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Sample records for external egg quality

  1. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS EGGS WITH NORMAL AND VITREOUS EGGSHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reis Vilela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal and external quality of eggs classified as eggs with normal eggshell and eggs with vitreous eggshell, produced by hens at three different ages. Forty-five eggs of each eggshell type, normal and vitreous, were sampled at the ages of 30, 50, and 70 weeks. The weight of the egg, in both types of eggshell, increased with the advancing age of the hen. Higher concentration of calcium was found in eggs with normal eggshells comparing to eggs with vitreous eggshells. The eggshell type did not affect phosphorus percentage. The mineral deposition of the eggshell was constant. The skin thickness increased irrespective of the shell along the reproductive life of the chicken and decreased when the bird became older. The percentage of albumen increased, while the percentage of albumen protein and pH decreased throughout the ages. Percentage of egg yolk, humidity, and pH decreased with increase of age of the laying hen, whereas crude protein and lipid increased. Eggs with vitreous eggshell showed eggshell with lower quality compared to those with normal eggshell, without, however, compromising the internal quality of albumen and yolk. Keywords: egg quality; eggshell types; physical analysis.

  2. Egg and sperm quality in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, Julien; Labbé, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Fish egg quality can be defined as the ability of the egg to be fertilized and subsequently develop into a normal embryo. Similarly, sperm quality can be defined as its ability to successfully fertilize an egg and subsequently allow the development of a normal embryo. In the wild or under aquaculture conditions, the quality of fish gametes can be highly variable and is under the influence of a significant number of external factors or broodstock management practices. For these reasons, the topic of gamete quality has received increasing attention. Despite the significant efforts made towards a better understanding of the factors involved in the control of gamete quality, the picture is far from being complete and the control of gamete quality remains an issue in the aquaculture industry. Some of the factors responsible for the observed variability of gamete quality remain largely unknown or poorly understood. In addition very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of egg and sperm quality. In the present review, the molecular and cellular characteristics of fish gametes are presented with a special interest for the mechanisms that could participate in the regulation of gamete quality. Then, after defining egg and sperm quality, and how can it can be accurately estimated or predicted, we provide an overview of the main factors that can impact gamete quality in teleosts.

  3. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3 t

  4. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

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    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  5. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

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    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (Peggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  6. Quality of eggs from different laying hen production systems, from indigenous breeds and specialty eggs.

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    Lordelo, M; Fernandes, E; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P

    2016-11-02

    Consumers are concerned about the quality of commercially available eggs. Eggs used in this study were marketed in Portugal and originated from laying hens raised in cages, barns, free-range, organic eggs, and eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and from native Portuguese breeds. The eggs were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Results indicated that yolk color was lighter in organic eggs and darker in n-3 PUFA enriched eggs. Eggs from caged hens had lower Haugh units in contrast with organic eggs. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while organic eggs had the lowest level of protein in the albumen. As might be expected, eggs enriched in n-3 PUFA had the highest n-3 PUFA content. Choosing an egg by its production system or labeling specificities may not be a guarantee of superior product quality. The layer genotype, age, diet, and the quality of the range also may affect egg properties. Due to a different layer diet, enriched eggs seem to be of superior quality.

  7. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, and egg glutathione peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cuiling; Zhao, Yuxin; Liao, Shengfa F; Chen, Fu; Qin, Shunyi; Wu, Xianshi; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2011-11-09

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium (Se) content, and egg glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Five hundred 58-week-old Rohman laying hens were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 100 each. Each treatment had 5 replicates, and each replicate had 5 cages with 4 hens per cage. The SP was supplemented to a corn-soybean-meal basal diet at 3 different levels that supplied total Se at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg. The basal diet served as a blank control, while the basal diet with supplemental probiotics served as a probiotics control. The results showed that dietary SP supplementation not only increased (p egg laying, day egg weight, mean egg weight, egg Se content, and egg GPX activity but also decreased (p egg ratio and egg cholesterol content. The egg Se content was gradually increased (p drop of Haugh units (HU) of eggs stored at room temperature. The egg GPX activity had a positive correlation (p egg Se content and a negative correlation (p egg HU drop. These results suggested that Se contents, GPX activity, and HU of eggs were affected by the dietary Se level, whereas the egg-laying performance and egg cholesterol content were affected by the dietary probiotics. It was concluded that this SP is an effective feed additive that combines the organic Se benefit for hen and human health with the probiotics benefit for laying hen production performance. It was also suggested that the eggs from hens fed this SP can serve as a nutraceutical food with high Se and low cholesterol contents for both healthy people and patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, or cardiovascular disease.

  8. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

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    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P quality is warranted. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may

  10. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

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    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  11. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (Peggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  12. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  13. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

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    Manijeh Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.

  14. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

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    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  15. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  16. A general solution for optimal egg size during external fertilization, extended scope for intermediate optimal egg size and the introduction of Don Ottavio 'tango'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, PC; Honkoop, PJC; Drent, J; van der Meer, J

    2004-01-01

    Egg sizes of marine invertebrates vary greatly, both within and between species. Among the proposed causes of this are a trade-off between egg size, egg number and survival probability of offspring, and a selection pressure exerted by sperm limitation during external fertilization. Although larger e

  17. Thoughts on Internal and External Quality Assurance

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    Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance of higher education is made up of two parts: internal quality assurance (IQA) and external quality assurance (EQA). Both belong to a union of the coexistence and balance of yin and yang. But in reality there exists a paradox of "confusion of quality assurance (QA) subject consciousness, singularity of social QA and lack of QA…

  18. Thoughts on Internal and External Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance of higher education is made up of two parts: internal quality assurance (IQA) and external quality assurance (EQA). Both belong to a union of the coexistence and balance of yin and yang. But in reality there exists a paradox of "confusion of quality assurance (QA) subject consciousness, singularity of social QA and lack of QA…

  19. Internal versus External Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Roelande H.; Dijkstra, Nynke J.; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of research into quality management in Dutch elementary schools using theories of school accountability and school improvement as fundamentals. The study is based on data gathered from almost 1000 school leaders. It attempts to determine whether different types of quality management exist in primary schools.…

  20. Internal versus External Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Roelande H.; Dijkstra, Nynke J.; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of research into quality management in Dutch elementary schools using theories of school accountability and school improvement as fundamentals. The study is based on data gathered from almost 1000 school leaders. It attempts to determine whether different types of quality management exist in primary schools.…

  1. External quality assurance in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, H; Lim, H H; Zakiah, I

    1999-01-01

    An activity supportive of the MOH QA Programme, the National EQAS for clinical chemistry monitors for analytical performance in core routine biochemical testing by the pathology laboratories, with unsatisfactory performance scores serving to alert against deficiencies or problems and the scores in subsequent challenges providing the feedback of effectiveness of remedial actions taken. While unacceptable individual analyte performance score (variance index score, VIS) indicated problems in instruments, reagent and calibrators, or the use of inherently poorer methods, repeated occurrence of unsatisfactory OMRVIS was traceable to generally poor laboratory management of usually inadequately-equipment small laboratories. The outcome has been one of slow but gradual improvement in the overall performance of participating laboratories, with a move towards methods upgrading and standardization to achieve greater concordance of results. Presently, the programme is limited to 61 government and 4 private hospital laboratories in the country for 12 commonly assayed clinical biochemistry analytes. It is hoped that the NEQAS could be extended to the other private laboratories and that of academic institutions. However, this is dependent to a large extent on the manpower and financial support obtainable by the organizing body of the programme in the future. Belk and Sunderman, 1947 demonstrated that laboratories participating in an quality assessment scheme could rapidly and dramatically improve their analytical performance. In some countries, participation has become mandatory, and acceptable performance is a requirement in laboratory accreditation. The need and value of the NEQAP is, therefore, evident. While there may be limitations in the national programme. efforts are being made at improving the programme within the means and resources of the organising body. The goals of the NEQAP are not just to monitor performance but also to educate. On this, matters related to and

  2. Laying performances and egg quality of local barred hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... Key words: egg quality, laying performances, local barred hens. ... nutritional status, income of many small-scale ... particular information associated with different ... hens and 1 cock per unit, house in battery cages made of.

  3. Methods for external disinfection of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs prior to use in wound debridement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Adrienne L; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-03-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of the larval stage of flies (i.e., Calliphoridae) to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds. Effective MDT requires aseptic technique to prevent the unintentional introduction of pathogenic bacteria into a wound to be debrided; yet the external surface of Calliphoridae eggs is often heavily contaminated with bacteria. Studies of external disinfection of dipteran eggs have been reported, but neither their efficacy nor effect on egg viability has been adequately assessed. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ten disinfection techniques involving immersion, rinse, or a combination of both in formalin, Lysol, formaldehyde, bleach, ethanol, Sporgon, or benzalkonium chloride. All techniques resulted in significant decreases in culturable, aerobic bacterial load on Lucilia cuprina eggs. For L. cuprina, a 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion was the most efficacious, disinfecting 96.67% of egg samples, while resulting in 31.84% egg mortality. The 5% formalin immersion was least efficacious, disinfecting only 3.33% of L. cuprina egg samples, while resulting in 33.51% egg mortality. A formaldehyde immersion, one of the most commonly used disinfection techniques, was moderately effective, disinfecting 66.7% of egg samples, while resulting in 40.16% egg mortality. For Chrysomya rufifacies and Cochliomyia macellaria egg samples, the 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion disinfected 100% of the samples, and for Lucilia sericata, 80% of egg samples, while resulting in 33.97%, 7.34%, and 36.96% egg mortality, respectively. H2 CO disinfected 16.67% of Ch. rufifacies, 26.67% of C. macellaria, and 56.67% of L. sericata egg samples, while resulting in 21.98%, 10.18%, and 32.19% egg mortality, respectively. Due to its high disinfection efficacy and relatively low egg mortality, a 10 minutes 3% Lysol immersion is recommended for sterilizing Calliphoridae eggs prior to rearing of larvae for use in MDT.

  4. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  5. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters.

  6. Efeitos da relação metionina + cistina: lisina sobre os desempenhos produtivo e econômico e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos antes e após 28 dias de armazenamento Effects of methionine + cystine: lysine ratio on the productive and economic performance and internal and external egg quality, before and 28 days after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jordão Filho

    2006-08-01

    .75% of total Lys; T4 = 0.86 Met+Cys: total Lys ratio or 0.70% of Met+Cys and 0.81% of total Lys. The performance variables and economical analysis were evaluated from 44 to 56 weeks old. At the end of trial, ten eggs per treatment were collected ad stored during 28 days for evaluation of internal/external egg quality before and after storage. With the exception of egg mass, no treatment effect on feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg:mass ratio and egg:dozen ratio and egg shell specific quality was observed. The Met+Cys:Lys ratio of 0.76 or the estimate of 0.70% of total Met+Cys and 0.92% of total Lys can be recommended for the feeding of semiheavily laying hens. It was concluded that the storage affect internal egg quality.

  7. Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually. The experimental treatments were: i L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05. The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05. The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05. The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05. Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.

  8. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  9. HRD & Quality: The Chicken or the Egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferketish, B. Jean; Hayden, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management is not a fad. Human resource development must be aligned with the culture of continuous improvement to make it work. Changes may be necessary in hiring, promotion, and performance appraisal. (SK)

  10. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

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    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  11. Effects of sub-lethal teratogen exposure during larval development on egg laying and egg quality in adult Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Alexis; Marin de Evsikova, Caralina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute high dose exposure to teratogenic chemicals alters the proper development of an embryo leading to infertility, impaired fecundity, and few viable offspring. However, chronic exposure to sub-toxic doses of teratogens during early development may also have long-term impacts on egg quality and embryo viability. Methods: To test the hypothesis that low dose exposure during early development can impact long-term reproductive health, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae were exposed to 10 teratogens during larval development, and subsequently were examined for the pattern of egg-laying and egg quality (hatched larvae and embryo viability) as gravid adults.  After the exposure, adult gravid worms were transferred to untreated plates and the numbers of eggs laid were recorded every 3 hours, and the day following exposure the numbers of hatched larvae were counted. Re sults: While fecundity and fertility were typically impaired by teratogens, unexpectedly, many teratogens initially increased egg-laying at the earliest interval compared to control but not at later intervals. However, egg quality, as assessed by embryo viability, remained the same because many of the eggs (teratogens during early larval development have subtle, long-term effects on egg laying and egg quality. PMID:28163903

  12. Effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin deposition in the whole egg of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin concentrations in the eggs of commercial laying hens. A total of 1,800 25-week-old Lohman pink-shell hens were randomly assigned to four dietary vitamin treatments as follows: NRC(1994 level, NRC (1994 level with Hy.D® (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Local level (current average industry level in China and OVN® level (optimum vitamin nutrition level, with 10 replicates per treatment and 45 layers per replicate. Hens were housed in commercial laying cages with three birds per cage and given ad libitum access to feed. Results showed the hens that received the fortified vitamin levels in the OVN® treatment had a significantly (p<0.05 lower number of cracked (.47% and dirty eggs (.27%, and increased egg deposition of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, 25-OH-D3, vitamin E, vitamin B1, biotin and pantothenate (p<0.05. Treatments had no significant effect on egg-shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh units and eggshell thickness. Hens fed the NRC-Hy.D® combination also experienced a significant decrease in cracked and dirty eggs (.70% and .44%, respectively and an increased deposition of 25-OH-D3 in comparison with the NRC treatment. Results of the present study suggest that that the Local treatment was able to improve egg quality parameters of laying hens, but resulted in more cracked and dirty eggs. OVN® reduced the number of cracked eggs and dirty eggs, and improved the deposition of several vitamins in eggs. With the addition of Hy.D®, eggshell strength and 25-OH-D3 deposition in eggs were also improved, and cracked and dirty egg rates declined.

  13. The Effects of Yucca schidigera Extract Added to Quail Rations on Egg Production, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    GÜÇLÜ, Berrin Kocaoğlu

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of rations containing 0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm Yucca schidigera extract on egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg quality and some blood parameters of quail. Two hundred and forty, eight-week-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were divided into one control group and three treatment groups of similar mean weight and egg production levels, comprising 60 quail each. A basal diet containing 18% crude protein and 2800 kcal/kg ...

  14. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

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    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  15. Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting quality and production traits in egg layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiskula-Haavisto, M.; Honkatukia, M.; Vilkki, J.; Koning, de D.J.; Schulman, N.F.; Maki-Tanila, A.

    2002-01-01

    A mapping population segregating for egg quality traits was created by a line cross between two egg layer lines and screened by a genome scan. The F2 generation consisted of 307 hens, which were scored for egg quality and production traits. The mapping population was genotyped for 99 microsatellite

  16. External quality control for embryology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Jose Antonio; Ruiz de Assín, Rafael; Gonzalvo, Maria Carmen; Clavero, Ana; Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Vergara, Francisco; Martínez, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Participation in external quality control (EQC) programmes is recommended by various scientific societies. Results from an EQC programme for embryology laboratories are presented. This 5-year programme consisted of the annual delivery of (i) materials to test toxicity and (ii) a DVD/CD-ROM with images of zygotes and embryos on days 2 and 3, on the basis of which the participants were asked to judge the embryo quality and to take a clinical decision. A high degree of agreement was considered achieved when over 75% of the laboratories produced similar classifications. With respect to the materials analysed, the specificity was 68% and the sensitivity was 83%. Concerning embryo classification, the proportion of embryos on which a high degree of agreement was achieved increased during this period from 35% to 55%. No improvement was observed in the degree of agreement on the clinical decision to be taken. Day-3 embryos produced a higher degree of agreement (58%) than did day-2 embryos (32%) (Pembryology laboratories.

  17. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  18. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  19. Inactivation of salmonella in shell eggs by hot water immersion and its effect on quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat resistant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs processed by hot water immersion were determined, and the effects of the processing on egg quality were evaluated. Shell eggs were inoculated with a composite of heat resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)...

  20. Evaluation of quality and nutrient contents of table eggs from different sources in the retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Table egg quality and nutrient contents from four sources in the retail market in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia were evaluated using straight run experimental design and compared with the recommended daily allowance (RDA, 2002/2005 profiles. Egg source had a noticeable effect (P<0.05 on shell weight per unit of surface area, albumen percentage, Haugh unit, yolk percentage, index and colour. Differences in dry matter, protein, and lipid profiles of eggs were significant (P<0.05 among various sources, while variability in egg cholesterol and low density lipoprotein reached 51 and 17.6% (P<0.05, respectively. Egg sources had an effect (P<0.05 on total antioxidant capacity and lipid malonaldehyde. Mineral contents (mg/egg of the whole edible parts of eggs showed a significant difference (P<0.05 among different egg sources in most of the minerals except for potassium. In conclusion, eggs in the retail market had variable quality and nutrition contents that may affect the fulfillment of the RDA for human and may possibly improve the quality of eggs and their nutritional values. Such diversity indicates the need for uniform of production and husbandry practice, the enforcement of quality control regulations based on egg quality and nutrient profiles by the authorities in the market, and the impact this may have on the health of the consumer.

  1. [Identification of special quality eggs with NIR spectroscopy technology based on symbol entropy feature extraction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Hong, Wen-Xue

    2011-11-01

    Fast, nondestructive and accurate identification of special quality eggs is an urgent problem. The present paper proposed a new feature extraction method based on symbol entropy to identify near infrared spectroscopy of special quality eggs. The authors selected normal eggs, free range eggs, selenium-enriched eggs and zinc-enriched eggs as research objects and measured the near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra in the range of 12 000-4 000 cm(-1). Raw spectra were symbolically represented with aggregation approximation algorithm and symbolic entropy was extracted as feature vector. An error-correcting output codes multiclass support vector machine classifier was designed to identify the spectrum. Symbolic entropy feature is robust when parameter changed and the highest recognition rate reaches up to 100%. The results show that the identification method of special quality eggs using near-infrared is feasible and the symbol entropy can be used as a new feature extraction method of near-infrared spectra.

  2. Genetic parameters of egg quality traits on different pedigree layers with special focus on dynamic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M

    2014-10-01

    Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h² = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h² = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h² = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form.

  3. Evaluation of egg quality traits of endangered Nicobari fowl and its crosses under intensive and backyard system of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Choudhuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, egg quality traits of endangered Nicobari fowl and its crosses (Nicorock and Nishibari were evaluated under intensive (deep litter as well as backyard system, in the regions of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Materials and Methods: Fresh eggs (15 of all the three genetic groups of birds were collected randomly from institute farm (intensive system and from farmers’ field. The eggs were collected from adult birds (50 weeks of age 3 times with 5 in number in each time. All the genetic groups of birds were subjected to same husbandry practices. The eggs were subjected to external and internal quality parameters study. Results: The effect of genetic groups on egg weight was significant (p<0.05 for all the groups. Nicorock had significantly higher egg weight (g (56.79±0.77 in comparison to Nicobari (53.20±0.34 and Nishibari (48.98±0.22 under intensive system of management. Under backyard condition, the egg weight (g of Nicorock (48.60±1.04 was significantly higher than Nicobari but not with Nishibari. In general, the egg weight was found less under backyard system than intensive system that might be due to scavenging nature of birds. Egg length, egg width and shape index differed significantly (p<0.05 among the genetic groups. Yolk index of Nicorock was significantly (p<0.05 higher than Nishibari under intensive as well as backyard condition. The shell thickness varied significantly (p<0.05 among different genetic groups. Haugh unit of Nicorock was significantly (p<0.05 lower in comparison to Nicobari and Nishibari under intensive system, but did not vary significantly among genetic groups under backyard condition. Conclusions: The study revealed that there was a significant effect of genetic groups on different egg quality traits; both in intensive system and backyard condition.

  4. EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF LEARNING AS A GUARANTEE OF QUALITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Arribas Estebaranz

    2014-12-01

    Almost all countries and all reports use contemplated, in varying degrees, the always-complementary external evaluation by the teachers-as an essential guarantee of educational quality at different levels of detail curriculum evaluation.

  5. Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjun Leng; Kun-Nan Hsu; Richard EAustic; Xin genLei

    2014-01-01

    Background:This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods:Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5%DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5%or 15%DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results:The 15%DFA diet decreased (P<0.05) feed intake, egg production, and plasma uric acid concentrations as compared with the control diet, but increased (P<0.05) egg albumen weight and height compared with the 7.5%DFA diets. The two levels of DFA produced dose-dependent (P<0.05) changes in three color measures of egg yolk, without affecting four hen plasma biochemical indicators of health. Conclusions:Feeding laying hens with 7.5%DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15%inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization.

  6. Internal quality of eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleoni Ana Cláudia Carraro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of foods can be preserved when they are coated with edible films, since both the loss of moisture and the transport of O2 and CO2 are reduced. The objectives of this work were: to compare weight loss, Haugh units, and albumen pH between fresh eggs and eggs coated with whey protein concentrate (WPC, under six storage periods (3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days, at 25°C. During the entire storage period, regardless of whether the eggs were coated or not, the Haugh unit values and the weight loss decreased, and differences between values from the first to the last period were lower for coated eggs. Albumen pH increased. The Haugh unit values for coated eggs were similar to those found in literature references when the same storage period was considered.

  7. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p production. The CTTAD of nitrogen was increased (linear, p units were increased linearly (p production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production.

  8. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver.

  9. Lupus anticoagulant : case-based external quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Besselaar, A. M. H. P.; Devreese, K. M. J.; de Groot, P. G.; Castel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: A model for presenting case histories with quality assessment material is to be developed for the Dutch external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for blood coagulation testing. The purpose of the present study was to assess the performance of clinical laboratories in casebased EQA using the cas

  10. Impact of commercial housing system and nutrition on egg quality parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen’s nutritional needs and resulting productivit...

  11. Correlations between thermal environment and egg quality of two layer commercial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress limits the productivity of laying hens, as reflected by egg production and egg quality. The present study aimed at showing the correlations between egg quality parameters and environmental variables recorded on the day eggs were laid and on the previous days. Birds were housed in battery cages in a commercial poultry house. Main component analyses were used to verify associations between environmental and production variables, and Pearson's linear correlation tests were used to further investigate those associations. Analyses were carried out separately for to layer strains, Dekalb® White and Hy-Line® w36, and the variables egg weight (g, eggshell weight (g, specific gravity (g/cm³ and eggshell percentage (% were compared with the environmental variables of the same day of the production, and one, two, three, and four days before egg production. Sound intensity measured inside the houses was positively associated with the quality parameters of eggs produced on the next day. Thermal environmental variables affected the egg quality differently in each strain, particularly air temperature, internal roof tile temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity. Ammonia concentration measured inside the houses was lower than 1ppm, and did not affect production performance.

  12. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  13. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  14. 77 FR 21086 - Patents External Quality Survey (formerly Customer Panel Quality Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents External Quality Survey (formerly Customer Panel Quality Survey) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and...@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 0057 Patents External Quality Survey comment'' in the subject line of...

  15. Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality and stocking success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pander, J; Geist, J

    2010-06-01

    The salmonid-egg floating box provides an easy bioindication tool for an assessment of water quality, as demonstrated here for the reintroduction of Europe's largest salmonid species, the huchen Hucho hucho.

  16. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk...... colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/ hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g...... with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange...

  17. Effects of oregano (Oregano Onites on performance, hatchability and egg quality parameters of laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cangir Uyarlar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different inclusion levels of oregano into the diet on daily feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, egg production, hatchability, egg palatability, egg weight, external and internal egg quality, live weight increase, serum cholesterol and yolk cholesterol level in laying quails. A total of 216 laying quails at 42 days of age were divided into 36 cages, 6 birds in each (4 females and 2 males, 6 cages per thesis. The 1st group was left as control (OR0 without any supplementation of oregano. The other five experimental groups were OR10, OR20, OR30, OR40, and OR50 which were fed with the diets supplemented with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/kg of oregano, respectively. The experiment lasted for 63 days until the quails reached 105 days of age. As a result of this study, 50 g/kg oregano supplementation appeared to be the best as respects taste (P<0.002. The inclusion level of 20 g/kg increased fertility (P<0.02 however, above that level fertility was reduced. This peculiarity of oregano may be taken into account by the poultry breeder companies. For the other segments of the poultry industry, the usage of oregano up to 50 g/kg seemed to be appropriate.

  18. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  19. Effects of organic mineral dietary supplementation on production performance and egg quality of white layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIM Fernandes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed at evaluating the effect of organic trace mineral supplementation of commercial layer diets on productive performance and egg quality. One-hundred-ninety-two Hy Line W36 white 69-w-old layers were distributed into a completely randomized design with three treatments, and eight replicates, with eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (R1, and two others experimental diets containing 0.250 ppm (R2 and 0.500 ppm (R3 of an organic source of zinc, manganese, and selenium. Feed intake (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and kg/kg egg, egg weight (g, egg production (%, thin and cracked eggshells (%, specific gravity (g/mL, Haugh Units, total egg solids (%, yolk yield, white and shell yields (%, eggshell thickness, and egg Se content were evaluated Tukey's test analyzed differences among means at 5% of probability using PROC GLM in SAS (2000. Although not significant as compared to the non-supplemented diet, improvements on relative cracked-plus-thin shells were observed with the use of organic mineral blend. The addition of the organic blend to the diet at 0.250 kg/ton resulted in (p<0.05 higher total egg solids. Also, as compared to eggs from control group, fresh and dried yolk yields were higher with the dietary inclusion of the organic mineral blend at 0.250 and 0.500 kg/ton.

  20. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  1. Egg speckling patterns do not advertise offspring quality or influence male provisioning in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Fayet, Annette L; Kilner, Rebecca M; Hinde, Camilla A

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young) to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits.

  2. Effect of Some Egg Quality Traits on Hatching Results in Brown Pure Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the influence of eggshell thickness, albumen height, yolk height and haugh unit on hatching results. A total of 746 eggs, which were obtained and evaluated for egg quality parameters from 100 brown pure line hens of 42 weeks of age, were used. Eggs were collected from each hen for 12 days and individual incubation was carried out. Eggs were grouped based on quality parameters and evaluated accordingly. The findings suggested that hatchability, hatchability of fertile eggs, early, mid and late embryonic mortality did not differ in terms of haugh unit, albumen height, eggshell thickness and yolk height groups. However, early embryonic mortality was found different between the yolk height groups. No relationship was determined among albumen height, haugh unit, eggshell thickness and hatching results. There was no relation between yolk height and hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability, mid and late embryonic mortalities but was a positive correlation with early embryonic mortality. The results of the present study demonstrate that egg quality parameters studied here had no influence on hatching results except that early embryonic mortality increased with the yolk height.

  3. Egg speckling patterns do not advertise offspring quality or influence male provisioning in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell Stoddard

    Full Text Available Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits.

  4. Proteomic analysis of early-stage embryos: implications for egg quality in hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Yair Y; Symonds, Jane E; Kleffmann, Torsten; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Lokman, P Mark

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop biomarkers that may help predict the egg quality of captive hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios) and provide potential avenues for its manipulation, the present study (1) sequenced the proteome of early-stage embryos using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification analysis, and (2) aimed to establish the predictive value of the abundance of identified proteins with regard to egg quality through regression analysis. Egg quality was determined for eight different egg batches by blastomere symmetry scores. In total, 121 proteins were identified and assigned to one of nine major groups according to their function/pathway. A mixed-effects model analysis revealed a decrease in relative protein abundance that correlated with (decreasing) egg quality in one major group (heat-shock proteins). No differences were found in the other protein groups. Linear regression analysis, performed for each identified protein separately, revealed seven proteins that showed a significant decrease in relative abundance with reduced blastomere symmetry: two correlates that have been named in other studies (vitellogenin, heat-shock protein-70) and a further five new candidate proteins (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, elongation factor-2, GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran, iduronate 2-sulfatase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase). Notwithstanding issues associated with multiple statistical testing, we conclude that these proteins, and especially iduronate 2-sulfatase and the generic heat-shock protein group, could serve as biomarkers of egg quality in hapuku.

  5. External control of the Drosophila melanogaster egg to imago development period by specific combinations of 3D low-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We report that the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the Drosophila melanogaster, and the imago longevity, are both controllable by combinations of external 3-dimensional (3D) low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (LFEMFs). Both these periods may be reduced or increased by applying an appropriate configuration of external 3D LFEMFs. We report that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes correlates with the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the respective eggs. We infer that metabolic processes in both eggs and imago are either accelerated (resulting in reduced time periods) or slowed down (resulting in increased time periods). We propose that external 3D LFEMFs induce electric currents in live systems as well as mechanical vibrations on sub-cell, whole-cell and cell-group levels. These external fields induce media polarization due to ionic motion and orientation of electric dipoles that could moderate the observed effects. We found that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes is affected by action of 3D LFEMFs on the respective eggs in the embryonic development period (EDP). We interpret this effect as resulting from changes in the regulation mechanism of metabolic processes in D. melanogaster eggs, inherited by the resulting imagoes. We also tested separate effects of either 3D electric or 3D magnetic fields, which were significantly weaker.

  6. Reconciling Organisational Culture and External Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Dhaya

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture and external quality assurance have both been presented as significant drivers of effectiveness, efficiency and excellence in higher education institutions. However, these assumptions have not been critically examined given the philosophical, conceptual and methodological contestations surrounding both constructs. A…

  7. External quality assessments for microbiologic diagnosis of diphtheria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-12-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Reconciling Organisational Culture and External Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Dhaya

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture and external quality assurance have both been presented as significant drivers of effectiveness, efficiency and excellence in higher education institutions. However, these assumptions have not been critically examined given the philosophical, conceptual and methodological contestations surrounding both constructs. A…

  9. Quality electricity lines of external power systems electric traction DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies that compare and analyze the numerical values of some key indicators quality electricity in the lines of the external power supply system the electric traction DC. As a supplement are additional and fundamental values of energy losses in them.

  10. Higher Education Quality: Perception Differences among Internal and External Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Munirul

    2015-01-01

    Conceptually, education quality of higher education can be determined by evaluation of their stakeholders's satisfaction level. The purpose of this study is to describe how students as external stakeholder and lecturers as internal stakeholder, perceived their satisfaction of learning experience in the university. This study was conducted in…

  11. Stability against temperature and external agents of vesicles composed of archael bolaform lipids and egg PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q; Relini, A; Cassinadri, D; Gambacorta, A; Gliozzi, A

    1995-11-22

    The bolaform lipid PLE extracted from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus and its mixtures with egg phosphatidyl-choline (egg PC) have been used to prepare sonicated vesicles. The leakage of entrapped calcein was continuously monitored by fluorescence dequenching. The half times of leakage have been used to compare vesicle stability under different conditions of temperature, lipid composition and presence of destabilizing agents like Ca2+ ions and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). It has been found that leakage is primarily modulated by the monopolar/bipolar lipid ratio. In particular, the half time of leakage for vesicles formed from a mixture of the polar lipid extract (PLE) and egg PC is characterized by a maximum at about 1:2 molar ratio. The free energy of mixing has been evaluated from pressure-area isotherms on monolayers at the air/water interface. The results indicate a non monotonous behaviour of the excess free energy of mixing as a function of the molar ratio and the occurrence of a minimum at a fixed molar ratio. The possible formation of a complex is discussed and compared with previous calorimetric measurements on similar compounds.

