found between actual measured field strengths and those predicted by the model. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. SU(3) Polyakov linear-σ model in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Magdy, Niseem

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, we analyze the effects of an external magnetic field on the chiral critical temperature Tc of strongly interacting matter. In doing this, we can characterize the magnetic properties of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) strongly interacting matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We investigate this in the framework of the SU(3) Polyakov linear sigma model (PLSM). To this end, we implement two approaches representing two systems, in which the Polyakov-loop potential added to PLSM is either renormalized or non-normalized. The effects of Landau quantization on the strongly interacting matter are conjectured to reduce the electromagnetic interactions between quarks. In this case, the color interactions will be dominant and increasing, which in turn can be achieved by increasing the Polyakov-loop fields. Obviously, each of them equips us with a different understanding about the critical temperature under the effect of an external magnetic field. In both systems, we obtain a paramagnetic response. In one system, we find that Tc increases with increasing magnetic field. In the other one, Tc significantly decreases with increasing magnetic field.

  15. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Koichi; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sun, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  16. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Onishi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  17. Effects of External Radiation Fields on Line Emission - Application to Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzikos, Marios; Williams, Robin; van Hoof, Peter; Porter, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background (CMB), as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN). These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field, and show that about 60 percent of it...

  18. Charged scalar fields in an external magnetic field: Renormalisation and universal diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Debnarayan

    1996-02-01

    The physical and mathematical mechanism behind diamagnetism of N (finite) spinless bosons (relativistic or non-relativistic) is well known. The mathematical signature of this diamagnetism follows from Kato's inequality while its physical way of understanding goes back to Van Leeuwen. One can guess that it might be true in the field theoretic case also. While the work on systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom suggests that the same result is true in a field theory, it does not by any means prove it. In the field theoretic context one has to develop a suitable regularisation scheme to renormalise the free energy. We show that charged scalar fields in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions are always diamagnetic, even in the presence of interactions and at finite temperatures. This generalises earlier work on the diamagnetism of charged spinless bosons to the case of infinite degrees of freedom. We also discuss possible applications of the theory.

  19. Dielectric properties of KDP-type ferroelectric crystals in the presence of external electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trilok Chandra Upadhyay; Ramendra Singh Bhandari; Birendra Singh Semwal

    2006-09-01

    Considering external electric field as well as third- and fourth-order phonon anharmonic interaction terms in the pseudospin-lattice coupled mode (PLCM) model Hamiltonian for KDP-type ferroelectrics, expressions for field-dependent shift, width, renormalized soft mode frequency, Curie temperature, dielectric constant and dielectric loss are evaluated. For the calculation, method of statistical double-time temperature-dependent Green's function has been used. By fitting model values of physical quantities, temperature and electric field dependences of soft mode frequency, dielectric constant and loss have been calculated which compare well with experimental results of Baumgartner [8] and Choi and Lockwood [9]. Both dielectric constant and loss decrease with electric field.

  20. Influence of an external magnetic field on forced turbulence in a swirling flow of liquid metal

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile; Mordant, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation on the influence of an external magnetic field on forced 3D turbulence of liquid gallium in a closed vessel. We observe an exponential damping of the turbulent velocity fluctuations as a function of the interaction parameter N (ratio of Lorentz force over inertial terms of the Navier-Stokes equation). The flow structures develop some anisotropy but do not become bidimensional. From a dynamical viewpoint, the damping first occurs homogeneously over the whole spectrum of frequencies. For larger values of N, a very strong additional damping occurs at the highest frequencies. However, the injected mechanical power remains independent of the applied magnetic field. The simultaneous measurement of induced magnetic field and electrical potential differences shows a very weak correlation between magnetic field and velocity fluctuations. The observed reduction of the fluctuations is in agreement with a previously proposed mechanism for the saturation of turbulent dynamos and wit...

  1. Effect of an External Oriented Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation in Natural Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef El Jery

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an external oriented magnetic field on entropy generation in natural convection for air and liquid gallium is numerically studied in steady-unsteady states by solving the mass, the momentum and the energy conservation equations. Entropy generation depends on five parameters which are: the Prandtl number, the irreversibility coefficients, the inclination angle of the magnetic field, the thermal Grashof and the Hartmann numbers. Effects of these parameters on total and local irreversibilities as well as on heat transfer and fluid flow are studied. It was found that the magnetic field tends to decrease the convection currents, the heat transfer and entropy generation inside the enclosure. Influence of inclination angle of the magnetic field on local irreversibility is then studied.

  2. Topological phases of silicene and germanene in an external magnetic field: Quantitative results

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-03-17

    We investigate the topological phases of silicene and germanene that arise due to the strong spin-orbit interaction in an external perpendicular magnetic field. Below and above a critical field of 10 T, respectively, we demonstrate for silicene under 3% tensile strain quantum spin Hall and quantum anomalous Hall phases. Not far above the critical field, and therefore in the experimentally accessible regime, we obtain an energy gap in the meV range, which shows that the quantum anomalous Hall phase can be realized experimentally in silicene, in contrast to graphene (tiny energy gap) and germanene (enormous field required). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Behaviour of the order parameter of the simple magnet in an external field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Kozlovskii

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a homogeneous external field on the three-dimensional uniaxial magnet behaviour near the critical point is investigated within the framework of the nonperturbative collective variables method using the ρ4 model. The research is carried out for the low-temperature region. The analytic explicit expressions for the free energy, average spin moment and susceptibility are obtained for weak and strong fields in comparison with the field value belonging to the pseudocritical line. The calculations are performed on the microscopic level without any adjusting parameters. It is established that the long-wave fluctuations of the order parameter play a crucial role in forming a crossover between the temperature-dependence and field-dependence critical behaviour of the system.

  4. Effect of external and internal magnetic fields on the bias stability in a Zeeman laser gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbas, Yu Yu; Saveliev, I I; Khokhlov, N I [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-30

    With the specific features of electronic systems of a Zeeman laser gyroscope taken into account, the basic physical mechanisms of the magnetic field effect on the bias stability and the factors giving rise to the internal magnetic fields are revealed. The hardware-based methods of reducing the effect of external and internal magnetic fields are considered, as well as the algorithmic methods for increasing the stability of the bias magnetic component by taking into account its reproducible temperature and time dependences. Typical experimental temperature and time dependences of the magnetic component of the Zeeman laser gyro bias are presented, and by their example the efficiency of the proposed methods for reducing the effect of magnetic fields is shown. (laser gyroscopes)

  5. Influence of external resonant magnetic perturbation field on edge plasma of small tokamak HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Y.; Ohno, N. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Kitachujo, Tsubata-cho, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan); Kikuchi, Y. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K.; Takemura, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Radial profile of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field with mode numbers of m = 6 and n = 2 in a small tokamak device HYBTOK-II have been investigated using a magnetic probe array, which is able to measure the radial profile of magnetic field perturbation induced by applying RMP. Results of RMP penetration into the plasma show that the RMP decreased toward the plasma center, while they were amplified around the resonant surface with a safety factor q = 3 due to the formation of magnetic islands. This suggests that RMP fields for controlling edge plasmas may trigger some kind of MHD instabilities. In addition, simulation results, based on a linearized four-field model, which agrees with the experimental ones, indicates that the penetration and amplification process of RMP strongly depend on a Doppler-shifted frequency between the RMP and plasma rotation.

  6. Research on Proximity Magnetic Field Influence in Measuring Error of Active Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weijiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the active electronic current transformer (ECT are introduced, and the mechanism of how a proximity magnetic field can influence the measuring of errors is analyzed from the perspective of the sensor section of the ECT. The impacts on active ECTs created by three-phase proximity magnetic field with invariable distance and variable distance are simulated and analyzed. The theory and simulated analysis indicate that the active ECTs are sensitive to proximity magnetic field under certain conditions. According to simulated analysis, a product structural design and the location of transformers at substation sites are suggested for manufacturers and administration of power supply, respectively.

  7. GENERAL: Concurrence of Quantum States: Algebraic Dynamical Method Study XXX Models in a Time-Depending Random External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuan-Ji; Zhu, Qin-Sheng; Wu, Shao-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Based on algebraic dynamics and the concept of the concurrence of the entanglement, we investigate the evolutive properties of the two-qubit entanglement that formed by Heisenberg XXX models under a time-depending external held. For this system, the property of the concurrence that is only dependent on the coupling constant J and total values of the external field is proved. Furthermore, we found that the thermal concurrence of the system under a static random external field is a function of the coupling constant J, temperature T, and the magnitude of external held.

  8. MoS2/MX2 heterobilayers: bandgap engineering via tensile strain or external electrical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Guo, Hongyan; Li, Lei; Dai, Jun; Wang, Lu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Wu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-02-01

    We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se, all heterobilayers show semiconducting characteristics with an indirect bandgap with the exception of the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer which retains the direct-bandgap character of the constituent monolayer. For M = Fe, V; X = S, Se, the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers exhibit metallic characters. Particular attention of this study has been focused on engineering the bandgap of the TMD heterobilayer materials via application of either a tensile strain or an external electric field. We find that with increasing either the biaxial or uniaxial tensile strain, the MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can undergo a semiconductor-to-metal transition. For the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer, a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition may occur beyond a critical biaxial or uniaxial strain. For M (=Fe, V) and X (=S, Se), the magnetic moments of both metal and chalcogen atoms are enhanced when the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers are under a biaxial tensile strain. Moreover, the bandgap of MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can be reduced by the vertical electric field. For two heterobilayers MSe2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr), PBE calculations suggest that the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition may occur under an external electric field. The transition is attributed to the enhanced spontaneous polarization. The tunable bandgaps in general and possible indirect-direct bandgap transitions due to tensile strain or external electric field make the TMD heterobilayer materials a viable candidate for optoelectronic applications.We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For

  9. First-principles study on magnetism of Ru monolayer under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Yukie; Imamura, Hiroshi

    Electric field control of magnetic properties such as magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy has been attracted. For the 4 d TM films, on the other hand, it was recently reported that the ferromagnetism Pd thin-film is induced by application of an external electric field otherwise Pd thin-film shows paramagnetic. However, little attention has been paid to the magnetism of other 4 d TMs. Here, we investigate the magnetism of the free-standing Ru monolayer and that on MgO(001) substrate under an external electric field by using first-principles FLAPW method. We found that the free-standing Ru monolayer is ferromagnet with magnetic moment of 1.50 ¥muB /atom. The MA energy is 3.45 meV/atom, indicating perpendicular MA, at zero electric field (E=0) and increases up to 3.84 meV/atom by application of E=1 (V/¥AA). The Ru monolayer on MgO(001) substrate is also ferromagnet with magnetic moment of 0.89 ¥muB /atom. The MA energy is 1.49 meV/atom, indicating perpendicular MA, at E=0 and decreases to 1.33 meV/atom by application of E=1 (V/¥AA).

  10. Effects of cycle duration of an external electrostatic field on anammox biomass activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Qiao, Sen; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different cycle durations of an external electrostatic field on an anammox biomass were investigated. The total application time per day was 12 h at 2 V/cm for different cycle durations (i.e., continuous application-resting time) of 3 h-3 h, 6 h-6 h, and 12 h-12 h. Compared with the control reactor, the nitrogen removal rates (NRRs) increased by 18.7%, 27.4% and 8.50% using an external electrostatic field application with a continuous application time of 3 h, 6 h and 12 h. Moreover, after the reactor was running smoothly for approximately 215 days under the optimal electrostatic field condition (mode 2, continuous application-rest time: 6 h-6 h), the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate reached a peak value of approximately 6468 g-N/m3/d, which was 44.7% higher than the control. The increase in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, heme c content and enzyme activities were demonstrated to be the main reasons for enhancement of the NRR of the anammox process. Additionally, transmission electron microscope observations proved that a morphological change in the anammox biomass occurred under an electrostatic field application.

  11. Quantum entanglement and criticality of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Hua; Li, Ruo-Yan; Tian, Guang-Shan

    2012-06-27

    By Lanczos exact diagonalization and the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) technique, the two-site entanglement as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg (AFH) model under an external field are investigated. With increasing external field, the small size system shows some distinct upward magnetization stairsteps, accompanied synchronously with some downward two-site entanglement stairsteps. In the thermodynamic limit, the two-site entanglement, as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization are calculated, and the critical magnetic field h(c) = 2.0 is determined exactly. Our numerical results show that the quantum entanglement is sensitive to the subtle changing of the ground state, and can be used to describe the magnetization and quantum phase transition. Based on the discontinuous behavior of the first-order derivative of the entanglement entropy and fidelity per site, we think that the quantum phase transition in this model should belong to the second-order category. Furthermore, in the magnon existence region (h entanglement which can be described by a free bosonic field theory is observed, and the central charge c is determined to be 1.

  12. Effects of a external magnetic field in ISB/SNR phenomena in a scalar field theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Ricardo Luciano Sonego; Teixeira Junior, Daniel Lombelo [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rey (UFSJ), MG (Brazil); Ramos, Rudnei de Oliveira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Many efforts have been dedicated to understand the behavior of relativistic field theories under extreme conditions. Phase transition phenomena in quantum field theories are typically of non-perturbative nature and thus naive perturbation theory based on an expansion in the coupling constant cannot be employed. This is clearly the case of phase changes at high temperatures, where perturbation theory becomes unreliable because powers of the coupling constant become surmounted by powers of the temperature. We know that a symmetry broken in low temperature is restored as the temperature is increased. However, in a work made in 1974, Weinberg showed that was possible, in a multi-field model, the existence of cases in that a symmetry broken in low temperature is not restored in high temperature or that the symmetry is broken in high temperature. It is possible when the coupling constant between the fields receive a negative value. This phenomenon was called SNR, Symmetry Non-restoration or ISB, Inverse symmetry breaking. Many studies were made to investigate the existence of ISB/SNR using different approaches like resummation, Monte Carlo approach etc, obtain contradictories results. Our purpose in this work is investigate the appearance of ISB/SNR in a scalar field theory at finite temperature in the presence of external magnetic field. We used the method known like OPT(Optimized Perturbation Theory) to show how ISB/SNR is present in a multi-scalar field theory. (author)

  13. Error Propagation Dynamics of PIV-based Pressure Field Calculations: How well does the pressure Poisson solver perform inherently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Whitehead, Jared; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-08-01

    Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type.

  14. Error Propagation Dynamics of PIV-based Pressure Field Calculations: How well does the pressure Poisson solver perform inherently?

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhao; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type.

  15. Error propagation dynamics of PIV-based pressure field calculations: How well does the pressure Poisson solver perform inherently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Whitehead, Jared; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-08-01

    Obtaining pressure field data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an attractive technique in fluid dynamics due to its noninvasive nature. The application of this technique generally involves integrating the pressure gradient or solving the pressure Poisson equation using a velocity field measured with PIV. However, very little research has been done to investigate the dynamics of error propagation from PIV-based velocity measurements to the pressure field calculation. Rather than measure the error through experiment, we investigate the dynamics of the error propagation by examining the Poisson equation directly. We analytically quantify the error bound in the pressure field, and are able to illustrate the mathematical roots of why and how the Poisson equation based pressure calculation propagates error from the PIV data. The results show that the error depends on the shape and type of boundary conditions, the dimensions of the flow domain, and the flow type.

  16. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a quantum dot due to external ac field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Wang, Zhi-yong, E-mail: wzyong@cqut.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Xie, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China)

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the figure of merit of a quantum dot (QD) system irradiated with an external microwave filed by nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. Results show that the frequency of microwave field influence the figure of merit ZT significantly. At low temperature, a sharp peak can be observed in the figure of merit ZT as the frequency of ac field increases. As the frequency varies, several zero points and resonant peaks emerge in the figure of merit ZT. By adjusting the frequency of the microwave field, we can obtain high ZT. The figure of merit ZT increases with the decreasing of linewidth function Γ. In addition, Wiedemann–Franz law does not hold, particularly in the low frequency region due to multi-photon emission and absorption. Some novel thermoelectric properties are also found in two-level QD system.

  17. The effect of external magnetic field on plasma acceleration in electromagnetic railgun channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobashev, S. V.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Reznikov, B. I.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the effect of an external magnetic field on the dynamics of a free plasma piston (PP) accelerated without solid striker armature in an electromagnetic railgun channel filled with various gases (argon or helium). It is established that, as the applied magnetic field grows, the velocity of a shock wave generated by PP in the channel increases. The experimental results are compared to a theoretical model that takes into account the gas pressure force behind the shock wave and the drag force that arises when erosion mass entering the channel is partly entrained by the accelerated plasma. The results of model calculations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The discrepancy somewhat increases with the applied field, but the maximum deviation still does not exceed 20%.

  18. Calculation of the Helmholtz potential of an elastic strand in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliullin, Renat N; Schieber, Jay D

    2011-02-14

    We derive from statistical mechanics the Gibbs free energy of an elastic random-walk chain affected by the presence of an external electric field. Intrachain charge interactions are ignored. In addition, we find two approximations of the Helmholtz potential for this system analogous to the gaussian and Cohen-Padé approximations for an elastic strand without the presence of an electric field. Our expressions agree well with exact numerical calculations of the potential in a wide range of conditions. Our analog of the gaussian approximation exhibits distortion of the monomer density due to the presence of the electric field, and our analog of the Cohen-Padé approximation additionally includes finite chain extensibility effects. The Helmholtz potential may be used in modeling the dynamics of electrophoresis experiments.

  19. QCD spectroscopy and quark mass renormalisation in external magnetic fields with Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar; Endrodi, Gergely; Glaessle, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We study the change of the QCD spectrum of low-lying mesons in the presence of an external magnetic field using Wilson fermions in the quenched approximation. Motivated by qualitative differences observed in the spectra of overlap and Wilson fermions for large magnetic fields, we investigate the dependence of the additive quark mass renormalisation on the magnetic field. We provide evidence that the magnetic field changes the critical quark mass both in the free case and on our quenched ensemble. The associated change of the bare quark mass with the magnetic field affects the spectrum and is relevant for the magnetic field dependence of a number of related quantities. We derive Ward identities for lattice and continuum QCD+QED from which we can extract the current quark masses. We also report on a first test of the tuning of the quark masses with the magnetic field using the current quark masses, and show that this tuning resolves the qualitative discrepancy between the Wilson and overlap spectra.

  20. Characterization of electromagnetic fields in the aSPECT spectrometer and reduction of systematic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Guardia, Fidel

    2011-10-15

    The aSPECT spectrometer has been designed to measure, with high precision, the recoil proton spectrum of the free neutron decay. From this spectrum, the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a can be extracted with high accuracy. The goal of the experiment is to determine the coefficient a with a total relative error smaller than 0.3%, well below the current literature value of 5%. First measurements with the aSPECT spectrometer were performed in the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich. However, time-dependent background instabilities prevented us from reporting a new value of a. The contents of this thesis are based on the latest measurements performed with the aSPECT spectrometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France. In these measurements, background instabilities were considerably reduced. Furthermore, diverse modifications intended to minimize systematic errors and to achieve a more reliable setup were successfully performed. Unfortunately, saturation effects of the detector electronics turned out to be too high to determine a meaningful result. However, this and other systematics were identified and decreased, or even eliminated, for future aSPECT beamtimes. The central part of this work is focused on the analysis and improvement of systematic errors related to the aSPECT electromagnetic fields. This work yielded in many improvements, particularly in the reduction of the systematic effects due to electric fields. The systematics related to the aSPECT magnetic field were also minimized and determined down to a level which permits to improve the present literature value of a. Furthermore, a custom NMR-magnetometer was developed and improved during this thesis, which will lead to reduction of magnetic field-related uncertainties down to a negligible level to determine a with a total relative error of at least 0.3%.

  1. Experimental and numerical study of error fields in the CNT stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. C.; Anichowski, A.; Brenner, P. W.; Pedersen, T. S.; Raftopoulos, S.; Traverso, P.; Volpe, F. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sources of error fields were indirectly inferred in a stellarator by reconciling computed and numerical flux surfaces. Sources considered so far include the displacements and tilts of the four circular coils featured in the simple CNT stellarator. The flux surfaces were measured by means of an electron beam and fluorescent rod, and were computed by means of a Biot-Savart field-line tracing code. If the ideal coil locations and orientations are used in the computation, agreement with measurements is poor. Discrepancies are ascribed to errors in the positioning and orientation of the in-vessel interlocked coils. To that end, an iterative numerical method was developed. A Newton-Raphson algorithm searches for the coils’ displacements and tilts that minimize the discrepancy between the measured and computed flux surfaces. This method was verified by misplacing and tilting the coils in a numerical model of CNT, calculating the flux surfaces that they generated, and testing the algorithm’s ability to deduce the coils’ displacements and tilts. Subsequently, the numerical method was applied to the experimental data, arriving at a set of coil displacements whose resulting field errors exhibited significantly improved agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu; Zheng, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  3. Effect of External Magnetic Field on Critical Current for the Onset of Virtual Cathode Oscillations in Relativistic Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hramov, Alexander E; Morozov, Mikhail; Mushtakov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we research the space charge limiting current value at which the oscillating virtual cathode is formed in the relativistic electron beam as a function of the external magnetic field guiding the beam electrons. It is shown that the space charge limiting (critical) current decreases with growth of the external magnetic field, and that there is an optimal induction value of the magnetic field at which the critical current for the onset of virtual cathode oscillations in the electron beam is minimum. For the strong external magnetic field the space charge limiting current corresponds to the analytical relation derived under the assumption that the motion of the electron beam is one-dimensional [High Power Microwave Sources. Artech House Microwave Library, 1987. Chapter~13]. Such behavior is explained by the characteristic features of the dynamics of electron space charge in the longitudinal and radial directions in the drift space at the different external magnetic fields.

  4. Influence of external magnetic and laser radiation fields on Feshbach resonances in collision of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Gazazyan, E A; Chaltykyan, V O

    2012-01-01

    We study collision of two atoms with formation of Feshbach resonance at combined interaction with the external magnetic field and laser radiation. In cases of one- and two-photon resonances of laser radiation with two discrete vibrational molecular levels, we show that Feshbach resonances appear at interaction of external magnetic field with dressed states formed via Autler-Townes effect. In addition, in case of one-photon resonance the lower vibrational molecular state is coupled by laser radiation with the continuum of the elastic channel and forms laser-induced Feshbach resonance via both Autler-Townes effect and LICS mechanism. We study the combined process of formation of Feshbach resonances; this enables the control of Feshbach resonance by varying the magnetic field and intensity and frequency of laser radiation. We obtain the cross-sections of elastic and inelastic scattering and show that quenching of resonance occurs at the energy equal to that of the systems ground state. Dependence of the cross-se...

  5. Encaged molecules in external electric fields: a molecular `tug-of-war'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rajeev; Gurav, Nalini; Gejji, Shridhar; Bartolotti, Libero

    We investigate applying ab initio theoretical methods, the molecules Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, and Methanol, CH3OH, encaged in hydrogen-bonded water ``buckyballs'' (H2O)20 , subjected to an externally applied electric field. While the water-cage (host) tends to confine the guest-molecule, the external electric field tends to stretch it along with its labile hydrogen-bonded host, resulting into a molecular `tug-of-war'. We appraise these two competing effects in terms of the extent of `screening' of the host by the cage and compare the response of the composite system in the form of the consequent structural mutations, redistributions in the electron density and the electrostatic potential leading to emergence and suppression of the covalent O-H characteristic frequency shifts in the infra-red vibrational spectrum. This study brings forth the cooperative effect of hydrogen-bonding up to a maximally sustainable threshold electric field, beyond which fragmentation of the water cage occurs. Partial support from The Center for Development in Advanced Computing (C-DAC) in terms of Computer time on the PARAM Supercomputing facility at Pune, MH, India, is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Temperature gradients in equilibrium: Small microcanonical systems in an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alberto; Larralde, Hernán; Leyvraz, François

    2014-11-01

    We consider the statistical mechanics of a small gaseous system subject to a constant external field. As is well known, in the canonical ensemble, that the system (i) obeys a barometric formula for the density profile, and (ii) the kinetic temperature is independent of height, even when the system is small. We show here that in the microcanonical ensemble the kinetic temperature of the particles affected by the field is not constant with height, but that rather, generally speaking, it decreases with a gradient of order 1/N. Even more, if we have a mixture of two species, one which is influenced by the field and the other which is not, we find that the two species' kinetic temperatures are generally different, even at the same height. These facts are shown in detail by studying a simple mechanical model: a Lorentz Gas where particles and spinning disks interact and the particles are subjected to a constant external force. In the microcanonical ensemble, the kinetic temperature of the particles is indeed found to vary with height; the disks' kinetic temperature, on the other hand, is height-independent, and thus, differs from that of the particles with which they interact.

  7. SU(3) Polyakov Linear Sigma-Model in an External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we analyse the effects of an external magnetic field on the chiral critical temperature $T_c$ of strongly interacting matter. In doing this, we can characterize the magnetic properties of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) strong interacting matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We investigate this in the framework of the SU(3) Polyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM). To this end, we implement two approaches representing two systems, in which the Polyakov-loop potential added to PLMS either renormalized or non-normalized. The effects of Landau quantization on the strongly interacting matter is conjectures to reduce the electromagnetic interactions between quarks. In this case, the color interactions will be dominant and increasing, which - in turn - can be achieved by increasing of the Polyakov-loop fields. Obviously, each of them equips us with a different understanding about the critical temperature under the effect of an external magnetic field. In both systems, we obtain a paramagnetic respo...

  8. The classical particle coupled to external electromagnetic field: symmetries and conserved quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gabriel Duarte; Ferreira, Renata Rosa; Thibes, Ronaldo [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We consider a classical particle minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field, in both non-relativistic and relativistic regimes. The coupling is constructed via the electromagnetic potential which is assumed to satisfy the classical Maxwell equations. We review Noether's theorem at classical level associating infinitesimal symmetries to conserved quantities. The fundamental space-time symmetries are investigated considering a non-relativistic action, a relativistic action in a particular reference frame and an explicitly Lorentz invariant Lagrangian. We work out in detail the corresponding conserved quantities for each case. The well-known Noether's theorem establishes a connection between continuous infinitesimal symmetries of the action and conserved quantities - given a particular action, for each infinitesimal symmetry there exists an explicit conserved quantity. In particular, a single particle subjected to an external electromagnetic field gives rise to an action which may enjoy space-time symmetries. For the non-relativistic particle, we analyze translations in space and time and spatial rotations, calculating the conserved quantities - linear momentum, energy and angular momentum. The relativistic particle enjoys space-time Lorentz symmetry. Thus we check the six symmetries of the homogeneous Lorentz group, corresponding to three spatial rotations and three boosts, and the four space-time translations extending to the non-homogeneous Lorentz group (Poincare group). We consider two distinct actions describing the relativistic particle minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field - the first one describes the particle in a particular frame of reference enforcing the relativistic generalization of Newton's second law with the Lorentz force while the second one is obtained from a Lorentz scalar Lagrangian. In all cases the conserved quantities are explicitly calculated via Noether's theorem. (author)

  9. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing.

  10. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing. PMID:21301636

  11. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing.

  12. Structurization of ferrofluids in the absence of an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubarev, A. Yu., E-mail: Andrey.Zubarev@usu.ru; Iskakova, L. Yu. [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Structural transformations in a model ferrofluid in the absence of an external magnetic field have been theoretically studied. The results agree with well-known laboratory experiments and computer simulations in showing that, if the concentration of particles and their magnetic interaction energy are below certain critical values, most particles form separate linear chains. If these parameters exceed the critical values, most particles concentrate so as to form branched network structures. The passage from chains to network has a continuous character rather than represents a discontinuous first-order phase transition.

  13. Transverse kinetics of a charged drop in an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K. [Ariel University (Israel)

    2016-01-22

    We investigate a non-equilibrium behavior of a small, dense and charged drop in the transverse plane. A collective motion of the drop’s particles with constant entropy is described. Namely, we solve Vlasov’s equation with non-isotropic initial conditions. Thereby a non-equilibrium distribution function of the process of the droplet evolution in the transverse plane is calculated. An external electric field is included in the initial conditions of the equation that affects on the form of the obtained solution. Applicability of the results to the description of initial states of quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  14. Critical Behavior of Gaussian Model on X Fractal Lattices in External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; KONG Xiang-Mu; HUANG Jia-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Using the renormalization group method, the critical behavior of Gaussian model is studied in external magnetic fields on X fractal lattices embedded in two-dimensional and d-dimensional (d > 2) Euclidean spaces, respectively. Critical points and exponents are calculated. It is found that there is long-range order at finite temperature for this model, and that the critical points do not change with the space dimensionality d (or the fractal dimensionality dr). It is also found that the critical exponents are very different from results of Ising model on the same lattices, and that the exponents on X lattices are different from the exact results on translationally symmetric lattices.

  15. The Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator coupled to an external field and its connection to quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Juan Mauricio; Seligman, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator is an elegant example of an exactly solvable quantum relativistic model that under certain circumstances can be mapped onto the Jaynes-Cummings model in quantum optics. In this work we show, how to do this in detail. Then we extend it by considering its coupling with an external (isospin) field and find the conditions that maintain solvability. We use this extended system to explore entanglement in relativistic systems and then identify its quantum optical analog: two different atoms interacting with an electromagnetic mode. We show different aspects of entanglement which gain relevance in this last system, which can be used to emulate the former.

  16. The Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator coupled to an external field and its connection to quantum optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan Mauricio; Sadurní, Emerson; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2010-12-01

    The Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator is an elegant example of an exactly solvable quantum relativistic model that under certain circumstances can be mapped onto the Jaynes-Cummings model in quantum optics. In this work we show, how to do this in detail. Then we extend it by considering its coupling with an external (isospin) field and find the conditions that maintain solvability. We use this extended system to explore entanglement in relativistic systems and then identify its quantum optical analog: two different atoms interacting with an electromagnetic mode. We show different aspects of entanglement which gain relevance in this last system, which can be used to emulate the former.

  17. Impurity breakdown and terahertz luminescence in n-GaN epilayers under external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalygin, V. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Sofronov, A. N.; Melentyev, G. A.; Antonov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Andrianov, A. V.; Zakharyin, A. O.; Suihkonen, S.; Törma, P. T.; Ali, M.; Lipsanen, H.

    2009-12-01

    We report on the observation and experimental studies of impurity breakdown and terahertz luminescence in n-GaN epilayers under external electric field. The terahertz electroluminescence is observed in a wide range of doping levels (at noncompensated donor density from 4.5×1016 to 3.4×1018 cm-3). Spectra of terahertz luminescence and photoconductivity are studied by means of Fourier transform spectrometry. Distinctive features of the spectra can be assigned to intracenter electron transitions between excited and ground states of silicon and oxygen donors and to hot electron transitions to the donor states.

  18. Coherent cancellation of geometric phase for the OH molecule in external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, M Bhattacharya S

    2014-01-01

    The OH molecule in its ground state presents a versatile platform for precision measurement and quantum information processing. These applications depend vitally on the accurate measurement of transition energies between the OH levels. Significant sources of systematic errors in these measurements are shifts based on the geometric phase arising from the magnetic and electric fields used for manipulating OH. In this article, we present these geometric phases for fields that vary harmonically in time, as in the Ramsey technique. Our calculation of the phases is exact within the description provided by our recent analytic solution of an effective Stark-Zeeman Hamiltonian for the OH ground state. This Hamiltonian has earlier been shown to model experimental data accurately. We find that the OH geometric phases exhibit rich structure as a function of the field rotation rate. Remarkably, we find rotation rates where the geometric phase accumulated by a specific state is zero, or where the relative geometric phase b...

  19. Orbital motion in generalized static fields of FELs accounting for axial magnetic field, beam forces, undulator and external focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Various types of undulators with or without axial magnetic field are used in FELs. Supplementary beam focusing can be applied by wedging, inclining or profiling pole faces of plan undulators or superposing external focusing magnetic fields in addition to undulator own focusing. Space-charge forces influence significantly particle motion in high-current, low-energy electron beams. Finally, one can use simultaneously two or more different undulators for some specific purpose: more efficient and selective higher harmonics generation, changing polarization types and direction, gain enhancement in double-period undulator etc. All these cases can be treated by solving the generalized equations of transverse orbital motion in a linear approximation, which is widely used for orbit calculation, gives sufficient accuracy for practical purposes and allows to consider many variants and optimize the chosen one. The undulator field is described as a field of two plane undulators with mutually orthogonal fields and an arbitrary axial (phase) shift between them. Various values of the phase shift correspond to right- or left-handed helical undulators, plane undulator of different polarization etc. The general formulae are reduced to forms that allow easier examination of particular cases: planar or helical undulator combined with axial magnetic field or without it, gyroresonance, limiting beam current, polarization etc.

  20. Holographic Superconductors with Logarithmic Nonlinear Electrodynamics in an External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Sheykhi, A

    2016-01-01

    Based on the matching method, we explore the effects of adding an external magnetic field on the $s$-wave holographic superconductor when the gauge field is in the form of the logarithmic nonlinear source. First, we obtain the critical temperature as well as the condensation operator in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics and understand that they depend on the nonlinear parameter $b$. We show that the critical temperature decreases with increasing $b$, which implies that the nonlinear gauge field makes the condensation harder. Then, we turn on the magnetic field in the bulk and find the critical magnetic field, $B_c$, in terms of the temperature, which also depends on the nonlinear parameter $b$. We observe that for temperature smaller than the critical temperature, $Tfield increases with increasing $b$ and goes to zero as $T\\rightarrow T_c$, independent of the nonlinear parameter $b$. In the limiting case where $ b\\rightarrow0 $, all results restore those of ...

  1. Encaged molecules in external electric fields: A molecular "tug-of-war"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Nalini D.; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Bartolotti, Libero J.; Pathak, Rajeev K.

    2016-08-01

    Response of polar molecules CH3OH and H2O2 and a non-polar molecule, CO2, as "guests" encapsulated in the dodecahedral water cage (H2O)20 "host," to an external, perturbative electric field is investigated theoretically. We employ the hybrid density-functionals M06-2X and ωB97X-D incorporating the effects of damped dispersion, in conjunction with the maug-cc-pVTZ basis set, amenable for a hydrogen bonding description. While the host cluster (cage) tends to confine the embedded guest molecule through cooperative hydrogen bonding, the applied electric field tends to rupture the cluster-composite by stretching it; these two competitive effects leading to a molecular "tug-of-war." The composite remains stable up to a maximal sustainable threshold electric field, beyond which, concomitant with the vanishing of the HOMO-LUMO gap, the field wins over and the cluster breaks down. The electric-field effects are gauged in terms of the changes in the molecular geometry of the confined species, interaction energy, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, and frequency shifts of characteristic normal vibrations in the IR regime. Interestingly, beyond the characteristic threshold electric field, the labile, distorted host cluster fragmentizes, and the guest molecule still tethered to a remnant fragment, an effect attributed to the underlying hydrogen-bonded networks.