  12. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    principal objective of MBM supplementation to poultry diets is to benefit from MBM's high protein, ... Four hundred and thirty-two 85-week old layer hens of a brown egg layer strain ... Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved the techniques and .... Duncan's multiple range test was carried out to detect the ...

  13. Influence of artificial lighting on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTD Jácome

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the egg production chain produces fresh eggs for the consumer market and for processing. Layers are housed in battery cage systems. Rearing and development farms are separate from egg-production farms. Considering the recent advance of Brazilian chicken egg production, scientific knowledge on management practices are required to disseminate and to consistently apply this knowledge to improve such practices. Artificial lighting is widely used in poultry reproduction, both in the production of hatchable eggs and of commercial eggs. Light is required for the release of hormones responsible for reproduction; however, the best lighting practices to stimulate laying poultry during the reproductive period still need to be determined, with the aim of saving electric energy, and therefore, to dilute production costs and comply with environmental sustainability requirements. This review showed that layers are indeed photostimulated with more than 12 hours of light, independently of the artificial lighting program applied. Results demonstrate that artificial lighting programs influence egg production, but not egg quality parameters. Intermittent lighting programs are good alternatives when layers are housed in open-sided houses, which are typically used in Brazil. Transcranial light reception is the most important route for the stimulation of reproduction in poultry.

  14. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (Pbean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  15. Stepfamily Relationship Quality and Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Todd M; Lippold, Melissa A; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Fosco, Gregory M

    2017-03-07

    The stepfamily literature is replete with between-group analyses by which youth residing in stepfamilies are compared to youth in other family structures across indicators of adjustment and well-being. Few longitudinal studies examine variation in stepfamily functioning to identify factors that promote the positive adjustment of stepchildren over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 191 stepchildren (56% female, mean age = 11.3 years), the current study examines the association between the relationship quality of three central stepfamily dyads (stepparent-child, parent-child, and stepcouple) and children's internalizing and externalizing problems concurrently and over time. Results from path analyses indicate that higher levels of parent-child affective quality are associated with lower levels of children's concurrent internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 1. Higher levels of stepparent-child affective quality are associated with decreases in children's internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 2 (6 months beyond baseline), even after controlling for children's internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 1 and other covariates. The stepcouple relationship was not directly linked to youth outcomes. Our findings provide implications for future research and practice. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  16. Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Ration Containing Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Habiyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the effect of diets containing different levels of coriander seeds on performance and egg quality of Lohmann Brown laying hens. A total of 96 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 43 weeks of age were randomly allocated into 16 experimental units by assigning a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications that kept for 6 weeks. The treatment diets were R0: diet with 0% supplementation of coriander seeds powder (control, R1: diet with supplementation of 1% coriander seeds powder, R2: diet with supplementation of 2% coriander seeds powder, and R3: diet with supplementation of 3% coriander seeds powder. The results showed that supplementation of coriander seeds in diets did not affect egg weight, egg production, and egg mass. Supplementation of coriander seeds 2%-3% significantly (P<0.05 decreased feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. Supplementation of coriander seeds 1%-3% significantly (P<0.05 increased yellowness in yolk color without affecting other quality parameters. It can be concluded that supplementation of coriander seeds at the levels of 2%-3% decreased feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and increased yolk color, however, the supplementation at all levels in diets did not affect egg weight, egg production, and egg mass.

  17. Quality and stability of eggs from laying hens fed with organic minerals and lycopene

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Kleszcz da Cruz; Elis Regina de Moraes Garcia; André Luiz Julien Ferraz; Karina Márcia Ribeiro de Souza; William Britez Feliciano; Rosileide Vilalba Rohod

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using lycopene and organic minerals in diets for laying hens on the egg quality and stability of eggs stored for 30 days under different storage environments. An entirely randomized design was adopted in 2x3x3 factorial scheme (mineral sources x lycopene levels x storage periods) with six replicates of eight hens per experimental unit. The experimental diets were: feed containing inorganic minerals (IM) without added lycopene; IM with added...

  18. Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy Anette Stensgaard, Audrey DunnGalvin, Dorthe Nielsen, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen (Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, ORCA (Odense Research Centre for Anaphylaxis), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark) Aim......: International research shows that Food Allergy has an impact on the quality of life for the affected child, adolescent and even in adulthood – as well for the parents. The aim of this study is to gain more knowledge on quality of life for Danish patients diagnosed with peanut, egg or/and hazelnut allergy...... and for their family members. Methods: The cohort comprises an existing database with 394 Danish children, teenagers and adults diagnosed with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy in accordance with EAACI guidelines. We use the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ). The questionnaires have been...

  19. The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Roderick Nigel [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: nigel.finn@bio.uib.no

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and respiratory biology with an extended section on the xenobiotic toxicology of the early stages. Past and present data reveal that the eggs of salmonids are among the largest shed by any broadcast spawning teleost. Once ovulated, the physicochemical properties of the ovarian fluid provide temporary protection from external perturbations and maintain the eggs in good physiological condition until spawning. Following fertilisation and during early development the major structures protecting the embryo from poor water quality are the vitelline membrane, the enveloping layer and the chorion. The vitelline membrane is one of the least permeable membranes known, while the semi-permeable chorion provides both physical and chemical defense against metals, pathogens, and xenobiotic chemicals. In part these structures explain the lower sensitivity of the eggs to chemical imbalance compared to the larvae, however the lower metabolic rate and the chronology of gene expression and translational control suggest that developmental competence also plays a decisive role. In addition, maternal effect genes provide a defense potential until the mid-blastula transition. The transition between maternal effect genes and zygotic genes is a critical period for the embryo. The perivitelline fluids are an important trap for cations, but are also the major barrier to diffusion of gases and solutes. Acidic environmental pH interferes with acid-base and hydromineral balance but also increases the risk of aluminium and heavy metal intoxication. These risks are ameliorated somewhat by

  20. Quality of shell eggs pasteurized with heat or heat-ozone combination during extended storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J J; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Yousef, A E

    2011-09-01

    The physical quality and functionality of shell eggs, pasteurized with heat or a combination of heat and ozone, were assessed during eight weeks of storage at 4 or 25 °C. Shell eggs were treated as follows: (1) immersion heating that mimics commercial pasteurization processes (egg internal temperature of 56 ± 0.1 °C for 32 min), or (2) a newly developed combination process comprised of heating (56 ± 0.1 °C, internal, for 10 min) followed by gaseous ozone treatment. Eggs were tested for yolk index, Haugh units, albumen pH, albumen turbidity, and percent overrun. Additionally, albumen samples were assayed for lysozyme activity and free sulfhydryl group content, and were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both processed and unprocessed eggs maintained superior quality when stored at 4 °C, as opposed to 25 °C. Pasteurization, regardless of method, led to superior maintenance of Haugh units during storage but also increased albumen opacity and decreased albumen overrun. Detrimental effects on quality markers were more severe in heat-pasteurized eggs than those treated with the ozone-based process. Pasteurization of shell eggs by either process did not affect lysozyme activity or sulfhydryl group content. Changes in protein secondary structure, as indicated by FTIR analysis, suggest that the ozone-based process is less damaging to albumen proteins than is the heat-alone process. In conclusion, heat-ozone pasteurization, by virtue of its less severe heat treatment, yields a safe final product that more closely resembles untreated shell eggs. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  2. Implementation of the External Quality Assessment Program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marcos Kneip; Menezes, Maria Elizabeth; Correa, José Abol

    2017-02-15

    The External Quality Assessment (EQA) in Brazil is performed by the National Health Ministry for diseases that are under supervision of Public Health Department. In addition to the government program, the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analysis and the Brazilian Society of Medical Pathology are allowed to provide their programs under the Supervision of National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) that regulates laboratories to perform EQA programs.

  3. The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

  4. Performance and egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to cyclic heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Vercese

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating the influence of cyclic temperatures on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails an experiment was carried out with 480 birds after egg production peak. Birds were housed in a bioclimatic chamber with automatic temperature control that contained two rooms, one maintained at thermoneutral temperature (21 ºC and the other adjusted for the tested cyclic temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 ºC at a time. Each room had a battery of five floors and ten cages, with a capacity of 24 birds per cage, totaling 240 birds per battery. Birds were fed iso-nutritious and iso-caloric diets. Data obtained under the tested cyclic temperatures were compared with those obtained under thermoneutral temperature. At the end of each experimental period (14 days performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (thermoneutral temperature and tested temperature and ten replicates of 24 birds each. Cyclic increases of 27 ºC and higher in environmental temperature negatively affected bird performance, with reduced feed intake and consequent reductions in egg weight and mass. A cyclic increase of the environmental temperature to 36 ºC reduced the percentage of saleable eggs and egg production.

  5. Professionalism, Profession and Quality Assurance Practitioners in External Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jordan C. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to spark a dialectic discussion on the establishment of a set of professional competencies for quality assurance practitioners who serve in external quality assurance agencies in higher education. Such a need is identified due to the shortage of relevant and sufficient coverage in the quality assurance literature. To…

  6. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  7. Determination of Egg Shell Quality with P Control Charts in Poultry

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    Melis Çelik Güney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Broken or cracked eggs are important factor in determining the quality of the egg shell. Manufacturers are experience great losses because broken or cracked eggs aren’t evaluated. The manufacturers need control charts throughout the production to determine whether process is under control. In this study, broken and cracked eggs which are taken Cukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Poultry Businesses during 52 weeks are determined. P control charts of the data’s are taken in poultry business during 52 weeks is drawn due to determining whether there is under the control. Three methods were used for drawing control charts. In the end of this study, it has been determined to be not under control of the process.

  8. Production performance and egg quality of four strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Cheng, K M; Silversides, F G

    2009-02-01

    Production performance and egg quality were compared between 4 strains of beak-trimmed layers: 3 commercial strains-Lohmann White (LW), H&N White (HN), Lohmann Brown (LB)-and a noncommercial cross between Rhode Island Red (male) and Barred Plymouth Rock (female) in conventional cages and in floor pens. All chicks were reared and 857 pullets were housed at 18 wk of age in their respective environments. Body weight, hen-day egg production, feed consumption and efficiency, and egg quality were measured at wk 20, 30, 40, and 50. In floor pens, the location of eggs was recorded for 4 consecutive days at 4-wk intervals between 20 and 50 wk of age. Eggs from cages, nest-boxes, and the floor were tested for Escherichia coli and coliform contamination at 38 and 42 wk of age. Mortality was recorded during the rearing and laying periods. Housing systems significantly influenced BW and mortality but not feed consumption or feed efficiency. The interaction between environment and strain was significant for hen-day egg production at wk 20 to 30 and for BW at wk 30, 40, and 50. Hens in floor pens had greater BW, egg and yolk weights, and yolk color than those in cages. Commercial hens produced more eggs than the cross hens. Overall, HN hens had the best production performance, whereas cross hens had better egg quality. In floor pens, LW and HN hens laid most of their eggs in nest boxes, whereas LB and cross hens laid half of their eggs on the floor. Eggs from cages had lower E. coli and coliform contamination than those from nest-boxes and the floor, and E. coli contamination was greater for LB eggs than for LW eggs. Significant strain differences were found for the use of nest-boxes, with a high percentage of floor eggs for brown egg strains. This study suggests that genotype x environment interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are proposed.

  9. Effect of dietary organic selenium and zinc on the internal egg quality of quail eggs for different periods and under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Fernandez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal quality of eggs of Japanese quails fed diets supplemented with chelated selenium and zinc. The experiment was carried out for 120 days, and 144 birds were divided in random blocks into four treatments (control; 0.3 ppm Se; 60 ppm Zn and 0.3 ppm Se + 60 ppm Zn. Ten, 14, 18, and 22 weeks after the beginning of lay, eggs were collected and stored under two different temperatures (environmental temperature or refrigeration and for 10, 20, and 30 days. Eggs were analyzed for: Haugh units (HU, albumen height (AH, yolk index (YI, and albumen index (AI. Parameters were only statistically influenced by the interaction between dietary treatment and storage time. It was concluded that the addition of organic Se and Zn influenced internal egg quality when eggs were stored up to 20 days, independently of storage temperature, suggesting that the combined supplementation of organic Se and Zn improve internal egg quality and extend egg shelf life.

  10. Data connectivity: A critical tool for external quality assessment

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    Ben Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care (POC tests have been useful in increasing access to testing and treatment monitoring for HIV. Decentralising testing from laboratories to hundreds of sites around a country presents tremendous challenges in training and quality assurance. In order to address these concerns, companies are now either embedding connectivity in their new POC diagnostic instruments or providing some form of channel for electronic result exchange. These will allow automated key performance and operational metrics from devices in the field to a central database. Setting up connectivity between these POC devices and a central database at the Ministries of Health will allow automated data transmission, creating an opportunity for real- time information on diagnostic instrument performance as well as the competency of the operator through external quality assessment. A pilot programme in Zimbabwe shows that connectivity has significantly improve the turn-around time of external quality assessment result submissions and allow corrective actions to be provided in a timely manner. Furthermore, by linking the data to existing supply chain management software, stock-outs can be minimised. As countries are looking forward to achieving the 90-90-90 targets for HIV, such innovative technologies can automate disease surveillance, improve the quality of testing and strengthen the efficiency of health systems.

  11. Nutritional modulation of health, egg quality and environmental pollution of the layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available World egg production and consumption have been increasing for the past decades. Traditional strategies in poultry nutrition have made vital contributions to this great growth in quantity. However, current global issues should be considered in modern egg production such as growing populations and food security, food safety and quality, limited resources and environmental problems. The development of knowledge of poultry nutrition and modern biotechnology provides novel nutritional approaches to closely fit the requirement of pullets and laying hens, which will consequently decrease the nutrition emissions and maintain the lower cost of feed. Nutrition has also been widely accepted as a strategy to influence health and diseases of laying hens. The maintenance of good health is an important prerequisite for improving productivity and egg quality. In addition, there are many measures and strategies for minimizing the incidence of egg defects and providing a choice of lifestyle to enhance human health. This paper reviews current research progress on developing innovative technologies and strategies to maximize animal health and performance, improve the quality of egg products and minimize pollution caused by poultry production.

  12. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

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    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  13. Egg quality during storage and deposition of minerals in eggs from quails fed diets supplemented with organic selenium, zinc and manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonio Gravena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments with Japanese laying quails were performed aiming to assess the effect of supplementation with minerals in organic form on the egg quality during storage and the deposition of minerals in eggs. The assessments of each experiment were related to one mineral, thus, experiment 1 assessed the supplementation with selenium in 0.35-, 0.70- and 1.05-mg/kg levels of feed; experiment 2, the supplementation with zinc in 50-, 100- and 150-mg/kg levels of feed; and experiment 3, the supplementation of manganese with 60-; 120- and 180-mg/kg levels of feed. All diets were evaluated compared with a control diet without mineral supplementation. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with eight birds per plot and six replicates per treatment. Fifty-five days after the beginning of diets, the yolks of three eggs from each plot were collected for selenium, zinc and manganese quantification, whereas the albumens of three eggs from each parcel were collected for analysis of selenium concentration. Eggs were collected at the last days of the experimental period from each experiment, to be stored at room temperature (28±2 °C and refrigeration (4 °C during different periods (0, 10, 20 and 30 days, except for experiment 3, in which eggs were stored at 0, 10 and 20 days. Percentages of albumen and yolk, yolk index, Haugh unit and moisture loss of eggs were evaluated. The supplementation with selenium is able to maintain the egg yolk index unchanged over the storage periods; however, supplementation with zinc and manganese is not effective to keep the quality of stored eggs. Supplementation with selenium and manganese is effective to increase the concentration of these minerals at 328.66% in the albumen and at 74.47% in the yolk, respectively. The different levels of zinc do not change the egg composition.

  14. Genetic parameters of body weight, egg production, and shell quality traits in the Shan Ma laying duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R L; Chen, H P; Rouvier, R; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2016-11-01

    Three hundred and four female ducks of the Chinese indigenous Shan Ma breed, progeny of 11 sires and 104 dams, were used to study laying traits. Among them, 264 ducks were used to study the egg shell quality traits of eggs laid at 300 days of age. The mean age at first egg was 109 days with an average egg weight of 49.6 ± 3.7 g. Between 210 and 300 days of age, egg weight increased from 65.0 ± 3.9 g to 67.0 ± 4.2 g and the mean of the number of eggs laid up to 300 days was 161 ± 15.0. Egg length was 59.57 ± 3.01 mm and egg width was 45.02 ± 1.98 mm, leading to a shape index of 1.32 ± 0.08. Egg shell thickness was about 0.31 mm whatever the shell region, and the breaking strength was 28.80 ± 8.29 N. The heritability's estimated using restricted maximum likelihood ( REML: ) methodology were high for egg weights (ranging from 0.43 to 0.61), intermediate for the number of eggs laid (ranging from 0.38 to 0.43), and low for the age at first egg (0.13). Heritability's for egg shell quality traits varied from 0.20 for the breaking strength to 0.44 for egg length, with in-between values of 0.28 for shell thickness and 0.34 for the shape index. The number of eggs laid was not genetically correlated with the age at first egg or egg weight, but was correlated with body weight (rg = +0.54 ± 0.23). High positive correlations were found between egg weight and body weight traits, and both of these traits (except egg weight at first egg) were highly and positively correlated with egg length and width. Breaking strength was genetically correlated with egg shell thickness (rg = +0.54 ± 0.19) and the shape index (rg = +0.71 ± 0.23). These results suggest that an efficient selection strategy could be implemented to improve the egg production of the pure Shan Ma duck line.

  15. The effect of foeniculum vulgare essence on production performance, egg quality and reproductive parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Taki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fennel essence on performance, egg quality and ovarian morphology of commercial laying eggs for ten weeks. In this experiment, one hundred and forty 30-wk-old commercial egg laying type Hy-Line (W36 were randomly assigned into 4 treatments with 5 replicates and 8 birds per each. Treatments were a control (0.0% essence and diets containing 200, 400 and 600 ppm fennel essence. Performance parameters include egg weight and egg production was recorded daily and feed intake, FCR and egg quality parameters were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds of each replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered for analysis of ovarian morphology. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Levels of 200 and 400 ppm of fennel essence showed a significant increase in egg weight. Levels of fennel essence had no significant effect on feed intake and FCR but it caused significant increase in yolk color and had significant effect on the properties of egg shell. Levels of essence had no significant effect on the relative weight of the ovary, oviduct and stroma but 200 ppm of fennel essence had significant effect on weight of large yellow follicles. The results showed that the addition of fennel essence improved egg weight, egg shell and yolk color and had a significant effect on the large yellow follicles.

  16. Effect of dietary energy concentration on performance parameters and egg quality of white leghorn laying hens

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    PAP Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out with 1200 23-week-old white Dekalb commercial laying hens to investigate production responses, egg quality, and energy utilization of laying hens fed different dietary energy levels at the beginning of lay. Birds were housed and divided in five groups of 240 birds according to dietary apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn: 2700 kcal/kg; 2775 kcal/kg; 2850 kcal/kg; 2925 kcal/kg; and 3000 kcal/kg, with six replicates of 40 birds each. Birds were fed the experimental diets based on corn and soybean meal for 17 weeks. Diets were iso-nutritive, except for energy level. Increasing AMEn levels had a negative effect on egg production and egg mass (p≤0.05. AMEn levels did not influence body weight, egg weight, or livability (p>0.05. Increasing AMEn levels increased (p≤0.05 feed intake and AMEn conversion ratio and feed conversion ratio. AMEn intake remained constant, independently of dietary AMEn level (p>0.05. There were no differences in albumen height, yolk total solids content, or egg component percentages (p>0.05. Egg specific weight improved with increasing AMEn levels (p≤0.05. Therefore, the energy level of 2700 kcal/kg of feed may be fed to young laying hens.

  17. Effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus Isolated from Tibetan Mushrooms on the Plasma Lipids, Egg Cholesterol Level, Egg Quality and Intestinal Health of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zhong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 strain, isolated from Tibetan mushrooms, on plasma lipids, egg cholesterol level, egg quality, and intestinal health of laying hens were evaluated. In total, 160 Beijing fatty laying hens (43 weeks old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% freeze-dried K. marxianus M3 powder for four weeks. The results showed that yeast supplementation reduced serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels (p<0.01, and increased serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C level (p<0.05. Moreover, regardless of K. marxianus M3 dietary addition level, the cholesterol content of the eggs decreased by more than 26%. When0.3% yeast was supplemented, significant differences were found in the egg weights, shell strength, albumen height, Haugh unit and nutrient content of the eggs (p<0.01. Finally, 0.3% yeast supplementation improved the intestinal flora conditions of the hens by decreasing the Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts (p<0.01 and increasing the Bifidobacterium count (p<0.01. The results in this work demonstrated that yeast culture supplementation to the diets deceased the serum and egg yolk cholesterol, and increased egg quality.

  18. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  19. Role of temperature and hosts (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica egg age on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing temperature and host egg age of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. Maximum parasitism was observed 95.7 and 84.3% at 28 C degree, while minimum parasitism was 61.3 and 39.6% at 32 C degree on S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The most favorable temperature was 28 oC on which maximum parasitism and adult emergence were obtained from S. cereallela eggs. Maximum parasitism was observed 97.4 and 79.4% in 2 h old, while minimum parasitism was 24.6 and 17.3% in 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. Parasitism by T. chilonis decreased with increasing host eggs age. Maximum adult T. chilonis emergence was 98.2% in 2 h old eggs, while minimum emergence was 21.5% on 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela. Adult T. chilonis longevity on the host eggs of different ages of female wasp was non-significantly different to each other except the 2 and 12 h old eggs which were significantly different from rest of the treatments in both hosts' eggs of different ages. Maximum female longevity was 4.0 d on 2 h fresh eggs C. cephalonica, while minimum was 3.0 d on 24-48 h old S. cereallela eggs. The female ratio for different host eggs age was almost non-significant to each other except 2 h old eggs with maximum number of female (64. The results showed that T. chilonis preferred young eggs when offered older eggs, simultaneously.

  20. The quality of eggs (organic and nutraceutical vs. conventional) and their technological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Agnieszka; Deren, Katarzyna; Florkiewicz, Adam; Topolska, Kinga; Juszczak, Leslaw; Cieslik, Ewa

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the quality of commercially available eggs: organic (attested organic farm) - OE, nutraceutical (enriched in n-3 fatty acids) - NE, vs. conventional (cage raising system) - CE and their technological (emulsifying) properties. Their basic chemical composition (i.e., moisture, protein, fat, ash) as well as mineral (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu) contents were assessed, and fatty acid profiles were determined. Next, the suitability of the eggs for mayonnaise production was assessed.The yolk of organic eggs contained the highest protein (17.7 g/100 g), K (134.7 mg/kg), and Cu (0.15 mg/kg) levels. Meanwhile, the yolk of conventional eggs was the most abundant in Mg (14.6 mg/kg) and Fe (9.05 mg/kg), and the nutraceutical ones - in Ca (109.0 mg/kg) as well as Mn (0.26 mg/kg). Albumen of organic eggs contained the highest level of protein (13.0 g/100 g), whereas the nutraceutical ones contained the highest levels of - ash (1.2 g/100 g), K (150.2 mg/kg), Zn (0.11 mg/kg), and Mn (0.04 mg/kg). Nutraceutical eggs contained a higher amount of n-3 and monounsaturated fatty acids but also smaller saturated fatty acids content. This beneficial fatty acids profile is particularly important from the nutritional point of view. Despite the lack of differences in emulsifying properties among the studied eggs, the mayonnaises prepared on the basis of the nutraceutical eggs showed better stability. This attribute is very important for both the producer (during product transport) and the consumer (during dish preparation). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Associations between novel polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR region of the prolactin gene and egg production and quality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to characterize polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR region of the prolactin gene, and determine their association with egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens. The study was conducted on four strains of White Leghorn chickens, namely IWH, IWI, IWK, and layer control. Overall, there were three alleles (designated A, B, and C) and five genotypes, with genotypic frequencies of 0.09, 0.75, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.07 for AA, AB, AC, BB, and BC, respectively. There were significant differences among genotypes for egg production up to 52 and 64 wk of age, with maximal egg yields for genotypes AA and AC (144.5 ± 5.06 and 143.2 ± 4.67 eggs, respectively). Furthermore, there were significant differences among genotypes for egg quality traits, including egg weight and Haugh unit at 40 wk of age, Haugh unit at 52 wk, and yolk color index and Haugh unit at 64 wk. Birds with AA or AC genotypes had the best egg quality traits. On the contrary, these genotypes had the lowest prolactin expression, whereas this expression was highest in birds with the BB genotype. In conclusion, polymorphisms at the 5'-UTR of prolactin gene were significantly associated with egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens.

  2. Quality and stability of eggs from laying hens fed with organic minerals and lycopene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Kleszcz da Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using lycopene and organic minerals in diets for laying hens on the egg quality and stability of eggs stored for 30 days under different storage environments. An entirely randomized design was adopted in 2x3x3 factorial scheme (mineral sources x lycopene levels x storage periods with six replicates of eight hens per experimental unit. The experimental diets were: feed containing inorganic minerals (IM without added lycopene; IM with added lycopene (400mg kg-1; IM with added lycopene (800mg kg-1; organic minerals (OM without added lycopene; OM with added lycopene (400mg kg-1; OM with added lycopene (800mg kg-1. After 112 days of feeding experimental diets, it was selected 60 eggs treatment-1, which were later labeled, stored in room and refrigerated temperature, and subjected to different storage periods (0, 15 and 30 days. Variables analyzed were: Haugh unit, yolk index, yolk color, albumen and yolk pH, and lipid oxidation (TBARS. Stability of eggs is not altered as a function of mineral sources and levels of lycopene studied. However, increasing storage time affects the quality of the eggs of laying hens at both storage conditions.

  3. The effects of egg and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides addition on gluten-free sorghum bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of whole egg addition (as is) at 20, 25, or 30% (flour basis) on sorghum bread quality was evaluated. The use of the antistaling agent diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM) at 0.5% (flour basis) at each of the egg addition levels was also studied. Evaluated quality facto...

  4. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of

  5. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  6. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of va

  7. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05). Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:27608634

  8. THE DANGER OF PUTING ALL THE EGGS IN ONE BASKET. SOME CONCERNS REGARDING ROMANIA'S EXTERNAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGREA Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trade patterns across the globe vary in certain ways. For the EU27, the analyzed data suggests that approximately 70% of all Romania's imports, and the same amount of its exports, are intra-community oriented. The question that arises is what will happen to te Romania's external trade, if a crisis hits Europe? If countries like Germany, France, Italy, and United Kingdom are hit the hardest in this hypothetical European crisis, Romania will soon follow them. In order to decrease the impact of such possibility, it is necessary to tap new trade opportunities. For this purpose, first we have to analyze the present situation. Based on Eurostat, World Trade Organization, and the Romanian Statistics Institute data from 1999 to 2009, and on the works about trade creation (Balassa 1965, Jovanovic 2005, Molle 2006, the paper wants to point out the aspects of trade concentration in certain regions after the establishment of free trade agreements, and the danger posed by financial crises. This paper analyzes first the situation in the EU27, scanning each member state in order to see the degree of trade relations intra / extra EU. The data will be than compared to another set of analyzes of other four important regions, the Andean Community, ASEAN, MERCOSUR, and NAFTA, whose free trade agreements could support such of comparison with the EU trade relations. The paper follows the assumption that EU27 has the most integrated trade relations among all the analyzed regions. Based on this assumption and on statistical data that points out the percentage change of total imports and exports in the Romanian GDP, some conclusions will be drown out in order to establish some necessary measures to prevent a future crisis, measures that involve the political class, taping new trade opportunities such as Latin American countries, Middle Eastern countries, and South-East Asia, but not forgetting Russia, Romania's former main export partner, establishing clear objectives

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOLOGICAL POLLUTION FACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF CONSUMPTION EGGS

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    Ionut Silviu BEIA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggs’ microbiological status intended for human consumption represents a determining factor of products’ quality and safety. The possible contamination of eggs with pathogene microorganisms presents a major risk for food safety. In comparison with meat and milk, eggs have a better capacity of conservation and therefore they are more resistant to the aggression of damaging factors. However it is a perishable product and its age as food may cause affections to consumers. One cannot find out the defficiencies and prevent the risks of food safety without the awareness and knowledge of microbiological, enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms that occur in the process of eggs’ becoming old. Thus, one can establish the critical limits in which eggs as food may endanger consumers’ health status.

  10. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.

  11. No nutritional benefits of egg cannibalism for Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on a high-quality diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, A H; Michaud, J P; Bayoumy, M H; Awadalla, S S; El-Gendy, M

    2017-09-11

    Egg cannibalism serves various functions in the Coccinellidae. Here we examined the fitness consequences of egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instar larvae, and prereproductive adults of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, with beetles fed a diet of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs. Cannibalism of two eggs by neonates had no effect on development, and cannibalism of five eggs by fourth instars did not benefit any aspect of reproduction, but delayed pupation slightly. Cannibalism of eggs by pre-reproductive adults had no effect on reproductive success in any combination of reciprocal crosses of cannibals and non-cannibals. Females did not recognize, nor avoid consuming, their own clutches, and cannibalism propensity did not change following mating and onset of oviposition in either sex. These results contrast with those for more strictly aphidophagous species in which larvae gain developmental benefits, and females may recognize and avoid filial egg clusters while using cannibalism to interfere with conspecific females, whereas males reduce egg cannibalism after mating because they cannot recognize filial clusters. Egg cannibalism may confer developmental benefits to C. maculata when diet is suboptimal, as previously shown, but no such benefits were evident on the high-quality E. kuehniella egg diet. Female C. maculata do not require aphids to reproduce and distribute their eggs broadly in the environment, given that larvae can develop on pollen and non-aphid prey. Thus, C. maculata is not subject to the intraspecific competition that selects for cannibalism in more aphidophagous species, and also lacks many secondary adaptations associated with the behaviour.