  2. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; de Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J.-K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K.-I.; Zeng, L.; DIII-D Team

    2011-10-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Δv/v ~ 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Δn/n, Δβ/β and ΔH98/H98 were ~3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher β. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L- and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  3. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments at DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego; Testa, D. [CRPP, Switzerland; Snipes, J. A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Gohil, P. [General Atomics; De Vries, P. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham, UK; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Gao, X. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei, China; Garofalo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego; Gates, D.A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greenfield, C. M. [General Atomics; Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; La Haye, R. [General Atomics, San Diego; Liu, S. [ASIPP, Hefei, China; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Nave, M. F. F. [Association EURATOM/IST, Lisbon, Portugal; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Oyama, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Osakabe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Park, J. K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ramasubramanian, N. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, India; Reimerdes, H. [Columbia University; Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Saimi, A. [Aalto University, Finland; Shinohara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Tala, T. [Association Euratom-Tekes, Finland; Zhu, Y. B. [University of California, Irvine; Zhai, K. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Boedo, J. [University of California, San Diego; Chuyanov, V. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Doyle, E. J. [University of California, Los Angeles; Jakubowski, M. W. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Jhang, H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon, South Korea; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Pustovitov, V. D. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Schmitz, O. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Sanchez, Raul [ORNL; Srinivasan, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, India; Taylor, T. S. [General Atomics, San Diego; Wade, M. [General Atomics, San Diego; You, K. I. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon, South Korea; Zeng, L. [University of California, Los Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Delta upsilon/upsilon similar to 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Delta n/n, Delta beta/beta and Delta H(98)/H(98) were similar to 3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher beta. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L-and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  4. Bayesian truncation errors in chiral effective field theory: Nucleon-nucleon observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, J. A.; Wesolowski, S.; Furnstahl, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    Chiral effective field theory (EFT) predictions are necessarily truncated at some order in the EFT expansion, which induces an error that must be quantified for robust statistical comparisons to experiment. In previous work, a Bayesian model for truncation errors of perturbative expansions was adapted to EFTs. The model yields posterior probability distribution functions (pdfs) for these errors based on expectations of naturalness encoded in Bayesian priors and the observed order-by-order convergence pattern of the EFT. A first application was made to chiral EFT for neutron-proton scattering using the semilocal potentials of Epelbaum, Krebs, and Meißner (EKM). Here we extend this application to consider a larger set of regulator parameters, energies, and observables as a general example of a statistical approach to truncation errors. The Bayesian approach allows for statistical validations of the assumptions and enables the calculation of posterior pdfs for the EFT breakdown scale. The statistical model is validated for EKM potentials whose convergence behavior is not distorted by regulator artifacts. For these cases, the posterior for the breakdown scale is consistent with EKM assumptions.

  5. A method for the estimate of the wall diffusion for non-axisymmetric fields using rotating external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Fridström, R.; Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Volpe, F. A.; Drake, J.

    2013-08-01

    A new method for the estimate of the wall diffusion time of non-axisymmetric fields is developed. The method based on rotating external fields and on the measurement of the wall frequency response is developed and tested in EXTRAP T2R. The method allows the experimental estimate of the wall diffusion time for each Fourier harmonic and the estimate of the wall diffusion toroidal asymmetries. The method intrinsically considers the effects of three-dimensional structures and of the shell gaps. Far from the gaps, experimental results are in good agreement with the diffusion time estimated with a simple cylindrical model that assumes a homogeneous wall. The method is also applied with non-standard configurations of the coil array, in order to mimic tokamak-relevant settings with a partial wall coverage and active coils of large toroidal extent. The comparison with the full coverage results shows good agreement if the effects of the relevant sidebands are considered.

  6. Effects of confinement and external fields on structure and transport in colloidal dispersions in reduced dimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, D; Deutschländer, S; Siems, U; Franzrahe, K; Henseler, P; Keim, P; Schwierz, N; Virnau, P; Binder, K; Maret, G; Nielaba, P

    2012-11-21

    In this work, we focus on low-dimensional colloidal model systems, via simulation studies and also some complementary experiments, in order to elucidate the interplay between phase behavior, geometric structures and transport properties. In particular, we try to investigate the (nonlinear!) response of these very soft colloidal systems to various perturbations: uniform and uniaxial pressure, laser fields, shear due to moving boundaries and randomly quenched disorder. We study ordering phenomena on surfaces or in monolayers by Monte Carlo computer simulations of binary hard-disk mixtures, the influence of a substrate being modeled by an external potential. Weak external fields allow a controlled tuning of the miscibility of the mixture. We discuss the laser induced de-mixing for the three different possible couplings to the external potential. The structural behavior of hard spheres interacting with repulsive screened Coulomb or dipolar interaction in 2D and 3D narrow constrictions is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Due to misfits between multiples of the lattice parameter and the channel widths, a variety of ordered and disordered lattice structures have been observed. The resulting local lattice structures and defect probabilities are studied for various cross sections. The influence of a self-organized order within the system is reflected in the velocity of the particles and their diffusive behavior. Additionally, in an experimental system of dipolar colloidal particles confined by gravity on a solid substrate we investigate the effect of pinning on the dynamics of a two-dimensional colloidal liquid. This work contains sections reviewing previous work by the authors as well as new, unpublished results. Among the latter are detailed studies of the phase boundaries of the de-mixing regime in binary systems in external light fields, configurations for shear induced effects at structured walls, studies on the effect of confinement on the structures

  7. Quantum systems subjected to periodic and quasiperiodic external fields; Sistemas quanticos sujeitos a campos externos periodicos e quaseperiodicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, Heyder

    1996-12-31

    We have study three quantum systems under time dependent external fields. The first one is an harmonic oscillator and the external field is quasiperiodic. We prove that the autocorrelation spectrum is absolutely transient continuous covering the real line on the resonant case or pure point under supplementary diophantine conditions. The second one refers to the spin tunneling. We show that an external periodic field may causes a blocking of spin tunneling. The last problem concerns to the resonances of the Floquet spectrum on the non-perturbative region of parameters for the model of an atom with one bound state under an external periodic field. The problems of Quantum Chaology and Quantum Stability are the predominant points of view in this work. (author) 59 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a strontium barium niobate photorefractive crystal under reverse external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q L; Liang, B L; Wang, Y; Deng, G Y; Jiang, Y H; Zhang, S H; Fu, G S; Simmonds, P J

    2014-10-01

    The propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a SBN:75 photorefractive crystal strongly depend on the signal-to-background intensity ratio (R=Is/Ib) under reverse external electric field. In the range 20>R>0.05, the laser beam shows enhanced self-defocusing behavior with increasing external electric field, while it shows self-focusing in the range 0.03>R>0.01. Spatial solitons are observed under a suitable reverse external electric field for R=0.025. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the experimental observations, which suggest a new type of soliton formation due to "enhancement" not "screening" of the external electrical field.

  9. PADC Detected External Neutron Field by Nuclear Tracks at RFX-mod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measured neutron signals relevant for plasma diagnostics on Reversed Field pinch eXperiment, RFX-mod, are obtained by nuclear track methodology with PADC-NTD’s. This technique provides the external neutron field values around the RFX-mod installation during pulsed operation. Charged particles from (n, p and (n, α reactions are related to formed latent tracks. These are etched in a thermoregulated water bath with a 6.25M, KOH solution at 60o C. Observed tracks were analyzed to determine track density from which neutron fluence spatial values should be derived. Results indicate that the neutron density in the surrounding environment change at most 40%. The epithermal component is 60% higher than that corresponding to the thermal region. The estimated neutron fluence for the whole experiment is 7.5×1010 neutrons cm2 /s.

  10. The influence of laser pulse on the photoabsorption spectra of Li atom in strong external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Dehua; LIN; Shenglu

    2006-01-01

    Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and the calculation formula of the single- and double-pulse absorption spectra of the atom in strong external fields, we calculate the single- and double-pulse absorption spectra of Li atom in strong magnetic field for different pulse widths. The results show that a pulse of some width can reduce the contribution of the short period closed orbits and eliminate the contribution of the long period orbits. Compared with the single-pulse absorption spectra, we found that for some phase differences, the double-pulse laser absorption spectra are strengthened; while for others, they are reduced. Therefore, we can use the pulse laser to control the oscillation of the absorption spectra and obtain the optimization object.

  11. Impact of ultra-light particles on polarization of laser light in strong external fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yi

    2009-01-01

    The recent results by the PVLAS group on possible changes of polarization of laser light in a transverse magnetic field are beyond the QED expectations by many orders of magnitude. If confirmed, they may indicate new physics associated with ultra-light particles. I describe here how the polarization of light is modified in an external magnetic field by interactions with a spin-zero particle of no definite parity. While the PVLAS-type experiments cannot tell such a particle from one with definite parity, the parity property could be studied in photon regeneration experiments if the polarization of the regenerated photons could be measured. This talk was based on my recent work.

  12. Ultimate kinematic characteristics of rail electromagnetic launchers with metal armatures in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, S. V.; Shvetsov, G. A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulation of the Joule heating of the armature and rails in rail launchers of metal bodies with one or two augmenting rails generating an external magnetic field. The ultimate projectile velocity is calculated under the assumption that the Joule heating of the armature and rails during acceleration does not exceed the melting temperature of the materials of which they are made. It is shown that, with an appropriate choice of the position of the coils generating the augmenting magnetic field with respect to the launcher channel and the current magnitude in them, the heat load on the rails and armature in electromagnetic launchers of solids can be substantially reduced and the ultimate kinematic characteristics of these launchers in crisis-free regimes can be considerably increased.

  13. Characterization and Moment Stability Analysis of Quasilinear Quantum Stochastic Systems with Quadratic Coupling to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Igor G

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned with open quantum systems whose Heisenberg dynamics are described by quantum stochastic differential equations driven by external boson fields. The system-field coupling operators are assumed to be quadratic polynomials of the system observables, with the latter satisfying canonical commutation relations. In combination with a cubic system Hamiltonian, this leads to a class of quasilinear quantum stochastic systems which retain algebraic closedness in the evolution of mixed moments of the observables. Although such a system is nonlinear and its quantum state is no longer Gaussian, the dynamics of the moments of any order are amenable to exact analysis, including the computation of their steady-state values. In particular, a generalized criterion is developed for quadratic stability of the quasilinear systems. The results of the paper are applicable to the generation of non-Gaussian quantum states with manageable moments and an optimal design of linear quantum controllers for quasilinear...

  14. Phase diagram of a two-dimensional large- Q Potts model in an external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Landau, D. P.

    2009-04-01

    We use a two-dimensional Wang-Landau sampling algorithm to map out the phase diagram of a Q-state Potts model with Q⩽10 in an external field H that couples to one state. Finite-size scaling analyses show that for large Q the first-order phase transition point at H=0 is in fact a triple point at which three first-order phase transition lines meet. One such line is restricted to H=0; another line has H⩽0. The third line, which starts at the H=0 triple point, ends at a critical point (T,H) which needs to be located in a two-dimensional parameter space. The critical field H(Q) is positive and decreases with decreasing Q, which is in qualitative agreement with previous predictions.

  15. Effective Response of Nonlinear Composite under External AC and DC Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ye; LIANG Fang-Chu; SHEN Hong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A perturbation method is used to study effective response of nonlinear Kerr composites, which are subject to the constitutive relation of electric displacement and electric field, Dα = εαE + xα|E|2E. Under the external AC and DC electric field Eapp = Eα(1 + sinwt), the effective nonlinear responses and local potentials are induced by the cubic nonlinearity of Kerr materials at all harmonics. As an example in three dimensions, we have investigated this kind of nonlinear composites with spherical inclusions embedded in a host. At all harmonic frequencies, the potentials in inclusion and host regions are derived. Furthermore, the formulae of the effective linear and nonlinear responses are given in the dilute limit.

  16. Holes localized in nanostructures in an external magnetic field: g-factor and mixing of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semina, M. A.; Suris, R. A., E-mail: suris@theory.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    The energy spectrum and wave functions of holes in the valence band in semiconductor nanosystems, including quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, in an external magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The dependence of Zeeman splitting of the hole ground state upon variation in the size-quantization parameters with regard to the complex structure of the valence band and magnetic field-induced mixing of hole states is traced. Analytical formulas for describing the Zeeman effect in the valence band in the limiting cases of a quantum disk, spherically symmetric quantum dot, and quantum wire are presented. It is demonstrated that the g-factor of a hole is extremely sensitive to the hole-state composition (heavy or light hole) and, consequently, to the geometry of the size-quantization potential.

  17. The three-dimensional, three state Potts model in a negative external field

    CERN Document Server

    Bonati, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the critical behaviour of the three-dimensional, three state Potts model in presence of a negative external field $h$, i.e. disfavouring one of the three states. A genuine phase transition is present for all values of $|h|$, corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of a residual $Z_2$ symmetry. The transition is first/second order respectively for small/large values of $|h|$, with a tricritical field $h_{\\rm tric}$ separating the two regimes. We provide, using different and consistent approaches, a precise determination of $h_{\\rm tric}$; we also compare with previous studies and discuss the relevance of our investigation to analogous studies of the QCD phase diagram in presence of an imaginary chemical potential.

  18. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  19. Giant enhancement of fluctuation in small biological systems under external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Shin; Tsunoda, Satoshi P.

    2016-05-01

    The giant enhancement (GE) of fluctuation under an external field is a universal phenomenon predicted by the theoretical analysis given in (Reimann et al 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett.). Here, we propose the application of the theory of the GE of fluctuation to estimate the energy barrier of a biomolecule that exhibits its function subject to thermal noise. The rotary motor protein F1 was used as a model, which is a component of FoF1 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-synthase. In the single-molecule experiment on F1, the diffusion coefficients of a rotary probe attached to F1, which characterised the fluctuation of the system, were measured under the influence of an electro-rotary field. These diffusion coefficients were then used to estimate a high-energy barrier of the rotary potential of F1 based on the theory of the GE of fluctuation. Furthermore, the ion channel protein channelrhodopsin (ChR) was used as another research model. The current fluctuations of ions moving through ChR were numerically investigated using a simulation model of the protein in the presence of an external voltage. The energy barrier for ion conduction is discussed based on the current fluctuations.

  20. Experimental investigation on heat transfer rate of Co–Mn ferrofluids in external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margabandhu M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manganese substituted cobalt ferrite (Co1–xMnxFe2O4 with x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were investigated by various characterization techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA. The XRD results confirmed the presence of cubic spinel structure of the prepared powders and the average crystallite size of magnetic particles ranging from 23 to 45 nm. The VSM results showed that the magnetic properties varied with an increase in substituted manganese while SEM analysis showed the change in the morphology of obtained magnetic nanoparticles. The TG/DTA analysis indicated the formation of crystalline structure of the synthesized samples. The heat transfer rate was measured in specially prepared magnetic nanofluids (nanoparticles dispersed in carrier fluid transformer oil as a function of time and temperature in presence of external magnetic fields. The experimental analysis indicated enhanced heat transfer rate of the magnetic nanofluids which depended upon the strength of external magnetic field and chemical composition.

  1. How external magnetic fields alter the parameter dependence of reflectivity in stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winjum, B. J.; Tableman, A.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-10-01

    We show the parameter dependence of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) reflectivity over a range of electron temperatures and densities, laser intensities, and external magnetic field (B0) amplitudes and orientations in particle-in-cell simulations with kλD = 0.2 - 0.4 for the backscatter plasma wave. B0 can modify kinetic SRS by altering the phasespace dynamics of trapped particles. We show how B0 (both in amplitude and in orientation relative to the incident laser wavevector) affects the onset intensity and threshold values for reflectivity. Without an external field, and for constant kλD , lower electron densities have lower reflectivities, since SRS saturates at amplitudes for which the detuning rate due to the nonlinear frequency shift is on the order of the growth rate. Lower reflectivities are also seen for shorter speckle lengths in multi-speckle ensembles. The sensitivity of SRS reflectivity to B0 depends on the underlying kinetic physics, though we comment on generalities and the parameter regimes for which B0 eliminates kinetic SRS reflectivity. Supported under Grant DE-NA0001833; simulations were carried out on the Dawson2 cluster, Edison, Mira, and BlueWaters.

  2. Synthesis of cobalt nanowires in aqueous solution under an external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the majority of related experiments, which are carried out in organic solvents at high temperatures and pressures, cobalt nanowires were synthesized by chemical reduction in aqueous solution with the assistance of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as surfactant under moderate conditions for the first time, while an external magnetic field of 40 mT was applied. Uniform linear cobalt nanowires with relatively smooth surfaces and firm structure were obtained and possessed an average diameter of about 100 nm with a coating layer of PVP. By comparison, the external magnetic field and PVP were proven to have a crucial influence on the morphology and the size of the synthesized cobalt nanowires. The prepared cobalt nanowires are crystalline and mainly consist of cobalt as well as a small amount of platinum. Magnetic measurements showed that the resultant cobalt nanowires were ferromagnetic at room temperature. The saturation magnetization (Ms and the coercivity (Hc were 112.00 emu/g and 352.87 Oe, respectively.