  12. External quality assurance in nongynecologic cytology: The Australasian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Paul W; Frost, Felicity; Finnimore, Jo L; Wright, R Gordon; Cummings, Margaret C

    2017-05-01

    The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Cytopathology Quality Assurance Program has operated an external quality assurance program in nongynecologic cytopathology since 1993. Glass slide preparations of a wide range of nongynecologic cases were circulated to approximately 200 cytopathology laboratories in 16 countries. General nongynecologic cytology cases were manufactured from residual specimens after routine diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases were made by sampling fresh tissue and making direct specimens. The majority of cases consisted of both air-dried and fixed preparations. Results returned to laboratories included illustrated case discussions highlighting diagnostic features, key differential diagnoses, and useful adjunctive tests. The current study reviewed >22,000 results for 123 nongynecologic cases. Cases found to cause the most diagnostic difficulties included serous effusion cases with metastatic carcinoma in a dispersed pattern, well-differentiated carcinoma, and cellular reactive cases; urine specimens with sparse malignant cells; reactive pneumocytes in a bronchoalveolar lavage; breast FNA cases with papillary lesions; gestational specimens; and fibroadenoma. FNA specimens from the lung and thyroid, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, generally were well reported. The use of multiple preparations of the same specimen has allowed interlaboratory comparison, and the quality assurance program has played an educational role as well as informing the laboratory accreditation process. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:349-361. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Comparison of Aviary, Barn and Conventional Cage Raising of Chickens on Laying Performance and Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC, barn (BR and aviary (AV. The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird’s free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800 pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week. There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1 average HDEP (% of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2 were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g; feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5 and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g and BR (127 g tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV.

  14. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  15. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

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    Fendri Imen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%. It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p  Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg.

  16. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs.

  17. A comparison of fatty acid composition and quality aspects of eggs and larvae from cultured and wild broodstock of common sole ( Solea solea L . )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Suhr, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Eggs from a F-1 cultured broodstock of sole were compared with eggs from wild-caught breeders throughout one spawning season, to evaluate if egg quality may be affected by culture-related conditions. Fourteen batches of eggs from cultured broodstock and 17 batches from wild-caught sole were compa...

  18. The effect of quantity of added eggs on whole meal pasta quality

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    Filipović Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the convenience of different chemical and rheological methods for determining the quality of two spelt cultivars for pasta making and the influence of egg quantity on whole meal pasta quality. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit has been calculated to show significant differences between different samples. Score analysis is being useful tool for accessing the effect of eggs to spelt pasta quality, and this analysis proved that though lower scores (0.270 for rheological characteristics experienced with cultivar Eco, the addition of eggs is positively contributing to the spelt pasta quality yielding the best score for pasta (0.75, contrary to the cultivar Austria attributed with superior rheology scores. Whole meal spelt is characterised by lower Ca, but higher Fe and Mn content in comparison to bread wheat. In comparison with common pasta, spelt is a suitable raw material for a new product with improved functional properties at the market.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31055

  19. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Jiangxia Zheng; Zhongyi Duan; Ning Yang; Guiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results:The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P>0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions:SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  20. Effects of cerium oxide supplementation to laying hen diets on performance, egg quality, some antioxidant enzymes in serum and lipid oxidation in egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölükbaşı, S C; Al-Sagan, A A; Ürüşan, H; Erhan, M K; Durmuş, O; Kurt, N

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cerium oxide levels (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg) on the laying performance, egg quality, some blood serum parameters and egg lipid peroxidation of laying hen. In total, one hundred and twenty 22-week-old brown Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to five groups equally (n = 24). Each treatment was replicated six times. Dietary supplementation of cerium oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and egg weight. The addition of cerium oxide to the laying hens' feed improved feed conversion ratio and increased (p laying hens feed led to a significant (p laying hen diets. It was also observed that serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly with supplementation of cerium oxide in diets. Inclusion of cerium oxide resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in egg yolk in this study. It can be concluded that the addition of cerium oxide had positive effects on egg production, feed conversion ratio and egg shelf life. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement laying hens feed with cerium oxide as feed additives.

  1. Evaluation of Muscodor cinnamomi as an egg biofumigant for the reduction of microorganisms on eggshell surfaces and its effect on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarach, Nakarin; Kaewyana, Chariya; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Kumla, Jaturong; Matsui, Kenji; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2017-03-06

    The presence of microorganisms on the eggshell surface is a factor of consideration in determining egg quality. These microorganisms can contribute to egg spoilage and can infect the egg. In this study, 18 morphotypes of microorganisms were isolated from eggshells. Morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular analyses were used to identify these morphotypes into 7 species; Bacillus drentensis, Staphylococcus arlettae, Stap. cohnii, Stap. kloosii, Stap. saprophyticus, Stap. sciuri and Stap. xylosus. The potential of Muscodor cinnamomi to reduce the presence of microorganisms on eggshells by biological fumigation was investigated. The result showed that 16 strains of the tested microorganisms were inactivated after the exposure of the fungal volatile organic compounds. The most abundant compound was 2-methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3-methylbutan-1-ol. Our results indicated that a 24-h period of fumigation of 100g rye grain culture of M. cinnamomi was the minimum dose that could significantly reduce the number of microorganisms on the eggshell surface. Fumigated eggs from both box and cabinet fumigation trials showed significantly lower microbial numbers on the eggshell than non-fumigated eggs during the storage period of 14days. It was found that the values of the yolk index, albumen index and the Haugh unit of the eggs decreased during this storage time. However, those values of the fumigated eggs from both fumigation trials were found to be significantly higher than the non-fumigated eggs after the 24-h fumigation period and following storage for 5, 7 and 14days. However, the values of the albumen index were not found to have significantly increased over 5days of the box trial. This study is the first to report on mycofumigation activity for the purposes of reducing the presence of microorganisms on the surface of eggshells.

  2. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentration....... Hatching success of eggs was negatively correlated with some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids related to phytoplankton senescence....... (0.4 mg m(-3)). Excluding this high production rate from statistical analysis, the remaining egg-production rates were found to be positively correlated with phytoplankton biomass, as well as with parameters representing healthy phytoplankton condition, food quality and diatom-type fatty acids...

  3. Control of effect on the nucleation rate for hen egg white lysozyme crystals under application of an external ac electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, H; Uda, S; Fujiwara, K; Nozawa, J

    2011-07-05

    The effect of an external ac electric field on the nucleation rate of hen egg white lysozyme crystals increased with an increase in the concentration of the precipitant used, which enabled the design of an electric double layer (EDL) formed at the inner surface of the drop in the oil. This is attributed to the thickness of the EDL controlled by the ionic strength of the precipitant used. Control of the EDL formed at the interface between the two phases is important to establishing this novel technique for the crystallization of proteins under the application of an external ac electric field. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  5. Production performance and egg quality of quails (Coturnix japonica during several periods of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to analyze the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails throughout the day when submitted to different lighting programs. In each experiment, birds were submitted to a period of 28 days for adaptation to the lighting program. During the following three days, each day - from 7 am to 7 pm or 9 pm - was divided into six or seven periods of two hours each, and the remaining hours corresponded to another single period. All birds were submitted to the same management practices, and received water and feed ad libitum. The experimental diet was formulated according to NRC (1994 standards. It was observed lower feed intake in the period of 9 pm to 7 am, and a higher incidence of lay from 3 pm to 7 pm, as opposite to hens, which peak of egg laying occurs during the morning. Some controversial results were found among experiments as to eggshell quality during the different periods of the day. Variation on the lighting program had little influence on the other performance and egg quality parameters.

  6. Interaction of hen production type, age, and temperature on laying pattern and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumová, E; Gous, R M

    2012-05-01

    The effect of production type (layer vs. broiler breeder), age (onset and end of laying cycle), and temperature (20 and 28°C) on various aspects of the egg production process and quality was evaluated. Highly significant differences were detected between laying hens and broiler breeders (P ≤ 0.001) in all production parameters. Similarly, age significantly affected rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001; 75.4% for young vs. 62.6% for old), mean sequence length (P ≤ 0.001; 7.7 d for young vs. 2.6 d for old), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). However, there was no effect of temperature on rate of lay, sequence length, or feed intake. Significant interactions between hen type and age were apparent in rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001), sequence length (P ≤ 0.001), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). A significant interaction between production type and age (P ≤ 0.015) was evident in egg weight, but egg component proportions were dependent only on hen type. Egg shape index was significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.004), by temperature (P ≤ 0.028), and an interaction between type and age (P ≤ 0.001). Specific gravity declined with age (P ≤ 0.035) and increasing temperature (P ≤ 0.013).

  7. Dietary Supplementation of Increasing Levels of DLMethionine and L-Lysine in Hypoproteic Diets for Laying Hens Improves Productivity and Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Martínez-Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of DL-methionine and L-lysine in hypoprotein diets on productivity and egg quality, a total of 240 White Leghorn laying hens (Hybrid L-33 of 26 weeks during laying peak period were placed for 49 days, according to completely randomized design with four treatments and 10 repetitions. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no amino acid supplementation (T0 and supplementation of 0.03% DL-Met and 0.04% L-Lys (T1; 0.06% DL-Met and 0.08% L-Lys (T2 and 0.09% DL-Met and 0.12% L-Lys (T3. At 26 and 33 weeks of age, 30 eggs per treatment were collected to determine internal and external egg quality parameters. The experiment diets did not affect the viability and feed intake. Supplementation of essential amino acids, especially the T3 improved egg weight (54.30 to 58.30 g, laying rate (76.89 to 85.45% and mass conversion (2.52 to 2.11 kg/kg (P<0.05. At 33 week, the albumin height (7.21 to 8.23 mm, Haugh units (86.70 to 91.15 (P<0.05 and shell surface (67.10 to 69.20 cm2 increased by the effect of supplementation of DL-Met and L-Lys. The results allow recommending the dietary supplementation of 0.09% DL-Met and 0.12% L-Lys in hypoprotein diets to improve productivity and egg quality in laying hens.

  8. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs.

  9. THE ROLE OF TURMERIC POWDER IN LIPID METABOLISM AND ITS EFFECT ON QUALITY OF THE FIRST QUAIL’S EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Saraswati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the role of turmeric powder in lipid metabolism andits influence on the quality of the first quail’s egg. Sixty female quails were assigned into a completelyrandomized design with four treatments (levels of turmeric powder i.e., 0; 13.5; 27; and 54mg/quail/day and each treatment used 15 quails. The treatment was conducted for 60 days. Parametersmeasured were proximate analysis and the quality of the first layed eggs. At the end of the experiment,serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, abdominal and pectoral fat weights, and feedconsumption were measured. Chemical analysis showed that turmeric powder contained 7.97%curcumin. Supplementation of turmeric powder lowered serum cholesterol and triglycerideconcentrations, egg fat and protein contents, haugh unit and yolk index, but did not affect feed intake,abdominal and pectoral fat weights, egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and egg shellindex. However, quails supplemented with turmeric powder showed a variation in egg laying delayranging from 1 to 16 days. Quails supplemented with 54 mg/d turmeric powder had the highest follicleshierarchy. It was concluded that supplementation of turmeric powder with the level of 54 mg/quail/daydecreased lipid content of the egg and improved the other egg quality parameters.

  10. Melatonin implantation improved the egg-laying rate and quality in hens past their peak egg-laying age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yaxiong; Yang, Minghui; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Liang; Song, Yukun; Wang, Jing; Qin, Wenxiang; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-01-01

    The egg-laying rates of hens approximately 470 days of age exhibited a positive correlation to blood melatonin levels. The hens with an egg-laying rate hens at 300, 360, 470 and 550 days of age, the egg-laying rates increased 4.63 ± 0.46%, 8.38 ± 1.45%, 4.93 ± 0.85% and 7.93 ± 0.91%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. Melatonin implantation in hens at 300–470 days of age was observed to enhance egg production and reduce the rate of appearance of sharpei eggs. Melatonin (10 mg) implanted in hens 360 days of age did not influence the blood levels of progesterone (P4) or the gene expression levels of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), oestradiol receptor alpha (ERα), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). In contrast, melatonin significantly elevated the serum oestradiol-17β (E2) content, down-regulated the gene expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor (GnIHR), and enhanced the expression of melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). This result indicates that the improved egg-laying rate by melatonin was the result of increased serum oestradiol and decreased ovarian GnIHR. These alterations may be mediated by MT2 activation. PMID:28008984

  11. International External Quality Assurance for Laboratory Diagnosis of Diphtheria ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, S. E.; Efstratiou, A.

    2009-01-01

    The diphtheria surveillance network (DIPNET) encompassing National Diphtheria Reference Centers from 25 European countries is a Dedicated Surveillance Network recognized by the European Commission. A key DIPNET objective is the quality assessment of microbiological procedures for diphtheria across the European Union and beyond. A detailed questionnaire on the level of reference laboratory services and an external quality assessment (EQA) panel comprising six simulated throat specimens were sent to 34 centers. Twenty-three centers are designated National Diphtheria Reference Centers, with the laboratory in the United Kingdom being the only WHO Collaborating Centre. A variety of screening and identification tests were used, including the cysteinase test (20/34 centers), pyrazinamidase test (17/34 centers), and commercial kits (25/34 centers). The classic Elek test for toxigenicity testing is mostly used (28/34 centers), with variations in serum sources and antitoxin concentrations. Many laboratories reported problems obtaining Elek reagents or media. Only six centers produced acceptable results for all six specimens. Overall, 21% of identification and 13% of toxigenicity reports were unacceptable. Many centers could not isolate the target organism, and most found difficulties with the specimens that contained Corynebacterium striatum as a commensal contaminant. Nineteen centers generated either false-positive or negative toxigenic results, which may have caused inappropriate medical management. The discrepancies in this diphtheria diagnostics EQA alarmingly reflect the urgent need to improve laboratory performance in diphtheria diagnostics in Europe, standardize feasible and robust microbiological methods, and build awareness among public health authorities. Therefore, DIPNET recommends that regular workshops and EQA distributions for diphtheria diagnostics should be supported and maintained. PMID:19828749

  12. Differentiating sex and species of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's Grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and their eggs using external morphometrics and discriminant function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In birds where males and females are similar in size and plumage, sex determination by alternative means is necessary. Discriminant function analysis based on external morphometrics was used to distinguish males from females in two closely related species: Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's Grebe (A. clarkii). Additionally, discriminant function analysis was used to evaluate morphometric divergence between Western and Clark's grebe adults and eggs. Aechmophorus grebe adults (n = 576) and eggs (n = 130) were sampled across 29 lakes and reservoirs throughout California, USA, and adult sex was determined using molecular analysis. Both Western and Clark's grebes exhibited considerable sexual size dimorphism. Males averaged 6–26% larger than females among seven morphological measurements, with the greatest sexual size dimorphism occurring for bill morphometrics. Discriminant functions based on bill length, bill depth, and short tarsus length correctly assigned sex to 98% of Western Grebes, and a function based on bill length and bill depth correctly assigned sex to 99% of Clark's Grebes. Further, a simplified discriminant function based only on bill depth correctly assigned sex to 96% of Western Grebes and 98% of Clark's Grebes. In contrast, external morphometrics were not suitable for differentiating between Western and Clark's grebe adults or their eggs, with correct classification rates of discriminant functions of only 60%, 63%, and 61% for adult males, adult females, and eggs, respectively. Our results indicate little divergence in external morphology between species of Aechmophorus grebes, and instead separation is much greater between males and females.

  13. Standardization of tumor markers - priorities identified through external quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Tumor markers are often heterogeneous substances that may be present in elevated concentrations in the serum of cancer patients. Typically measured by immunoassay, they contribute to clinical management, particularly in screening, case-finding, prognostic assessment, and post-treatment monitoring. Data both from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes and clinical studies demonstrate significant variation in tumor marker results obtained for the same specimen using different methods. Between-method between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CV) reported by EQA schemes generally reflect the complexity of the measurand, ranging from 25% for the complex mucinous cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Improving the standardization of tumor marker measurements is particularly important for three reasons. The primary use of tumor markers is in monitoring cancer patients over long periods of time. Clinical interpretation of trends may consequently be affected if results are obtained in different laboratories using different methods or if a laboratory has to change method. Differences in results may have major implications for adoption of area-wide decision cut-offs and make implementation of these difficult. Method-related differences also make it difficult to compare clinical studies. Improving comparability of tumor marker results requires broad international agreement about which molecular forms of the measurand have clinical utility, identifying and adopting pure molecular forms as calibrants, and defining antibody specificities for their optimal detection. These aims have been achieved to varying extents for the most frequently measured serum tumor markers as described in this paper.

  14. Effects of Various Levels of Oxidized Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Metabolites in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Saki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of dietary oxidized oil was studied on laying hen performance, egg quality and blood metabolites.  Experiment was conducted on 160 laying hens (Hy-Line W-36, 54-61 wk of age in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicated cages containing eight birds per cage. Dietary treatments replaced fresh soybean oil in the control diet (3% fresh soybean oil, 15.25% crude protein, and 2858 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% oxidized oil. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily and feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and egg mass were calculated weekly. Egg quality traits were recorded on a biweekly basis. Hen’s body weight was measured individually at the beginning and end of the experiment. Serum metabolites were determined at the end of the experiment. There was a significant difference between diets with different oxidized oil levels in egg weight, egg mass, Egg production, and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05. Feed intake was not affected by dietary treatments. There was no significant difference between oxidized oil levels on blood serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Malondialdehyde of the liver was not affected by oxidized oils. The results of this study have clearly demonstrated that maximum 25% oxidized oil could be replaced by fresh oil in the diets without any adverse effect on the performance of laying hens.

  15. Rearing conditions determine offspring survival independent of egg quality : A cross-foster experiment with Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Bakker, T; Saaltink, DJ; Verhulst, S; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    Variation in rearing conditions, due either to parental or to environmental quality, can result in offspring of different quality (e.g. body condition, immune function). However, evidence is accumulating that egg size and composition can also affect offspring quality. In Oystercatchers Haematopus

  16. External Music Examiners: Micro-Macro Tasks in Quality Assurance Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    External music examiners play a significant role in assessing, verifying and maintaining musical standards. Educational output endorsed by external examiners serves to verify, modify and legitimise internal behaviour. This article examines some of the "inside practices" of external music examiners in the context of quality assurance. It compares…

  17. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  18. [External quality assessment of semen analysis in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejczak, Piotr; Talarczyk, Joanna; Taszarek-Hauke, Grazyna; Berger, Anna; Hauke, Jan; Pawelczyk, Leszek

    2012-11-01

    Semen analysis is an important part of male infertility diagnosis and should be performed according to international recommendations. The reliability of the results depends mainly on the qualifications of the laboratory analysts. External Quality Assessment Programmes (EQAP) are performed in laboratories worldwide in order to standardize the results. The aim of this study was to perform the first in Poland comparison of the results of sperm analysis from different laboratories. Forty two Polish laboratories were invited to participate in the EQAP and eight laboratories agreed to take part in the analysis. They were sent uniform semen samples, prepared in accordance with the WHO standards: one sample for the assessment of concentration, two for motility (on DVD) and two for the morphology of the sperm (Papanicolau staining). The reference group was comprised of three employees of the Andrologic Laboratory of Poznań University of Medical Sciences, who regularly take part in EQAP organized by ESHRE. The reference group analyzed the samples from the participating laboratories. Statistic features such as mean, median, standard deviation, minimal and maximal value, first and third quartile were assessed for every examined parameter Z-score index was used to compare the differences between assessed laboratories and the reference laboratory. The acceptable Z-score range was +/-1. Average concentration in the reference group was 43 mln/ml, while in the assessed laboratories (L) it was between 31 (L4) and 72.5 mln/ml (L1). Z-score for concentration analysis in three laboratories exceeded +/- 1 (2.51 for L1, 1.42 for L2 and -1.02 for L4). In the analysis of the first sample for progressive motility the reference group received 59%, while the values of participating laboratories varied from 42,5% (L1) to 80% (L4). Most of the centers achieved Z-score within the normal range, except for L1 and L4 (-1.48 and 1.88 respectively). The reference value for the second sample for

  19. Transcriptomic Profiling of Egg Quality in Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Sheds Light on Genes Involved in Ubiquitination and Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żarski, Daniel; Nguyen, Thaovi; Le Cam, Aurélie; Montfort, Jérôme; Dutto, Gilbert; Vidal, Marie Odile; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Variable and low egg quality is a major limiting factor for the development of efficient aquaculture production. This stems from limited knowledge on the mechanisms underlying egg quality in cultured fish. Molecular analyses, such as transcriptomic studies, are valuable tools to identify the most important processes modulating egg quality. However, very few studies have been devoted to this aspect so far. Within this study, the microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of eggs (of different quality) of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was performed. An Agilent oligo microarray experiment was performed on labelled mRNA extracted from 16 batches of eggs (each batch obtained from a different female) of sea bass, in which over 24,000 published probe arrays were used. We identified 39 differentially expressed genes exhibiting a differential expression between the groups of low (fertilization rate  60 %) quality. The mRNA levels of eight genes were further analyzed by quantitative PCR. Seven genes were confirmed by qPCR to be differentially expressed in eggs of low and high quality. This study confirmed the importance of some of the genes already reported to be potential molecular quality indicators (mainly rnf213 and irf7), but we also found new genes (mainly usp5, mem-prot, plec, cenpf), which had not yet been reported to be quality-dependent in fish. These results suggest the importance of genes involved in several important processes, such as protein ubiquitination, translation, DNA repair, and cell structure and architecture; these probably being the mechanisms that contribute to egg developmental competence in sea bass.

  20. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  2. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  3. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items.

  4. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-07-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality.

  5. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  7. Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica): an experimental study revealing pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Narayan; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2014-06-01

    Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) is a recognized disease of chickens and Japanese Quails, which is of high economic importance due to its drastic negative effects on egg production in laying birds. The aim of the present study was to better understand the EDS-76 viral disease process in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), since very limited studies have been conducted in this species of birds. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted with infection of EDS-76 virus in laying Japanese quails to reveal pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses of this virus in these birds. By 7, 9 and 13-15 Days Post Infection (DPI), drop as well as aberrant egg production and lower mean egg quality were observed compared to control birds. Significant histopathological changes were observed in genitalia and spleen. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) titres rose rapidly by 2nd week when it became maximum; thereafter declined and maintained at low levels up to 10 week post infection. The mean total protein values in infected quail gradually increased to 4.10±0.05/100 mL without any change in mean albumen value at 12 DPI. In conclusion, the course of the EDS-76 is significant not only in chickens but also in quails even though it occurs occasionally in quails. Explorative pathological, blood biochemical and immunological studies are suggested during EDS-76 viral disease course in quails. This would aid in formulating effective disease prevention and control measures for this economically important disease of poultry.

  8. Experience of Internal and External Education Quality Rate: Esg and the Legislation of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikanorov Ivan N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of regulation of internal and external education quality rate has been presented. The development of regulation an independent assessment of higher education in Russia in the context of ESG has been considered. Authors noticed, that instruments of internal and external quality rate interact in Russian legislation insufficiently.

  9. Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    and for their family members. Methods: The cohort comprises an existing database with 394 Danish children, teenagers and adults diagnosed with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy in accordance with EAACI guidelines. We use the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ). The questionnaires have been...... translated from English to Danish in accordance to World Health Organisation´s criteria and are web-based. The questionnaire form varies according to patient’s age group: Parent Form 0 – 7 years (N=123), Child Form 8 – 12 years (n=138), Teenager Form 13 – 17 years (n=80), Adult Form 18 years and up (N=53...... child. The final results of how food allergy impacts the quality of life will be seen in the context of the socio-economic position. Focus will also be on a possible relationship between Quality of life and the clinical sensitivity of the patient (threshold, i.e. the amount of peanut...

  10. EFFECT OF DIETARY CALCIUM LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION AND EGG SHELL QUALITY IN BROILER BREEDER HENS FROM 36 TO 60 WEEKS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different calcium (Ca levels in diet on shell quality and egg production of Ross broiler breeder hens from 36 to 60 weeks of age. A total of 198 pullets were reared on restricted diets with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% Ca, up to 22 weeks. The pullets in each experimental diet were further randomly divided into three treatments with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% dietary Ca (66 birds per treatment and fed from 23 to 60 weeks. The hens were caged individually. The cages were fitted with feed troughs and water nipples. Birds were fed breeder diet (23 to 34 weeks, breeder diet phase 2 (35 to 46 weeks and breeder diet phase 3 (47 to 60 weeks feed intake was administered according to Ross Breeders recommendations. The rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous with different levels of Ca and P and were administered according to Ross Breeders Recommendations. Dietary treatment significantly (P0.05 differences were found in these variables between 2.5 and 3.5% Ca levels. All the eggshell quality variables increased over time while egg mass and egg production declined. From the results of the present study, it is concluded that increasing Ca level from 1.5 to 2.5% could improve eggshell quality. Present results suggest that the 2.5% Ca (3.8 g Ca/hen/day seems to be adequate to support egg production and improving eggshell quality of broiler breeders.

  11. [Standardization in laboratory hematology by participating in external quality assurance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazor, Aida; Siftar, Zoran; Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata

    2011-09-01

    Since 1985, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Merkur University Hospital, Zagreb, has been participating in the International External Quality Assessment Scheme for Hematology (IEQAS-H) organized by the World Health Organization (WHO). Owing to very good results, in 1987 the Department received a certificate of participation in this control scheme. Department has been cooperating in the external quality assessment program in laboratory hematology which has been continuously performed in Croatia since 1986 by the Committee for External Quality Assessment Schemes under the auspices of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemists and School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb. Nowadays, 186 medical biochemical laboratories are included in the National External Quality Assessment program, which is performed three times per year. Our Department has participated in the international projects of the European Committee for External Quality Assurance Programs in Laboratory Medicine (EQALM).

  12. Ovary Transcriptome Profiling via Artificial Intelligence Reveals a Transcriptomic Fingerprint Predicting Egg Quality in Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic “fingerprint”. Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness. PMID:24820964

  13. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Chapman

    Full Text Available Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis, a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233 representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold, with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1% to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.

  14. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert W; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.

  15. Migration and income transfers in the presence of labor quality externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a worker's productivity is assumed to depend on his own quality and on the average quality of other workers in the same country. The external effects associated with worker quality give rise to increasing returns to average worker quality. As a result, free migration generally reduces

  16. Egg yield,quality and hatchability of egg-type Houdan%贵妃鸡的蛋用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严华祥; 蔡霞; 徐志刚; 杨俭; 陆军; 谢承光

    2015-01-01

    Houdan,as a kind of rare and ornamental bird imported from Europe,was selected for synthetic line of hybrid chicken or broiler ?layer commercial lines.This study measured the egg performance of the 4th gen-eration Houdan which were closed selection and cage rearing separately,recorded the survival rate and egg laying rate of hens from 19 to 90 weeks old,evaluated egg quality of 36 weeks old and 90 weeks old,hatched for 4 shifts hen eggs from 46 to 56 weeks old.The results showed that hen-housed and hen-dated production of 72-week-old was 176.8 and 187.2,and that of 90-week-old was 213.3 and 228.3,respectively.Egg weight was highly signifi-cant difference between the 36-week-old and 90-week-old hens,eggshell strength was significant difference,while the albumen height,HA unit,shell thickness and yolk color were not significant difference.Hens(about 50 weeks old)set egg hatchability of 10-day eggs was 74.3%,while that of 30-day eggs was 63.6%.The cage rearing Houdan could be of good behavior generally,with good anti-stress and egg quality,and potential of higher egg production,more tasty and better hatchability.%贵妃鸡作为珍禽从欧洲引入我国后,除作为独立珍禽品种外,还参与鸡合成系和配套系的育种。本研究测定了经过4个世代闭锁群选育后笼养贵妃鸡的产蛋性能,统计了19—90周龄存栏母鸡的存活率和产蛋率,检测了36周龄和90周龄的蛋品质,分4批次进行了46—56周龄时的种蛋孵化。结果表明:72周龄入舍鸡产蛋量176.8个,存栏鸡产蛋量187.2个,90周龄入舍鸡产蛋量213.3个,存栏鸡产蛋量228.3个。36周龄贵妃鸡与90周龄相比蛋重差异极显著,蛋壳强度差异极显著,蛋白高度、哈氏单位、蛋壳厚度、蛋黄颜色等差异不显著。50周龄时贵妃鸡种蛋保存10 d 的入孵蛋孵化率74.3%,种蛋保存30 d 的入孵蛋孵化率63.6%。贵妃鸡笼养性能稳定,具有较强的抗应激能力

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality characteristics of red color egg powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Song, Beom Seok; KIm, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Mi Jung [Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Anyang Unversity, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    This study was carried out to investigate effects of gamma irradiation on microbiological and quality characteristics of the red color egg powder (RCEP). The control sample was contaminated by microbial levels of 3.16 log CFUg{sup -1} in total aerobic bacteria, but microorganisms in gamma-irradiated samples at above 3.0 kGy were not found at detection limit less than 10{sup 2} CFUg{sup -1}. However, sensory scores and Hunter’s color value of the gamma-irradiated RCEP were decreased depending upon the irradiation dose. The RCEP treated by a combination of the vacuum packaging with gamma irradiation at 3.0 kGy was considered having a microbiological safety and maintaining the sensory quality.

  18. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  19. Effect of Fennel and Thymus vulgaris Extracts with and without Flaxseed on Performance and Eggs Quality of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vakili

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fennel and Thymyus valgaris extracts with and without flaxseed on performance and egg quality of laying hens (Hy line W-36. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 200 laying hens in 5 treatments and 5 replicates (with 8 hen in each replicate for 12 weeks. The hens were fed isocaloric and iso nitrogenous diets according to NRC 1994 but differ in the plant extracts. The plant extracts used in this study consisted of an alcoholic extract of fennel and thyme that the value of 40 ml/kg feed was sprayed. The results of this study showed that egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio not significantly but feed consumption and egg weight has significantly effects (P>0/05.The index of yolk color in the group received Thymyus valgaris and flaxseed was significantly different from other treatment groups (P

  20. Effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with organic selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C; Surai, P F; McDevitt, R M

    2005-06-01

    We assessed the effects of supplementation of broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and organic Se on hatching egg quality during storage. Broiler breeders (n = 352) were fed 1 of 4 diets: SO (soybean oil with no added Se), SO with Se (SO+Se), fish oil (FO), or FO and Se (FO+Se). Eggs from prepeak (23 wk) and peak production (27 wk) breeders were stored for 14 d under typical (15 degrees C, 78% RH) conditions. Eggs were analyzed for albumen Haugh units (HU) and pH, shell characteristics, egg component weight, Se content, and fatty acid (FA) profile. The efficiency of transfer of Se into the egg was greater in low Se treatments compared with in high Se treatments. The majority of Se from the low Se treatments was deposited in the yolk, whereas in high Se treatments, the Se was deposited evenly in the yolk and albumen. In the low Se treatments, the Se content of yolk and albumen was lower than in the high Se treatments and decreased as age increased. Albumen HU decreased with increased storage, although high Se treatments had greater HU compared with low Se treatments. Eggs from the FO treatment were smaller with thinner eggshells compared with the SO treatment, but addition of Se to the FO diets ameliorated some of these effects. The egg yolk FA profile from the SO+Se treatment was altered compared with that from the SO treatment, perhaps due to interactions between dietary PUFA and Se-dependent enzyme systems. Hatching egg quality during storage was affected by dietary PUFA and Se content, as well as broiler breeder age.