  3. Positioning and aligning CNTs by external magnetic field to assist localised epoxy cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariu G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the generation of conductive networks through the localised alignment of nano fillers, such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The feasibility of alignment and positioning of functionalised MWCNTs by external DC magnetic fields was investigated. The aim of this manipulation is to enhance resin curing through AC induction heating due to hysteresis losses from the nanotubes. Experimental analyses focused on in-depth assessment of the nanotube functionalisation, processing and characterisation of magnetic, rheological and cure kinetics properties of the MWCNT solution. The study has shown that an external magnetic field has great potential for positioning and alignment of CNTs. The study demonstrated potential for creating well-ordered architectures with an unprecedented level of control of network geometry. Magnetic characterisation indicated cobalt-plated nanotubes to be the most suitable candidate for magnetic alignment due to their high magnetic sensitivity. Epoxy/metal-plated CNT nanocomposite systems were validated by thermal analysis as induction heating mediums. The curing process could therefore be optimised by the use of dielectric resins. This study offers a first step towards the proof of concept of this technique as a novel repair technology.

  4. In situ correction of field errors induced by temperature gradient in cryogenic undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique of undulator field correction for cryogenic permanent magnet undulators (CPMUs is proposed to correct the phase error induced by temperature gradient. This technique takes advantage of two important instruments: one is the in-vacuum self-aligned field analyzer with laser instrumentation system to precisely measure the distribution of the magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet arrays placed in vacuum, and the other is the differential adjuster to correct the local variation of the magnet gap. The details of the two instruments are described together with the method of how to analyze the field measurement data and deduce the gap variation along the undulator axis. The correction technique was applied to the CPMU with a length of 1.7 m and a magnetic period of 14 mm. It was found that the phase error induced during the cooling process was attributable to local gap variations of around 30  μm, which were then corrected by the differential adjuster.

  5. External Electric Field-Assisted Laser Percussion Drilling for Highly Reflective Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ching Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an external electric field was employed during the laser percussion drilling on highly reflective materials. The laser-produced plasma was sputtered substantially, and the charged ions in the plasma plume were drawn by the electrodes. Different configurations of plate electrodes were proposed and investigated in this work to provide a simple, low-cost method that allows expelling the laser-induced plasma during the percussion drilling process. The electric field resulted from the potential that was applied across the two electrodes. This electrical perturbation produced a uniform electric field when the laser-generated plasma was created in the plane plate-charged capacitor. The electric field with different electrode configurations applied to the charged particles that are carrying the electrons was also simulated in this work. All processing work was performed in air under standard atmospheric conditions and in the absence of assisting process gas. The depth of the holes drilled when various types of electrode configurations were used was measured, and the results were used to evaluate the percussion drilling rate. Results show that vaporized debris is expelled by the applied electric field; hence, in optimal configuration the penetration depth can be increased by up to 91.1%.

  6. Theory of diatomic molecules in an external electromagnetic field from first quantum mechanical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelka, Milan; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2006-04-27

    We study a general problem of the translational/rotational/vibrational/electronic dynamics of a diatomic molecule exposed to an interaction with an arbitrary external electromagnetic field. The theory developed in this paper is relevant to a variety of specific applications, such as alignment or orientation of molecules by lasers, trapping of ultracold molecules in optical traps, molecular optics and interferometry, rovibrational spectroscopy of molecules in the presence of intense laser light, or generation of high order harmonics from molecules. Starting from the first quantum mechanical principles, we derive an appropriate molecular Hamiltonian suitable for description of the center of mass, rotational, vibrational, and electronic molecular motions driven by the field within the electric dipole approximation. Consequently, the concept of the Born-Oppenheimer separation between the electronic and the nuclear degrees of freedom in the presence of an electromagnetic field is introduced. Special cases of the dc/ac-field limits are then discussed separately. Finally, we consider a perturbative regime of a weak dc/ac field, and obtain simple analytic formulas for the associated Born-Oppenheimer translational/rotational/vibrational molecular Hamiltonian.

  7. Effect of an external electric field on the propagation velocity of premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez-Sanz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. There have been many experimental investigations into the ability of electric fields to enhance combustion by acting upon ion species present in flames [1]. In this work, we examine this phenomenon using a one-dimensional model of a lean premixed flame under the influence of a longitudinal electric field. We expand upon prior two-step chain-branching reaction laminar models with reactions to model the creation and consumption of both a positively-charged radical species and free electrons. Also included are the electromotive force in the conservation equation for ion species and the electrostatic form of the Maxwell equations in order to resolve ion transport by externally applied and internally induced electric fields. The numerical solution of these equations allows us to compute changes in flame speed due to electric fields. Further, the variation of key kinetic and transport parameters modifies the electrical sensitivity of the flame. From changes in flame speed and reactant profiles we are able to gain novel, valuable insight into how and why combustion can be controlled by electric fields.

  8. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, M.; Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K.; Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R.; Avdeev, M. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Feoktystov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance.

  9. A crawling and drilling microrobot driven by an external oscillating or precessional magnetic field in tubular environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Jang, G. H.; Jeon, S. M.; Nam, J. K.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a crawling and drilling microrobot actuated by an external precessional magnetic field (EPMF) to effectively unclog obstructed blood vessels. Conventional crawling microrobots can only generate crawling motions using an external oscillating magnetic field. The proposed microrobot can generate navigating (crawling) and drilling motions selectively or simultaneously by controlling the EPMFs. We prototyped the proposed microrobot, and conducted several experiments to verify the efficacy of the crawling and drilling ability of the microrobot in a tubular environment.

  10. CERN Proton Synchrotron booster space charge simulations with a realistic model for alignment and field errors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, V.; Benedetto, E.; McAteer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The CERN Proton Synchrotron booster (PSB) is one of the machines of the LHC injector chain which will be upgraded within the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project. The injection energy of the PSB will be increased to 160 MeV in order to mitigate direct space charge effects, considered to be the main performance limitation, aiming to double the brightness for the LHC beams. In order to better predict the gain to be expected, space charge simulations are being carried out. As a first step, benchmarking between simulations and measurements is needed. Efforts to establish a realistic modeling of field and alignment errors aim at extending the basic model of the machine toward a more realistic one. Simulations of beam dynamics with strong space charge and realistic errors are presented and analyzed in this paper.

  11. Electronic structure of a spherical quantum dot: Effects of the Kratzer potential, hydrogenic impurity, external electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehyar, A.; Rezaei, G.; Zamani, A.

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the simultaneous effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the energy spectrum of an electron bound to an impurity confined in a spherical quantum dot with Kratzer potential. To this end, energy eigenvalues are obtained using the asymptotic iteration method. The energy dependencies upon the confinement potential and external fields are reported. Our results indicate that the confinement potential, external electric and magnetic fields have a great influence on the energy eigenvalues of the system. We found that, an increase in the magnetic field increases the energy eigenvalues of the states with positive magnetic quantum number, m ≽ 0 . While, the states with negative m decrease, reaching to their minimum values and increase again, with increasing the magnetic field. Moreover, an increase in electric field strength leads to decrease the confinement effects and energy eigenvalues of the system.

  12. Effect of External Radiation Filed on the Properties of the Atoms and Cavity Field in the Tavis-Cummings Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠纯

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the properties of the atoms and cavity field in the Tavis-Cummings Model where the two atoms interact each other and also are driven by an external classical field.We consider the special case that the cavity is initially in a coherent state.After work out the atomic inversion, the average photons number and the Mandel parameter in the driven Tavis-Cummings Model, we do numerical analysis of them, and pay special attention to the dynamical behavior of the atoms and the cavity field modified by the external field.

  13. Effect of vacancy defect on electrical properties of chiral single-walled carbon nanotube under external electrical field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yu-Pin; Tien Li-Gan; Tsai Chuen-Horng; Lee Ming-Hsien; Li Feng-Yin

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio calculations demonstrated that the energy gap modulation of a chiral carbon nanotube with monovacancy defect can be achieved by applying a transverse electric field. The bandstructure of this defective carbon nanotube varying due to the external electric field is distinctly different from those of the perfect nanotube and defective zigzag nanotube. This variation in bandstructure strongly depends on not only the chirality of the nanotube and also the applied direction of the transverse electric field. A mechanism is proposed to explain the response of the local energy gap between the valence band maximum state and the local gap state under external electric field. Several potential applications of these phenomena are discussed.

  14. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  15. Spin-orbit torque switching without an external field using interlayer exchange coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yong-Chang; Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, Plamen

    2016-09-01

    Manipulation of the magnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnetic free layer by spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an attractive alternative to spin-transfer torque (STT) in oscillators and switches such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) where a high current is passed across an ultrathin tunnel barrier. A small symmetry-breaking bias field is usually needed for deterministic SOT switching but it is impractical to generate the field externally for spintronic applications. Here, we demonstrate robust zero-field SOT switching of a perpendicular CoFe free layer where the symmetry is broken by magnetic coupling to a second in-plane exchange-biased CoFe layer via a nonmagnetic Ru or Pt spacer. The preferred magnetic state of the free layer is determined by the current polarity and the sign of the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). Our strategy offers a potentially scalable solution to realize bias-field-free switching that can lead to a generation of SOT devices, combining a high storage density and endurance with a low power consumption.

  16. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Fiksel, G.; Nilson, P.; Hu, S.; Chang, P.-Y.; Barnak, D.; Betti, R.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles, occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. We present initial results of experiments conducted on the OMEGA EP facility on magnetic reconnection between colliding, magnetized blowoff plasmas. While in previous experiments the magnetic fields were self-generated in the plasma by the Biermann battery effect, in these experiments the seed magnetic field is generated by pulsing current through a pair of external foils using the MIFEDS current generator (Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System) developed at LLE. Time-resolved images of the magnetic fields and plasma dynamics are obtained from proton radiography and x-ray self-emission, respectively. We present initial results of the experiments, including comparison to ``null'' experiments with zero MIFEDS magnetic field, and associated modeling using the radiation-hydro code DRACO and the particle-in-cell code PSC.

  17. Hydrophilic quantum dots stability against an external low-strength electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goftman, Valentina V., E-mail: Valentina.Goftman@UGent.be [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Pankratov, Vladislav A.; Markin, Alexey V. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Ginste, Dries Vande [IBCN/Electromagnetics Group, Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 B-Gent (Belgium); De Saeger, Sarah [Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Goryacheva, Irina Yu. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silica-coated and polymer-covered hydrophilic quantum dots are synthesized and characterized. • Impact of low-strength electric field is compared for both hydrophilic shells. • Silica shell protects the quantum dots fluorescent core when being subjected to a low-strength electric field. - Abstract: Since the stability of nanobiolabels plays a key role in their application, we thoroughly investigated how an external, low-strength electric field impacts on the fluorescent properties of hydrophilic quantum dots (QDs). Two fundamentally different approaches were applied to make the QDs water-soluble, i.e. ligand exchange (namely silica covering) and encapsulation with an amphiphilic polymer. It is shown that, even under a low-strength electric field, the polymer-coated QDs could lose 90% of their brightness because of the weak interaction between the QD's surface and the polymeric molecule. Silica-covered QDs, on the contrary, stay bright and stable owing to the covalently attached dense silica shell. These findings, which are clearly explained and illustrated in the present paper, are of critical importance in the context of hydrophilic QDs’ bioapplication.

  18. Physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Zuo, Chuncheng; Cao, Qianqian; Chen, Hongli

    2017-08-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes (APEs) in an external electric field. The effects of chain stiffness, the charge distribution of a hydrophilic block, and electric field strength are investigated. Amphiphilic multilayers, which consist of a monolayer of adsorbed hydrophilic monomers (HLMs), a hydrophobic layer, and another hydrophilic layer, are formed in a selective solvent. All cases exhibit locally ordered hydrophilic monolayers. Two kinds of hydrophobic micelles are distinguished based on local structures. Stripe and network hydrophobic patterns are formed in individual cases. Increasing the chain stiffness decreases the thickness of the deposited layer, the lateral size of the hydrophobic micelles, and the amount of deposition. Increasing the number of positively charged HLMs in a single chain has the same effect as increasing chain stiffness. Moreover, when applied normally to the substrate, the electric field compresses the deposited structures and increases the amount of deposition by pulling more PEs toward the substrate. A stronger electric field also facilitates the formation of a thinner and more ordered hydrophilic adsorption layer. These estimates help us explore how to tailor patterned nano-surfaces, nano-interfaces, or amphiphilic nanostructures by physically depositing semi-flexible APEs which is of crucial importance in physical sciences, life sciences and nanotechnology.

  19. Conformational dynamics and aggregation behavior of piezoelectric diphenylalanine peptides in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Catherine M; Northey, Thomas; Ryan, Kate; Brooks, Bernard R; Kholkin, Andrei L; Rodriguez, Brian J; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic peptides including diphenylalanine (FF) have the capacity to self-assemble into ordered, biocompatible nanostructures with piezoelectric properties relevant to a variety of biomedical applications. Electric fields are commonly applied to align FF nanotubes, yet little is known about the effect of the electric field on the assembly process. Using all-atom molecular dynamics with explicit water molecules, we examine the response of FF monomers to the application of a constant external electric field over a range of intensities. We probe the aggregation mechanism of FF peptides, and find that the presence of even relatively weak fields can accelerate ordered aggregation, primarily by facilitating the alignment of individual molecular dipole moments. This is modulated by the conformational response of individual FF peptides (e.g., backbone stretching) and by the cooperative alignment of neighboring FF and water molecules. These observations may facilitate future studies on the controlled formation of nanostructured aggregates of piezoelectric peptides and the understanding of their electro-mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gravity field error analysis: Applications of GPS receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, E.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the Earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3 to 10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85 respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  1. Gravity field error analysis - Applications of Global Positioning System receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.

    1991-11-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  2. A more realistic estimate of the variances and systematic errors in spherical harmonic geomagnetic field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowes, F.J.; Olsen, Nils

    2004-01-01

    Most modern spherical harmonic geomagnetic models based on satellite data include estimates of the variances of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the model; these estimates are based on the geometry of the data and the fitting functions, and on the magnitude of the residuals. However......, led to quite inaccurate variance estimates. We estimate correction factors which range from 1/4 to 20, with the largest increases being for the zonal, m = 0, and sectorial, m = n, terms. With no correction, the OSVM variances give a mean-square vector field error of prediction over the Earth's surface...

  3. Numerical analysis of magnetic field diffusion in ferromagnetic laminations by minimization of constitutive error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresa, R. [Consorzio CREATE, DIIIE, University of Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano (Saudi Arabia), (Italy); Serpico, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , I-80152 Napoli, (Italy); Visone, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , I-80152 Napoli, (Italy)

    2000-05-01

    In this article, the diffusion of electromagnetic fields into a ferromagnetic lamination is numerically studied by means of an error-based numerical method. This technique has been developed so far only for the case of nonhysteretic constitutive relations. The generalization to the hysteretic case requires a modification of the technique in order to take into account the evolution of the ''magnetization state'' of the media. Numerical computations obtained by using this approach are reported and discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Chemical reactions induced by oscillating external fields in weak thermal environments

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Galen T; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates must increasingly be determined in systems that evolve under the control of external stimuli. In these systems, when a reactant population is induced to cross an energy barrier through forcing from a temporally varying external field, the transition state that the reaction must pass through during the transformation from reactant to product is no longer a fixed geometric structure, but is instead time-dependent. For a periodically forced model reaction, we develop a recrossing-free dividing surface that is attached to a transition state trajectory [T. Bartsch, R. Hernandez, and T. Uzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 058301 (2005)]. We have previously shown that for single-mode sinusoidal driving, the stability of the time-varying transition state directly determines the reaction rate [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 041106 (2014)]. Here, we extend our previous work to the case of multi-mode driving waveforms. Excellent agreement is observed between the rates pred...

  5. Electron energy boosting in laser-wake-field acceleration with external magnetic field B˜1 T and laser prepulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Mizuta, Yoshio; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2010-03-01

    Hundred-mega-electron-volt electron beams with quasi-monoenergetic distribution, and a transverse geometrical emittance as small as ˜0.02 π mm mrad are generated by low power (7 TW, 45 fs) laser pulses tightly focused in helium gas jets in an external static magnetic field, B˜1 T. Generation of monoenergetic beams strongly correlates with appearance of a straight, at least 2 mm length plasma channel in a short time before the main laser pulse and with the energy of copropagating picosecond pedestal pulses (PPP). For a moderate energy PPP, the multiple or staged electron self-injection in the channel gives several narrow peaks in the electron energy distribution.

  6. Adjustability of resonance frequency by external magnetic field and bias electric field of sandwich magnetoelectric PZT/NFO/PZT composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-Fang; Feng, Xing; Sun, Kang; Liang, Ze-Yu; Xu, Qian; Liang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Chang-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Sandwich magnetoelectric composites of PZT/NFO/PZT (PNP) have been prepared by laminating PZT5, NiFe2O4, and PZT5 ceramics in turn with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) paste. A systematic study of structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties is undertaken. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction indicate formation of cubic perovskite phase of PZT5 ceramic and cubic spinel phase of NiFe2O4 ceramic. As increasing the content of PZT5 phase, ferroelectric loops and magnetic loops of PNP composites showed increasing remnant electric polarizations and decreasing remnant magnetic moments separately. Both external magnetic fields and bias voltages could regulate the basal radial resonance frequency of the composites, which should be originated with the transformation and coupling of the stress between the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. Such magnetoelectric composite provides great opportunities for electrostatically tunable devices.