  1. Parental Perceptions of Child Care Quality in Centre-Based and Home-Based Settings: Associations with External Quality Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Joanne S.; Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how parental perceptions of child care quality were related to external quality ratings and considered how parental perceptions of quality varied according to child care context (home-based or centre-based settings). Parents of 179 4-year-old children who attended child care centres (n = 141) and home-based settings…

  2. Effect of pasteurized egg and Rosmarinus officinalis supplementation on quality of cryopreserved ram semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, F; Gil, L; Malo, C; Gonzales, N; Martinez, F; de Blas, I

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess the in vitro effect of pasteurized egg (PE) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen-thawed ram semen. Ejaculates from three mature rams of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were cryopreserved using a 2-step dilution method (Fraction 1: F1; Fraction 2: F2). In Experiment 1, semen was frozen in egg yolk (EY) or PE extenders. After thawing, similar results were obtained in terms of total and progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity after 2 h incubation. In Experiment 2, addition of rosemary to F1, F2 or both fractions to EY extenders was evaluated. Rosemary in F1 decreased progressive motility (p = 0.013) after 2 h incubation. Finally, PE can be used as a substitute for EY to reduce hygienic risks in extenders and is easier to standardize. Supplementation of EY extender with rosemary in F1 reduced progressive motility. Rosemary supplementation in F2 does not affect semen quality.

  3. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  4. Cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality: the effects of linings and litter provision in furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebretière, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of litter provision and linings used for nests and pecking and scratching areas on cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf vs. plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment, using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks), was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. We observed laying location, the number of dirty and broken eggs, the microbiological contamination of eggshells according to laying location, and general cage hygiene. The use of nests for laying decreased when they were lined with plastic mesh. Eggs laid outside the nest were of lower quality than those laid inside it, and this was particularly true for eggs laid in the PSA. Although hygiene was low on artificial turf mats, eggs laid on PSA covered with a rubber mat were dirtier and had a higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell than those laid on PSA covered with an artificial turf mat. Rubber mats in PSA were rapidly destroyed and proved to be unsuitable. The provision of litter had no effect on cage hygiene but substantially increased wear on mats. This study shows nest lining and litter provision methods to be key factors that need to be taken into account to encourage the use of nest boxes for laying, and hence, to ensure good egg quality. Further research into new linings for PSA is needed for the future improvement of egg-laying conditions.

  5. [The external evaluation of study quality: the role in maintaining the reliability of laboratory information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-08-01

    The external evaluation of quality of clinical laboratory examinations was gradually introduced in USSR medical laboratories since 1970s. In Russia, in the middle of 1990 a unified all-national system of external evaluation quality was organized known as the Federal center of external evaluation of quality at the basis of laboratory of the state research center of preventive medicine. The main positions of policy in this area were neatly formulated in the guidance documents of ministry of Health. Nowadays, the center of external evaluation of quality proposes 100 and more types of control studies and permanently extends their specter starting from interests of different disciplines of clinical medicine. The consistent participation of laboratories in the cycles of external evaluation of quality intrinsically promotes improvement of indicators of properness and precision of analysis results and increases reliability of laboratory information. However, a significant percentage of laboratories does not participate at all in external evaluation of quality or takes part in control process irregularly and in limited number of tests. The managers of a number of medical organizations disregard the application of the proposed possibilities to increase reliability of laboratory information and limit financing of studies in the field of quality control. The article proposes to adopt the national standard on the basis of ISO 17043 "Evaluation of compliance. The common requirements of professional competence testing".

  6. The Importance of Reagent Lot Registration in External Quality Assurance/Proficiency Testing Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stavelin, Anne; Riksheim, Berit Oddny; Christensen, Nina Gade; Sandberg, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Providers of external quality assurance (EQA)/proficiency testing schemes have traditionally focused on evaluation of measurement procedures and participant performance and little attention has been given to reagent lot variation...

  7. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

  8. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  9. Effect of Quercetin on Egg Quality and Components in Laying Hens of Different Weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Ying; Han Chun-yan; ChaudhrYMaria Tabassum; Li Ling; Yao Jia-ying; Wang Sheng-nan; Yang Jia-xin; Teng Nan; Li Yao

    2015-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of quercetin on egg quality and components in laying hens of different weeks. A total of 240 healthy Hessian laying hens at 29, 39-week-old with similar body weight and laying rate were randomly divided into four groups with six replicates of 10 each replicate, respectively. The treatments were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g•kg-1 quercetin for 8 weeks. The results showed that compared with the control, broken or soft shell rate significantly decreased at 0.2 and 0.4 g•kg-1 quercetin and eggshell thickness significantly increased at 0.4 g•kg-1 quercetin (P<0.01) in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old; yolk protein significantly decreased at 0.6 g•kg-1 quercetin (P<0.05) in laying hens at 29-37 weeks old; while yolk protein significantly increased at three quercetin treatments in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old; yolk cholesterol significantly decreased by quercetin in laying hens at 29-37 weeks old (P<0.05); yolk total phospholipids significantly increased at 0.4 and 0.6 g•kg-1 quercetin (P<0.01) and yolk cholesterol significantly decreased at 0.6 g•kg-1 quercetin (P<0.05) in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old. In a word, quercetin affected egg quality and components to some extents in laying hens of different weeks, the older the hens became, the better improvement they would be. The optimum level of quercetin was 0.4 g•kg-1 in the basal diet.

  10. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg(-1) phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level.

  11. Comparison of fattening performance, carcass characteristics, and egg quality characteristics of Japanese quails with different feather colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Inci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare fattening performance, carcass traits, and egg quality of Japanese quails with different feather colors (white, dark brown, golden, and wild-type. In the study, 360 one-day-old quail chicks with 4 different feather colors were used as animal material. Quails were fed ad libitum for 42 days to determine fattening performance and carcass traits. To determine egg traits, 48 hens from each group, in a total of 192, were selected and caged according to feather color. Eggs were collected for four consecutive weeks and egg quality characteristics were measured. Different feather colors had a significant effect on live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and carcass characteristics. Significant differences between the groups were detected for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, albumen index, and yolk index. Japanese quails with all four feather colors can be reared depending on the choice. However, due to lower feed conversion ratio, white-feathered quails may be preferred for meat production purposes. Color variations should be considered when selecting quails.

  12. MicroRNA expression profiles from eggs of different qualities associated with post-ovulatory ageing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Egg quality is an important aspect in rainbow trout farming. Post-ovulatory aging is one of the most important factors affecting egg quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the major regulators in various biological processes and their expression profiles could serve as reliable biomarkers for v...

  13. Influence of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.)Kitamura) : First steps towards a quality model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium) are reviewed. The external quality aspects analysed in this paper are stem morphology (length, diameter and "strength"), leaf morphology (number and

  14. The Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L. on Chicken Performance, Carcass, Egg Quality and Cholesterol Content of Meat and Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paichok PANJA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiment I (Broilers The experimental design was completely randomized. Two hundred and forty of 3 week old male broilers were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diets were 20 % and 3,000 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results demonstrated that feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy intake were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The carcass quality showed that carcass weight, dressing percentage and percent of abdominal fat pad were also not significantly different (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol and triglyceride were significant (P < 0.05 lower at higher levels of mulberry leaves. However, the cholesterol content in thigh meat was not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05.   Experiment II (Layers The experimental design was completely randomized and two hundred of 27 week old laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diet were 16 % and 2,750 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results found that feed intake, egg weight, egg mass, and egg quality were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol was found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 % of mulberry leaves inclusion. Likewise, triglyceride was also found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5 to 1.5 % of inclusion. In addition, yolk cholesterol content was found to decrease and was significantly different (P < 0.05 at 2 % of inclusion.

  15. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between feather pecking behavior, stress response, immune reponse, and egg quality traits in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Wissink, P.H.; Visscher, J.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among feather pecking (FP) behavior and stress response, immune response, and egg quality parameters. These traits have been measured in an F-2 cross, coming from a cross between a high and a low FP line of laying

  16. Methods for external disinfection of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs prior to use in wound debridement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of the larval stage of flies (i.e., Calliphoridae) to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds. Effective MDT requires an aseptic technique to prevent the unintentional introduction of pathogenic bacteria into a wound to be debrided, yet the external s...

  17. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) vs. fluorescent (FL) lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 2 - Egg quality, shelf-life and lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Hansen, H; Ning, Z; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    In this 60-wk study, egg quality, egg shelf-life, egg cholesterol content, total yolk lipids, and yolk fatty acid composition of eggs produced by Dekalb white laying hens in commercial aviary houses with either light-emitting diode (LED) or fluorescent (FL) lighting were compared. All parameters were measured at 27, 40, and 60 wk of age, except for egg shelf-life, which was compared at 50 wk of age. The results showed that, compared to the FL regimen, the LED regimen resulted in higher egg weight, albumen height, and albumen weight at 27 wk of age, thicker shells at 40 wk of age, but lower egg weight at 60 wk of age. Egg quality change was similar between the lighting regimens during the 62-d egg storage study, indicating that LED lighting did not influence egg shelf-life. Eggs from both lighting regimens had similar cholesterol content. However, cholesterol concentration of the yolk (15.9 to 21.0 mg cholesterol/g wet weight yolk) observed in this study was higher than that of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database (10.85 mg/g). No significant differences in total lipids or fatty acid composition of the yolks were detected between the two lighting regimens.

  18. Comparison of fattening performance, carcass characteristics, and egg quality characteristics of Japanese quails with different feather colors

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Inci; Bunyamin Sogut; Turgay Sengul; Ahmet Yusuf Sengul; Mehmet Resit Taysi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fattening performance, carcass traits, and egg quality of Japanese quails with different feather colors (white, dark brown, golden, and wild-type). In the study, 360 one-day-old quail chicks with 4 different feather colors were used as animal material. Quails were fed ad libitum for 42 days to determine fattening performance and carcass traits. To determine egg traits, 48 hens from each group, in a total of 192, were selected and caged according to f...

  19. [Significance of participation in programs of external quality assessment in molecular diagnostic--our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paro, Mirjana Mariana Kardum; Siftar, Zoran; Juretić, Dubravka; Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata

    2011-09-01

    Harmonization of molecular diagnostic tests in laboratories in the Republic of Croatia has only just started. According to laboratory accreditation standard ISO 15189 participation in external quality assessment (EQA) schemes or programs is a prerequisite and support tool for clinical laboratory accreditation process. As there are no national quality assurance schemes yet, an European external quality assessment (EQA) scheme or program should be found. Because of variation in the molecular diagnostic test performance of clinical laboratories across Europe, EQA is recognized as a system whereby a set of reagents and techniques are assessed by an external provider making inter-laboratory performance comparability possible through already integrated recommendations and practice guidelines of molecular diagnostic test performance. Today, wide range of various EQA schemes and programs already in action have been available and most of them began within the last ten years. This paper is therefore intended to present and summarize the four-year EQA activities in the Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Merkur University Hospital, in three different international EQA schemes: United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS), the European Molecular Genetic Quality Network (EMQN) and Multi-National External Quality Assay program (EQUAL- qual)) and to point out their educational role in standardization of laboratory performance of any test intended for patient testing. from a laboratory point of view.

  20. A quality audit program for external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.F.; Stovall, M. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    For more than 25 years, the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center has had a quality audit program using mailed dosimeters to verify radiation therapy machine output. Two programs, one compulsory and one voluntary, presently monitor therapy beams at more than 1000 megavoltage-therapy facilities. A successful program requires two major components: a high-precision thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system and dedicated staff that interact closely with the users to resolve discrepancies. The TLD system, the logistics used, and the human interaction of these programs are described. Examples show that the programs can identify major discrepancies, exceeding 5 %, as well as discrepancies as small as 3%.

  1. The Dynamics of Divorce: Marital Quality, Alternative Attractions and External Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.; Sporakowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested Lewis and Spanier's theory of marital quality and marital stability using a sample of 131 married and 166 divorced social survey respondents. Examined the relationship between the quality and stability of their marriages and assessed the influence of alternative attractions and external pressures to remain married. (JAC)

  2. The quality of Garut ram liquid semen in Tris egg yolk extender to the sucrose supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulnawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful program of artificial insemination in sheep is determined by the quality of sperm that are used. Therefore, it is important to maintain the quality of sperm during and after storage in low temperature. The research was conducted to study the influence of sucrose in the Tris-yolk extender in maintaining the quality of Garut ram sperm during preservation in reaction tube for four days at 5°C. Ejaculated sperm was collected once a week for five weeks using artificial vagina from same ram. Semen was divided into four groups of extenders, i.e. Tris egg yolk 20% (TKT, TKT + 0,1% sucrose, TKT + 0,3% sucrose and TKT + 0,5% w/v sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of motility on day four (D-4 of storage in TKT (41.00 ± 2.0% was lower (P0.05 from TKT + 0.1% (45.00 ± 3.16%. Whereas the percentage of live cells (%H on D-4 in TKT, TKT + 0.1%, TKT + 0.3% and TKT + 0.5% were 55.00 ± 2.19%; 57.20 ± 2.79%; 59.20 ± 3.25% and 61.20 ± 3.60%, respectively. Meanwhile, the percentage of membrane integrity (MPU in TKT (51.80 ± 1.94% was significantly different (P0.05 from TKT + 0.1% (54.80 ± 2.86%. In conclusion, the addition of sucrose 0.3% w/v into TKT extender could maintain the quality of Garut ram sperm more efficiently and better than TKT extender.

  3. Mechanical vibrations in the transport of hatching eggs and the losses caused in the hatch and quality of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Donofre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many factors present in eggs’ transportation from incubator to growing confinements can damage their integrity and, consequently, the results of the incubation. This study aimed to evaluate whether the intensity and duration of exposures of hatching eggs to mechanical vibrations were capable of affecting the hatch and the quality of broiler chicks. Four treatments, determined by two intensities of vibrations and two durations of exposures were evaluated and compared with a control group in a randomised design in blocks with four repetitions. The vibrations were applied by a mechanical shaker before incubation. Then the eggs were incubated and as the following responses were evaluated: hatchability, the type of embryonic mortality, the quality of the birds and the total of losses. The analyses were carried out by a binomial regression model, with application of the Wald test at 5% significance level. The results showed that the exposure of eggs to mechanical vibrations harmfully affects the hatchability and reduces the ratio (percentage of high quality chicks. Highest vibration level together with longer duration of exposure resulted in worst hatchability and losses. It is argued that the mechanical vibrations are potentially damaging and should be regarded as an important factor in the management of hatching eggs.

  4. Effect of Feeding Soybean and Palm Blended Oil on Laying Performance and Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat MUANGKEOW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of blended dietary oil on the laying performance of hens and the fatty acid profiles of eggs produced by 21 to 40 wk old Dekalb Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design was a completely randomized design using a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with one control. The different oil sources did not influence egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed efficiency, Haugh unit or egg shell thickness. However lipid profile of the egg yolk changed as a function of dietary lipid sources. The fatty acid composition of egg yolks produced by the laying hens was analyzed. The fatty acid profile of eggs can be modified by varying the lipid composition of their diet. High inclusion levels of dietary palm olein oil (POO or blended oil (POO plus soybean oil - SBO concentrations of total saturated fatty acid (SFA in egg yolks decreased, with SFA = 24.8167 - 0.63Oil, r2 = 0.66 (P < 0.05. Eggs laid by hens fed the diet containing a high portion of soybean oil had a large amount of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, whereas egg laid by hens fed the diet containing POO or blended oil 25 % POO plus 75 % SBO at 1.5 % level of inclusion had a high percentage of n-3 PUFA and n-9 family. The addition of blended palm olein oil plus soybean oil decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids while increased the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acid, a-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. It did not promote the enrichment of the eggs with PUFA.

  5. Shell quality: potential for improvement by dietary means and relationship with egg size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M E; Hellwig, H M; Waldroup, P W

    1987-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted by sampling a total of 15,705 eggs from Leghorn hens fed diets varying in methionine, Na, and Ca content. In Experiment 1, birds of four different ages were housed in a common environment and fed diets containing between .233 and .383% methionine. In Experiment 2, birds of five different ages were housed in a common environment and fed diets containing .15, .30, and .45% Na and .25, .45, and .65% nonphytate phosphorus (NPP). In Experiment 3, eggs were sampled from 42 to 62 wk of age in 4-wk intervals from hens fed diets containing from 3 to 9% Ca in increments of 1.5%. Feeding lower levels of methionine (.233%) produced significantly lower egg weights and greater shell strength but at the expense of a decline in egg production at early ages. Reducing the NPP level from .65 to .25% produced lower egg weights and greater shell strength. A corresponding drop in production was not observed except at the .45%-Na level. No significant effects of Na on shell strength were observed. Higher Ca levels produced greater shell strength and had variable effects on egg weight. Increasing the Ca level beyond 6% resulted in a significant decline in production. Regression analyses indicated that within a population, the relationship between egg weight and shell strength is positive. In some instances, the relationship was curvilinear, where the positive association between egg weight and shell strength decreased with increasing egg weights.

  6. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2016-12-29

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Phens fed high V+C diets. A decrease in GSH concentration in RBCs of hens fed the highest levels of V+C was observed. Faba bean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  7. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health.

  8. Quality Control of Mass Rearing of Egg Parasitoids of Yellow Rice Stem Borer Scirpophaga Incertulas Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilyus Wilyus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out: suitability of eggs of Corcyra cephlalonica Stainton as a factitious host of S. incertulas egg parasitoids and techniques of parasitoid stock provision, serially conducted from February 2011 to December 2011. The researches were carried out in four laboratory experiments, consisting of the study of ultraviolet (UV irradiation on C. cephalonica eggs; suitability of C. cephlalonica eggs as a factitious host of Telenomus rowani Gahan, Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead and Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferriere; storage method of C. cephalonica eggs; and storage method of parasitoids. The research design was suited to the research needs. The results showed that; The C. cephalonica eggs irradiated by the minimum of 28.48 minute 15 watt ultraviolet (UV at a distance +15 cm between the lamp and the eggs could suppress the hatching eggs to zero (no emerged larvae. Among the three species of egg parasitoids of S. incertulas found in Jambi Province, only T. japonicum could be rearing on C. cephalonica eggs. The relationship between storage duration of C. cephalonica eggs irradiated by the 30 minutes 15 watts UV at 5oC and the emerged T. japonicum wasps was expressed by the equation of y = 31.04-1.151x, R²=0.865, P=0.000. The storage of T. japonicum pupae for six weeks at 5°C did not reduce the number of emerged T. japonicum wasps. The emerged wasps reduced significantly if the storage duration of T. japonicum pupae was increased to seven weeks or more.

  9. Effect of digestible methionine + cystine concentration on performance, egg quality and blood metabolites in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Golian, A; Zarghi, H

    2016-06-01

    The estimation of sulphur amino acid requirement is a vital key to providing appropriate nutrition in poultry. The estimation of amino acid requirement depends on what production parameter is taken into consideration for optimisation. A complete randomised block design was performed with 5 treatments and 6 replicates of 8 Hy-line layers (W-36) each from 32 to 44 weeks of age. The blocks were made to have a replicate of each treatment. The dietary treatments were consisted of 5 concentrations of digestible sulphur amino acid (DSAA) at 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 6.6 and 7.1 (g/kg). Egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly affected by an increase in DSAA intake. However, feed intake, egg component yield, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, egg protein and dry matter (DM) were not altered by DSAA intake. A significant increment in plasma high-density lipoprotein was concomitant with a reduction in low-density lipoprotein when DSAA intake was increased. However, triglyceride, cholesterol, uric acid and total protein in plasma were not affected by DSAA intake. The DSAA requirements estimated by the linear broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 678, 673, 641 and 656 mg/bird.d in the whole experimental period, respectively. The DSAA requirement estimated by the quadratic broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 4.71%, 7.87%, 8.73% and 7.62% higher than those estimated by linear broken-line fit model in the whole experimental period, respectively.

  10. Reproductive development, GnRHa-induced spawning and egg quality of wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) acclimatised to captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Neil; Estévez, Alicia; Porta, Javier; Carazo, Ignacio; Norambuena, Fernando; Aguilera, Cristobal; Gairin, Ignaci; Bucci, Francesco; Valles, Roser; Mylonas, Constantinos C

    2012-10-01

    observed in proximal composition and fatty acid profile and for all spawns mean (% dry weight) lipid content was 17.3 ± 3.0%, carbohydrate was 4.4 ± 1.9% and protein was 31.5 ± 6.4% and the essential fatty acids: Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) ranged between 0.9 and 1% (of total fatty acids), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) 7.7-10.4% and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3), 28.6-35.4%. All good quality spawns were obtained in the second and/or third spawn after GnRHa treatment, whereas all bad quality spawns were obtained either on the first spawn or after the fifth spawn. Both spawning protocols gave commercially viable (1,000,000+) numbers of good quality eggs that could form the basis of a hatchery production.

  11. Food supplementation reveals constraints and adaptability of egg quality in the magpie Pica pica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siitari, Heli; Alatalo, Rauno; Pihlaja, Marjo; Hamalainen, Jenny; Blount, Jonathan D.; Groothuis, Ton G.; Hytonen, Vesa P.; Surai, Peter; Soulsbury, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the deposition of limited maternal resources to eggs can reflect the optimal allocation to manipulate offspring phenotype, or constraints caused by maternal condition. We examined multiple maternal substances transferred to eggs in the magpie Pica pica to test the hypothesis that

  12. Development of antimicrobial coatings for improving the microbiological safety and quality of shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to develop antimicrobial coatings to decontaminate and prevent cross- contamination of shell eggs. Egg shells were inoculated with nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella enterica Enteritidis strains OB030832, OB040159, and C405, and then treated with antimicrobial coatings. Pol...

  13. Food supplementation reveals constraints and adaptability of egg quality in the magpie Pica pica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siitari, Heli; Alatalo, Rauno; Pihlaja, Marjo; Hamalainen, Jenny; Blount, Jonathan D.; Groothuis, Ton G.; Hytonen, Vesa P.; Surai, Peter; Soulsbury, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the deposition of limited maternal resources to eggs can reflect the optimal allocation to manipulate offspring phenotype, or constraints caused by maternal condition. We examined multiple maternal substances transferred to eggs in the magpie Pica pica to test the hypothesis that cert

  14. Effects of Cold and Heat Stress on Egg Quality Traits of a Newly Developed Native Hybrid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ATAK-S is a newly developed native hybrid layer. Although the laying performance of this hybrid has been studied and determined, the performance response of the hybrid to different environmental temperature conditions is not known. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cold and heat stress on egg quality traits. Hens were divided into three different groups; control (20°C, low (12°C and high (32°C. A total of 360 hens, with 120 in each of the groups, were used in the study. Hens were held in three tier battery cages in an environmentally controlled poultry house. The study lasted for 3 weeks. No differences were found among different groups in terms of shape index, albumen height and Haugh unit of the egg quality traits. It was found that the differences among the heat groups in terms of egg shell breaking strength, egg weight, shell thickness and yolk colour were significant and the value of these traits decreased under the heat stress conditions, whereas they were not affected from the cold stress.

  15. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  16. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  17. Effect of dietary phosphorus level and source on productive performance and egg quality of two commercial strains of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N W; Sullivan, T W; Sunde, M L; Bird, H R

    1984-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of dietary total phosphorus (TP) level and source on the performance of two strains of commercial layers for two consecutive production years (26 to 68 and 76 to 116 weeks of age, respectively). Diet 1 contained .4% TP; Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained .5, .6, and .7% TP with supplemental P from dicalcium phosphate (DCP); Diets 5 and 6 contained .5 and .6% TP, respectively, with supplemental P from a sample of raw rock phosphate (RRP-1); Diets 7 and 8 contained .5 and .6% TP, respectively, with supplemental P from a second sample of raw rock phosphate (RRP-2). Calcium level was 2.75% in all diets, and crushed oyster shell provided ad libitum to all birds increased the total calcium to about 3.00%. Diet 1 was inferior to the average of all supplemented diets relative to feed consumption rate (P less than .005) and egg weight (P less than .005) during the first year. Diet 1 was also inferior relative to egg production rate (P less than .01), feed consumption rate (P less than .005), and egg weight (P less than .005) during the second year, whereas it was superior in shell quality (P less than .05) during the first year. Increasing TP from DCP resulted in a significant linear increase in feed consumption (P less than .05), feed conversion ratio, and Haugh units (P less than .005). Increasing TP from DCP also resulted in a significant linear decrease in shell quality (P less than .05) and significant linear and quadratic decreases in egg weight (P less than .005) during the first year. During the second year, increasing TP from DCP resulted in a significant linear decrease in egg production rate (P less than .005) and feed efficiency but significant linear (P less than .01) and quadratic (P less than .05) increases in feed consumption, and significant linear and quadratic increases (P less than .005) in Haugh units. Hens receiving RRP diets responded differently during the first and second years. The DCP supported greater

  18. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, molecular microbiology and HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral loads. This manuscript presents the analysis of results obtained of the participants from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme, except viral loads controls, that they are summarized in a manuscript abroad. As a whole, the results obtained in 2013 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  19. The effects of apple pulp and probiotic on performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaz Noranian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Apple is one of the most important fruits that is produced in the large amount in Iran. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals and active fiber. Most of the apples that product in Iran are use in food industry for producing different kinds of apple juices. After Juicing, more than 20% of apple, remain as waste. The remained matter contain considerable amount of vitamins and minerals that usually found in fresh apple, moreover it is rich source of pectin and crude fiber. Generally this byproduct discharge to environment and cause some serious environmental problems. It is thought that use of apple pulp as a part of apple waste in laying hens diets not only prevent some environmental problems, but also can improve their performance, egg quality traits, and blood biochemical parameters and reduce the production cost. The current study has been designed to investigate these traits. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out on 192 Hi-line (W36 laying hens in a completely randomized design as (2*2 factorial arrangement with two levels of apple pulp (0 and 4% and two levels of probiotic (protexin (0 and 0.005% in 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds per replicate for 12 weeks (65-76 weeks. Results and Discussion Using apple pulp and probiotic in diets improved the egg production performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens (P0.05. Probiotic improved egg weight, egg production percentage, egg mass, feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. In interaction effects, using apple pulp and probiotic improved the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens. The highest egg weight, egg production, egg mass and the best feed conversion were obtained with diet containing 4% apple pulp and 0.005% probiotic. Also the highest amount of albumin, eggshell thickness and Haugh unit were observed with 4% apple pulp and 0.05% probiotic. Apple pulp decreased the blood levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and albumin

  20. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María del Remedio Guna; Mira, Nieves Orta; de Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz; Ovies, María Rosario; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno; Pérez, José L

    2010-01-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria and virology. This article present the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2008 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2008 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards of the microbiology laboratories in Spain found in previous editions. However, a few deviations can be obtained in any laboratory, even in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal an external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  1. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2014-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2012 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2012 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  2. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz de; Guna Serrano, M Del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2014 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2014 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of the SEIMC program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  3. Identification of mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNAs related to egg quality deterioration caused by post-ovulatory aging in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous factors have been reported to affect rainbow trout egg quality, among which, post-ovulatory aging is one of the most significant causes as reared rainbow trout do not usually volitionally oviposit the ovulated eggs. Frequent examination of the stock is therefore required in order to reduce...

  4. Egg Production and Quality of Magelang Duck Fed Diets Containing Different Ratio of Omega 3 : Omega 6 and Organic Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Darmawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the feeding effect of diets containing different ratio of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and organic Zn on egg production and quality of Magelang duck. A total of 90 ducks of 20 weeks old were randomly divided into 18 experimental units by assigning a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replications. There were 6 dietary treatments, namely 1 ration without palm oil, fish oil and organic Zn with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 5 (R0, 2 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 1.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R1, 3 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 3 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R2, 4 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 4.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R3, 5 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1: 6 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R4, 6 ration with the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 was 1 : 7.5 + 200 ppm organic Zn (R5. Observation was carried out for 9 wk. The results showed that the ration containing the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 = 1 : 3 and organic Zn (R2 produced significantly (P<0.05 the highest egg production and the lowest egg production was resulted by the dietary treatment without oil and organic Zn. Ration containing the ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 = 1: 3 and organic Zn (R2 significantly (P<0.05 decreased feed conversion ratio to the lowest value and it was significantly different as compared to R0 and R5. It can be concluded that feeding diet containing ω-3 and ω-6 with the ratio of 1:3 + 200 ppm organic Zn improves egg production without decreasing egg quality.

  5. Influence of age of breeding laying quails in reproduction, egg quality and morphology of the genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cristina Carneiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sperm-egg interaction was investigated during their reproductive life, in laying quails mated with males of different ages (Coturnix coturnix sp.. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 4 x 4 (age of the females of age x male quail, 80,160,240 and 390 days, with 10 replicates and six birds each, in proportion to two females for a male. The results showed that there was a quadratic effect (P <0.05 the amount of sperm trapped in the vitelline membrane of the germinal disc, depending on the age of the females, with a reduction of this number over the old. The age of the females had no effect on egg weight, shell thickness, the percentage of shell and yolk and Haugh unit. As for the egg production was a quadratic effect. The incubation parameters evaluated chick weight, fertility, hatchability and mortality did not differ when analyzed in relation to age of males and females, as well as egg quality and performance of the of the resulting progenies. The chick weight, fertility, hatchability and mortality did not differ when analyzed in relation to age of males and females, as well as egg quality and performance of the of the resulting progenies. The morphology of the genital organs of males and females showed no difference in the age of the birds. Males and females of laying quails maintain reproductive ability up to 56 weeks. The age of the males had no effect on the reproductive performance and the use of younger males to older females did not result in improved reproductive health.

  6. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids levels on egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrotte, E.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Kestemont, P.

    2008-01-01

    Three groups of 40 perch breeders were reared in order to study the effects of 3 different levels of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on egg quality. Two experimental diets, R1 and R2 (n-3/n-6 = 0.13 and 35.54, respectively), were compared to one commercial food, R3 (n-3/n-6 = 3.48.). Spawning...

  7. Egg shell quality and microstructure as affected by vitamin C, other feed additives and high environmental temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Boushy, A.R.

    1966-01-01

    The effects of climatic stress on egg formation (weight, shape, formation period, clutch size and blood calcium) and shell quality were estimated in White Leghorn and White Plymouth Rock hens. Constant environments were used with 85°F 75- 80% r.h., 75-77°F 50-60% r.h. and 55°F 50-60% r.h. as well as

  8. Supplementation of Mangosteen Pericarp Meal and Vitamin E on Egg Quality and Blood Profile of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rusli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the supplementation effects of mangosteen pericarp meal (MPM and vitamin E (VE in the diets on the egg quality and blood profile of laying hens. This research used 160 laying hens of Lohman strains 24 weeks of age. The observation was conducted for 11 weeks. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications (10 birds each was used in this experiment. The treatments consisted of R0 (control diet, R1 (R0 + 1 g MPM/kg ration, R2 (R0 + 2 g MPM/kg ration and R3 (R0 + 200 mg VE/kg ration. Variables measured were egg quality, yolk cholesterol, and blood profiles. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA and any significant difference between the treatment means were further tested by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of 1 g MPM/kg ration in the diet significantly (P0.05 egg quality (except shell thickness, blood cholesterol, and HDL, respectively. In conclusion, supplementation of 1 g MPM/kg in the diet of laying hens could decrease blood triglycerides.

  9. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control, 9 (OCT9, 18 (OCT18, and 27 (OCT27 mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p0.05 among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  10. External Quality Assessment Unravels Interlaboratory Differences in Quality of RAS Testing for Anti-EGFR Therapy in Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, V.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Tembuyser, L.; Normanno, N.; Borght, S. van der; Krieken, J.H. van; Dequeker, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regulations for the selection of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer for anti-EGFR treatment changed at the end of 2013. The set of mutations to be tested extended from KRAS codons 12 and 13 to KRAS and NRAS exons 2, 3, and 4. A European external quality assessment scheme monitore

  11. Egg Production and Physical Quality in Cortunix cortunix japonica Fed Diet Containing Piperine as Phytogenic Feed Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hilmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic feed additive on quail performances and egg quality. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications and used ten quails with one week of age in each replication. The piperine was added to the diets at concentrations of 0 (T0, 15 (T1, 30 (T2, 45 (T3, and 60 mg/kg body weight (T4 for 8 consecutive weeks. The results showed that addition of 60 mg/kg body weight (T4 of piperine significantly (P<0.05 reduced feed consumption, egg production, egg mass, income over feed cost (IOFC, and increased water consumption as compared to the other treatments. The addition of 15-60 mg piperine/kg body weight significantly (P<0.05 reduced eggshell weight and increased egg yolk color score. The conclusion of this experiment was that the addition of piperine at 15-45 mg/kg body weight could be used as phytogenic feed additive to improve performance, IOFC, haugh unit, and yolk color.

  12. Assessing the Organisational Impact of External Quality Assurance: Hypothesising Key Dimensions and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaker, Bjørn; Leiber, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide a framework in which the organisational impact of external quality assurance (EQA) can be assessed. Based on existing studies of the impact of EQA in universities and colleges it is suggested that greater systematisation of how impact is measured is needed for a better understanding of how EQA can be used as a…

  13. Pilot Experience with an External Quality Assurance Scheme for Acylcarnitines in Plasma/Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, P Ruiz; Ruijter, G; Acquaviva, C; Chabli, A; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Garcia-Villoria, J; Heiner-Fokkema, M R; Jeannesson-Thivisol, E; Leckstrom, K; Franzson, L; Lynes, G; Olesen, J; Onkenhout, W; Petrou, P; Drousiotou, A; Ribes, A; Vianey-Saban, C; Merinero, B

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of acylcarnitines (AC) in plasma/serum is established as a useful test for the biochemical diagnosis and the monitoring of treatment of organic acidurias and fatty acid oxidation defects. External quality assurance (EQA) for qualitative and quantitative AC is offered by ERNDIM and CDC i

  14. Guideline on the requirements of external quality assessment programs in molecular pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, J Han; Normanno, Nicola; Blackhall, Fiona; Boone, Elke; Botti, Gerardo; Carneiro, Fatima; Celik, Ilhan; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Cree, Ian A; Deans, Zandra C; Edsjö, Anders; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Kamarainen, Outi; Kreipe, Hans H; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Marchetti, Antonio; Murray, Samuel; Opdam, Frank J M; Patterson, Scott D; Patton, Simon; Pinto, Carmine; Rouleau, Etienne; Schuuring, Ed; Sterck, Silke; Taron, Miquel; Tejpar, Sabine; Timens, Wim; Thunnissen, Erik; van de Ven, Peter M; Siebers, Albert G; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    Molecular pathology is an integral part of daily diagnostic pathology and used for classification of tumors, for prediction of prognosis and response to therapy, and to support treatment decisions. For these reasons, analyses in molecular pathology must be highly reliable and hence external quality

  15. Guideline on the requirements of external quality assessment programs in molecular pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieken, J.H. van; Normanno, N.; Blackhall, F.; Boone, E.; Botti, G.; Carneiro, F.; Celik, I.; Ciardiello, F.; Cree, I.A.; Deans, Z.C.; Edsjo, A.; Groenen, P.J.T.A.; Kamarainen, O.; Kreipe, H.H.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Marchetti, A.; Murray, S.; Opdam, F.J.M.; Patterson, S.D.; Patton, S.; Pinto, C.; Rouleau, E.; Schuuring, E.; Sterck, S.; Taron, M.; Tejpar, S.; Timens, W.; Thunnissen, E.; Ven, P.M. van de; Siebers, A.G.; Dequeker, E.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular pathology is an integral part of daily diagnostic pathology and used for classification of tumors, for prediction of prognosis and response to therapy, and to support treatment decisions. For these reasons, analyses in molecular pathology must be highly reliable and hence external quality

  16. Pilot Experience with an External Quality Assurance Scheme for Acylcarnitines in Plasma/Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, P Ruiz; Ruijter, G; Acquaviva, C; Chabli, A; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Garcia-Villoria, J; Heiner-Fokkema, M R; Jeannesson-Thivisol, E; Leckstrom, K; Franzson, L; Lynes, G; Olesen, J; Onkenhout, W; Petrou, P; Drousiotou, A; Ribes, A; Vianey-Saban, C; Merinero, B

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of acylcarnitines (AC) in plasma/serum is established as a useful test for the biochemical diagnosis and the monitoring of treatment of organic acidurias and fatty acid oxidation defects. External quality assurance (EQA) for qualitative and quantitative AC is offered by ERNDIM and CDC

  17. The Impact of External Quality Assessment on Universities: The Estonian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgats, Birgit; Heidmets, Mati

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to establish what impact external quality assessment had on universities in Estonia between 1997 and 2009. It is based on a study of the analysis of experts' reports of curricula accreditation and interviews with university and programme managers, undertaken between 2007 and 2009. The study included an analysis of 12 curricula…

  18. Longitudinal Associations between Externalizing Problems and Student-Teacher Relationship Quality for Young Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey S.; Blacher, Jan; Bush Hurst, Hillary

    2015-01-01

    The associations between student-teacher relationship (STR) quality and externalizing behavior problems in school were examined among 166 children with ASD (82% boys, ages 4-7 years) across three assessments over a 1.5-year period; IQs in the sample range from 50 to 139 (M = 88.7). Unlike other non-ASD populations, the association between STR…

  19. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  20. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  1. Effects of Barley Cultivar and Dietary Supplemental enzyme on Performance, Egg Quality Traits, and Selected Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing two commercial multienzyme to diets included two barley cultivars (Sararood [71.99%] and Valfajr [66.39%] on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens was investigated in an 8-wk (65 to 73 wk of age experiment.  The commercial multienzymes were Grindazym™ (with mainly β-glucanase and xylanase activity and Hemicell® (with mainly β-mannanase activity. Each dietary treatment consisted of five replicates of six hens. Barley cultivar had no significant effect on the measured criteria  and there was no interaction between barley cultivar and enzyme throughout the study. Diet supplementation with enzymes reduced feed intake (P < 0.05. Hens receiving Grindazym-supplemented diets produced more eggs than those receiving diets without enzyme or supplemented with Hemicell (P < 0.05. Conversely, egg weight was higher for hens receiving the Hemicell-supplemented diets than for those fed the other diets (P < 0.05. Hens receiving the Grindazym-supplemented diet showed higher egg mass than those fed the unsupplemented diets (P < 0.05 and egg mass of hens receiving the Hemicell-supplemented diets was intermediate between these two groups. Feed conversion ratio was improved by enzyme supplementation throughout the study (P < 0.05. Serum concentration of triiodothyronine was higher in hens receiving the Grindazym-supplemented diets than that in hens receiving the diets with no enzyme or supplemented with Hemicell (P < 0.05. Overall, the nutritive value of barley could be improved by enzyme supplementation. However, the two enzyme sources had different effects on performance of laying hens probably due to different mechanisms of action.

  2. External Quality Assessment in the Evaluation of Laboratory Performance of Faecal Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskinen, Salla J; Ojanen, Tarja; Björkman, Yvonne; Laitinen, Harri; Siitonen, Anja

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, all laboratories carrying out diagnostics of infectious diseases in humans are approved by the Regional State Administrative Agencies and are obligated to participate in External Quality Assurance rounds. Performance in these rounds is thought to reflect the quality of laboratory work. In the 6-year study period, 17 Finnish laboratories received 48 simulated faecal specimens for the culturing of diarrhoeal pathogens, yielding altogether 586 faecal culture External Quality Control specimens and 581 reports. The results were correct in 92% of all reports and in 67% of all specimens. False-negative Salmonella results were given for 2 of the 18 specimens, one with biochemically atypical Salmonella strain and the other with a low count of Salmonella cells. False-negative Shigella report was given for 6 of the 7 specimens in some participating laboratory. Detection of all common faecal pathogens is especially relevant to patient safety, public health, and epidemiological surveillance.

  3. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  4. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  5. The WHO AFRO external quality assessment programme (EQAP: Linking laboratory networks through EQA programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrah I. Boeras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available External Quality Assessment (EQA surveys performed by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO revealed the need for the strengthening of publichealth microbiology laboratories, particularly for testing of epidemic-prone diseases in theAfrican Region. These surveys revealed common issues such as supply chain managementskilled personnel, logistical support and overall lack of quality standards. For sustainableimprovements to health systems as well as global health security, deficiencies identified needto be actively corrected through robust quality assurance programmes and implementation oflaboratory quality management systems.Given all the pathogens of public health importance, an external quality assessment programmewith a focus on vaccine-preventable diseases and emerging and re-emerging dangerouspathogens is important, and should not be stand-alone, but integrated within laboratorynetworks as seen in polio, measles, yellow fever and rubella.In 2015, WHO AFRO collaborated with the US Centers for Disease Control and Preventionthe London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and partners in a series of consultationswith countries and national and regional EQA providers for the development of qualityassurance models to support HIV point-of-care testing and monitoring. These consultationsrevealed similar challenges as seen in the WHO AFRO surveys. WHO AFRO brought forthits experience in implementing quality standards for health programmes, and also openeddiscussions on how lessons learned through such established programmes can be utilised tosupporting and strengthening the introduction of early infant diagnosis of HIV and viralload point-of-care testing.An optimised external quality assessment programme will impact the ability of countries tomeet core capacities, providing improved quality management systems, improving theconfidence of diagnostic network services in Africa, and including capacities to detect eventsof

  6. District level external quality assurance (EQA of malaria microscopy in Pakistan: pilot implementation and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokar Nayyar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt, quality assured laboratory diagnosis is key to effective malaria case management and control, especially since the introduction of the more expensive artemisinin combination therapy (ACT. The malaria programme and its non-government partners, on the basis of WHO recommended Lot Quality Assurance methods, have developed a district level external quality assurance (EQA system. This study was designed to assess the feasibility, under programme conditions, of an integrated district level external quality assurance and supervision approach for malaria microscopy. Design and Methods A prospective study conducted over seven months period (May-November 2007. In addition to the standard WHO EQA elements, three operational innovations were introduced, with the a district laboratory supervisor: a onsite re-checking of slides, b in ensuring uninterrupted availability of laboratory reagents and supplies at diagnostic centers, and c supervision of administrative and technical components. The quantitative data for the study came from the service records/documents, whereas the qualitative data came from the key informant interviews. Results During the seven month period in four districts, a total of 8,118 slides were examined of which 209 (2.6% were found positive for malaria parasites (slide positivity range between1.6% to 6.0%. The District Laboratory Supervisors in four districts reexamined a total of 1,770 slides (22%. The proportion of slides found discordant ranged from 0.5% to 1%. The quality of smear preparation was found acceptable in 73% slides. Conclusions A district-based EQA, based on lot quality assurance methods was implemented, using context-specific operational guidelines, tools and training modules, and other inputs from the malaria control programme and partners. This EQA and supervision approach was found to be feasible and acceptable to those involved. Further study is required on the microscopy quality and cost

  7. Assessing the role of food quality in the production and hatching of Temora longicornis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Visser, Andre; Jespersen, C.

    2009-01-01

    We utilized the varying fatty acid composition of phytoplankton to create 19 different food treatments based on different ratios of 5 potentially important fatty acids and offered these to the copepod Temora longicornis. Egg production and hatching was monitored and related to ingested carbon......, dietary fatty acids and the utilization of maternal fatty acid reserves. Egg production rates depended on ingested carbon and the fatty acid 20:5n-3 from the diet and from the female reserves. Hatching success showed a significant dependence on the ingested and maternal fatty acids 22:6n-3, 18:5n-3 and 18......:3n-3. Production of nauplii as a combination of egg production and hatching was highly dependent on the fatty acid 22:6n-3 and carbon ingestion. The study confirms the importance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for copepod reproduction and indicates that the female differentially utilizes its...

  8. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  9. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum......, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer....

  10. Effect of air velocity on laying hen performance and egg quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing convective cooling can improve performance and thermal comfort of commercial poultry when weather or system design limit cooling through other means such as evaporative cooling. Previous work in young hens showed increased egg production rate as feed intake is maintained under heat stres...

  11. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoddard, M.C.; Fayet, A.; Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a fema

  12. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoddard, M.C.; Fayet, A.; Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a fema

  13. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2011 controls. Overall, the results obtained in 2011 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. Nevertheless, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program, in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation and evaluation of a National External Quality Control Program for Cervical Cytology in Mexico

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    Flisser Ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate cytology laboratories and the performance of cytotechnologists for establishing efficient external quality control for Mexico's National Program for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer. Material and Methods. During January and February 1998, an on-site evaluation of all cytology laboratories of the Ministry of Health found that only 70% of the microscopes were in adequate working conditions, reagents were out of date, and working conditions were sub-optimal. A program for external quality control based on proficiency testing was established for cytotechnologists. Fifty slide sets with 20 Papanicolaou slides and 10 photographic slides were prepared. The sets were given to the cytotechnologists for evaluation and again one year later by courier. Results. Twenty-one percent of microscopes were repaired and 9% replaced; reagents were distributed and laboratory facilities improved. Only 16% of cytotechnologists passed the initial proficiency test. Cytotechnologists received a refresher training course: one year later 67% of them passed the proficiency test. To ascertain that each slide was correctly diagnosed, 41 sets were rescreened by expert cytopathologists or cytologists and their diagnoses compared to the original ones. Thirty-seven sets had 86% to 96% concordance. Conclusions. This new system for external quality control of cervical cytology allowed the opportune and reliable evaluation of the performance of cytotechnologists.

  15. Effect of group size on performance and egg quality of laying hens during 20 to 36 weeks of age

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    Fulvia Bovera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve knowledge on the effect of group size on productive performance and egg quality of hens raised in furnished cages equally designed. A total of 520, 15-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into 2 groups to have a similar initial body weight (average 1392±16.3 g. The cages of S25 group (240 L x 78 W x 50 H cm, 749 cm2/hen hosted a total of 200 hens, while those of S40 group (462 L x 65 W x 50 H, 751 cm2/hen included 320 birds. Experimental data were recorded after an adaptation period of 5 weeks (20 to 36 weeks of age. Hens were submitted to 15 h of light/d. The average temperature inside the building was 24.6±2.5°C over the entire experimental period with higher values at 24, 26, 28 and 30 weeks of age. The relative humidity recorded inside the building was 55% at week 20 and 60% all through the experimental period. Hens raised from S40 group had lower percentage of egg production (84.91 vs 88.90%, P<0.01 and higher feed conversion ratio (2.70 vs 2.25, P<0.0001 than S25 group. The percentage of eggs laid out of the nest was higher in S25 than S40 group (0.26 vs 0.19%, P<0.01. As expected, the week of age affected almost all the parameters (feed intake, body weight, laying percentage, egg weight, yolk, shell and albumen indexes, shell thickness, Haugh unit. However, the effect of group size was particularly evident during the hot period.

  16. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts.

  17. Total lipid in the broodstock diet did not affect fatty acid composition and quality of eggs of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

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    José Mª Navas

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether an increase in the quantity of lipids ingested by sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax broodstock could improve egg quality, three year-old sea bass were fed three different diets: a natural diet (Control group, and two artificial diets containing 10% or 17% of total lipids. In two consecutive reproductive seasons, the spawning results, the lipid classes and the fatty acid composition of the eggs were studied. No differences in the absolute content of lipids or in the percentage of different lipid classes were observed between the eggs from the three groups. Both experimental groups fed with the artificial diets produced eggs of poor quality, with low percentages of buoyancy and hatching. Those observed in the eggs from the Control Group were significantly higher (p> 0.01 than those of the experimental groups. The higher hatching rate of the eggs from the Control Group was associated with higher DHA:EPA and AA:EPA ratios. The data obtained showed that the fatty acid composition of the eggs was affected by the fatty acid composition of the diets but not by the total quantity of lipids administered to the broodstock.

  18. Laboratory diagnosis of the rare anaemias: external quality assessment benefits patient care

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    Barbara De La Salle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the 1960s, external quality assessment has developed to become an essential component of the quality management system of the diagnostic laboratory. External quality assessment provides a long term, retrospective view of laboratory performance, demonstrating the competence of the laboratory to others. The ENERCA project (the European Network for Rare and Congenital Anaemias has established a list of core laboratory tests that are used in the diagnosis of rare and congenital anaemias, which has been used as the basis for questionnaires to laboratories, to establish the use and quality assurance of diagnostic testing in the congenital and rare anaemias, and to European EQA providers for services in this key area. In general, the provision of EQA for rare and congenital anaemias is widely variable with little provision for the very rare disorders. For the more common congenital anaemias, such as the haemoglobinopathies and thalassaemias, provision is better but there is variation in aspects of the scheme design, especially the frequency of distribution. Where laboratories did not take part in EQA for individual tests, or there was no EQA available, a desire to participate was expressed in 66% (102/154 of cases. The provision of external quality assessment (EQA services for rare disorders is a challenge. For many of these conditions, the number of patients in any one member state is very small with only a few laboratories providing diagnostic testing. In these cases, the development of pan-European or cross-border EQA may be the only means by which standardisation of methods and results can be achieved. An EQA survey of 243 laboratories for performance in Hb A2 quantification showed encouraging results in that there was a clear differentiation in the results from a beta Thalassaemia carrier and an individual with no evidence of Thalassaemia; however, a bias was observed between different methods of measurement.

  19. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics.

  20. EFFECT OF THYME ESSENTIAL OIL ADDITION ON PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS

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    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g, yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, percentage portion of albumen (%, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  1. Building Congruence Between Internal Quality Assurance and External Quality Assessment: The Algerian Experience

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    Mohamed MILIANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian higher education system has been undergoing a strong change that can be compared to a revolution to its structures, schemes, procedures ever since 2004: a date that corresponds to the launching of the ‘Licence-Master-Doctorate’ or ‘LMD’ reform. Not least of these procedures is the erection of a Quality system that started in 2010. Yet, one of the difficulties the implementation of the LMD system experienced, was due to the policy of slow and progressive setting up of new LMD learning schemes by universities from 2004 up to 2010 (date of last issued LMD training programs. The fact that universities were not forced to enter the new scheme was somehow detrimental to the overall policy’s coherence and advancement. Indeed, it took time for universities to switch from a dual system of university programs (old and LMD systems offered to freshmen to a single frame, namely that of the LMD. The concern for Quality was then on the Ministry’s agenda from 2008 first through an international conference on Quality Assurance that was held in Algiers under the aegis of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Part of the ministry’s strategic plan scheduled to go until 2030, is the procedure aiming at a quality system that consists of the following components: the LMD training package, the national qualifications framework, the quality assurance system, the quality assurance frame of reference, the national standards, and the key performance indicators.

  2. Internal and External Perspectives on Quality of Healthcare Services at Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar

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    Made Nopy Diah Sundari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Customer satisfaction is a primary indicator of the quality of public healthcare services. This study investigated internal (hospital staff and external (hospital clients perspectives in order to gain insight into the quality of care at Sanglah General Hospital.Methods: The study used both qualitative and quantitative methodologies with 11 informants and 106 respondents. Qualitative data obtained through in-depth interviews with hospital staff were analyzed thematically. Quantitative data obtained through self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using univariate analysis.Results: Informants from the qualitative data collection stated that Sanglah General Hospital has a relatively high level of service and that existing structures to mitigate issues are in place, which act as reinforcing factors. Data from the quantitative survey indicated that clients were satisfied with the quality of service (ServQual, with an overall percentage of 83.82%.Conclusion: Further efforts could be made in order to improve healthcare provision at Sanglah Hospital, particularly from the perspective of hospital facilities, staff support and increased implementation of clinical governance.Keywords: quality of service, internal perspectives, external perspectives, Sanglah Hospital

  3. External quality assessment on detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in clinical laboratories of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu-nan; ZHANG Rui; SHEN Zi-yu; CHEN Wen-xiang; LI Jin-ming

    2008-01-01

    Background As with many studies carried out in European countries, a quality assurance program has been established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories in China (NCCL). The results showed that the external quality assessment significantly improves laboratory performance for quantitative evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA.Methods Serum panels were delivered twice annuatly to the clinical laboratories which performed HCV RNA detection in China. Each panel made up of 5 coded samples. All laboratories were requested to carry out the detection within the required time period and report on testing results which contained qualitative and/or quantitative test findings, reagents used and relevant information about apparatus. All the positive samples were calibrated against the first International Standard for HCV RNA in a collaborative study and the range of comparison target value (TG) designated as ±0.5 log.Results The numbers of laboratories reporting on qualitative testing results for the first and second time external quality assessment were 168 and 167 in the year of 2003 and increased to 209 and 233 in 2007; the numbers of laboratories reporting on quantitative testing results were 134 and 147 in 2003 and rose to 340 and 339 in 2007. Deviation between the mean value for quantitative results at home in 2003 and the target value was above 0.5 log, which was comparatively high.By 2007, the target value was close to the national average except for the low concentrated specimens (103 IU/ml). The percentage of results within the range of GM±0.5 log10 varied from 8.2% to 93.5%. Some laboratories had some difficulties in the exact quantification of the lowest (3.00 log IU/ml) as well as of the highest viral levels (6.37 log IU/ml) values, very near to the limits of the dynamic range of the assays.Conclusions The comparison of these results with the previous study confirms that a regular participation in external quality assessment (EQA) assures the

  4. Effects of Xylem-Sap Composition on Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Egg Maturation on High- and Low-Quality Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisterson, Mark S; Wallis, Christopher M; Stenger, Drake C

    2017-04-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooters must feed as adults to produce mature eggs. Cowpea and sunflower are both readily accepted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter for feeding, but egg production on sunflower was reported to be lower than egg production on cowpea. To better understand the role of adult diet in egg production, effects of xylem-sap chemistry on glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation was compared for females confined to cowpea and sunflower. Females confined to cowpea consumed more xylem-sap than females held on sunflower. In response, females held on cowpea produced more eggs, had heavier bodies, and greater lipid content than females held on sunflower. Analysis of cowpea and sunflower xylem-sap found that 17 of 19 amino acids were more concentrated in cowpea xylem-sap than in sunflower xylem-sap. Thus, decreased consumption of sunflower xylem-sap was likely owing to perceived lower quality, with decreased egg production owing to a combination of decreased feeding and lower return per unit volume of xylem-sap consumed. Examination of pairwise correlation coefficients among amino acids indicated that concentrations of several amino acids within a plant species were correlated. Principal component analyses identified latent variables describing amino acid composition of xylem-sap. For females held on cowpea, egg maturation was affected by test date, volume of excreta produced, and principal components describing amino acid composition of xylem-sap. Principal component analyses aided in identifying amino acids that were positively or negatively associated with egg production, although determining causality with respect to key nutritional requirements for glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production will require additional testing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens.

  6. Different configurations of laser vibrometry for quality control of electric motors with external rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiariotti, P.; Ciarmatori, R.; Castellini, P.; Bastari, A.; Paone, N.

    2012-06-01

    When designing a test bench for vibration based diagnostics of machines with external rotating parts, such as electric motors having a rotating external rotor, one may choose among single point vibrometry, rotational vibrometry or in-plane vibrometry. The paper discusses these different options, taking the assumption that the minimum number of measuring instruments is preferred when instrumenting a quality control system and provides an insight into advantages and limitations of each instrument. In particular the following issues are discussed: a) possible installation lay-outs; b) alignment problems (and possible advantages for diagnostics), c) typical signals and diagnostic features which can be observed. The research presented refers to electric motors for home appliances, but potentially has wider application fields to other rotating machines.

  7. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  8. The external quality assessment scheme: Five years experience as a participating laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Quality assurance in blood banking includes active participation in the external quality program. Such a program offers valuable benefits to patient care, their safety, and an overall quality of laboratory practices. In the year 2002, we participated in the External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS under the World Health Organization (WHO, Bureau of Laboratory Quality Standards, Thailand. Materials and Methods: In the current study we evaluated our EQAS test result of the past five years, from 2003 to 2007. Test results of all blood samples such as ABO grouping, D typing, antibody screening, antibody identification, and transfusion transmitted infection (TTI testing were analyzed and documented. Results: Discordant results in one or more instances were observed with antibody identification, weak D testing, and tests for anti-HIV1/2 and HBsAg. Twice we failed to detect the ′anti-Mia′ antibody in the issued sample and that could be attributed to the absence of the corresponding antigen in the used cell panel. HBsAg was missed due to its critically low titer in the serum and the comparatively low sensitivity of our Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test kit. Conclusion: All these failures in the last five years have helped us to significantly improve our transfusion service in terms of performance evaluation, patient care and safety issues, and the overall quality of laboratory practices. We therefore recommend all laboratories and hospitals to participate in the EQAS program, which will definitely help them to improve from what they learn.

  9. On the relative effect of spawning asynchrony, sperm quantity and sperm quality on paternity under sperm competition in an external fertilizer

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    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How much of a fitness benefit is obtained by dominant males of external fertilizers from releasing ejaculates in synchrony with female egg-release when engaging in sperm competition, and what is the most important sperm trait for paternity in these situations? The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus is an external fertilizer experiencing intense male-male competition over reproductive opportunities including sperm competition. To compensate for their disadvantage the sneaker males, which often spawn out of synchrony with the female, produce more and faster sperm than the guarding males. We used controlled in vitro fertilization trials with experimentally produced dominant and subordinate, sneaker males to test what effect relative synchrony in gamete release, sperm quality (i.e., motility and velocity and sperm quantity have on a male’s fertilization success in pair-wise sperm competitions. When the sneaker males released ejaculates after the guarding male there was no overall difference in fertilization success. The quality (i.e., motility and velocity of a male’s sperm relative to that of the competing male was the best predictor of male fertilization success regardless of their mating tactic and spawning synchrony. The relative number of sperm cells also had an effect on fertilization success, but mainly when the dominant and sneaker male ejaculated synchronously. Our close imitation of natural sperm competition in charr shows that the sneaker males of external fertilizing species may fully compensate for their disadvantaged mating role by producing ejaculates of higher quality - an adjustment strangely not met by dominants.

  10. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation of laying hens: effects on egg fatty acid composition and quality

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    A. Franchini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a common term for a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid; the most commonly found in natural products is cis-9, trans-11-octadecanoic acid. Naturally occurring CLA is produced as an intermediate product of microbial metabolism of linoleic acid in the rumen. For this reason the CLA concentration is higher in ruminant products, such as milk, cheese and meat compared to products derived from monogastrics, particularly chicken meat and egg yolk. Recent investigations suggest that CLA have anticarcinogenic properties, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity (Ip et al., 1995; Nicolosi et al., 1997; Du et al., 2001...

  11. Twelve years of the Brazilian External Quality Assessment Program in Immunohematology: benefits of the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Laércio; Pellegrino, Jordão; Bianco, Celso; Castilho, Lilian

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian External Quality Assessment Program in Immunohematology (BEQAPI) was introduced with the objective of evaluating the quality of diagnosis in immunohematology. From 1992 to 2003, proficiency tests for ABO grouping, Rh (D, C, c, E, e), K phenotyping, direct antiglobulin testing (DAT), antibody screening (AS), and antibody identification (AI) were performed. A total of 41 evaluations were carried out in 223 institutions. Over the period of 12 years, the program included 8,014 ABO typing, 8,000 RhD typing, 5,193 Rh typing (C, c, E, e), 5,101 K phenotyping, 7,939 AS, 4,533 AI, and 7,912 DATs. Erroneous responses were classified as clerical, technical, or undetermined. A substantial proportion of erroneous responses due to clerical errors occurred in ABO typing (76/76 errors), RhD typing (34/58 errors), and Rh phenotyping (50/73 errors). Technical errors occurred predominantly for weak D (91/95 errors), AS (252/301 errors), and AI (321/335 errors). Based on these results, since 1996, participants have received "Questions and Case Studies" in Immunohematology as an incentive for training and education. The results of the present study show an improvement in the performance of participants in the course of the program. We found that a well-organized external proficiency program can contribute to the improvement of quality of testing in Immunohematology.

  12. Implementation of External Quality Assessment Scheme in Clinical Chemistry for District Laboratories in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtsho, Rixin; Nuchpramool, Wilairat

    2012-07-01

    External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) involves evaluation of a number of laboratories by an outside agency on the performance of a number of laboratories based on their analytical performance of tests on samples supplied by the external agency. In developing countries, establishment of national EQAS by preparing homemade quality control material is a useful scheme in terms of resources and time to monitor the laboratory performance. The objective of this study is to implement an EQAS to monitor the analytical performance of the district laboratories in Bhutan. Baseline information was collected through questionnaires. Lyophilized human serum including normal and abnormal levels were prepared and distributed to 19 participating laboratories. Nine routine analytes were included for the study. Their results were evaluated using Variance index scores (VIS) and Coefficient of variations (CV) was compared with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) Proficiency Testing Criteria (PT) for each analyte. There was significant decrease in CV at the end of the study. The percentages of results in acceptable VIS as 'A' were 63, 60, 66, 69, 73 and 74, 75, 76 and 79 % in November 2009-July 2010 respectively. From our results, we concluded that, establishment of EQAS through distribution of home-made quality control material could be the useful scheme to monitor the laboratory performance in clinical chemistry in Bhutan.