  7. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

  8. Bending of Layer-by-Layer Films Driven by an External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on optimized architectures containing layer-by-layer (LbL films of natural rubber latex (NRL, carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC and magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs deposited on flexible substrates, which could be easily bent by an external magnetic field. The mechanical response depended on the number of deposited layers and was explained semi-quantitatively with a fully atomistic model, where the LbL film was represented as superposing layers of hexagonal graphene-like atomic arrangements deposited on a stiffer substrate. The bending with no direct current or voltage being applied to a supramolecular structure containing biocompatible and antimicrobial materials represents a proof-of-principle experiment that is promising for tissue engineering applications in biomedicine.

  9. Excess vibrational modes of a crystal in an external non-affine field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SASWATI GANGULY; SURAJIT SENGUPTA

    2017-07-01

    Thermal displacement fluctuations in a crystal may be classified as either “affine” or “non-affine”. While the former couples to external stress with familiar consequences, the response of a crystal when nonaffine displacements are enhanced using the thermodynamically conjugate field, is relatively less studied. We examine this using a simple model of a crystal in two dimensions for which analytical calculations are possible. Enhancing non-affine fluctuations destabilises the crystal. The population of small frequency phonon modesincreases, with the phonon density of states shifting, as a whole, towards zero frequency. Even though the crystal is free of disorder, we observe growing length and time scales. Our results, which may have implications for the glass transition and structural phase transitions in solids, are compared to molecular dynamics simulations. Possibility of experimental verification of these results is also discussed.

  10. Quasiclassical Green function in an external field and small-angle scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, R N; Strakhovenko, V M

    1999-01-01

    The quasiclassical Green functions of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations in the external electric field are obtained with the first correction taken into account. The relevant potential is assumed to be localized, while its spherical symmetry is not required. Using these Green functions, the corresponding wave functions are found in the approximation similar to the Furry-Sommerfeld-Maue approximation. It is shown that the quasiclassical Green function does not coincide with the Green function obtained in the eikonal approximation and has a wider region of applicability. It is illustrated by the calculation of the small-angle scattering amplitude for a charged particle and the forward photon scattering amplitude. For charged particles, the first correction to the scattering amplitude in the non-spherically symmetric potential is found. This correction is proportional to the scattering angle. The real part of the amplitude of forward photon scattering in a screened Coulomb potential is obtained.

  11. Numerical simulation on internal and external flow field of a SCAL indirect air cooling tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Songfeng; CHAI Yanqin; XIANG Tongqiong; ZHOU Guangsha

    2014-01-01

    According to the actual size of cooling tube bundle and the arrangement of cooling triangle of a surface condenser aluminum exchangers (SCAL)natural draft cooling tower,the geometric model of heat transfer elements at the tower bottom was established.On the basis of the RNG k-εturbulence model and porous medium model,three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out for the inner and external flow field of the air cooling tower,to investigate the influence of environmental conditions on the tower's operation performance.The results show that,with an increase in ambient wind speed,the inlet air speed at windward side of the tower increases gradually,while that at crosswind side and lee side decreases and tends to be obvious;the tower ventilation rate and outlet air speed increases at first and then decreases,and their maximum values appear when the wind speed is 2 m/s.

  12. Dynamics of a Dirac oscillator coupled to an external field: a new class of solvable problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SadurnI, E; Torres, J M; Seligman, T H, E-mail: sadurni@fis.unam.m, E-mail: mau@fis.unam.m, E-mail: seligman@fis.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-16

    The Dirac oscillator coupled to an external two-component field can retain its solvability, if couplings are appropriately chosen. This provides a new class of integrable systems. A simplified way of a solution is given by recasting the known solution of the Dirac oscillator into matrix form; there one notes that a block-diagonal form arises in a Hamiltonian formulation. The blocks are two dimensional. Choosing couplings that do not affect the block structure, these blow up the 2 x 2 matrices to 4 x 4 matrices, thus conserving solvability. The result can be cast again in covariant form. By way of an example we apply this exact solution to calculate the evolution of entanglement.

  13. Dynamics of a Dirac oscillator coupled to an external field: a new class of solvable problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadurní, E.; Torres, J. M.; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-07-01

    The Dirac oscillator coupled to an external two-component field can retain its solvability, if couplings are appropriately chosen. This provides a new class of integrable systems. A simplified way of a solution is given by recasting the known solution of the Dirac oscillator into matrix form; there one notes that a block-diagonal form arises in a Hamiltonian formulation. The blocks are two dimensional. Choosing couplings that do not affect the block structure, these blow up the 2 × 2 matrices to 4 × 4 matrices, thus conserving solvability. The result can be cast again in covariant form. By way of an example we apply this exact solution to calculate the evolution of entanglement.

  14. High-power microwave amplifier based on overcritical relativistic electron beam without external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkin, S. A., E-mail: KurkinSA@gmail.com; Koronovskii, A. A. [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaja 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Frolov, N. S.; Hramov, A. E. [Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaja 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Rak, A. O. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus); Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Kuraev, A. A. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-04-13

    The high-power scheme for the amplification of powerful microwave signals based on the overcritical electron beam with a virtual cathode (virtual cathode amplifier) has been proposed and investigated numerically. General output characteristics of the virtual cathode amplifier including the dependencies of the power gain on the input signal frequency and amplitude have been obtained and analyzed. The possibility of the geometrical working frequency tuning over the range about 8%–10% has been shown. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed virtual cathode amplifier scheme may be considered as the perspective high-power microwave amplifier with gain up to 18 dB, and with the following important advantages: the absence of external magnetic field, the simplicity of construction, the possibility of geometrical frequency tuning, and the amplification of relatively powerful microwave signals.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of response of liquid N,N-dimethylformamide to externally applied electric field using a polarizable force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weimin; Niu, Haitao; Lin, Tong; Wang, Xungai; Kong, Lingxue [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds VIC 3216 (Australia)

    2014-01-28

    The behavior of Liquid N,N-dimethylformamide subjected to a wide range of externally applied electric fields (from 0.001 V/nm to 1 V/nm) has been investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. To approach the objective the AMOEBA polarizable force field was extended to include the interaction of the external electric field with atomic partial charges and the contribution to the atomic polarization. The simulation results were evaluated with quantum mechanical calculations. The results from the present force field for the liquid at normal conditions were compared with the experimental and molecular dynamics results with non-polarizable and other polarizable force fields. The uniform external electric fields of higher than 0.01 V/nm have a significant effect on the structure of the liquid, which exhibits a variation in numerous properties, including molecular polarization, local cluster structure, rotation, alignment, energetics, and bulk thermodynamic and structural properties.

  16. Modulating protein behaviors on responsive surface by external electric fields: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yun, E-mail: xieyunxx@gdpu.edu.cn; Pan, Yufang; Zhang, Rong; Liang, Ying; Li, Zhanchao

    2015-01-30

    phosphate groups after overcoming a slight energy barrier. Under three states, the basic backbone structures of Cyt c are well kept within the simulation time since the conformation of Cyt c is mainly affected by the surface-generated electric fields, whose strengths are modulated by the external electric fields and are not strong enough to deform protein. The results indicate the possibility of regulating protein behaviors, including promoting or retarding protein adsorption and regulating protein orientations, on responsive surfaces by applying electric fields on the surfaces without worrying protein deformation, which may be helpful in the applications of protein separation and controlled drug delivery.

  17. Impact of spin-zero particle-photon interactions on light polarization in external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Yi [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)]. E-mail: liaoy@nankai.edu.cn

    2007-07-05

    If the recent PVLAS results on polarization changes of a linearly polarized laser beam passing through a magnetic field are interpreted by an axion-like particle, it is almost certain that it is not a standard QCD axion. Considering this, we study the general effective interactions of photons with spin-zero particles without restricting the latter to be a pseudo-scalar or a scalar, i.e., a parity eigenstate. At the lowest order in effective field theory, there are two dimension-5 interactions, each of which has previously been treated separately for a pseudo-scalar or a scalar particle. By following the evolution in an external magnetic field of the system of spin-zero particles and photons, we compute the changes in light polarization and the transition probability for two experimental set-ups: one-way propagation and round-trip propagation. While the first may be relevant for astrophysical sources of spin-zero particles, the second applies to laboratory optical experiments like PVLAS. In the one-way propagation, interesting phenomena can occur for special configurations of polarization where, for instance, transition occurs but light polarization does not change. For the round-trip propagation, however, the standard results of polarization changes for a pseudoscalar or a scalar are only modified by a factor that depends on the relative strength of the two interactions.

  18. Effect of external electric field on morphology of copper phthalocyanine-fullerene blended films during annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, Anukul Prasad; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The thin-film morphology and segregated phases of constituents in blends of organic semiconductors play an important role in determining the performance of devices fabricated with these constituents. In this study, we explored the effect of an external electric field applied during annealing on the morphology and phase of blended films of two popular organic semiconductors, copper pthalocyanine (CuPc) and buckminsterfullerene (C60). Films of different blend ratios annealed at various temperatures in both the presence and absence of an electric field were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The characteristics of annealed pristine CuPc films were also included for comparison. The observed changes in the properties of the blended films following the annealing, including the abrupt phase segregation of the blended constituents in the films, are discussed. The polarizability of the molecules was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) to explain the interaction, stacking, and segregation of the molecules in the blend. The results showed that application of an electric field during annealing of the blended films is an additional control parameter that can help tune the properties of the blended film. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. The three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson spin glass in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yllanes, David; Janus Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Spin glasses are a longstanding model for the sluggish dynamics that appears at the glass transition. However, in order for spin glasses to be a faithful model for general glassy physics, we need to introduce an external magnetic field to eliminate their time-reversal symmetry. Unfortunately, little is known about the critical behavior of a spin glass in a field in three spatial dimensions. We have carried out a dynamical study combining equilibrium and non-equilibrium data. In particular, using the Janus computer, we have been able to simulate one thousand samples, each with half a million spins, along a time window spanning ten orders of magnitude for several magnetic fields and temperature protocols. Our main conclusion is that the system has a clearly identifiable dynamical transition, which we discuss in terms of different possibilities for the underlying physics (from a thermodynamical spin-glass transition to a mode-coupling crossover). In fact, we are able to make quantitative connections between the Edwards-Anderson spin glass and the physics of supercooled liquids. We also discuss ongoing work in equilibrium from parallel tempering simulations. Supported by the ERC, grant agreement no. 247328.

  20. The structure of MHD turbulence under an external magnetic field: results from simulations on elongated domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, X. M.; Yeung, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    Turbulence in an electrically conducting fluid in the limit of low magnetic Reynolds number is, because of the Lorentz force due to an external magnetic field, very different from classical turbulence at both the large scales and the small scales. The importance of minimizing finite domain-size effects on the large scale development has often tended to limit the Reynolds number reached in the past. In this work we use periodic domains stretched along the magnetic field with aspect ratio up to 8 and beyond. The initial state is obtained from decaying isotropic turbulence with large-eddy length scales of order 1% of the length of the domain. After a transient period the kinetic energy returns to a power law decay while the integral length scales in the direction parallel to the magnetic field show preferential growth. At early times the parallel velocity component becomes stronger than the other two but this anisotropy is subsequently reversed under the combined effects of anisotropic Joule dissipation and viscous dissipation. The small scales show characteristics of quasi two-dimensional behavior in the transverse plane. Results over a range of magnetic interaction parameters and Reynolds numbers are compared with known theoretical predictions. Supported by NSF Grant CBET-1510749 and supercomputer resources at TACC/XSEDE and ALCF.

  1. Impact of spin-zero particle-photon interactions on light polarization in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yi

    2007-01-01

    If the recent PVLAS results on polarization changes of a linearly polarized laser beam passing through a magnetic field are interpreted by an axion-like particle, it is almost certain that it is not a standard QCD axion. Considering this, we study the general effective interactions of photons with spin-zero particles without restricting the latter to be a pseudo-scalar or a scalar, i.e., a parity eigenstate. To lowest order in effective field theory, there are two dimension-5 interactions, each of which has previously been treated separately for a pseudo-scalar or a scalar particle. By following the evolution in an external magnetic field of the system of spin-zero particles and photons, we compute the changes of light polarization and the transition probability for two experimental set-ups: one-way propagation and round-trip propagation. While the first may be relevant for astrophysical sources of spin-zero particles, the second applies to laboratory optical experiments like PVLAS. We find that interference ...

  2. Critical behavior of the Gaussian model on fractal lattices in external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For inhomogeneous lattices we generalize the classical Gaussian model, i.e. it is proposed that the Gaussian type distribution constant and the external magnetic field of site i in this model depend on the coordination number qi of site i, and that the relation bqi/bqj=qi/qj holds among bqi's, where bqi is the Gaussian type distribution constant of site i. Using the decimation real-space renormalization group following the spin-rescaling method, the critical points and critical exponents of the Gaussian model are calculated on some Koch type curves and a family of the diamond-type hierarchical (or DH) lattices. At the critical points, it is found that the nearest-neighbor interaction and the magnetic field of site i can be expressed in the form K*=bqi/qi and h*qi=0, respectively. It is also found that most critical exponents depend on the fractal dimensionality of a fractal system. For the family of the DH lattices, the results are identical with the exact results on translation symmetric lattices, and if the fractal dimensionality df=4, the Gaussian model and the mean field theories give the same results.

  3. Refractive properties of graphene in a medium-strong external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Coquand, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    1-loop quantum corrections are shown to induce large effects on the refraction index $n$ inside a graphene strip in the presence of an external magnetic field $B$ orthogonal to it. To this purpose, we use the tools of Quantum Field Theory to calculate the photon propagator at 1-loop inside graphene in position space, which leads to an effective vacuum polarization in a brane-like theory of photons interacting with massless electrons at locations confined inside the thin strip (its longitudinal spread is considered to be infinite). The effects factorize into quantum ones, controlled by the value of $B$ and that of the electromagnetic coupling $\\alpha$, and a "transmittance function" $U$ in which the geometry of the sample and the resulting confinement of electrons play the major roles. We consider photons inside the visible spectrum and magnetic fields in the range 1-20\\; Teslas. At $B=0$, quantum effects depend very weakly on $\\alpha$ and $n$ is essentially controlled by $U$; we recover, then, an opacity for ...

  4. Chaotic behavior of collective ion dynamics in the presence of an external static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poria, Swarup; Ghosh, Samiran

    2016-06-01

    The two-dimensional nonlinear collective ion dynamics in the presence of external magnetic field in an electron-ion plasma is investigated. The analysis is performed for traveling plane waves to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics. The presence of magnetic field makes the dynamics of the nonlinear wave complex with a complicated phase-space behavior. Thus, the nonlinear wave supports a wide class of nonlinear structures viz., single soliton, multi-soliton, periodic, and quasi-periodic oscillations depending on the values of M (Mach number) and Ω (the ratio of ion gyro-frequency to the ion plasma frequency). The computational results predict the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear wave and the transition to chaos takes place when Ω ≳ 0.35 depending on the direction of propagation and the value of M. The amplitude of the wave depends on the obliqueness of the propagation and Mach number, whereas the magnetic field changes the dispersion properties of the wave.

  5. Quantum dynamics of tight-binding networks coherently controlled by external fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuo; SONG Zhi; SUN Chang-pu

    2007-01-01

    With some reviews on the investigations on the schemes for quantum state transfer based on spin systems,we discuss the quantum dynamics of magnetically-controlled networks for Bloch electrons. The networks are constructed by connecting several tight-binding chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. The external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals can be used to control the intrinsic properties of the networks. For several typical networks, rigorous results are shown for some specific values of external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals: a complicated network can be reduced into a virtual network, which is a direct sum of some independent chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. These reductions are due to the fermionic statistics and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. In application, we study the quantum dynamics of wave packet motion of Bloch electrons in such networks. For various geometrical configurations, these networks can function as some optical devices,such as beam splitters, switches and interferometers. When the Bloch electrons as Gaussian wave packets input these devices, various quantum coherence phenomena can be observed, e.g., the perfect quantum state transfer without reflection in a Y-shaped beam, the multi-mode entanglers of electron wave by star-shaped network, magnetically controlled switches, and Bloch electron interferometer with the lattice Aharonov-Bohm effects. With these quantum coherent features, the networks are expected to be used as quantum information processors for the fermion system based on the possible engineered solid state systems, such as the array of quantum dots that can be implemented experimentally.

  6. Dependence of Interaction Free Energy between Solutes on an External Electrostatic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Kun Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the athermal effect of an external electrostatic field on the stabilities of protein conformations and the binding affinities of protein-protein/ligand interactions, the dependences of the polar and hydrophobic interactions on the external electrostatic field, −Eext, were studied using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. By decomposing Eext into, along, and perpendicular to the direction formed by the two solutes, the effect of Eext on the interactions between these two solutes can be estimated based on the effects from these two components. Eext was applied along the direction of the electric dipole formed by two solutes with opposite charges. The attractive interaction free energy between these two solutes decreased for solutes treated as point charges. In contrast, the attractive interaction free energy between these two solutes increased, as observed by MD simulations, for Eext = 40 or 60 MV/cm. Eext was applied perpendicular to the direction of the electric dipole formed by these two solutes. The attractive interaction free energy was increased for Eext = 100 MV/cm as a result of dielectric saturation. The force on the solutes along the direction of Eext computed from MD simulations was greater than that estimated from a continuum solvent in which the solutes were treated as point charges. To explore the hydrophobic interactions, Eext was applied to a water cluster containing two neutral solutes. The repulsive force between these solutes was decreased/increased for Eext along/perpendicular to the direction of the electric dipole formed by these two solutes.