  13. Influência do óleo de linhaça sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas Influence of linseed oil on performance and egg quality of semi-heavy laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a influência da adição de óleo de linhaça em substituição ao óleo de soja em rações para poedeiras semipesadas sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Utilizaram-se 192 poedeiras da linhagem Bovans Godline com 29 semanas de idade, distribuídas em seis tratamentos, que consistiram de uma dieta controle (sem óleo vegetal e de cinco dietas contendo 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0% de óleo de linhaça em substituição, respectivamente, a 100, 75, 50, 25 ou 0% do óleo de soja. Avaliaram-se a produção (PROD, o peso (PO e a massa de ovo (MO, as conversões por massa (CMO e por dúzia de ovos (CDZ, os pesos e as porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca, a gravidade específica, os teores de matéria seca, cinzas e proteína do albúmen e da gema e o teor de colesterol e a coloração da gema. A produção, o peso do ovo, a massa de ovo e as conversões por massa e por dúzia de ovos, bem como a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos, não foram influenciados pelos níveis de óleo de linhaça na ração. Do mesmo modo, não houve efeito da inclusão de óleo de linhaça sobre a composição química dos ovos e somente a coloração da gema foi intensificada quando utilizados níveis acima de 1% de óleo de linhaça na dieta. A adição de até 2% de óleo de linhaça na ração não altera o desempenho de poedeiras semipesadas nem a qualidade interna e externa e o teor de colesterol dos ovos.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of the linseed oil addition in replacement of soybean oil in laying hens diets on performance and internal and external egg quality. A total of 192 laying hens Bovans Godline line with 29 week-old, were distributed to six treatments, that consisted of a control diet (without vegetal oil and of five diets containing 2% of linseed oil in replacement of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of soybean oil, generating levels of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of

  14. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F

    2009-01-01

    mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass......1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg...... quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry...

  15. The Program of External Quality Evaluation in Clinical Chemistry. An overview and evaluation after 11 years of functioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, M C; Rodrigues, M O; Gomes, M A; Fonseca, A; Freitas, M M; Miguel, J P; Gomes, E M

    1994-01-01

    After an eleven-year period, the goals and way of functioning are remembered the External Quality Assessment Scheme in Clinical Chemistry, under the responsibility of the National Institute of Health...

  16. Reproductive broodstock performance and egg quality of wild-caught and first-generation domesticated Seriola rivoliana reared under same culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F Quiñones-Arreola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Almaco jack, Seriola rivoliana as well as some related species is of great interest in marine fish aquaculture. However, there are few studies about their reproduction in captivity. In this research work, reproductive performance and egg quality in two groups of adult Seriola rivoliana, caught in the wild and domesticated-F1 analyzed and compared, reared under optimal maturation conditions in a commercial private Laboratory. A total of 28 wild adult (>5 kg were caught at La Paz Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and 30 adult domesticated-F1 broodstock (>5 kg, were obtained from an original stock of 1,000 juveniles (3.5 g body weight produced at Kona Blue (Hawaii, USA sea farm. Fishes were transported to the Rancheros del Mar commercial private hatchery, where they were grown to adult size. Both groups were evaluated during eight months (May to December 2012 and compared in terms of reproduction performance (total number of spawning events, monthly spawning frequency, total number of eggs, total number of eggs per mL, and fertilization rate, egg biochemical composition (total proteins, total lipids, total carbohydrates, and triacylglycerides and egg diameter. Results indicated that wild caught broostock showed a better reproductive performance in terms of fertilization rate, total number of spawning, monthly spawning frequency and total number of eggs produced. However, biochemical composition and egg diameter did not show statistical differences (P < 0.05 between two groups. The reproductive performance of broodstock and quality of eggs analyzed in this study are important traits to improve the aquaculture management of this species.

  17. Five years of experience with a national external quality control program for the culture and identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, C W; Mehaffey, M A; Cook, E C

    1983-01-01

    In response to a need for monitoring the proficiency of public health laboratories in isolating and identifying Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a national external quality control program was developed. Essentially, three types of freeze-dried samples, representing different levels of challenge for identification, were sent to laboratories for testing. The quality of the samples was confirmed by external reference laboratories, and stability of the samples was confirmed by thermal degradation tests be...

  18. Anatomy and history of an external quality assessment program for interpretative comments in clinical biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasikaran, Samuel D

    2015-05-01

    The provision of clinical interpretation of results, either verbally or in the printed report, may be considered an integral part of clinical biochemistry diagnostic service. Proficiency testing or external quality assessment (EQA) of such activity may be useful in education, training, continuing professional development and ensuring the quality of such service. Details of the Patient Report Comments Program (RPCProgram) developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) Chemical Pathology Quality Assurance Programs Pty Ltd (QAP) is described in this review. The program is aimed at pathologists, clinical scientists and trainees. Registered participants are provided a report with case details and a set of clinical biochemistry results at monthly intervals and submit an interpretative comment for the report. Comments received are broken up into components that are translated into common key phrases. An expert panel evaluates the key phrases, classifies them according to appropriateness and drafts a suggested comment, a case summary and a rationale, which are included in a summary report returned to participants. There is considerable diversity in the quality of interpretative comments received from participants of the PRCProgram. The primary purpose of EQA of interpretative commenting is educational self-assessment, and they are recognized as a continuing professional development activity. Whilst there is some evidence for the utility of interpretative comments in improving patient outcomes, evidence for the utility of EQA in improving quality of comments is awaited.

  19. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEROL CONCENTRATION IN TRIS GLUCOSE EGG YOLK EXTENDER ON THE QUALITY OF TIMOR DEER FROZEN SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. M. Nalley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study was to compare the glycerol concentration in Tris glucose egg yolk (TGEY diluents on the quality of deer frozen semen. Semen was collected from 5 Timor deer using electroejaculator. Immediately after collection the semen was evaluated macroscopic and microscopically. After initial evaluation, the semen was divided into three tubes and extended with Tris egg yolk with three different glycerol concentrations, which were 10% (TGEY10; 12% (TGEY12 and 14% (TGEY14. The sperm motility, viability, acrosome intact and membrane intact were evaluated in raw semen, after equilibration and after thawing. The results showed that there were no differences (p>0.05 on the sperm motility, viability as well as sperm acrosome intact. Sperm membrane intact in TGEY10 (52.50±5.89% and TGEY14 (51.50±4.12 % were higher (p<0.05 than in TGEY12 (49.00±6.58. It was concluded that 10, 12 or 14% glycerol concentration can be used for Timor deer semen cryopreservation.

  20. Maize kernel size and texture: production parameters, quality of eggs of the laying hens and electricity intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javer Alves Vieira Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maize corn size and texture on the performance parameters of laying hens and power consumption required for grinding maize corn were evaluated. The experiment was carried out on 384 Isa Brown hens, 36 weeks old, penned in a conventional aviary with 562.5 cm2 bird-1 stocking rate. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design (maize textures: flint and dent; and milling degree: fine, medium and coarse with eight replicates of eight birds per plot. Data were evaluated with SISVAR and means were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. Difference was reported for the variable texture and flint increased the variables feed intake and egg weight. Significant difference in the characteristics of egg quality occurred only for the colorof the yolk. Larger corn sizes consumed less electricity during grinding. The maize flint cultivar had a lower 31.7% power consumption when compared to that of the dent cultivar.

  1. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.; Rundsten, Carsten Friis

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess...... the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled...... the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying...

  2. The External Quality Assurance System of the WHO Global Salm-Surv Year 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Jensen, Arne Bent

    To support laboratories participating in WHO GSS an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) was established in 2000. The EQAS supports the assessment of the quality of serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella in participating laboratories. In 2003, the program was extended...... to include other foodborne pathogens as well, and the number of participants has increased from 44 laboratories in 2000, to 187 laboratories in 2008. The serotyping results indicate a continuous need for improving skills in Salmonella serotyping. Future training efforts should be aimed at enhancing...... training modules on identification procedures for Campylobacter spp. Given the growing concerns over increasing macrolide resistance in Campylobacter spp., participants in the 2009 EQAS will also be offered the opportunity to perform susceptibility testing of Campylobacter spp....

  3. A Cognitive Modeling Method of the Life Quality Indicators in Terms of External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Massel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a potential use of the methods of cognitive modeling in the field of quality of life. The quality of life, as a universal indicator of human self-perception to feel his sense of satisfaction from various parts of his life, is difficult to assess by strictly mathematical methods, so the authors suggest using the cognitive modeling. The quality of life in his estimation for the convenience of research activity is divided into components - indicators of the quality of life. The widespread indicator "quality of life" and the complexity of the development of its assessment methods lead to high relevance of the authors-proposed method.The introduction provides an overview of current approaches to assessing the quality of life. Among all these approaches the most advantageous is an objectively subjective one. The paper gives a brief assessment of cognitive modeling methods, which are, essentially, a way of graphic and structural elements of reflection and relationships in complex systems. As a result of the analysis of existing research in this area, was found the potential for creating cognitive models of the quality of life and its indicators and was defined the place of the proposed method, among others. The paper presents the method itself, as a series of steps, and focuses on the promising opportunities for researchers of the quality of life from its using.Among the possible lines to use cognitive modeling of the life quality indicators can be three main ones: implementation of new methods to assess the quality of life; choice of the most appropriate technique for a particular study among available methods; realization of the cognitive model and numerical experiment, which allows seeing the effect of external factors on the individual indicators of the quality of life. Thus, due to the high relevance and significant benefits from the use of the proposed method, the article is of interest to researchers of the quality of life

  4. A kinetic model for describing effect of the external surface concentration of TiO2 on the reactivity of egg-shell activated carbon supported TiO2 photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The porous support supported TiO2 is considered to be the promising photocatalyst due to the fact that it is easily recovered from water and has high capacity to mineralize pollutants. Obviously, the expected structure of this kind of photocatalyst is egg-shell, that is, TiO2 is mainly on the external surface of the porous support. The reactivity of the supported photocatalyst strongly depends on the concentration of TiO2 on the external surface of the porous support. In this study, a kinetic model was developed to describe the effect of the external surface concentration of TiO2 (CESC) on the reactivity of egg-shell activated carbon (AC) supported TiO2 photocatalysts. It was found that the obtained model precisely described the effect of CESC, on the reactivity of TiO2/AC photocatalysts. This study can be used to deeply understand the performance of TiO2/AC catalysts and to provide valuable information on designing efficient supported TiO2 photocatalysts.

  5. Effect of the Inclusion of Organic Copper, Manganese, And Zinc in The Diet of Layers on Mineral Excretion, Egg Production, and Eggshell Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSS Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating the replacement of inorganic copper, manganese, and zinc sources by organic sources in the diet of laying hens during the second laying cycle in trace mineral excretion, egg production, and eggshell quality. Two hundred and fifty 100-week-old Dekalb hens were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. The control treatment consisted of a basal diet with all trace minerals in the inorganic form. The other treatments consisted of a basal diet with a mixture of the minerals copper, manganese, and zinc in the organic form with concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% of the levels of inclusion of inorganic mineral sources in the control treatment. Trace mineral excretion was determined in five layers per treatment by the method of total excreta collection. Excreta trace mineral contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Egg production and eggshell quality were determined by the mass of the eggs and the egg specific gravity, respectively. For all trace minerals examined, the dietary supplementation with organic sources reduced trace mineral excretion compared with the control group, even at 70% inclusion level, without compromising egg production or eggshell quality. The replacement of the inorganic trace mineral sources by organics source effectively reduced the excretion of copper, manganese, and zinc by laying hens in the second laying cycle.

  6. [Quality evaluation of a dehydrated product based on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) and eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorio Paulet, P; Reynoso Zárate, Z

    1993-03-01

    After a mathematical evaluation of 20 mixtures containing different proportions of potato (P), lupin (L) and whole egg (E) on dry basis and kept the latter component in a constant amount of 6 per cent, a mixture of 60:34:6 (P:L:E) was chosen for a further experimental work at a lab level because of his better nutritional value for the pre-school children feeding. When an eighteen percent suspension of the mixture mentioned above was dehydrated in a drum drier an adecuate yield of flakes was obtained with an appropriate water absorption. The sensory evaluation test of the dehydrated product as a sauce indicated a higher acceptance than purées. On the other hand, during a 90 days period storage test of the product as flakes, it did not show microbiological problems, although after 45 days rancidity appeared in the dehydrated product.

  7. Effects of xylem-sap composition on glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation on high and low quality host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooters must feed as adults to produce mature eggs. Cowpea and sunflower are both readily accepted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter for feeding, but egg production on sunflower was reported to be lower than egg production on cowpea. To better understand the role of adult diet in...

  8. Egg oiling to reduce hatch-year ring-billed gull numbers on Chicago's beaches during swim season and water quality test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M; Hartmann, John W; Beckerman, Scott F; Seamans, Thomas W; Abu-Absi, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    A burgeoning ring-billed gull population along Chicago's Lake Michigan beaches contributes to degraded water quality through fecal contamination. Egg oiling was conducted at Chicago's gull colonies to reduce production and the influx of hatch-year (HY) gulls using Chicago's beaches, with a second, long-term objective of eventually reducing adult gull numbers through attrition. We also investigated swim season water quality trends through the course of this work. From 2007 to 2009, 52, 80, and 81%, of nests at the two primary nest colonies had their eggs rendered inviable by corn oil application. Counts of HY and after hatch-year (AHY) gulls were analyzed during treatment years for 10 beaches. Water quality data were available from the Chicago Park District during our three treatment years and the prior year (baseline) for 19 beaches. HY counts declined at all 10 surveyed beaches from the initial year (52% nests with oiled eggs) to subsequent years with ~80% of nests oiled. Overall, HY gulls numbers on beaches decreased 86% from 2007 to 2009. Decreases in beach usage by AHY gulls were not detected. Compared to pretreatment, the number of beaches with improved water quality test rates increased each year through the course of the study. The frequency of water quality tests showing bacterial exceedances compared to 2006 declined at 18 of 19 beaches by 2009. Egg oiling resulted in fewer HY gulls using Chicago's beaches and was likely a beneficial factor for reduced frequencies of swim advisories and swim bans.

  9. Computation of External Quality Factors for RF Structures by Means of Model Order Reduction and a Perturbation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    External quality factors are significant quantities to describe losses via waveguide ports in radio frequency resonators. The current contribution presents a novel approach to determine external quality factors by means of a two-step procedure: First, a state-space model for the lossless radio frequency structure is generated and its model order is reduced. Subsequently, a perturbation method is applied on the reduced model so that external losses are accounted for. The advantage of this approach results from the fact that the challenges in dealing with lossy systems are shifted to the reduced order model. This significantly saves computational costs. The present paper provides a short overview on existing methods to compute external quality factors. Then, the novel approach is introduced and validated in terms of accuracy and computational time by means of commercial software.

  10. The toxic effects of combined aflatoxins and zearalenone in naturally contaminated diets on laying performance, egg quality and mycotoxins residues in eggs of layers and the protective effect of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ru; Ma, Qiugang; Fan, Yu; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-04-01

    The toxic effect of aflatoxins (AF) and zearalenone (ZEA) and their combination on laying performance, egg quality and toxins residues in eggs, as well as the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product (BDP) for ameliorating these effects in layers were evaluated. Layers were submitted to a two phase experiment. The first phase was an intoxication period (18-23 wk) with birds fed 7 (3 × 2 + 1) diets (3 treatments with mycotoxins: AF (123.0 μg/kg), ZEA (260.2 μg/kg), or AF + ZEA (123.0 + 260.2 μg/kg); 2 treatments with or without BDP (1000 g/t); and a control group contained no toxins nor BDP). The next phase was a recovery period (24-29 wk) in which birds were fed a toxin-free diet. In the intoxication period, AF and AF + ZEA groups exhibited lower egg production, feed intake and shell thickness, and higher AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 residues as compared with the control group. In addition, AF and ZEA exerted synergistic effects on egg production and feed intake. Moreover, AF alone or combined with ZEA had a continuous toxic effect on laying performance in the recovery phase. Addition of BDP offset these negative effects, showing that BDP has a protective effect on layers fed contaminated diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EGG QUALITY AND HATCHABILITY OF In situ - REARED KEDU AND CEMANI HENS FED DIET OF FARMER FORMULATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation in Kedu andCemani hens reraed in situ and given farmer-formulated diet on egg performances. A total of 120 femaleand 24 male birds were equally divided into two groups of Kedu and Cemani, with average body weightof 1890+216.79 and 1830+396.23 g, respectively. Basal ration was based on the diet formulated by thefarmer (R1 consisting of corn (30%, rice bran (50%, protein concentrate (15%, and premix (5%.Dietary treatments evaluated were R1 (without additional vitamin E, and the other three were theinclusion of DL α-tocopheryl acetate into the R1 diet up to 2 (R2, 4 (R3 and 6 IU (R4. The experimentwas arranged in a Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments, and 2 different groups of hen (Kedu andCemani were assigned as block. Parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day production, feedconversion ratio, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability. The result showed that vitamin Esupplementation did not affect whatever parameters, except egg fertility. Egg hatchability between Keduand Cemani hens was significantly different (p<0.05. Trend comparison test indicated significantlylinear (p<0.05 for fertility and hatchability. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation up to 6 IUincreased linearly egg fertility and hatchability of about 5-8%, and egg hatchability of Kedu hens washigher (11% than that of Cemani.

  12. EGG QUALITY AND HATCHABILITY OF In situ - REARED KEDU AND CEMANI HENS FED DIET OF FARMER FORMULATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Wahyuni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation in Kedu and Cemani hens reraed in situ and given farmer-formulated diet on egg performances. A total of 120 female and 24 male birds were equally divided into two groups of Kedu and Cemani, with average body weight of 1890+216.79 and 1830+396.23 g, respectively. Basal ration was based on the diet formulated by the farmer (R1 consisting of corn (30%, rice bran (50%, protein concentrate (15%, and premix (5%. Dietary treatments evaluated were R1 (without additional vitamin E, and the other three were the inclusion of DL α-tocopheryl acetate into the R1 diet up to 2 (R2, 4 (R3 and 6 IU (R4. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments, and 2 different groups of hen (Kedu and Cemani were assigned as block. Parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day production, feed conversion ratio, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability. The result showed that vitamin E supplementation did not affect whatever parameters, except egg fertility. Egg hatchability between Kedu and Cemani hens was significantly different (p<0.05. Trend comparison test indicated significantly linear (p<0.05 for fertility and hatchability. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation up to 6 IU increased linearly egg fertility and hatchability of about 5-8%, and egg hatchability of Kedu hens was higher (11% than that of Cemani.

  13. Effect of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Used as a Feed Additive on The Egg Quality of Laying Hens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Gharaghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, one hundred and twenty 40-wk-old White Leghorn laying hens were submitted to two different thermal conditions (24° C vs. 34° C and were fed three levels (0, 10, or and 20 g/kg of dietof fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. as a feed additive in. This study was carried out according to a factorial design consisting of two temperatures and three fennel levels with five 5 replicates each (n = 2 × 3 × 5. Performance, egg production, egg quality, and oxidative product levels (malondialdehyde, MDA, and carbonyl in the eggs were measured before and after heat exposure. The results showed that the tested temperatures did not affect egg production (p>0.05, but the production of eggs with broken shell and feed intake were affected by heat stress (p0.05, but increased yolk triglyceride levels. Hens that consumed fennel presented lower yolk cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. In general, fennel fruit influenced egg yolk cholesterol and triglyceride contents, and because of its antioxidant properties, it may alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on laying hens.

  14. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation.

  15. [External assessment of analytic quality in hematology: a necessity in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, N E; Fernández Alberti, A; Mazziotta, D

    1997-09-01

    The assurance of analytical quality in a clinical laboratory is achieved through an internal system of quality control complemented by an external evaluation program. Quality assurance provides a foundation for the confidence that is placed in laboratory results and their use in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Many laboratories in Latin American countries do not have appropriate systems in place to evaluate and control quality. Given the importance of diagnoses based on hematologic data, the Pan American Health Organization sponsored a course in quality control in hematology during the XI Latin American Congress of Clinical Biochemistry (Mexico, 1993), in which representatives from Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Dominican Republic, and Uruguay participated. As part of the course, the following control materials were produced: secondary standard solution of cyanmethemoglobin, stabilized concentrated hemoglobin solution, and preserved human whole blood with pseudoleukocytes. These materials were sent to laboratories in the seven participating countries for use in analytical procedures, and the results were then subjected to an external evaluation to assess individual performance and the comparability of results among the group. The specific tasks carried out were: (1) determination of values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red and white blood cell counts by the procedures normally used in each laboratory; (2) recording of the data on special reporting forms; and (3) transmittal of those forms to the coordinator in each country. The results were analyzed with regard to both the procedure used and the participating country. Reference values were established by consensus following application of a statistical method to eliminate outlying values. Comparative analysis of the results showed the coefficients of variation (CV) of the hematocrit (4.5%), red blood cell count (11.0%), and white blood cell count (22.2%) to be higher than those reported from

  16. Study on Quality and Nutrition of Eggs from Hy - line Brown and Jingbai%海兰褐鸡与京白鸡蛋品质与营养对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋爱祎; 逢焕明; 李瑾瑜; 朱正兰; 古丽娜孜; 王子荣

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This experiment compared the differences of egg quality and nutrient content of Hy- line brown and Jingbai hen. [ Method] 100 eggs were rando mLy selected from 40 to 43 - week - old of Hy- line brown and Jingbai hen to determine the quality and nutrition, using Duncan method for multiple comparisons. [Result]Except egg white pH value, the Hy -Line Browns external quality and internal quality indicators were higher than those of Jingbai hen; Cholesterol levels have a very significant difference (P < 0.01) ,the unit is g/100 g; Gram each piece for unit, protein and fat content have a very significant difference (P <0. 01). [ Conclusion] Egg quality of Hy - line brown was better than that of Jingbai hen; nutrient content of Hy -line brown was lower than Jingbai hen,the unit is g/100 g;Gram each piece, nutrient content of Hy - line brown hen was higher than that of Jingbai hens, except for cholesterol.%[目的]分析海兰褐鸡和京白鸡蛋品质及营养成分的差异.[方法]随机抽取40~ 43周龄的海兰褐鸡、京白鸡蛋各100枚,测定其蛋品质和营养,并采用Duncan新复极差法进行多重比较.[结果]除蛋清pH值外,海兰褐鸡蛋外在品质和内在品质指标均高于京白鸡的;以g/100 g为单位,胆固醇含量有极显著差异(P<0.01);而以g/枚为单位,蛋白质和脂肪含量有极显著差异(P<0.01).[结论]蛋品质海兰褐鸡的比京白鸡的好;蛋以g/100 g为单位,京白鸡的营养成分比海兰褐鸡的高;以g/枚为单位,除胆固醇外京白鸡的营养成分比海兰褐鸡的低.

  17. Perceived external prestige as a mediator between quality of work life and organisational commitment of public sector employees in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyinka Ojedokun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment, but these studies have not elucidated the mediating role of perceived external prestige in this relationship.Research purpose: This research seeks to close a research gap by determining the role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment amongst public sector employees in Ghana.Research approach, design and method: Theoretically guided hypotheses and models were formulated and tested with hierarchical multiple regression statistics using data from a sample of 137 employees from two public sector organisations in Ghana.Main findings: The results support the hypothesis that quality of work life is positively related to both perceived external prestige and organisational commitment. Also, perceived external prestige was found to predict organisational commitment and partially mediate the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: The findings imply that one sure way to enhance organisational commitment of employees is by improving their quality of work life and boosting their perceptions of external prestige of the organisation. These results will be of particular interest to policymakers, public organisations and stakeholders interested in increasing organisational commitment of their employees.Contribution/value-add: The findings extend previous research by establishing the mediating role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. If managers of organisations wish to improve organisational commitment, it is wise to institutionalise an organisational culture that promotes good quality of work life and boost the external prestige of the organisation in the employees’ mind.

  18. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P hens.

  19. Determinants of Quality Perception in Educational Administration: Potential Conflict between the Requirements of Internal and External Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, R. L.; Wearn, Katrina

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to measure perceived quality, based on customers' views within the context of a (British) university faculty office, using a modified SERVQUAL instrument. Internal customers demonstrated that perceived quality is driven by task-focused issues, stressing clarity, accuracy, and reliability. External customers, whose usage is more casual,…

  20. Performance of Different Mono- and Multiplex Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests on a Multipathogen External Quality Assessment Panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loens, K.; van Loon, A. M.; Coenjaerts, F.; van Aarle, Y.; Goossens, H.; Wallace, P.; Claas, E. J. C.; Ieven, M.

    2012-01-01

    An external quality assessment (EQA) panel consisting of a total of 48 samples in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid or transport medium was prepared in collaboration with Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) (www.qcmd.org). The panel was used to assess the proficiency of the three labor

  1. KRAS mutations testing in colorectal carcinoma patients in Italy: from guidelines to external quality assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Normanno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR have been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC that do not carry KRAS mutations. Therefore, KRAS testing has become mandatory to chose the most appropriate therapy for these patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to guarantee the possibility for mCRC patients to receive an high quality KRAS testing in every Italian region, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM and the Italian Society of Pathology and Cytopathology -Italian division of the International Academy of Pathology (SIAPEC-IAP started a program to improve KRAS testing. AIOM and SIAPEC identified a large panel of Italian medical oncologists, pathologists and molecular biologists that outlined guidelines for KRAS testing in mCRC patients. These guidelines include specific information on the target patient population, the biological material for molecular analysis, the extraction of DNA, and the methods for the mutational analysis that are summarized in this paper. Following the publication of the guidelines, the scientific societies started an external quality assessment scheme for KRAS testing. Five CRC specimens with known KRAS mutation status were sent to the 59 centers that participated to the program. The samples were validated by three referral laboratories. The participating laboratories were allowed to use their own preferred method for DNA extraction and mutational analysis and were asked to report the results within 4 weeks. The limit to pass the quality assessment was set at 100% of true responses. In the first round, only two centers did not pass (3%. The two centers were offered to participate to a second round and both centers failed again to pass. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this first Italian quality assessment for KRAS testing suggest that KRAS mutational analysis is performed with good quality in the majority of

  2. [Quality analysis by external users of the non-medical health transport unit of Alicante].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Clemor, C; Cano, F Soriano; Gimeno, F Morant

    2011-01-01

    Non-medical health transport has great health, media and social repercussions and requires a very considerable amount of human and economic resources. To describe the quality, evaluated by external users of our Health Department, in order to know what are the most important elements for external users. Cross-sectional, descriptive observational study. Population to study: patients with a social security health card who come to the Hospital of Alicante and are non-medical health transport unit users. Waiting time to be delivered to hospital in 92.7% of the cases was less than an hour, and was between one and two hours for 7.2%. The most frequent destinations were rehabilitation service and outpatient clinics. When users were asked if the would recommend this service, 60.9% said "for sure" and 39.1% said "probably yes". This study allows us to know patient needs and expectations, as well as the factors they value the most and which of our work areas to improve. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  4. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  5. The Czech External Quality Control system in medical microbiology and parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Kríz, B

    2000-11-01

    The External Quality Control (EQC) system in activities of laboratories engaged in medical microbiology and parasitology was established in the Czech Republic in 1993 when to the first laboratories which applied coded serum samples were sent for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification. In the course of years the number of control areas increased and in 2000 there were 31 and the number of those interested in participation in EQC increased from 79 in 1993 to 434 in 2000. This year a total of 13,239 samples will be sent to laboratories. Gradually thus almost all microbiological and parasitological laboratories concerned with examination of clinical material became involved. Seven-year experience with EQC in the Czech Republic revealed that gradually the results of various examinations became more accurate, that methods became standardized and the most suitable examination sets are used.

  6. The quality and testing PH-SFT infrastructure for the external LHC software packages deployment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; MENDEZ LORENZO, Patricia; MATO VILA, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The PH-SFT group is responsible for the build, test, and deployment of the set of external software packages used by the LHC experiments. This set includes ca. 170 packages including Grid packages and Montecarlo generators provided for different versions. A complete build structure has been established to guarantee the quality of the packages provided by the group. This structure includes an experimental build and three daily nightly builds, each of them dedicated to a specific ROOT version including v6.02, v6.04, and the master. While the former build is dedicated to the test of new packages, versions and dependencies (basically SFT internal used), the three latter ones are the responsible for the deployment to AFS of the set of stable and well tested packages requested by the LHC experiments so they can apply their own builds on top. In all cases, a c...

  7. Difference Analysis of Egg Quality between Royal Chicken,Guinea Fowl and Commercial Chicken%贵妃鸡蛋、珍珠鸡蛋及商品鸡蛋品质差异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳芳

    2013-01-01

    This article measured and compared the quality and nutrient content in Royal chicken eggs,Guinea fowl eggs and the commercial chicken eggs. The results showed that the content of protein and fat in Royal chicken eggs and Guinea fowl eggs was higher than that in the commercial chicken eggs. The content of egg yolk in the commercial chicken eggs was only 59.3% of Royal chicken eggs,and 62.6% of Guinea fowl eggs. So it suggested that children and the old eat more Royal chicken eggs and Guinea fowl eggs.%对贵妃鸡蛋、珍珠鸡蛋及商品鸡蛋的品质及营养成分含量进行测定,并对各指标进行比较分析。结果表明,贵妃鸡蛋和珍珠鸡蛋的蛋白质及脂肪含量略高于商品鸡蛋,商品鸡蛋蛋黄卵磷脂的含量仅为贵妃鸡蛋的59.3%,珍珠鸡蛋的62.6%,建议儿童和老年人多食用贵妃鸡蛋及珍珠鸡蛋。

  8. Effect of water quality on survival of Lahontan cutthroat trout eggs in the Truckee River, west-central Nevada and eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ray J.; Scoppettone, Gary G.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has an ongoing program to assess the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning populations of Lahontan cutthroat trout in the Truckee River-Pyramid Lake system in Nevada. Previous in situ egg-survival studies have documented a 100 percent mortality of cutthroat trout eggs artificially planted in potential spawning gravels in the Truckee River downstream from Reno. The relation between ambient river-quality conditions and the observed mortality of eggs, however, has not been adequately documented. This study was designed to monitor the quality of surface and intragravel water during a trout-egg incubation period that began March 10, 1980. Five sites were monitored: two upstream from Reno (background sites), one near Reno, and two downstream from Wadsworth. After an incubation period of about 30 days, poor egg survival was recorded at all sites, including an unexpected high mortality at the upstream background sites. Analyses of the data indicated that the principal cause of egg mortality at the two downstream sites was low concentrations (less than 5 milligrams per liter) of intragravel dissolved oxygen. Low water temperatures, rather than degraded water-quality conditions, largely contributed to the poor survival at the upstream sites. Based on the results of this study, the following were considered unlikely to be mortality factors during the incubation period: (1) high water temperatures; (2) toxicity due to ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, and zinc; and (3) decreasing intragravel dissolved oxygen caused by inflow of oxygen-poor ground water.