  7. Reduction of truncation errors in planar near-field aperture antenna measurements using the method of alternating orthogonal projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martini, Enrica; Breinbjerg, Olav; Maci, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    A simple and effective procedure for the reduction of truncation error in planar near-field to far-field transformations is presented. The starting point is the consideration that the actual scan plane truncation implies a reliability of the reconstructed plane wave spectrum of the field radiated...... by the antenna only within a certain region inside the visible range. Then, the truncation error is reduced by a Maxwellian continuation of the reliable portion of the spectrum: after back propagating the measured field to the antenna plane, a condition of spatial concentration of the primary field is exploited...

  8. Compensation of Third-Harmonic Field Error in the Main Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Fiscarelli, L; Montenero, G; Garcia Perez, J; Walckiers, L

    2010-01-01

    One of the main requirements for the operations of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is a suitable correction of multipole errors in magnetic field. The feed-forward control of the LHC is based on the Field Description for the LHC (FiDel), capable of forecasting the magnet’s behavior in order to generate adequate current ramps for main and corrector magnets. Magnetic measurements campaigns aimed at validating the model underlying FiDel highlighted the need for improving the harmonic compensation of the third-harmonic (b3) component of the main LHC dipoles. In this paper, the results of a new measurement campaign for b3 harmonic compensation, carried out through the new Fast Acquisition Measurement Equipment (FAME), are reported. In particular, the mechanism and the measurement procedure of the compensation, as well as the new perspectives opened by preliminary experimental results, are illustrated.

  9. Reduction of Truncation Errors in Planar, Cylindrical, and Partial Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Cano-Fácila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to reduce truncation errors in near-field antenna measurements is presented. The method is based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis iterative algorithm used to extrapolate band-limited functions and it is able to extend the valid region of the calculated far-field pattern up to the whole forward hemisphere. The extension of the valid region is achieved by the iterative application of a transformation between two different domains. After each transformation, a filtering process that is based on known information at each domain is applied. The first domain is the spectral domain in which the plane wave spectrum (PWS is reliable only within a known region. The second domain is the field distribution over the antenna under test (AUT plane in which the desired field is assumed to be concentrated on the antenna aperture. The method can be applied to any scanning geometry, but in this paper, only the planar, cylindrical, and partial spherical near-field measurements are considered. Several simulation and measurement examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the method.

  10. Evidence for Spatially Correlated Gaia Parallax Errors in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Joel C.; Huber, Daniel; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Stello, Dennis

    2017-08-01

    We present evidence for a spatially dependent systematic error in the first data release of Gaia parallaxes based on comparisons to asteroseismic parallaxes in the Kepler field and provide a parameterized model of the angular dependence of these systematics. We report an error of {0.059}-0.004+0.004 mas on scales of 0.°3, which decreases for larger scales to become {0.011}-0.004+0.006 mas at 8°. This is consistent with the ˜2% zero-point offset for the whole sample discussed by Huber et al. and is compatible with the effect predicted by the Gaia team. Our results are robust to dust prescriptions and choices in temperature scales used to calculate asteroseismic parallaxes. We also do not find evidence for significant differences in the signal when using red clump versus red giant stars. Our approach allows us to quantify and map the correlations in an astrophysically interesting field, resulting in a parameterized model of the spatial systematics that can be used to construct a covariance matrix for any work that relies on TGAS parallaxes.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of error fields in the CNT stellarator

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, K C; Brenner, P W; Pedersen, T S; Raftopoulos, S; Traverso, P; Volpe, F A

    2016-01-01

    Sources of error fields were indirectly inferred in a stellarator by reconciling computed and numerical flux surfaces. Sources considered so far include the displacements and tilts (but not the deformations, yet) of the four circular coils featured in the simple CNT stellarator. The flux surfaces were measured by means of an electron beam and phosphor rod, and were computed by means of a Biot-Savart field-line tracing code. If the ideal coil locations and orientations are used in the computation, agreement with measurements is poor. Discrepancies are ascribed to errors in the positioning and orientation of the in-vessel interlocked coils. To that end, an iterative numerical method was developed. A Newton-Raphson algorithm searches for the coils' displacements and tilts that minimize the discrepancy between the measured and computed flux surfaces. This method was verified by misplacing and tilting the coils in a numerical model of CNT, calculating the flux surfaces that they generated, and testing the algorith...

  12. Effects of 2D and 3D Error Fields on the SAS Divertor Magnetic Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, G. L.; Lao, L. L.; Strait, E. J.; Guo, H. Y.; Wu, W.; Evans, T. E.

    2016-10-01

    The successful design of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments is of paramount importance in both the operation of future reactors and in the modification of operating machines. Indeed, the Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor concept, proposed for application on the DIII-D experiment, combines a small incident angle at the plasma strike point with a progressively opening slot, so as to better control heat flux and erosion in high-performance tokamak plasmas. Uncertainty quantification of the error fields expected around the striking point provides additional useful information in both the design and the modeling phases of the new divertor, in part due to the particular geometric requirement of the striking flux surfaces. The presented work involves both 2D and 3D magnetic error field analysis on the SAS strike point carried out using the EFIT code for 2D equilibrium reconstruction, V3POST for vacuum 3D computations and the OMFIT integrated modeling framework for data analysis. An uncertainty in the magnetic probes' signals is found to propagate non-linearly as an uncertainty in the striking point and angle, which can be quantified through statistical analysis to yield robust estimates. Work supported by contracts DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. Hubble Frontier Fields: systematic errors in strong lensing models of galaxy clusters - implications for cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebron, Ana; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Tilquin, André; Giocoli, Carlo; Jauzac, Mathilde; Mahler, Guillaume; Richard, Johan

    2017-09-01

    Strong gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters is a fundamental tool to study dark matter and constrain the geometry of the Universe. Recently, the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields programme has allowed a significant improvement of mass and magnification measurements but lensing models still have a residual root mean square between 0.2 arcsec and few arcseconds, not yet completely understood. Systematic errors have to be better understood and treated in order to use strong lensing clusters as reliable cosmological probes. We have analysed two simulated Hubble-Frontier-Fields-like clusters from the Hubble Frontier Fields Comparison Challenge, Ares and Hera. We use several estimators (relative bias on magnification, density profiles, ellipticity and orientation) to quantify the goodness of our reconstructions by comparing our multiple models, optimized with the parametric software lenstool, with the input models. We have quantified the impact of systematic errors arising, first, from the choice of different density profiles and configurations and, secondly, from the availability of constraints (spectroscopic or photometric redshifts, redshift ranges of the background sources) in the parametric modelling of strong lensing galaxy clusters and therefore on the retrieval of cosmological parameters. We find that substructures in the outskirts have a significant impact on the position of the multiple images, yielding tighter cosmological contours. The need for wide-field imaging around massive clusters is thus reinforced. We show that competitive cosmological constraints can be obtained also with complex multimodal clusters and that photometric redshifts improve the constraints on cosmological parameters when considering a narrow range of (spectroscopic) redshifts for the sources.

  14. Dynamical symmetry restoration for a higher-derivative four-fermion model in an external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Elizalde, E; Odintsov, S D; Shilnov, Yu I; Shil'nov, Yu. I.

    1998-01-01

    A four-fermion model with additional higher-derivative terms is investigated in an external electromagnetic field. The effective potential in the leading order of large-N expansion is calculated in external constant magnetic and electric fields. It is shown that, in contrast to the former results concerning the universal character of "magnetic catalysis" in dynamical symmetry breaking, in the present higher-derivative model the magnetic field restores chiral symmetry broken initially on the tree level. Numerical results describing a second-order phase transition that accompanies the symmetry restoration at the quantum level are presented.

  15. The QCD phase diagram in the presence of an external magnetic field: the role of the inverse magnetic catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Márcio; Providência, Constança

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an external magnetic field in QCD phase diagram, namely, in the the location of the critical end point (CEP) is investigated. Using the 2+1 flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop, it is shown that when an external magnetic field is applied its effect on the CEP depends on the strength of the coupling. If the coupling depends on the magnetic field, allowing for inverse magnetic catalysis, the CEP moves to lower chemical potentials eventually disappearing, and the chiral restoration phase transition is always of first order.

  16. Change of Work Function of Pd, Ag, K on Al(001) as a Function of External Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯柱峰; 黄美纯; 朱梓忠; 黄荣彬; 郑兰荪

    2001-01-01

    We present a local density functional calculation of the effect of an external electric field on the work function change of Pd and Ag adsorption on an Al(001) surface. The adsorption of K has also been considered for comparison. We found that the work functions for all the systems increased linearly when the strength of the external electric field was increased. Since the polarized electrons at the interstitial regions between the adsorbate and substrate for Pd/Al(001) and Ag/Al(001) react to the external electric field differently, the subtle differences between Pd/Al(001) and Ag/Al(001) bondings has been characterized through the comparison of the slopes of the work function change versus electric field.

  17. Electronic and Optical Properties of GaN / AlN Multiple Quantum Wells under Static External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solaimani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated the effect of an external magnetic field and, for the first time, number of wells with constant total effective length to study the degeneracy in electronic energy levels. We have used constant total effective length because it is technologically important. Then we have tried to remove the n-fold degeneracy of the n-well multiple quantum well by means of the external magnetic field but the two-fold degeneracy was remain and not removed. Finally, the effect of the external magnetic field on the number of bound states and the situation of unchanging absorption coefficient in a wide magnetic field interval are also investigated.

  18. Errors of first-order probe correction for higher-order probes in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Pivnenko, Sergiy

    2004-01-01

    An investigation is performed to study the error of the far-field pattern determined from a spherical near-field antenna measurement in the case where a first-order (mu=+-1) probe correction scheme is applied to the near-field signal measured by a higher-order probe....

  19. Effect of an external radiation field on the properties of the atoms and cavity field in the two-atom Tavis-Cummings model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠纯; 王琪; 张永生; 郭光灿

    2005-01-01

    We study the properties of atoms and cavity field in the two-atom Tavis-Cummings model where the two atoms interact with each other and are also driven by an external classical field. We consider the special case that the cavity is initially in a coherent state. The atomic inversion, the average photons number and the Mandel parameter in the driven Tavis-Cummings model are given and analysed numerically. We pay special attention to the dynamical behaviour of the atoms and the cavity field modified by the external field.

  20. Theoretical study on coupling effects of modulation depth between two photorefractive phase gratings with an external applied field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Baohong; ZHOU Zhongxiang; HOU Chunfeng; SUN Xiudong

    2001-01-01

    We used the perturbation expanding method to the hopping model and studied coupling effects of the modulation depth between two photorefractive phase gratings stored in one point with an external applied DC electric field . It has been found that the modulation depth of one of the two gratings seriously affects the spatial-charge field of the other grating.

  1. Near-microsecond human aquaporin 4 gating dynamics in static and alternating external electric fields: Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J; Garate, José-A

    2016-08-28

    An extensive suite of non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulation has been performed for ∼0.85-0.9 μs of human aquaporin 4 in the absence and presence of externally applied static and alternating electric fields applied along the channels (in both axial directions in the static case, taken as the laboratory z-axis). These external fields were of 0.0065 V/Å (r.m.s.) intensity (of the same order as physiological electrical potentials); alternating fields ranged in frequency from 2.45 to 500 GHz. In-pore gating dynamics was studied, particularly of the relative propensities for "open" and "closed" states of the conserved arginines in the arginine/aromatic area (itself governed in no small part by external-field response of the dipolar alignment of the histidine-201 residue in the selectivity filter). In such a manner, the intimate connection of field-response governing "two-state" histidine states was established statistically and mechanistically. Given the appreciable size of the energy barriers for histidine-201 alignment, we have also performed non-equilibrium metadynamics/local-elevation of static fields applied along both directions to construct the free-energy landscape thereof in terms of external-field direction, elucidating the importance of field direction on energetics. We conclude from direct measurement of deterministic molecular dynamics in conjunction with applied-field metadynamics that the intrinsic electric field within the channel points along the +z-axis, such that externally applied static fields in this direction serve to "open" the channel in the selectivity-filter and the asparagine-proline-alanine region.

  2. Near-microsecond human aquaporin 4 gating dynamics in static and alternating external electric fields: Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J.; Garate, José-A.

    2016-08-01

    An extensive suite of non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulation has been performed for ˜0.85-0.9 μs of human aquaporin 4 in the absence and presence of externally applied static and alternating electric fields applied along the channels (in both axial directions in the static case, taken as the laboratory z-axis). These external fields were of 0.0065 V/Å (r.m.s.) intensity (of the same order as physiological electrical potentials); alternating fields ranged in frequency from 2.45 to 500 GHz. In-pore gating dynamics was studied, particularly of the relative propensities for "open" and "closed" states of the conserved arginines in the arginine/aromatic area (itself governed in no small part by external-field response of the dipolar alignment of the histidine-201 residue in the selectivity filter). In such a manner, the intimate connection of field-response governing "two-state" histidine states was established statistically and mechanistically. Given the appreciable size of the energy barriers for histidine-201 alignment, we have also performed non-equilibrium metadynamics/local-elevation of static fields applied along both directions to construct the free-energy landscape thereof in terms of external-field direction, elucidating the importance of field direction on energetics. We conclude from direct measurement of deterministic molecular dynamics in conjunction with applied-field metadynamics that the intrinsic electric field within the channel points along the +z-axis, such that externally applied static fields in this direction serve to "open" the channel in the selectivity-filter and the asparagine-proline-alanine region.

  3. [Effect on Fermi Resonance by Some External Fields: Investigation of Fermi Resonance According to Raman Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu-lan; Sun, Cheng-lin; Zhou, Mi; Li, Dong-fei; Men, Zhi-wei; Li, Zuo-wei; Gao, Shu-qin

    2015-03-01

    Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of molecular vibrational coupling and energy transfer occurred between different groups of a single molecule or neighboring molecules. Many properties of Fermi resonance under different external fields, the investigation method of Raman spectroscopy as well as the application of Fermi resonance, etc need to be developed and extended further. In this article the research results and development about Fermi resonance obtained by Raman spectral technique were introduced systematically according to our work and the results by other researchers. Especially, the results of the behaviors of intramolecular and intermolecular Fermi resonance of some molecules under some external fields such as molecular field, pressure field and temperature field, etc were investigated and demonstrated in detail according to the Raman spectra obtained by high pressure DAC technique, temperature variation technique as well as the methods we planed originally in our group such as solution concentration variation method and LCOF resonance Raman spectroscopic technique, and some novel properties of Fermi resonance were found firstly. Concretely, (1) Under molecular field. a. The Raman spectra of C5H5 N in CH3 OH and H2O indicates that solvent effect can influence Fermi resonance distinctly; b. The phenomena of the asymmetric movement of the Fermi resonance doublets as well as the fundamental involved is tuned by the Fermi resonance which had not been found by other methods were found firstly by our variation solution concentration method; c. The Fermi resonance properties can be influenced distinctly by the molecular group reorganization induced by the hydrogen bond and anti-hydrogen bond in solution; d. Fermi resonance can occurred between C7 H8 and m-C8H10, and the Fermi resonance properties behave quite differently with the solution concentration; (2) Under pressure field. a. The spectral lines shift towards high wavenumber with increasing pressure, and

  4. Flow boiling critical heat flux enhancement by using magnetic nanofluids and external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.; Jeong, Y.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Tech., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    By using the nanofluid as a working fluid, we can expect the enhancement in the flow boiling critical heat flux mainly due to the deposition of nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface. In this study, we suggest the magnetic nanofluid, or magnetite-water nanofluid, as a working fluid which is regarded as a controllable nanofluid, that is, nanoparticles or magnetite nanoparticles in a nanofluid can be controlled by an external magnetic field. Therefore, we can expect the advantages of magnetic nanofluid such as, i) control of nanofluid concentration to maintain nanoparticle suspension and to localize nanofluid concentration, and ii) removal of nanoparticle from nanofluid when we want. In this study, we focused on the investigation of flow boiling critical heat flux characteristics for the magnetic nanofluid. Series of experiments were performed under the low pressure and low flow conditions, and based on the experimental results; we can conclude that the use of magnetic nanofluid improves the flow boiling critical heat flux characteristics. This is mainly due to the deposition of magnetite nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface, which results in the improvement of wettability and re-wetting characteristics of heat transfer surface. Preliminary results of the magnetic field effects on the flow boiling critical heat flux would be presented also. (author)

  5. Review of the Elementary Particles Physics in the External Electromagnetic Fields Studies at KEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, O. Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK [1]) is a world class accelerator-based research laboratory. The field of its scientific interests spreads widely from the study of fundamental properties of matter, particle physics, nuclear physics to materials science, life science, technical researches, and industrial applications. Research outcomes from the laboratory achieved making use of high-energy particle beams and synchrotron radiation. Two synchrotron facilities of KEK, the Photon Factory (PF) ring and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) are the second biggest synchrotron light source in Japan. A very wide range of the radiated light, from visible light to X-ray, is provided for a variety of materials science, biology, and life science [2]. KEK strives to work closely with national and international research institutions, promoting collaborative research activities. Advanced research and facilities provision are key factors to be at the frontier of the accelerator science. In this review I am going to discuss KEK overall accelerator-based science, and to consider light sources research and development. The state of arts of the current projects with respect to the elementary particles physics in the external electromagnetic fields is also stressed here.

  6. Butterfly effect and holographic mutual information under external field and spatial noncommutativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wung-Hong; Du, Yi-Hsien

    2017-02-01

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  7. First-principles calculation of transport property in nano-devices under an external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jing-Zhe; Zhang Jin; Han Ru-Shan

    2008-01-01

    The mesoscopic quantum interference phenomenon (QIP) can be observed and behaves as the oscillation of conductance in nano-devices when the external magnetic field changes. Excluding the factor of impurities or defects, specific QIP is determined by the sample geometry. We have improved a first-principles method based on the matrix Green's function and the density functional theory to simulate the transport behaviour of such systems under a magnetic field. We have studied two kinds of QIP: universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and Aharonov-Bohm effect (A-B effect). We find that the amplitude of UCF is much smaller than the previous theoretical prediction. We have discussed the origin of difference and concluded that due to the failure of ergodic hypothesis, the ensemble statistics is not applicable, and the conductance fluctuation is determined by the flux-dependent density of states (DOSs). We have also studied the relation between the UCF and the structure of sample. For a specific structure, an atomic circle, the A-B effect is observed and the origin of the oscillation is also discussed.

  8. Review of the Elementary Particles Physics in the External Electromagnetic Fields Studies at KEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Konstantinova), O. Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK [1]) is a world class accelerator-based research laboratory. The field of its scientific interests spreads widely from the study of fundamental properties of matter, particle physics, nuclear physics to materials science, life science, technical researches, and industrial applications. Research outcomes from the laboratory achieved making use of high-energy particle beams and synchrotron radiation. Two synchrotron facilities of KEK, the Photon Factory (PF) ring and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) are the second biggest synchrotron light source in Japan. A very wide range of the radiated light, from visible light to X-ray, is provided for a variety of materials science, biology, and life science [2]. KEK strives to work closely with national and international research institutions, promoting collaborative research activities. Advanced research and facilities provision are key factors to be at the frontier of the accelerator science. In this review I am going to discuss KEK overall accelerator-based science, and to consider light sources research and development. The state of arts of the current projects with respect to the elementary particles physics in the external electromagnetic fields is also stressed here.

  9. Butterfly Effect and Holographic Mutual Information under External Field and Spatial Noncommutativity

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  10. Critical behavior of the Gaussian model on fractal lattices in external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥木; 林振权; 朱建阳

    2000-01-01

    For inhomogeneous lattices we generalize the classical Gaussian model, i. e. it is pro-posed that the Gaussian type distribution constant and the external magnetic field of site / in this model depend on the coordination number q, of site i, and that the relation bq1/bq1 = q1/q1 holds among bq1s, where bq1 is the Gaussian type distribution constant of site /. Using the decimation real-spacerenormalization group following the spin-rescaling method, the critical points and critical exponents of the Gaussian model are calculated on some Koch type curves and a family of the diamond-type hierar-chical (or DH) lattices. At the critical points, it is found that the nearest-neighbor interaction and the magnetic field of site i can be expressed in the form K’ = bq1/q1 and hq =0, respectively. it is also found that most critical exponents depend on the fractal dimensionality of a fractal system. For the family of the DH lattices, the results are identical with the exact results on translation symmetric lattices,

  11. Frequency Shift and Sub-band Effect in Pair-Production Process Under Adiabatic Closing the External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinfang; Wang, Wenyuan; Fu, Libin

    2016-09-01

    Oscillating electric field is chosen to investigate the electron-positron pair production process by using a quantum kinetic theory and the effective mass model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 050402 (2014)]. The particle yield exhibits a characteristic oscillatory structure which is related to the multi-photon thresholds. The true peak positions are typically slightly above the naive threshold estimate, which is defined as frequency shift. During the numerical calculations, we find the frequency shift can be affected by the system parameters under adiabatic closing the external field, it is worthwhile to study in detail. In this paper, we investigate the frequency shift and the sub-band effect in electron-positron pair production with oscillating electric field. First, a quantum kinetic theory and the effective mass are presented to obtain the frequency shift, the results are fitted very well. And we find the frequency shift and the sub-band effect can be influenced by pulse duration, photon number, and strength of the external field. The frequency shift becomes evident as increases of photon number and the external field strength. The sub-band width is relatively lower at longer pulse duration, higher photon number region, and weaker external field. The results shown in the paper are helpful for understanding multi-photon pair production process in the strong field.

  12. Gravity field error analysis for pendulum formations by a semi-analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huishu; Reubelt, Tilo; Antoni, Markus; Sneeuw, Nico

    2017-03-01

    Many geoscience disciplines push for ever higher requirements on accuracy, homogeneity and time- and space-resolution of the Earth's gravity field. Apart from better instruments or new observables, alternative satellite formations could improve the signal and error structure compared to Grace. One possibility to increase the sensitivity and isotropy by adding cross-track information is a pair of satellites flying in a pendulum formation. This formation contains two satellites which have different ascending nodes and arguments of latitude, but have the same orbital height and inclination. In this study, the semi-analytical approach for efficient pre-mission error assessment is presented, and the transfer coefficients of range, range-rate and range-acceleration gravitational perturbations are derived analytically for the pendulum formation considering a set of opening angles. The new challenge is the time variations of the opening angle and the range, leading to temporally variable transfer coefficients. This is solved by Fourier expansion of the sine/cosine of the opening angle and the central angle. The transfer coefficients are further applied to assess the error patterns which are caused by different orbital parameters. The simulation results indicate that a significant improvement in accuracy and isotropy is obtained for small and medium initial opening angles of single polar pendulums, compared to Grace. The optimal initial opening angles are 45° and 15° for accuracy and isotropy, respectively. For a Bender configuration, which is constituted by a polar Grace and an inclined pendulum in this paper, the behaviour of results is dependent on the inclination (prograde vs. retrograde) and on the relative baseline orientation (left or right leading). The simulation for a sun-synchronous orbit shows better results for the left leading case.

  13. Gravity field error analysis for pendulum formations by a semi-analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huishu; Reubelt, Tilo; Antoni, Markus; Sneeuw, Nico

    2016-10-01

    Many geoscience disciplines push for ever higher requirements on accuracy, homogeneity and time- and space-resolution of the Earth's gravity field. Apart from better instruments or new observables, alternative satellite formations could improve the signal and error structure compared to uc(Grace). One possibility to increase the sensitivity and isotropy by adding cross-track information is a pair of satellites flying in a pendulum formation. This formation contains two satellites which have different ascending nodes and arguments of latitude, but have the same orbital height and inclination. In this study, the semi-analytical approach for efficient pre-mission error assessment is presented, and the transfer coefficients of range, range-rate and range-acceleration gravitational perturbations are derived analytically for the pendulum formation considering a set of opening angles. The new challenge is the time variations of the opening angle and the range, leading to temporally variable transfer coefficients. This is solved by Fourier expansion of the sine/cosine of the opening angle and the central angle. The transfer coefficients are further applied to assess the error patterns which are caused by different orbital parameters. The simulation results indicate that a significant improvement in accuracy and isotropy is obtained for small and medium initial opening angles of single polar pendulums, compared to uc(Grace). The optimal initial opening angles are 45° and 15° for accuracy and isotropy, respectively. For a Bender configuration, which is constituted by a polar uc(Grace) and an inclined pendulum in this paper, the behaviour of results is dependent on the inclination (prograde vs. retrograde) and on the relative baseline orientation (left or right leading). The simulation for a sun-synchronous orbit shows better results for the left leading case.

  14. Quasi-TEM electromagnetic modes of a plasma waveguide with a nonsimply connected cross section in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartashov, I. N., E-mail: igorkartashov@mail.ru; Kuzelev, M. V., E-mail: kuzelev@mail.ru [Moscow State University, Physics Department (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Electromagnetic modes of a plasma waveguide with a nonsimply connected cross section in an external magnetic field are investigated. The existence of quasi-TEM modes in a finite-strength magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that, in the limits of infinitely strong and zero magnetic fields, this mode transforms into a true TEM mode. The possibility of excitation of such modes by an electron beam in the regime of the anomalous Doppler effect is analyzed.

  15. Canonical quantization of the D=2n dimensional relativistic spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriyn, G V

    1995-01-01

    The pseudoclassical hamiltonian and action of the $D=2n$ dimensional Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic moment interacting with the external electromagnetic field is found. The Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation of motion for the Pauli-Lubanski vector is deduced. The canonical quantization of $D=2n$ dimensional Dirac spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field is carried out in the gauge which allows to describe simultaneously particles and antiparticles (massive and massless) already at the classical level. Pseudoclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to obtain canonical (Newton-Wigner) coordinates and in terms of this variables the theory is quantized. The connection of this quantization with the deGroot and Suttorp's description of Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field is discussed.

  16. External electric field effect on exciton binding energy in InGaAsP/InP cylindrical quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hailong, E-mail: hlwang@mail.qfnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Engineering, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Wang, Wenjuan [College of Physics and Engineering, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Gong, Qian; Wang, Shumin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Exciton binding energies in InGaAsP/InP cylindrical quantum wires are calculated through variational method under the framework of effective-mass envelope-function approximation. It is shown that the variation of exciton binding energy is highly dependent on radius of the wire, material composition and external electric field. Exciton binding energy is a non-monotonic function of wire radius. It increases until it reaches a maximum, and then decreases as the wire radius decreases. With the increase of In composition, the wire radius need increase to reach the maximum value of exciton binding energy. It is also found that the external electric field has little effect on exciton binding energy. However, the excitonic effect will be destroyed when external electric field is large enough. In addition, the Stark shift of exciton binding energy is also calculated.

  17. Colloidal dispersions in external fields: from equilibrium to non-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, Hartmut

    2010-03-01

    Dispersions of colloidal particles are excellent model systems of classical statistical mechanics in order to understand the principles of self-organization processes. Using an external field (e.g. electric or magnetic field) the effective interaction between the colloidal particles can be tailored and the system can be brought into non-equilibrium in a controlled way. Glass formation after an ultrafast quench in a two-dimensional superparamagnetic binary colloidal mixture [1,2] will be discussed as well as lane [3,4,5,6,7] and band [8] formation in mixtures of charged suspensions and dusty plasmas driven by an electric field. [4pt] References:[0pt] [1] L. Assoud, F. Ebert, P. Keim, R. Messina, G. Maret, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Letters 102, 238301 (2009). [0pt] [2] L. Assoud, F. Ebert, P. Keim, R. Messina, G. Maret, H. Lowen, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 21, 464114 (2009). [0pt] [3] J. Dzubiella, G. P. Hoffmann, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (1-8) (2002). [0pt] [4] M. E. Leunissen, C. G. Christova, A. P. Hynninen, C. P. Royall, A. I. Campbell, A. Imhof, M. Dijkstra, R. van Roij, A. van Blaaderen, Nature 437, 235 (2005). [0pt] [5] M. Rex, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 051402 (2007). [0pt] [6] M. Rex, C. P. Royall, A. van Blaaderen, H. Lowen, Lane formation in driven colloidal mixtures: is it continuous or discontinuous?, http://arxiv.org/abs/0812.0908 [0pt] [7] K. R. Sutterlin, A. Wysocki, A. V. Ivlev, C. Rath, H. M. Thomas, M. Rubin-Zuzic, W. J. Goedheer, V. E. Fortov, A. M. Lipaev, V. I. Molotkov, O. F. Petrov, G. E. Morfill, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Letters 102, 085003 (2009). [0pt] [8] A. Wysocki, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 79, 041408 (2009).

  18. Improved model predictive control of resistive wall modes by error field estimator in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.

    2016-12-01

    Many implementations of a model-based approach for toroidal plasma have shown better control performance compared to the conventional type of feedback controller. One prerequisite of model-based control is the availability of a control oriented model. This model can be obtained empirically through a systematic procedure called system identification. Such a model is used in this work to design a model predictive controller to stabilize multiple resistive wall modes in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. Model predictive control is an advanced control method that can optimize the future behaviour of a system. Furthermore, this paper will discuss an additional use of the empirical model which is to estimate the error field in EXTRAP T2R. Two potential methods are discussed that can estimate the error field. The error field estimator is then combined with the model predictive control and yields better radial magnetic field suppression.

  19. A DFT study on the elastic and plastic properties of MoS2 nanosheet subjected to external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Shahnazari, A.; Malakpour, S.; Faghihnasiri, M.; Sahmani, S.

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) may be synthesized in a large variety of forms such as particles, monolayer and multilayers nanosheets/nanotubes, ropes and ribbons. Due to such diversity, several applications can be found for MoS2. In this paper, on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew- Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation, the elastic properties including Young's and bulk moduli together with plastic properties of MoS2 nanosheet under external electric field with magnitudes within the range of 0 V/ang-1.5 V/ang are determined. It is demonstrated that up to the magnitude of 1 V/ang, the external electric field has a negligible influence on the bulk modulus of MoS2 nanosheet. However, by applying an external electric field equal to 1.3 V/ang, a significant increase in the value of bulk modulus occurs. Additionally, by applying an external electric field equal to 1.5 V/ang, the bulk modulus decreases suddenly, showing the considerable influence of high external electric field on the bulk modulus of MoS2 nanosheet. Also, it is observed that the first and second critical strains of the MoS2 nanosheet subjected to biaxial strain are smaller than those of the MoS2 nanosheet under uniaxial strain. Furthermore, it is revealed that for the both uniaxial and biaxial loading cases, by increasing the magnitude of external electric field, the stability of MoS2 nanosheet decreases.

  20. The retarded energy shift and pair polarizabilities of interacting atoms in an external field. Application of resummed field-theoretical perturbation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction energy of two atoms in the presence of an external electrostatic field is evaluated up to sixth order with the help of covariant field-theoretical perturbation theory. The divergent Feynman diagrams entering the calculation are resummed according to a systematic procedure that the au

  1. Orientational instabilities in nematic liquid crystals with weak anchoring under combined action of steady flow and external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasibullayev, I Sh; Tarasov, O S; Krekhov, A P; Kramer, L

    2005-11-01

    We study the homogeneous and the spatially periodic instabilities in a nematic liquid crystal layer subjected to steady plane Couette or Poiseuille flow. The initial director orientation is perpendicular to the flow plane. Weak anchoring at the confining plates and the influence of the external electric and/or magnetic field are taken into account. Approximate expressions for the critical shear rate are presented and compared with semianalytical solutions in case of Couette flow and numerical solutions of the full set of nematodynamic equations for Poiseuille flow. In particular the dependence of the type of instability and the threshold on the azimuthal and the polar anchoring strength and external fields is analyzed.

  2. Addressing Common Student Technical Errors in Field Data Collection: An Analysis of a Citizen-Science Monitoring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Philippoff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific value of citizen-science programs is limited when the data gathered are inconsistent, erroneous, or otherwise unusable. Long-term monitoring studies, such as Our Project In Hawai‘i's Intertidal (OPIHI, have clear and consistent procedures and are thus a good model for evaluating the quality of participant data. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinds of errors made by student researchers during OPIHI data collection and factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of these errors. Twenty-four different types of errors were grouped into four broad error categories: missing data, sloppiness, methodological errors, and misidentification errors. “Sloppiness” was the most prevalent error type. Error rates decreased with field trip experience and student age. We suggest strategies to reduce data collection errors applicable to many types of citizen-science projects including emphasizing neat data collection, explicitly addressing and discussing the problems of falsifying data, emphasizing the importance of using standard scientific vocabulary, and giving participants multiple opportunities to practice to build their data collection techniques and skills.

  3. Study of deformation of droplet in external force field by using liquid-gas model of lattice-gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The deformation of the droplet by the external force which is assumed to be gravity is studied by using the liquid-gas model of lattice-gas. Two types of liquid-gas models, one is the minimal model and the other is the maximal model, which are distinguished from each other by the added long-range interactions are used for the simulation of the droplet deformation. The difference of the droplet deformation between the maximal model and the minimal model was observed. While the droplet of the minimal model elongates in the direction of the external force, the droplet of the maximal model elongates in the perpendicular direction to the external force. Therefore the droplet deformation in the external force field of the maximal model is more similar to the droplet deformation which is observed in experiments than that of the minimal model. (author)

  4. Critical Current Test of Liquid Hydrogen Cooled HTC Superconductors under External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    High-Tc (HTC) superconductors including MgB2 will show excellent properties under temperature of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2:20K), which has large latent heat and low viscosity coefficient. In order to design and fabricate the LH2 cooled superconducting energy devices, we must clear the cooling property of LH2 for superconductors, the cooling system and safety design of LH2 cooled superconducting devices and electro-magnetic property evaluation of superconductors (BSCCO, REBCO and MgB2) and their magnets cooled by LH2. As the first step of the study, an experimental setup which can be used for investigating heat transfer characteristics of LH2 in a pool and also in forced flow (circulation loop with a pump), and also for evaluation of electro-magnetic properties of LH2 cooled superconductors under external magnetic field (up to 7 T). In this paper, we will show a short sketch of the experimental set-up, practical experiences in safety operation of liquid hydrogen cooling system and example test results of critical current evaluation of HTC superconductors cooled by LH2.

  5. The 1-loop self-energy of an electron in a strong external magnetic field revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machet, B.