  9. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen.

  10. Administration of extract Salix tetrasperma combined with extract of turmeric and neem to improve eggs quality of chicken reared under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of eggs might decrease when hens under heat stress. A further study found that a specific plant extracts could reduce the impacts of heat stress. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Salix tetrasperma plant extract in combination with extract of turmeric and neem to improve egg quality and productivity of laying hens under heat stress. Sixty laying hens strain Isa Brown of 6 months old were used and reared in individual cages. The feed and drinking water were supplied ad libitum. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments (two controls and three treatments and each treatment consisted of 12 replication. Treatment consisted of with (KP and without (KP commercial anti-stress supplement. Formulations of extract were S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l water (EJ, S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 250 mg / l + neem 250 mg / l (EJ+K1, and S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 500 mg / l + neem 500 mg / l drinking water (EJ+K2. The hens were exposed to heat stress for 5 hours per day at a temperature range of 34.0±1.0°C. Supplements were dissolved in drinking water and were given for 30 days in the morning and noon. Results showed that a single extract of S. tetrasperma or the combination of an extract of turmeric and neem were significantly increased thickness of eggshell (P<0.05, but did not affect color of egg yolk, height albumin, egg weight, and HU value. Extract of S. tetrasperma combined with turmeric and neem extract dissolved in drinking water for 30 days in laying hens reared under heat stress could not improved quality of the eggs, but may increase thickness of the egg shell and cause decreased water consumption.

  11. [Development of external quality control protocol for CyberKnife beams dosimetry: preliminary tests multicentre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinement, L; Marchesi, V; Veres, A; Lacornerie, T; Buchheit, I; Peiffert, D

    2013-01-01

    To develop an external quality control procedure for CyberKnife(®) beams. This work conducted in Nancy, has included a test protocol initially drawn by the medical physicist of Nancy and Lille in collaboration with Equal-Estro Laboratory. A head and neck anthropomorphic phantom and a water-equivalent homogeneous cubic plastic test-object, so-called "MiniCube", have been used. Powder and solid thermoluminescent dosimeters as well as radiochromic films have been used to perform absolute and relative dose studies, respectively. The comparison between doses calculated by Multiplan treatment planning system and measured doses have been studied in absolute dose. The dose distributions measured with films and treatment planning system calculations have been compared via the gamma function, configured with different tolerance criteria. This work allowed, via solid thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements, verifying the beam reliability with a reproducibility of 1.7 %. The absolute dose measured in the phantom irradiated by the seven participating centres has shown an error inferior to the standard tolerance limits (± 5 %), for most of participating centres. The relative dose measurements performed at Nancy and by the Equal-Estro laboratory allowed defining the most adequate parameters for gamma index (5 %/2mm--with at least 95 % of pixels satisfying acceptability criteria: γsoftware. This work allowed defining a dosimetric external quality control for CyberKnife(®) systems, based on a reproducible irradiation plan through measurements performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiochromic films. This protocol should be validated by a new series of measurement and taking into account the lessons of this work. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Susan; Mendel, Peter; Nunes, Francisco; Wiig, Siri; van den Bovenkamp, Hester; Karltun, Anette; Robert, Glenn; Anderson, Janet; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-04-01

    Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands. An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of ten hospitals. How hospitals responded to the financial and quality challenges was dependent upon three factors: the coherence of demands from external institutions; managerial competence to align external demands with an overall quality improvement strategy, and managerial stability. Hospital leaders used diverse strategies and practices to manage conflicting external pressures. The development of hospital leaders' skills in translating external requirements into implementation plans with internal support is a complex, but crucial, task, if quality is to remain a priority during times of austerity. Increasing quality improvement skills within a hospital, developing a culture where quality improvement becomes embedded and linking cost reduction measures to improving care are all required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Peter; Nunes, Francisco; Wiig, Siri; van den Bovenkamp, Hester; Karltun, Anette; Robert, Glenn; Anderson, Janet; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands. Methods An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of ten hospitals. Results How hospitals responded to the financial and quality challenges was dependent upon three factors: the coherence of demands from external institutions; managerial competence to align external demands with an overall quality improvement strategy, and managerial stability. Hospital leaders used diverse strategies and practices to manage conflicting external pressures. Conclusions The development of hospital leaders’ skills in translating external requirements into implementation plans with internal support is a complex, but crucial, task, if quality is to remain a priority during times of austerity. Increasing quality improvement skills within a hospital, developing a culture where quality improvement becomes embedded and linking cost reduction measures to improving care are all required. PMID:26683885

  14. The Influence external signals on perceived quality and purchase intention products of high involvement (case study: Laptop)

    OpenAIRE

    MOHSEN NAZARI; ROGHAYEH REZAEE ARAB

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing competition in supplying and complexity of products caused information asymmetry between buyers and manufacturers that will eventually lead to adverse selection by purchasers. Thus, the role of external signals that are independent of the actual features of products become more important in quality perception and purchase intention of consumers. In this study, the effect of external signal (price, brand, Store brand, advertising, packaging, country of origin, friends, pre...

  15. Black pepper (Piper nigrum in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Duque Melo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% of black pepper in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters. Hissex White hens (n=168 at 30 weeks of age were used. The experimental method was completely randomized with seven treatments with four replicates of six birds each. Estimates of black pepper levels were determined by polynomial regression. The performance showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. The eggshell percentage was significantly influenced (p < 0.05, in which the level of 0.30% inclusion impaired eggshell quality. Triglycerides level increased significantly (p < 0.05, according to increasing levels of black pepper in the diet. It can be concluded that black pepper can be used in diets for laying hens as phytogenic additive without harming the performance. However, this inclusion causes a reduction in eggshell percentage and an increase in the level of triglycerides in the bloodstream.

  16. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  17. Quality of basic life support education and automated external defibrillator setting in schools in Ishikawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Akiteru; Ito, Sayori; Maruyama, Kaori; Ryo, Yusuke; Saito, Manami; Fujimura, Shuhei; Ishiura, Yuna; Hori, Ariyuki

    2017-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have been installed in schools in Japan since 2004, and the government strongly recommends teaching basic life support (BLS). We therefore examined the quality of BLS education and AED installation in schools. We conducted a prefecture-wide questionnaire survey of all primary and junior high schools in 2016, to assess BLS education and AED installation against the recommendations of the Japan Circulation Society. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared test. In total, 195 schools out of 315 (62%) responded, of which 38% have introduced BLS education for children. BLS training was held in a smaller proportion of primary schools (18%) than junior high schools (86%). More than 90% of primary school staff had undergone BLS training in the previous 2 years. The most common locations of AED were the gymnasium (32%) followed by entrance hall (28%), staffroom (25%), and infirmary (12%). The reasons given for location were that it was obvious (34%), convenient for staff (32%), could be used out of hours (17%), and the most likely location for a heart attack (15%). Approximately 18% of schools reported that it takes >5 min to reach the AED from the furthest point. BLS training, AED location, and understanding of both are not sufficient to save children's lives efficiently. Authorities should make recommendations about the correct number of AED, and their location, and provide more information to improve the quality of BLS training in schools. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Representation of External Qualities of the Person in the Russian And French Animalistic Phraseological Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Olegovich Puchkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Russian and French phraseological units with an animal name are considered with a special focus on their anthropomorphous semantics (external qualities of the person. The relevance of this research is caused by the urgent need of comparative studies of ethnocultural maps of the world that are encoded in phraseological corpus of any ethnos. Universal and ethno-specific features of animalistic phraseology are revealed in the article. The author states that the main function of animalistic phraseological units is not only pointing to some physical qualities of a person but assessing them. In the French map of the world the aesthetic criterion (beauty / ugliness dominates, whereas in the Russian map it is a physiological and social criteria (mainly, health and wellbeing. Superiority of the esthetic criterion in French is hidden in the mentality and is called the hedonism; opposing to it is Russian animalistic phraseology which is said to be originated from country folk traditions and is focused on physiological and social details in assessing the man's appearance. It is stated in the article that the lack of attention to esthetic criterion in the Russian phraseology may be explained by the influence of Orthodoxy on the content of the world map, the corporal beauty is opposed to internal, spiritual beauty. Contrary to it, under the influence of Catholicism an esthetic attitude to church rituals and corporal beauty was forwarded in the French culture. Finally, the author offers anthropological mechanism and an assessment function to be universal features of phraseology.

  19. External quality assessment of malaria microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokombe Jean

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External quality assessments (EQA are an alternative to cross-checking of blood slides in the quality control of malaria microscopy. This study reports the findings of an EQA of malaria microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods After validation, an EQA slide panel and a questionnaire were delivered to diagnostic laboratories in four provinces of DRC. The panel included three samples for diagnosis (sample 1: Plasmodium falciparum, 177,000/μl, sample 2: P. falciparum, 2,500/μl, sample 3: no parasites seen, one didactic sample (Howell-Jolly bodies and one sample for assessing the quality of staining. Participating laboratories were addressed and selected through the network of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. Participants were asked to return the responses together with a stained thin and thick blood film for evaluation of Giemsa stain quality. Results Among 174 participants (response rate 95.1%, 26.2% scored samples 1, 2 and 3 correctly and 34.3%, 21.5% and 5.8% of participants reported major errors in one, two or three samples respectively. Major errors included reporting "no malaria" or "non-falciparum malaria" for Plasmodium falciparum-positive samples 1 and 2 (16.1% and 34.9% of participants respectively and "P. falciparum" for Plasmodium negative sample 3 (24.0%. Howell-Jolly bodies (didactic sample were not recognized by any of the participants but reported as "P. falciparum" by 16.7% of participants. With parasite density expressed according to the "plus system", 16.1% and 21.5% of participants scored one "+" different from the reference score for samples 1 and 2 respectively and 9.7% and 2.9% participants scored more than two "+" different. When expressed as counts of asexual parasites/μl, more than two-thirds of results were outside the mean ± 2SD reference values. The quality of the Giemsa stain was poor, with less than 20% slides complying with all criteria assessed. Only one

  20. The effect of competition from open source software on the quality of proprietary software in the presence of network externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqing Xing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A growing number of open source software emerges in many segments of the software market. In addition, software products usually exhibit network externalities. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of open source software on the quality choices of proprietary software vendors when the market presents positive network externalities. Design/methodology: To analyze how open source software affects the optimal quality of proprietary software, this paper constructs two vertical differentiation models: the basic model considers proprietary software monopolizing the market, and its extended one considers proprietary software competing with open source substitute. Findings: This paper mainly finds that the presence of open source software does not necessarily lead to the quality of proprietary software decreases (or increases. The network externalities and compatibility between open source and proprietary software may change the impact of open source software on the quality of proprietary software and may affect the quality choices of proprietary software vendors. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to examine the effect of open source software on the quality choices for proprietary software vendors in software markets exhibiting positive network externalities.

  1. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Almanza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kg s−1. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 41.7%, at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23% and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb and rural T2 (5 ppb supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence in SO2 levels

  2. Production performance, egg quality and biochemical parameters of three way crossbred chickens with reciprocal F1 crossbred chickens in sub-tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabinda Khawaja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 225 hens (18 weeks of age of each Rhode Island Red male x Fayoumi female (RIFI, Fayoumi male x Rhode Island Red female (FIRI and White Leghorn male x FIRI female (RLH were maintained on deep litter system for a period of 72 weeks of age. In floor pens, each crossbred chicken was randomly distributed between pens, with 21 to 24 birds of the same breed per pen (2.00 to 2.50 ft2/bird. The results revealed that the age of sexual maturity was lowest in RIFI followed by FIRI and RLH chickens. The highest egg production was obtained by three-way crossbred chickens (RLH as compared with two-way crossbred chickens (RIFI and FIRI. The highest egg weight was observed in RLH than those of FIRI and RIFI crossbred chickens. The internal egg quality parameters included yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk + albumen weight and albumen height were same in all crossbred chickens. There was non-significant (p>0.05 difference in blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, protein, uric acid and ALP values among all crossbred chickens. It may be concluded that three-way crossbred chickens (RLH showed better egg traits than two-way crossbred chickens (RIFI and FIRI with lower mortality. The RIFI crossbred chickens achieved sexual maturity earlier than both FIRI and RLH crossbred chickens with lower egg traits.

  3. Effect of caprylic acid and Yucca schidigera extract on production performance, egg quality, blood characteristics, and excreta microflora in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J P; Kim, I H

    2011-12-01

    1. A total of 240 Hy-line brown laying hens (36-week-old), were used in this 8 week experiment to evaluate the effect of caprylic acid and Yucca schidigera extract (CY) on production performance, egg quality, blood characteristics, and excreta microflora. 2. Layers were divided into 5 dietary treatment groups which consisted of: (1) NC, basal diet; (2) PC, basal diet + 110 mg/kg of tylosin; (3) CY1, basal diet + 30 mg/kg caprylic acid + 30 mg/kg Yucca extract; (4) CY2, basal diet + 60 mg/kg caprylic acid + 60 mg/kg Yucca extract; (5) CY3, basal diet + 120 mg/kg caprylic acid + 120 mg/kg Yucca extract. The Yucca extract contained 12·5% saponins. 3. Egg production was unaffected, whereas egg weights and feed efficiency were linearly improved by the addition of CY. There were no differences in the egg quality parameters throughout the experimental period. Plasma total triglyceride and cholesterol concentration in plasma and egg yolk were decreased as utilisation of CY increased. The Escherichia coli counts were linearly inhibited by the CY treatments when compared with the NC treatment at both the 5 and 8 week stages. No difference was observed on the Lactobacillus population through the whole experimental period. 4. In conclusion, the addition of 120 mg/kg caprylic acid and 120 mg/kg Yucca extract exerted positive effects on egg weight and feed efficiency, decreased the serum and yolk cholesterol concentration and reduced the proliferation of Escherichia coli.

  4. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Victor; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui; Fast, Jerome; Sosa, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both regional and global scales. At the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the northern region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event coming from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 hours. The estimated emission rate is high, about 2 kg s-1. This finding suggests the possibility of 'overlooked' emission sources in Tizayuca region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and the State of Mexico. We found that they can also contribute SO2 in the NE region of the basin, at the suburban supersite and that at some monitoring stations; their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex (TIC). The contribution of TIC to regional ozone levels is also estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA and slightly higher contribution at the suburban and rural supersites. However, the contribution could be high in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of the State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Results suggest that part of the total regional ozone from TIC-generated precursors could be related to flaring activities.

  5. Current landscape and new paradigms of proficiency testing and external quality assessment for molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Lisa V; Lubin, Ira M; Barker, Shannon; du Sart, Desiree; Elles, Rob; Grody, Wayne W; Pazzagli, Mario; Richards, Sue; Schrijver, Iris; Zehnbauer, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Participation in proficiency testing (PT) or external quality assessment (EQA) programs allows the assessment and comparison of test performance among different clinical laboratories and technologies. In addition to the approximately 2300 tests for individual genetic disorders, recent advances in technology have enabled the development of clinical tests that quickly and economically analyze the entire human genome. New PT/EQA approaches are needed to ensure the continued quality of these complex tests. To review the availability and scope of PT/EQA for molecular genetic testing for inherited conditions in Europe, Australasia, and the United States; to evaluate the successes and demonstrated value of available PT/EQA programs; and to examine the challenges to the provision of comprehensive PT/EQA posed by new laboratory practices and methodologies. The available literature on this topic was reviewed and supplemented with personal experiences of several PT/EQA providers. Proficiency testing/EQA schemes are available for common genetic disorders tested in many clinical laboratories but are not available for most genetic tests offered by only one or a few laboratories. Provision of broad, method-based PT schemes, such as DNA sequencing, would allow assessment of many tests for which formal PT is not currently available. Participation in PT/EQA improves the quality of testing by identifying inaccuracies that laboratories can trace to errors in their testing processes. Areas of research and development to ensure that PT/EQA programs can meet the needs of new and evolving genetic tests and technologies are identified and discussed.

  6. The development and validation of dried blood spots for external quality assurance of syphilis serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Pieter W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis causes up to 1,500,000 congenital syphilis cases annually. These could be prevented if all pregnant women were screened, and those with syphilis treated with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks gestation. In recent years, rapid point-of-care tests have allowed greater access to syphilis screening, especially in rural or remote areas, but the lack of quality assurance of rapid testing has been a concern. We determined the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS as specimens for quality assurance of syphilis serological assays. Methods We developed DBS extraction protocols for use with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and compared the results with those using matching plasma samples from the same patient. Results Since DBS samples showed poor performance with TPHA and EIA (TPHA sensitivity was 50.5% (95% confidence interval: 39.9–61.2% and EIA specificity was 50.4% (95% CI: 43.7–57.1%, only the DBS TPPA was used in the final evaluation. DBS TPPA showed an sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI: 91.3–98.0% and a specificity of 99.0% (95% CI: 98.1–99.5% compared to TPPA using plasma samples as a reference. Conclusion DBS samples can be recommended for use with TPPA, and may be of value for external quality assurance of point-of-care syphilis testing.

  7. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  9. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  10. External quality assessment/proficiency testing and internal quality control for the PFA-100 and PFA-200: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Bonar, Roslyn

    2014-03-01

    Platelet function testing is an essential component of comprehensive hemostasis evaluation within the framework of bleeding and/or bruising investigations, and it may also be performed to evaluate antiplatelet medication effects. Globally, the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100 (Siemens Healthcare, Marburg, Germany) is the most used primary hemostasis-screening instrument and has also been recently remodeled/upgraded to the PFA-200. The PFA-100 is sensitive to a wide range of associated disorders, including platelet function defects and von Willebrand disease (VWD), as well as to various antiplatelet medications. The PFA-100 is also useful in therapy monitoring, especially in VWD. External quality assessment (EQA) (or proficiency testing) and internal quality control (IQC) are critical to ensuring quality of test practice, inclusive of all hemostasis tests. However, both EQA and IQC for platelet function testing, including the PFA-100, is logistically challenging, given theoretical requirements for production, storage, and shipment of large volumes of "stabilized" normal and pathological blood/platelets covering both normal function plus a wide variety of potential defects. We accordingly describe the development and testing of novel feasible approaches to both EQA and IQC of PFA-100/PFA-200 instruments, whereby a range of formulated "platelet function antagonist" materials are utilized. For EQA purposes, these are distributed to participants, and citrated normal whole blood collected on site is then added locally, thereby creating test material that can be locally evaluated. Several exercises have been conducted by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPAQAP) over the past 6 years. A total of 26 challenges, with most designed to mimic moderate to severe primary hemostasis defects, have been tested in 26 to 50 laboratories depending on the year of dispatch. Numerical results for PFA-100/PFA-200 closure times (CTs) and

  11. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164 at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i 0 mg/kg, ii 25 mg/kg, iii 50 mg/kg, and iv 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05 by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009 and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to

  12. External Quality Assurance of New Zealand Tertiary Education Providers Matters: Life Jacket or Strait-Jacket? AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Annie

    The reality of external academic/quality audit has arrived for all tertiary education providers in New Zealand under the umbrella of the New Zealand Qualifications Authority. This paper reviews the development over the past decade of external quality assurance of tertiary providers by quality assurance authorities and their associated bodies. The…

  13. Harmonisation of serum dihydrotestosterone analysis: establishment of an external quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Ronda F; Jolly, Lisa; Hartmann, Michaela F; Ho, Chung Shun; Kam, Richard K T; Joseph, John; Boyder, Conchita; Wudy, Stefan A

    2017-03-01

    Serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is an important analyte for the clinical assessment of disorders of sex development. It is also reportedly a difficult analyte to measure. Currently, there are significant gaps in the standardisation of this analyte, including no external quality assurance (EQA) program available worldwide to allow for peer review performance of DHT. We therefore proposed to establish a pilot EQA program for serum DHT. DHT was assessed in the 2015 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs' Endocrine program material. The material's target (i.e. "true") values were established using a measurement procedure based on isotope dilution gas chromatography (GC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). DHT calibrator values were based on weighed values of pure DHT material (>97.5% purity) from Sigma. The allowable limits of performance (ALP) were established as ±0.1 up to 0.5 nmol/L and ±15% for targets >0.5 nmol/L. Target values for the six levels of RCPAQAP material for DHT ranged from 0.02 to 0.43 nmol/L (0.01-0.12 ng/mL). The material demonstrated linearity across the six levels. There were seven participating laboratories for this pilot study. Results of the liquid chromatography (LC) MS/MS methods were within the ALP; whereas the results from the immunoassay methods were consistently higher than the target values and outside the ALP. This report provides the first peer comparison of serum DHT measured by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoassay laboratories. Establishment of this program provides one of the pillars to achieve method harmonisation. This supports accurate clinical decisions where DHT measurement is required.

  14. Customer satisfaction survey to improve the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis European Network, coordinated from within the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, is the provider of the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. The network aimed to seek feedback from laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis scheme in order to improve services offered. In this study we analysed responses to an on-line customer satisfaction survey conducted between September and November 2009. The survey was sent to 213 laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme of 2008; 69 laboratories (32%) responded. Scores for importance and satisfaction were obtained from a five-point Likert scale for 24 attributes. A score of one corresponded to very dissatisfied/very unimportant and five corresponded to very satisfied/very important. Means were calculated and placed in a two-dimensional grid (importance-satisfaction analysis). Means were subtracted from each other to obtain gap values (gap-analysis). No attribute had a mean score below 3.63. The overall mean of satisfaction was 4.35. Opportunities for improvement enclosed clarity, usefulness and completeness of the general report and individual comments, and user-friendliness of the electronic datasheet. This type of customer satisfaction survey was a valuable instrument to identify opportunities to improve the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme. It should be conducted on a regular basis to reveal new opportunities in the future and to assess effectiveness of actions taken. Moreover, it could be a model for other EQA providers seeking feedback from participants. Overall, the customer satisfaction survey provided a powerful quality of care improvement tool.

  15. Second external quality assurance study for the serological diagnosis of hantaviruses in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are endemic throughout the world and hosted by rodents and insectivores. Two human zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, are caused by hantaviruses and case fatality rates have reached 12% for HFRS and 50% for HPS in some outbreaks. Symptomatic hantavirus infections in Europe are summarised as HFRS mainly due to Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade and Saaremaa virus. While HFRS has an overall low incidence in Europe, the number of cases varies from 100 per year in all Eastern and Southern Europe up to 1,000 per year only in Finland. To assess the quality of hantavirus diagnostics, the European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases (ENIVD organised a first external quality assurance (EQA in 2002. The purpose of this second EQA study is to collect updated information on the efficiency and accurateness of hantavirus serological methods applied by expert laboratories. A serum panel of 14 samples was sent to 28 participants in Europe of which 27 sent results. Performance in hantavirus diagnosis varied not only on the method used but also on the laboratories and the subclass of antibodies tested. Commercial and in-house assays performed almost equally. Enzyme immunoassays were mainly used but did not show the best performances while immunoblot assays were the less employed and showed overall better performances. IgM antibodies were not detected in 61% of the positive IgM samples and IgM detection was not performed by 7% of the laboratories indicating a risk of overlooking acute infections in patients. Uneven performances using the same method is indicating that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols.

  16. International external quality assessment study for molecular detection of Lassa virus.

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    Sergejs Nikisins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. In recent years, it has been imported several times to Europe and North America. The method of choice for early detection of LASV in blood is RT-PCR. Therefore, the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD performed an external quality assessment (EQA study for molecular detection of LASV. A proficiency panel of 13 samples containing various concentrations of inactivated LASV strains Josiah, Lib-1580/121, CSF, or AV was prepared. Samples containing the LASV-related lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV and negative sera were included as specificity controls. Twenty-four laboratories from 17 countries (13 European, one African, one Asian, two American countries participated in the study. Thirteen laboratories (54% reported correct results, 4 (17% laboratories reported 1 to 2 false-negative results, and 7 (29% laboratories reported 3 to 5 false-negative results. This EQA study indicates that most participating laboratories have a good or acceptable performance in molecular detection of LASV. However, several laboratories need to review and improve their diagnostic procedures.

  17. International external quality assessment study for molecular detection of Lassa virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikisins, Sergejs; Rieger, Toni; Patel, Pranav; Müller, Rolf; Günther, Stephan; Niedrig, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. In recent years, it has been imported several times to Europe and North America. The method of choice for early detection of LASV in blood is RT-PCR. Therefore, the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD) performed an external quality assessment (EQA) study for molecular detection of LASV. A proficiency panel of 13 samples containing various concentrations of inactivated LASV strains Josiah, Lib-1580/121, CSF, or AV was prepared. Samples containing the LASV-related lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and negative sera were included as specificity controls. Twenty-four laboratories from 17 countries (13 European, one African, one Asian, two American countries) participated in the study. Thirteen laboratories (54%) reported correct results, 4 (17%) laboratories reported 1 to 2 false-negative results, and 7 (29%) laboratories reported 3 to 5 false-negative results. This EQA study indicates that most participating laboratories have a good or acceptable performance in molecular detection of LASV. However, several laboratories need to review and improve their diagnostic procedures.

  18. Detection of outliers and establishment of targets in external quality assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Li, Shaonan; Li, Xiaopeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhiguo

    2006-10-01

    The establishment of target values is important in external quality assessment (EQA) programs since most of the programs use the target as the assessment criterion. Results submitted to EQA programs usually are not Gaussian-distributed due to the contamination with outliers. The traditional or robust statistical method can be chosen for the truncation of outliers. We investigated the two methods when setting targets for glucose in an EQA program. The results of glucose were analyzed as an all-methods group and divided into four subgroups according to the analytical methods prior to testing of each data distribution. Based on the distribution, the traditional or robust statistical method was used to detect outliers. After removal of outliers, the data distributions were retested and if Gaussian distributions were obtained, the mean values were used as the target. Original data sets were not Gaussian-distributed for all tested groups. Therefore, the robust statistical method was employed to detect outliers. After truncation of outliers, the data sets showed Gaussian distributions and the means were used to set target values. The targets of glucose were determined for all-methods and individual methods from the mean values following removal of outliers using the robust statistical method. This led to comparable targets among the tested groups.

  19. External quality assessment of the detection of rickettsioses inChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan Zhang; Daxin Ni; Zijian Feng

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To report a training course on the laboratory diagnoses of rickettsioses that10 provincial/cityCDCs participated in laboratory external quality assurance(EQA)based on the serological specific antibodies detection and rapidPCR amplifying targeted genes of rickettsiae. Methods: An EQA program to evaluate the following laboratory procedures was developed to detect rickettsiae: (1)immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect specific antibodies ofA. phagocytophilum, R. heilongjiangensis andO. tsutsugamshi respectively.(2) Two sets of nested PCRwere used amplifying groEL genes for most members of the familyRickettsiaceae and amplifying16SrRNA genes for the most members of familyanaplasmae, respectively. A scoring scheme based on the distribution of the median antibody titer values of the serologic assays was designed and a ranking list of the scores of the PCRresults based on the detected minimal copy numbers of referenceDNA was created.Results: Among nine laboratories who reported the results on time, eight laboratories gave acceptable serologic results, the other one provided an unacceptable antibody titer (1:2 vs median1:64) results forO. tsutsugamshi. The limits of detection(LOD)for thePCR amplifying for five referencesDNA ranged from 1copy/μL to106 copy/μL.Conclusions:We successfully trained and popularized modern diagnostic methods of rickettsiae in10 provincialCDCs in China and first conducted the EQA projects and evaluated the results.

  20. Quantification of an External Motion Surrogate for Quality Assurance in Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

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    Jens Wölfelschneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to validate the stability of the end exhale position in deep expiration breath hold (DEBH technique for quality assurance in stereotactic lung tumor radiation therapy. Furthermore, a motion analysis was performed for 20 patients to evaluate breathing periods and baseline drifts based on an external surrogate. This trajectory was detected using stereo infrared (IR cameras and reflective body markers. The respiratory waveform showed large interpatient differences in the end exhale position during irradiation up to 18.8 mm compared to the global minimum. This position depends significantly on the tumor volume. Also the baseline drifts, which occur mostly in posterior direction, are affected by the tumor size. Breathing periods, which depend mostly on the patient age, were in a range between 2.4 s and 7.0 s. Fifteen out of 20 patients, who showed a reproducible end exhale position with a deviation of less than 5 mm, might benefit from DEBH due to smaller planning target volumes (PTV compared to free breathing irradiation and hence sparing of healthy tissue. Patients with larger uncertainties should be treated with more complex motion compensation techniques.

  1. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R; Hasenbeck, Aimee; Murphy, Kevin M; Hermes, James C

    2017-01-01

    US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg(-1) in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p cooking (p cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however, findings are interesting from the food chemistry perspective because they provide novel evidence of how the thermal properties of eggs can be altered by a change in hen dietary carbohydrate source.

  2. External quality assurance system for antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin in Europe (ARBAO-II), 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fo Wong, Lo D.M.A.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Aarestrup, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Initiated in 2003 by the European Union, ARBAO-II aims to establish a monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among the veterinary laboratories in all European countries based on validated methodologies. This includes an external quality control system for the most important bacterial pathogens.