    2016-05-01

    I calculate the 1-loop self-energy of the lowest Landau level of an electron of mass m in a strong, constant and uniform external magnetic field B, beyond its always used truncation at (ln L)2, L = |e|B m2. This is achieved by evaluating the integral deduced in 1953 by Demeur and incompletely calculated in 1969 by Jancovici, which I recover from Schwinger’s techniques of calculation. It yields δm ≃ αm 4π ln L - γE -3 22 -9 4 + π β-1 + π2 6 + πΓ[1-β] Lβ-1 + 1 L π 2-β - 5 + 𝒪 1 L≥2 with β ≃ 1.175 for 75 ≤ L ≤ 10, 000. The (ln L)2 truncation exceeds the precise estimate by 45% at L = 100 and by more at lower values of L, due to neglecting, among others, the single logarithmic contribution. This is doubly unjustified because it is large and because it is needed to fulfill appropriate renormalization conditions. Technically challenging improvements look therefore necessary, for example, when resumming higher loops and incorporating the effects of large B on the photonic vacuum polarization, like investigated in recent years.

  6. Thermal quantum and classical correlations in two qubit XX model in a nonuniform external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Ali Saif M; Joag, Pramod S

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how thermal quantum discord $(QD)$ and classical correlations $(CC)$ of a two qubit one-dimensional XX Heisenberg chain in thermal equilibrium depend on temperature of the bath as well as on nonuniform external magnetic fields applied to two qubits and varied separately. We show that the behaviour of $QD$ differs in many unexpected ways from thermal entanglement $(EN)$. For the nonuniform case, $(B_1= - B_2)$ we find that $QD$ and $CC$ are equal for all values of $(B_1=-B_2)$ and for different temperatures. We show that, in this case, the thermal states of the system belong to a class of mixed states and satisfy certain conditions under which $QD$ and $CC$ are equal. The specification of this class and the corresponding conditions is completely general and apply to any quantum system in a state in this class and satisfying these conditions. We further find the relative contributions of $QD$ and $CC$ can be controlled easily by changing the relative magnitudes of $B_1$ and $B_2$.

  7. Message survival and decision dynamics in a class of reactive complex systems subject to external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lucatero, C.; Schaum, A.; Alarcon Ramos, L.; Bernal-Jaquez, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the dynamics of decisions in complex networks subject to external fields are studied within a Markov process framework using nonlinear dynamical systems theory. A mathematical discrete-time model is derived using a set of basic assumptions regarding the convincement mechanisms associated with two competing opinions. The model is analyzed with respect to the multiplicity of critical points and the stability of extinction states. Sufficient conditions for extinction are derived in terms of the convincement probabilities and the maximum eigenvalues of the associated connectivity matrices. The influences of exogenous (e.g., mass media-based) effects on decision behavior are analyzed qualitatively. The current analysis predicts: (i) the presence of fixed-point multiplicity (with a maximum number of four different fixed points), multi-stability, and sensitivity with respect to the process parameters; and (ii) the bounded but significant impact of exogenous perturbations on the decision behavior. These predictions were verified using a set of numerical simulations based on a scale-free network topology.

  8. Magnetization switching in ferromagnets by adsorbed chiral molecules without current or external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira; Radko, Anna; Vankayala, Kiran; Capua, Eyal; Capua, Amir; Yang, See-Hun; Baczewski, Lech Tomasz; Parkin, Stuart Stephen Papworth; Naaman, Ron; Paltiel, Yossi

    2017-01-01

    Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 106 A·cm−2, or about 1 × 1025 electrons s−1 cm−2. This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance. Here we demonstrate magnetization switching of ferromagnetic thin layers that is induced solely by adsorption of chiral molecules. In this case, about 1013 electrons per cm2 are sufficient to induce magnetization reversal. The direction of the magnetization depends on the handedness of the adsorbed chiral molecules. Local magnetization switching is achieved by adsorbing a chiral self-assembled molecular monolayer on a gold-coated ferromagnetic layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results present a simple low-power magnetization mechanism when operating at ambient conditions. PMID:28230054

  9. Multi-bump solutions in a neural field model with external inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flora; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Bicho, Estela

    2016-07-01

    We study the conditions for the formation of multiple regions of high activity or "bumps" in a one-dimensional, homogeneous neural field with localized inputs. Stable multi-bump solutions of the integro-differential equation have been proposed as a model of a neural population representation of remembered external stimuli. We apply a class of oscillatory coupling functions and first derive criteria to the input width and distance, which relate to the synaptic couplings that guarantee the existence and stability of one and two regions of high activity. These input-induced patterns are attracted by the corresponding stable one-bump and two-bump solutions when the input is removed. We then extend our analytical and numerical investigation to N-bump solutions showing that the constraints on the input shape derived for the two-bump case can be exploited to generate a memory of N > 2 localized inputs. We discuss the pattern formation process when either the conditions on the input shape are violated or when the spatial ranges of the excitatory and inhibitory connections are changed. An important aspect for applications is that the theoretical findings allow us to determine for a given coupling function the maximum number of localized inputs that can be stored in a given finite interval.

  10. Heterogeneous Memorized Continuous Time Random Walks in an External Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Ji; Lv, Long-Jin; Qiu, Wei-Yuan; Ren, Fu-Yao

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study the anomalous diffusion of a particle in an external force field whose motion is governed by nonrenewal continuous time random walks with correlated memorized waiting times, which involves Reimann-Liouville fractional derivative or Reimann-Liouville fractional integral. We show that the mean squared displacement of the test particle which is dependent on its location of the form (El-Wakil and Zahran, Chaos Solitons Fractals, 12, 1929-1935, 2001) where is the anomalous exponent, the diffusion exponent is dependent on the model parameters. We obtain the Fokker-Planck-type dynamic equations, and their stationary solutions are of the Boltzmann-Gibbs form. These processes obey a generalized Einstein-Stokes-Smoluchowski relation and the second Einstein relation. We observe that the asymptotic behavior of waiting times and subordinations are of stretched Gaussian distributions. We also discuss the time averaged in the case of an harmonic potential, and show that the process exhibits aging and ergodicity breaking.

  11. The 1-loop self-energy of an electron in a strong external magnetic field revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Machet, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    I revisit the 1-loop self-energy of an electron in a strong, constant and uniform external magnetic field B. First, I show, after Tsai (1974), how, for an electron in the lowest Landau level, Schwinger's techniques, as explained by Dittrich and Reuter (1985) lead to the same integral deduced by Demeur (1953) and used later by Jancovici (1969). Then, I calculate the Demeur-Jancovici integral in the range $75 \\leq L\\equiv\\frac{|e|B}{m^2} \\leq 10\\,000$, which yields $\\delta m \\simeq \\frac{\\alpha m}{4\\pi} \\left[\\left(\\ln L-\\gamma_E-\\frac32\\right)^2 -\\frac94 +\\frac{\\pi}{\\beta-1} +\\frac{\\pi^2}{6} +\\frac{\\pi\\;\\Gamma[1-\\beta]}{L^{\\beta-1}} +\\frac{1}{L}\\left(\\frac{\\pi}{2-\\beta}-5\\right) +{\\cal O}(\\frac{1}{L^{\\geq 2}})\\right],\\ \\beta \\simeq 1.175$, close to Jancovici's last estimate $\\delta m \\simeq \\frac{\\alpha m}{4\\pi}\\left[\\left(\\ln 2L-\\gamma_E-\\frac32\\right)^2 +A+\\ldots\\right]$ with $A\\simeq 3.5$ (previously undetermined). The term proportional to $(\\ln\\frac{|e|B}{m^2})^2$ can never be considered to be leading and ...

  12. Magnetization switching in ferromagnets by adsorbed chiral molecules without current or external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira; Radko, Anna; Vankayala, Kiran; Capua, Eyal; Capua, Amir; Yang, See-Hun; Baczewski, Lech Tomasz; Parkin, Stuart Stephen Papworth; Naaman, Ron; Paltiel, Yossi

    2017-02-23

    Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 10(6) A·cm(-2), or about 1 × 10(25) electrons s(-1) cm(-2). This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance. Here we demonstrate magnetization switching of ferromagnetic thin layers that is induced solely by adsorption of chiral molecules. In this case, about 10(13) electrons per cm(2) are sufficient to induce magnetization reversal. The direction of the magnetization depends on the handedness of the adsorbed chiral molecules. Local magnetization switching is achieved by adsorbing a chiral self-assembled molecular monolayer on a gold-coated ferromagnetic layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results present a simple low-power magnetization mechanism when operating at ambient conditions.

  13. About the Origin of the Division between Internal and External Symmetries in Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kober, Martin

    2009-01-01

    It is made the attempt to explain why there exists a division between internal symmetries referring to quantum numbers and external symmetries referring to space-time within the description of relativistic quantum field theories. It is hold the attitude that the symmetries of quantum theory are the origin of both sorts of symmetries in nature. Since all quantum states can be represented as a tensor product of two dimensional quantum objects, called ur objects, which can be interpreted as quantum bits of information, described by spinors reflecting already the symmetry properties of space-time, it seems to be possible to justify such an attitude. According to this, space-time symmetries can be considered as a consequence of a representation of quantum states by quantum bits. Internal symmetries are assumed to refer to relations of such fundamental objects, which are contained within the state of one single particle, with respect to each other. In this sense the existence of space-time symmetries, the existence...

  14. External mechanical work versus oxidative energy consumption ratio during a basketball field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafulli, A; Melis, F; Tocco, F; Laconi, P; Lai, C; Concu, A

    2002-12-01

    A field test consisting of 5 continuous runs at the maximum speed possible, playing the ball, starting from the centre line to the basket with a final shot, was studied in order to obtain an index of mechanical work efficiency in basketball players (micro-index=Jmec/Joxy) and evaluate the correlation between micro-index and velocity, acceleration, mechanical power and lactacid anaerobic capacity, respectively. Eight male basketball players were studied; Jmec was the external mechanical work output obtained by means of a video image analysis software which gave the potential and the kinetic translational energies of athletes running and jumping and their velocity, acceleration and mechanical power. By means of a telemetric device (Kosmed K4), for measuring O2 consumption ( VO2), we obtained oxidative work (Joxy). By using this device we also assessed the excess of CO2, which was considered an index of lactacid anaerobic capacity. Non-parametric Spearman statistics revealed a significant correlation between mu index and mean velocity (ppower (ppower and endurance velocity.

  15. Anomalous behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, R; Riera R; Marin, J. L. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Leon, H. [Instituto Superior Jose Antonio Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-10-01

    An anomalous diamagnetic behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field (perpendicular to the confining plane) is discussed in this letter. Although this finding is consistent with the pioneering work of Robnik, it has not been previously reported. When this effect occurs, the ratio between the typical length of spatial and magnetic confinement is an integer number. This property leads also to a quantization of the magnetic flux across the confining circle. The possible consequences of the peculiar behavior of the electron within such a structure are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia una posible anomalia en las propiedades diamagneticas de un electron bidimensional confinado en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perpendicular al plano de confinamiento. Aunque los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el trabajo pionero de Robnik, no han sido reportados anteriormente, a pesar de sus posibles aplicaciones, ya que cuando ocurre, el cociente entre la longitud magnetica y el tamano de la region de confinamiento es un numero entero, propiedad que establece una cuantizacion del flujo magnetico que atraviesa el circulo confinante. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias del comportamiento peculiar del electron en este tipo de estructura.

  16. Tuning band gaps of BN nanosheets and nanoribbons via interfacial dihalogen bonding and external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Bao, Jie; Li, Yafei; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Zhongfang

    2014-08-07

    Density functional theory computations with dispersion corrections (DFT-D) were performed to investigate the dihalogen interactions and their effect on the electronic band structures of halogenated (fluorinated and chlorinated) BN bilayers and aligned halogen-passivated zigzag BN nanoribbons (BNNRs). Our results reveal the presence of considerable homo-halogen (FF and ClCl) interactions in bilayer fluoro (chloro)-BN sheets and the aligned F (Cl)-ZBNNRs, as well as substantial hetero-halogen (FCl) interactions in hybrid fluoro-BN/chloro-BN bilayer and F-Cl-ZBNNRs. The existence of interfacial dihalogen interactions leads to significant band-gap modifications for the studied BN nanosystems. Compared with the individual fluoro (chloro)-BN monolayers or pristine BNNRs, the gap reduction in bilayer fluoro-BN (B-FF-N array), hybrid fluoro-BN/chloro-BN bilayer (N-FCl-N array), aligned Cl-ZBNNRs (B-ClCl-N alignment), and hybrid F-Cl-ZBNNRs (B-FCl-N alignment) is mainly due to interfacial polarizations, while the gap narrowing in bilayer chloro-BN (N-ClCl-N array) is ascribed to the interfacial nearly-free-electron states. Moreover, the binding strengths and electronic properties of the interactive BN nanosheets and nanoribbons can be controlled by applying an external electric field, and extensive modulation from large-gap to medium-gap semiconductors, or even metals can be realized by adjusting the direction and strength of the applied electric field. This interesting strategy for band gap control based on weak interactions offers unique opportunities for developing BN nanoscale electronic devices.

  17. Reduction of Truncation Errors in Planar Near-Field Aperture Antenna Measurements Using the Gerchberg-Papoulis Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martini, Enrica; Breinbjerg, Olav; Maci, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective procedure for the reduction of truncation errors in planar near-field measurements of aperture antennas is presented. The procedure relies on the consideration that, due to the scan plane truncation, the calculated plane wave spectrum of the field radiated by the antenna is...

  18. Local measurement of error field using naturally rotating tearing mode dynamics in EXTRAP T2R

    CERN Document Server

    Sweeney, R M; Brunsell, P; Fridström, R; Volpe, F A

    2016-01-01

    An error field (EF) detection technique using the amplitude modulation of a naturally rotating tearing mode (TM) is developed and validated in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. The technique was used to identify intrinsic EFs of $m/n = 1/-12$, where $m$ and $n$ are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. The effect of the EF and of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the TM, in particular on amplitude modulation, is modeled with a first-order solution of the Modified Rutherford Equation. In the experiment, the TM amplitude is measured as a function of the toroidal angle as the TM rotates rapidly in the presence of an unknown EF and a known, deliberately applied RMP. The RMP amplitude is fixed while the toroidal phase is varied from one discharge to the other, completing a full toroidal scan. Using three such scans with different RMP amplitudes, the EF amplitude and phase are inferred from the phases at which the TM amplitude maximizes. The estimated EF amplitude is consistent with other estimates (e....

  19. Local measurement of error field using naturally rotating tearing mode dynamics in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, R. M.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P.; Fridström, R.; Volpe, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    An error field (EF) detection technique using the amplitude modulation of a naturally rotating tearing mode (TM) is developed and validated in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. The technique was used to identify intrinsic EFs of m/n  =  1/-12, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. The effect of the EF and of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the TM, in particular on amplitude modulation, is modeled with a first-order solution of the modified Rutherford equation. In the experiment, the TM amplitude is measured as a function of the toroidal angle as the TM rotates rapidly in the presence of an unknown EF and a known, deliberately applied RMP. The RMP amplitude is fixed while the toroidal phase is varied from one discharge to the other, completing a full toroidal scan. Using three such scans with different RMP amplitudes, the EF amplitude and phase are inferred from the phases at which the TM amplitude maximizes. The estimated EF amplitude is consistent with other estimates (e.g. based on the best EF-cancelling RMP, resulting in the fastest TM rotation). A passive variant of this technique is also presented, where no RMPs are applied, and the EF phase is deduced.

  20. Optimal Interpolation Framework for Evaluating the Skill and Error of Climate Field Reconstruction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A.; Smerdon, J. E.; Evans, M. N.

    2010-12-01

    Current-generation climate field reconstruction (CFR) methods, which are used to estimate, e.g., surface temperature values (t) at a predetermined grid from a synchronously available vector of proxy values (p), seek solutions assuming that a linear transform (B) connects deviations of these variables from their respective means tm and pm: t-tm=B(p-p_m). The transform operator B here would be a standard linear regression matrix B=Ctp}C{pp-1 (with Ctp= and Cpp= being cross-covariance and covariance matrices for t and p respectively) if only these matrices could be robustly calculated from available data. As things usually stand, however, instrumental data sets of t available for computing its cross-covariance with p can never provide more than 100-150 annual samples. On the other hand, due to a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of individual proxy records, their assemblies used in global reconstructions normaly include on the order of 100 records or more. Hence various methods for regularizing the inversion of Cpp are used: ridge regression, truncated total least squares, canonical correlation analysis, local regression, etc. Suppose, however, that the target climate field is Gaussian with a known covariance C: t ˜{N}(tm,C), while a proxy vector is obtained from it by a known linear transform H (``proxy forward model''), subject to a Gaussian error: p=Ht+\\varepsilon, \\varepsilon ˜{N}(0,R). In this case, Cpp=HCHT+R and Ctp=CHT, so that under the regression solution given above becomes an optimal interpolation (OI) solution hat {t}=CHT(HCH^T+R)-1p with error covariance Q=C-CHT(HCH^T+R)-1HC. Moreover, the posterior distribution of t conditional on p is [t|p] ˜ {N}(hat {t},Q). If available climate records were very long, the distinction between the sample regression estimate and the better structured OI solution would be immaterial: the covariances estimated from the available sample would produce a result approaching the OI solution. However, under the reality