  3. GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN - COMPARISON OF 12 ANALYTICAL METHODS, APPLIED TO LYOPHILIZED HEMOLYSATES BY 101 LABORATORIES IN AN EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    1993-01-01

    Stable lyophilized ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-blood haemolysates were applied in an external quality assurance programme (SKZL, The Netherlands) for glycohaemoglobin assays in 101 laboratories using 12 methods. The mean intralaboratory day-to-day coefficient of variation (CV), calculate

  4. External Quality Assessment in The Netherlands: time to introduce commutable survey specimens. Lessons from the Dutch "Calibration 2000" project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baadenhuijsen, H.; Kuypers, A.W.H.M.; Weykamp, C.W.; Cobbaert, C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of suitable secondary reference material for the use of trueness control of six routinely measured clinical enzymes in the Dutch External Quality Assessment (EQA) scheme is described. The reference material of choice was selected using the split-patient-sample between-field method (t

  5. The Impact of Identifying a Specific Purpose and External Audience for Writing on Second Graders' Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Meghan K.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (CCSS) emphasize the importance of writing and specify that students should write for external, and, at times, unfamiliar audiences. Given the relationship between audience specification and quality writing in older…

  6. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais submetidas às dietas com diferentes óleos vegetais Performance and quality of eggs of commercial laying hens submitted to the diets with different vegetal oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Euquério de Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de diferentes óleos vegetais em rações para poedeiras comerciais sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Foram utilizadas 224 poedeiras da linhagem Hy Line W-36, distribuídas em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos de quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em sete rações com 2850 kcal EM/kg e 18% de proteína bruta: T1- controle; T2 - 2% óleo de soja; T3- 4% óleo de soja; T4- 2% óleo de linhaça; T5- 4% óleo de linhaça; T6- 2% óleo de algodão; T7- 4% óleo de algodão. As variáveis estudadas foram: produção de ovos (ave/dia, consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, peso dos ovos (g, conversão alimentar (kg/kg, percentagem de gema, clara e casca, coloração da gema e teor de colesterol dos ovos (mg/g. A adição do óleo vegetal não alterou as características de desempenho, a qualidade e o teor de colesterol nos ovos, em relação à dieta sem óleo. A adição de 4% de óleo vegetal melhorou a coloração da gema, entretanto, a linhaça ocasionou uma redução na percentagem da gema. A suplementação de óleo vegetal nas dietas de poedeiras não alterou o teor de colesterol dos ovos.It was evaluated the influence of the addition of different vegetal oils in diets for commercial laying hens on performance and internal and external egg quality. We used 224 laying hens Hy Line W-36, distributed in a randomized block design with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of seven diets with 2850 kcal ME/kg and 18% crude protein: T1 - control diet; T2 - 2% soybean oil; T3 - 4% soybean oil; T4 - 2% linseed oil; T5 - 4% linseed oil; T6 - 2% cottonseed oil; T7 - 4% cottonseed oil. The variables studied were: eggs production (hen/day, feed intake (g/hen/day, egg weight (g, feed:egg mass ratio (kg/kg, shell and albumen, yolk percentages, yolk coloration and cholesterol eggs (mg/g. The addition of vegetal oil did not alter the

  7. Fontes de lipídios na dieta de poedeiras: desempenho produtivo e qualidade dos ovos Lipids sources on layer hen diet: performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de fontes de lipídios na dieta de poedeiras sobre o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade do ovo foram verificados em dois experimentos. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos, definidos de acordo com a fonte lipídica adicionada nas rações: óleo de soja, óleo de girassol, óleo de linhaça e ração controle (sem adição de óleo. Os experimentos foram realizados com poedeiras de 20 e 54 semanas de idade, respectivamente, com duração de oito semanas. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros produtivos - consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, produção e peso dos ovos - e de qualidade do ovo - porcentagens de gema, albúmen e casca, sólidos da gema, unidades Haugh, pH do albúmen, e cor da gema. Somente o peso do ovo de poedeiras jovens foi afetado pela inclusão de óleos vegetais na ração. Esses ovos apresentaram maior peso e maior porcentagem de gema que os produzidos pelas poedeiras jovens alimentadas com ração-controle. Concluiu-se que a utilização de diferentes fontes de lipídios na ração de poedeiras não altera o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade interna dos ovos, com exceção do peso do ovo de poedeiras novas, que aumenta com a utilização de óleos vegetais.The effects of different sources of fat in the diet of layer hens on performance and egg quality were recorded in two experiments. Four treatments were defined by the lipid source added to the diets: soybean oil, sunflower oil, linseed oil and control diet (without oil added. The experiments were carried out with layers from 20 to 54 weeks of age, respectively, for eight weeks. Production parameters (feed intake, feed conversion, egg production, and egg weight and quality of eggs (percentages of yolk, albumen, and shell; total solids of yolk; Haugh units; pH of albumen; and yolk color were evaluated. Among the parameters of production and quality of the eggs, only the weight of eggs and percentage of yolk of young hens were affected by the inclusion of vegetable

  8. Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent

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    Herdis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent used as the extender. The semen were treated in egg yolk skim-milk diluent without antioxidant as control, in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol 0,2 g/100 ml diluent and in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with butylated hydroxytoluene 0,2 g/100 ml diluent. The after thawing observation shown that in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol had life percentage (75.0 ± 3.5% vs 64.8 ± 7.8% and membrane intact percentage (65.8 ± 6.8 % vs 55.2 ± 8.3% significantly higher than control (P<0,05 but insignificantly different from with BHT addition. The presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent, the motility percentage consideraly higher (P<0.05 than (45.8 ± 3.8% using BHT addition (40.0 ± 4.5% but not different from control (41.7 ± 4.1%; while acrosomal intake percentage after α-tocoferrol (54.8% ± 3.3% expressively higher (p,0.05 than BHT addition (49.7 ± 3.6% or control (49.8 ± 3.5%. In conclusion the presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent could improve the quality of Garut sheep frozen semen.

  9. End-product quality characteristics and consumer response of chickpea flour-based gluten-free muffins containing corn starch and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Herranz, Beatriz; Jiménez, María José; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this work was to study changes in technological characteristics and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins when using chickpea flour (CF) alone and/or with partial CF replacement by corn starch (CS). The effect of partial whole egg replacement by egg white (EW) was also investigated. Four different CF:CS ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75) were used in formulations with and without incorporated EW, and compared with wheat flour (WF) muffins (0:0). Muffins prepared from CF alone had lower hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience than control ones. However, reducing protein content by CS addition significantly increased texture profile analysis parameters of muffin crumb. Muffins prepared with 25:75 ratio had a structure with springiness similar to muffins made with WF but were too hard. Reducing whole egg content by partial replacement with EW also significantly increased muffin hardness. Flash profile performed by consumers showed a clear discrimination of muffins according to CF:CS ratio. Muffins containing both CF and CS at 50:50 ratio had the same high overall acceptability and purchase intention as gluten ones. Gluten-free CF-based muffins of satisfactory quality can be manufactured by CS incorporation, either with or without EW. By decreasing and increasing protein and starch contents of chickpea flour (CF) by incorporation of corn starch (CS), muffins formulated from a combination of CF and CS at different CF:CS ratios, either with or without partial replacement of whole egg with egg white, result in high-quality muffins with similar technological and sensory characteristics to those of their gluten counterparts. Sensory overall acceptability and purchase intention of muffins made with a 50:50 ratio did not differ significantly from those of the controls. These findings will benefit celiac population, while promoting the value and utilization of pulses through muffins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Engineering Strategies and Methods for Avoiding Air-Quality Externalities: Dispersion Modeling, Home Energy Conservation, and Scenario Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Andrew James

    Energy conservation can improve air quality by reducing emissions from fuel combustion. The human health value retained through better air quality can then offset the cost of energy conservation. Through this thesis' innovative yet widely-accessible combination of air pollution dispersion modeling and atmospheric chemistry, it is estimated that the health value retained by avoiding emissions from Ontario's former coal-fired generating stations is 5.74/MWh (using an upper-bound value of 265,000 per year of life lost). This value is combined with energy modeling of homes in the first-ever assessment of the air-quality health benefits of low-energy buildings. It is shown that avoided health damages can equal 7% of additional construction costs of energy efficient buildings in Ontario. At 7%, health savings are a significant item in the cost analysis of efficient buildings. Looking to energy efficiency in the context of likely future low-resource natural gas scenarios, building efficient buildings today is shown to be more economically efficient than any building retrofit option. Considering future natural gas scarcity in the context of Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan reveals that Ontario may be forced to return to coal-fired electricity. Projected coal use would result in externalities greater than $600 million/year; 80% more than air-quality externalities from Ontario's electricity in 1985. Radically aggressive investment in electricity conservation (75% reduction per capita by 2075) is one promising path forward that keeps air-quality externalities below 1985 levels. Non-health externalities are an additional concern, the quantification, and ultimately monetization, of which could be practical using emerging air pollution monitoring technologies. Energy, conservation, energy planning, and energy's externalities form a complex situation in which today's decisions are critical to a successful future. It is clear that reducing the demand for energy is essential and

  11. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  12. INFLUENCE OF ASCORBIC ACID ON EGG QUALITY INFLUÊNCIA DO ÁCIDO ASCÓRBICO NA QUALIDADE DO OVO

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    Pedro Alves de SOUZA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The egg quality may be influenced by some nutrients added to laying hens diets and among these nutrients, the ascorbic acid is included. According to some researches, this acid, besides of improving the quality, it can increase the egg production and weight. In addition, it reduces the quantity of cracked eggs and food intake. In order to contribute with more information, this experiment was developed. Concentrations of 100; 150 and 200mg/kg of ascorbic acid were added to rations of laying hens during 60 days, with the objective of determining the influence of ascorbic acid on the quality of eggs kept under room temperature conditions (26.7 ± 2.2°C and 60 ± 5% moisture for a period of 28 days. A total of 1440 eggs were used, being 720 of white shell and 720 of brown shell. Egg quality was determined by Haugh unit and yolk index, every 7 days. The obtained results allowed to conclude that ascorbic acid, independent on the level of supplementation, was not enough to decrease.A qualidade dos ovos pode ser influenciada por alguns nutrientes adicionados à dieta das aves e entre esses nutrientes se inclui o ácido ascórbico, que segundo alguns pesquisadores, além de melhorar a qualidade, pode aumentar a produção e o peso dos ovos e diminuir a quantidade de ovos trincados e o consumo de ração. Com a finalidade de tentar contribuir com mais algumas informações, desenvolveu esse experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do ácido ascórbico sobre a qualidade de ovos brancos e marrons mantidos sob condições de ambiente (26,7 ± 2,2°C e 60 ± 5%UR, por um período de 28 dias. Foram utilizados 1440 ovos, sendo 720 de casca branca e 720 de casca marrom. Foram adicionadas à ração de aves, durante 60 dias, concentrações de 100, 150 e 200mg/kg de ácido ascórbico. A qualidade dos ovos foi determinada de 7 em 7 dias, avaliando-se a unidade Haugh e o índice gema. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que a suplementação com o

  13. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R.; Hasenbeck, Aimee; Murphy, Kevin M.; Hermes, James C.

    2017-01-01

    US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p oat-corn diet, p oat-wheat diet). Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p oat-corn (31.6 g) or oat-wheat (31.2 g) diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however, findings are interesting from the food chemistry perspective because they provide novel evidence of how the thermal properties of eggs can be altered by a change in hen dietary carbohydrate

  14. Effect of sodium fluoride and high fluorine fertilizer phosphates on performance of laying chickens and egg shell quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, H.J. Jr.; Sullivan, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Caged layer chickens were placed on corn-soybean meal diets containing the following dietary variables for a period for 16 weeks: monosodium phosphate (MSP); MSP plus 500 ppm F as NaF; diammonium phosphate (DAP); concentrated superphosphate (CSP); and feed grade dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Egg production rate was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the addition of F to diets containing MSP. Feed efficiency was not depressed by added F, and was improved by CSP. Egg weight was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the addition of NaF to diets containing MSP. Egg shell breaking strength was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by NaF and DAP. No statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed among treatments in percent checked and cracked eggs; however, the trends corresponded closely with breaking strength. Dietary treatments had not effect on mortality. Fluorine content of the egg was affected by dietary F level and duration of feeding period. After 16 weeks, F content of egg shell was 38 and 35 ppm for MSP and DCP, respectively, 150 ppm for both MSP + NaF and DAP, and 140 ppm for CSP. Fluorine contents of yolk and albumen were not affected by dietary treatments, and mean values were .55 and .35 ppm F, respectively, for yolk and albumen.

  15. External quality assessment for KRAS testing is needed: setup of a European program and report of the first joined regional quality assessment rounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellon, Ellen; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Tejpar, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    . In an effort to ensure optimal, uniform, and reliable community-based KRAS testing throughout Europe, a KRAS external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was set up. The first large assessment round included 59 laboratories from eight different European countries. For each country, one regional scheme organizer...... expand this program to more laboratories to provide a robust estimate of the quality of KRAS testing in Europe, and provide the basis for remedial measures and harmonization....

  16. First international external quality assessment of molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

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    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38% met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19% with acceptable performance, while 23 (43% reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean

  17. External quality assessment of patient HLA-B*57:01 testing prior to abacavir prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, C; Corbin, S A

    2014-08-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to the drug abacavir are strongly associated with possession of HLA-B*57:01. Hence, patients with HIV/AIDS who may be prescribed abacavir should be tested for this HLA allele and the drug withheld from those that possess B*57:01. The UK National External Quality Assessment Service for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics has operated a scheme for B*57:01 testing since 2008 which, in 2013, involved 47 participants from 12 countries. A total of 24 B*57:01-positive, 2 B*57:03-positive and 22 B*57-negative blood samples (including 2 B*58 samples) were distributed to between 28 and 47 laboratories each year over 6 years. Participants, who were unaware of the samples' HLA types, tested and reported on their B*57/B*57:01 status. A total of 1868 reports were assessed over the 6 years. Of the 880 reports on B*57:01 samples, 93.4% were correctly assigned as B*57:01, 2.8% were assigned as groups of B*57 alleles including B*57:01, and 3.3% were reported as B*57 positive only. Over the 6 years, there were four (0.46%) false B*57:01 negative reports. All the B*57:03-positive and B*57-negative samples, involving 72 and 916 assignments, respectively, were essentially reported as B*57:01 negative. Thus, there were no false B57:01 positive assignments. The reporting of B*57:01 status over the last 3 years of the scheme was 99.8% sensitive and 100% specific. Over the last year, it was 100% sensitive and 100% specific.

  18. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  19. International external quality assessment of molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a viral zoonosis that primarily affects animals resulting in considerable economic losses due to death and abortions among infected livestock. RVF also affects humans with clinical symptoms ranging from an influenza-like illness to a hemorrhagic fever. Over the past years, RVF virus (RVFV has caused severe outbreaks in livestock and humans throughout Africa and regions of the world previously regarded as free of the virus. This situation prompts the need to evaluate the diagnostic capacity and performance of laboratories worldwide. Diagnostic methods for RVFV detection include virus isolation, antigen and antibody detection methods, and nucleic acid amplification techniques. Molecular methods such as reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and other newly developed techniques allow for a rapid and accurate detection of RVFV. This study aims to assess the efficiency and accurateness of RVFV molecular diagnostic methods used by expert laboratories worldwide. Thirty expert laboratories from 16 countries received a panel of 14 samples which included RVFV preparations representing several genetic lineages, a specificity control and negative controls. In this study we present the results of the first international external quality assessment (EQA for the molecular diagnosis of RVF. Optimal results were reported by 64% of the analyses, 21% of the analyses achieved acceptable results and 15% of the results revealed that there is need for improvement. Evenly good performances were achieved by specific protocols which can therefore be recommended as an accurate molecular protocol for the diagnosis of RVF. Other protocols showed uneven performances revealing the need for improved optimization and standardization of these protocols.

  20. External quality assessment for the determination of diphtheria antitoxin in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovine, Paolo; Pinto, Antonella; Olander, Rose-Marie; Sesardic, Dorothea; Stickings, Paul; Berbers, Guy; Neal, Shona; Efstratiou, Androulla; Paberza, Ruta; Dauksiene, Snieguole; Bujko, Marina; Detcheva, Antoaneta; Joks, Unna; Levent, Belkis; von Hunolstein, Christina

    2010-08-01

    Accurate determination of diphtheria toxin antibodies is of value in determining the rates of immunity within broad populations or the immune status of individuals who may be at risk of infection, by assessing responses to vaccination and immunization schedule efficacy. Here we report the results of an external quality assessment (EQA) study for diphtheria serology, performed within the dedicated surveillance network DIPNET. Twelve national laboratories from 11 European countries participated by testing a standard panel of 150 sera using their current routine method: Vero cell neutralization test (NT), double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; DAE), dual double-antigen time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (dDA-DELFIA), passive hemagglutination assay (PHA), toxin binding inhibition assay (ToBI), and in-house or commercial ELISAs. The objective of the study was not to identify the best assay, as the advantages and drawbacks of methods used were known, but to verify if laboratories using their routine method would have categorized (as negative, equivocal, or positive) a serum sample in the same way. The performance of each laboratory was determined by comparing its results on a quantitative and qualitative basis to NT results from a single reference laboratory, as this test is considered the in vitro "gold standard." The performance of laboratories using NT was generally very good, while the laboratories' performance using other in vitro methods was variable. Laboratories using ELISA and PHA performed less well than those using DAE, dDA-DELFIA, or ToBI. EQA is important for both laboratories that use in vitro nonstandardized methods and those that use commercial ELISA kits.

  1. First round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2013

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    Kwoon Yong Pok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue surveillance and control. The objective of this programme was to assess dengue diagnostic proficiency among national-level public health laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. Methods: Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 (Module A and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B. A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. Results: All 16 laboratories testing Module A performed reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both RNA and serotype detection. Of these, 15 had correct results for RNA detection and all 16 correctly serotyped the viruses. All nine laboratories performing NS1 antigen detection obtained the correct results. Sixteen of the 18 laboratories using IgM assays in Module B obtained the correct results as did the 13 laboratories that performed IgG assays. Detection of ongoing/recent dengue virus infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 15/19 participating laboratories. Discussion: This first round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics was successfully conducted in national-level public health laboratories in the WHO Western Pacific Region, revealing good proficiency in both molecular and serological testing. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing for dengue virus and other priority pathogens in the Region will be assessed during future rounds.

  2. External quality assessment of urine particle identification: a Northern European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Timo T; Makkonen, Pirjo

    2015-11-01

    External quality assessment (EQA) schemes for urinalysis have been provided by Labquality Ltd, the publicly owned EQA service provider in Finland, since the 1980s. In 2014, the scheme on urine particle identification had 329 participating laboratories, out of which 60% from 19 countries were outside Finland. Each of the four annual web-based rounds were distributed with four Sternheimer-stained images from a single patient sample, as viewed both by bright-field and phase-contrast optics. Participants reported classified categories either at the basic or at the advanced level. Participating laboratories received assessment of their analytical performance as compared to their peers, including reflections from clinical data and preanalytical detail of the specimen. In general, reporting of basic urine particles succeeded in the eight schemes during the years 2013-2014 as follows: red blood cells 82%-92%, white blood cells 82%-97%, squamous epithelial cells 92%-98%, casts 84%-94%, and small epithelial cells 73%-83% (minimum and maximum of expected or accepted reports). This basic level of differentiation is used in routine laboratory reports, or as verification of results produced by automated instruments. Considerable effort is needed to standardise national procedures and reporting formats, in order to improve the shown figures internationally. Future technologies may help to alleviate limitations created by single digital images. Despite improvements, degenerating cells and casts always exhibit intermediate forms creating disputable classifications. That is why assessment of performance should encompass justified acceptable categories into the assessed outcomes. Preanalytical and clinical detail provide essential added value to morphological findings.

  3. Effects of supplementary dietary L-carnitine on performance and egg quality of laying hens fed diets different in fat level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Jahanian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on performance parameters and egg quality measurements of white Leghorn hens at two dietary fat levels. Two hundred 22-weeks old white Leghorn hens were randomly distributed into 40 cages of five birds each. Two basal diets different in added fat level (0 or 3% were formulated and supplemented with incremental levels of L-carnitine (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg diet. The experiment lasted 98 d (two weeks for adaptation and 12 weeks as the main experimental period. At the final day of trial, ten randomly selected hens per treatment were euthanized to measure abdominal fat content. Dietary inclusion of 3% soybean oil caused a significant (P<0.05 increase in egg weight and egg mass, and decrease in feed consumption by the birds. Daily energy intake, however, was not affected by dietary fat supplementation. Except of feed conversion ratio, none of performance parameters were found to be influenced by dietary fat by carnitine interaction. Feed conversion ratio improved (P<0.05 when L-carnitine was supplemented to diets contained in 3% added fat. The albumen height and subsequently Haugh unit were improved (P<0.05 by dietary supplementation of L-carnitine, particularly the level of 150 mg/kg; however, eggshell quality indexes (thickness and breaking strength were not affected by dietary L-carnitine inclusion, but influenced (P<0.05 by fat supplementation of diets. Moreover, dietary addition of fat increased abdominal fat percentage and supplementary dietary L-carnitine significantly (P<0.05 decreased abdominal fat and yolk cholesterol contents. From the present results, it can be seen that although the supplemental L-carnitine had no considerable effect on most performance parameters, it had a beneficial impacts on lipid metabolism and internal egg quality indexes of 24 to 36 wk-aged laying hens.

  4. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we all know skipping breakfast is never a good idea anyway). Living with an egg allergy means you have to ... be just part of your action plan for living with a severe egg allergy. It's also a good idea to carry an over-the-counter antihistamine ...

  5. Delicious Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ONE day I learned a new method to cook eggs from one of my neighbors. The ingredients are two or three eggs and about 100 grams of tofu. First, beat the eggs in a bowl until they am Well mixed. Add some salt. Cut the tofu into small cubes and put them into the bowl as well. Then put the bowl in a steamer and steam for about ten minutes. When the eggs become a soft jelly, turn off the stove and let the dish cool before garnishing it with minced coriander, scallion and a teaspoon of sesame oil (or chili oil if you prefer). Serve. I served the steamed eggs with tofu to my family at supper. The appealing

  6. 健全质量管理体系 保证蚕种检验检疫质量%Perfecting the Quality Management System to Make Better Inspection and Quarantine on Silkworm Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰

    2012-01-01

    阐述了浙江省蚕种质量检验检疫站质量管理体系的构建与运行实效,对确保全省蚕种质量的作用。%The quality management system in Zhejiang sitkworm eggs inspection and quarantine station was mainly introduced. And its actual effect for ensure the quality of silkworm eggs in Zhejiang province were also summarized.

  7. EVALUATING THE ROLE OF THE REGULATORS OF THE EXTERNAL AUDIT PROFESSION IN ACHIEVING THE AUDIT QUALITY IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedaa Abd Almajid Sabbar Alaraji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The profession of quality auditing can have direct or indirect effects on the performance of accountants and auditors. Both particular research and professional recommendations provided evidence on measuring and evaluating service performance of audit profession by taking into account the relationship between quality and accountant performance. Applied research was developed in Republic of Iraq to reveal the function of bodies that regulate external audit for achieving the required level of audit quality and for identifying the obstacles that prevent the compliance with International Auditing Standards. Research focuses on the role of these bodies in order to achieve the quality of audit by implementing a quality control system. Its benefits reduce chances of criticisms and weaknesses, improving the auditing environment in Iraq.

  8. Effect of supplementation of lysine producing microbes vis-a-vis source and level of dietary protein on performance and egg quality characteristics of post-peak layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, G U; Reddy, B S V; Gloridoss, Gideon; Prabhu, T M; Giridhar, K S; Suma, N

    2015-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of supplementation of lysine producing microbes (LPM) as an in vivo source of lysine on performance and egg quality characters of post-peak layers. BIS (1992) specified diets (except crude protein [CP] and lysine) were prepared using either soybean meal (SBM) or groundnut extractions (GNE) or sunflower extractions (SFE) with 16 and 15% CP resulting in six control diets. Further, each control diet was fortified with either synthetic lysine or LPM to meet BIS (1992) specified lysine requirement resulting in the set of 12 test diets. Each of the eighteen diets was offered to quadruplets groups of 4 post-peak (52 weeks) commercial laying hens in each. The trial lasted for 119 days. The results revealed that the feed consumption and body weight changes and Roche yolk color and yolk index were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different among different treatments. However, egg production, feed efficiency, egg weight, egg shape index, Haugh unit score, albumen index and shell thickness, and net returns remained non-significant (p ≤ 0.05) among different treatments. Among main factors, protein level (16% and 15% CP) made a significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference in egg production (79.6 and 75.1%) and feed efficiency (2.64 and 2.81 kg feed/kg egg mass, respectively). Among protein source GNE- and SFE-based diet fed groups showed significantly (p < 0.0%) higher feed consumption and body weight gain than SBM based diets fed birds. Yolk color (7.0, 7.3 and 7.3, respectively) and yolk index (0.40, 0.38 and 0.43, respectively) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different from the protein sources. CP level and Protein source interaction effects showed significant differences in albumen index and Haugh unit score. Optimum level of protein (16% CP) and GNE as a source of protein tended to be superior in increasing the performance and egg characteristics of post-peak layers and supplementation of lysine in either synthetic or LPM form found to be beneficial in

  9. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.

  10. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  11. Efficacy of concentration of egg yolk in Tris extender with and without seminal plasma on frozen semen quality of Saanen bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Natal Tambing

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bucks semen is easily damaged compared to bull semen during cryopreservation process. Consequently, frozen semen quality decrease especially motility, live sperm, intact plasma membrane, and intact acrosomal cap after thawing. Objectives of this research was to evaluate the effect of egg yolk concentration in Tris extender with and without seminal plasma in maintaing frozen semen quality of Saanen buck. Four heads of Saanen buck of 2-4 years old were used in this experiment. Semen was collected once a week using artificial vagina. Experimental design applied was factorial complete random desing 2x2, viz. A factor was seminal plasma (A1 = with seminal plasma and A2 = without seminal plasma, and B factor was concentration of egg yolk (B1 = 10% and B2 = 20%. Duncan test were applied to identity differences between treatment. Result of these study indicated that the mean percentage of motility (M, live sperm (LS, sperm with intact plasma membrane (IPM and intact acrosomal cap (IAC after dilution and equilibration were not significantly different (P>0.05 in all treatment. After thawing, the mean percentage of M, LS sperm with IPM and IAC in A1 treatment (41.43, 51.52, 56.63 and 50.35% respectively were significantly higher (P<0.05 than A2 treatment (37.14; 48.67; 52.31 and 45.09% respectively. Likewise, the mean percentage of M, LS, sperm with IPM and IAC in B2 treatment (41.79; 51.32; 55.78 and 49.50% respectively were significantly higher (P<0.05 than B1 treatment (36.79, 48.86; 53.16 and 45.94% respectively. There were a significant interaction between factors of seminal plasma and concentration egg yolk in Tris extender, where the increase of egg yolk concentration from 10% to 20% in unwashed seminal plasma treatment caused increase in percentages of M, LS, sperm with IPM and IAC. On the other hand in washed seminal plasma treatment there were a trend of decreasing frozen semen quality. It is concluded that the combination of 20% egg yolk in Tris

  12. Internal and External Resources as Determinants of Health and Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfriede Greimel

    Full Text Available The salutogenic model has been established as a health promoting resource that is related to a strong sense of coherence (SOC, positive subjective health and quality of life (QoL. The aim of the study was to compare internal and external resources, life style factors, perceived health and QoL in Japan and Austria and to determine associations among these factors.A survey was conducted in a Japanese (N = 460 and an Austrian (N = 421 student sample using the following self-report health questionnaires: Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13, Social and Gender Role Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS, Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ, SF-12 Health Survey, and the Cross-cultural Health Survey. Analyses of data showed that age (ß -0.12, and stress (ß -0.21 were negatively related and SOC (ß 0.47, family support are (ß -0.35 positively related to mental QoL. Significant predictors for emotional strain, were female gender (ß -0.24, older age (ß-0.14, lower SOC (ß 0.28, less traditional gender and social role patterns (ß 0.10, more restrained eating (ß -0.20, more alcohol intake (ß -0.16, and more stress (ß -0.25 explaining 42% of the variance in Austrian students. In Japan stress (ß -0.38 was negatively related and SOC (ß 0.37 positively related to mental QoL. Older age (ß -0.20, lower SOC (ß 0.29 and more stress (ß -0.33 were identified as significant predictors explaining 35% of the variance in Japanese students.SOC and stress are strongly associated with QoL and perceived health in Austria as well as in Japan. SOC seems to be a crucial predictor for stress, and emotional health independent of the cultural context. A major challenge of cross-cultural research is to understand perceived health and QoL and the extent in which it is individually, socially, or culturally determined.

  13. Effects of calcium levels and limestone particle size on the egg quality of semi-heavy layers in their second production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A 112-day trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary calcium level and limestone particle size on the egg quality of 288 Hy-Line Brown semi-heavy layers, with 83 weeks of age at the beginning of the experiment. A completely randomized experimental design was applied in a 2x3 factorial arrangement, with two dietary calcium levels (3.5 and 4.0% e three limestone particle size compositions (100% fine limestone (FL, with 0.185mm; 30% coarse limestone (CL, with 2.83mm, + 70% FL, with 0.185mm; and 50% CL, with 2.83mm, + 50% FL, with 0.185mm, with six replicates of eight birds each. Mean geometric diameter and in-vitro solubility of the limestone sources were, respectively, 0.185mm and 18.7% for the fine limestone, and 2.83mm and 10.5% for the coarse limestone. At the end of each 28-day period, 72 eggs per treatment were used to determine egg specific gravity, yolk percentage, albumen percentage, eggshell percentage, yolk index, Haugh units, eggshell thickness, and eggshell breaking strength. There was no influence of the treatments on the evaluated parameters. It was concluded that feeding the level of 3.5% calcium usually recommended for layers in their first laying cycle, and the substitution of up to 50% fine limestone by coarse limestone in the feed of semi-heavy commercial Hy-Line Brown layers in their second laying cycle can be applied with no impairment of egg quality.

  14. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  15. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X

    2010-12-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers.

  16. External audit quality and ownership structure: interaction and impact on earnings management of industrial and commercial Tunisian sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Kouaib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the significance of researching the cross effect of using jointly external audit quality and ownership structure over managerial discretion in a largely unexplored, non-Western and emerging context. The analysis is based on a sample of 61 Tunisian firms listed and unlisted on the Tunis Stock Exchange and operating in the industrial and commercial sectors during the period 2007-2011. To provide evidence on this topic, we conduct an empirical examination. First, we examine the effect of external audit quality and ownership structure on the discretionary accruals for the whole sample. We find that only auditor reputation has a negative and significant effect on earnings management. Second, this article provides empirical evidence on the cross effect of external audit quality variables and capital concentration on earnings management. This test suggests that this combination has a negative and significant effect on earnings management in industrial firms but it has a positive and non significant effect in commercial firms. Finally, the third empirical test concerns the combined effect of external audit quality and institutional property on earnings management. We find that the cross effect of this combined relation is negatively and significantly associated with earnings management of industrial firms but it has no significant effect on the earnings management of commercial firms. As for the cross effect of the auditor seniority and the institutional property, it has a positive and a significant effect in the commercial sectors, while, it is positively and non-significantly associated with earnings management of industrial firms.

  17. Quality assurance of U.S.-guided external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: report of AAPM Task Group 154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A; Chan, Gordon; Markovic, Alexander; McNeeley, Shawn; Pfeiffer, Doug; Salter, Bill; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2011-02-01

    Task Group 154 (TG154) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was created to produce a guidance document for clinical medical physicists describing recommended quality assurance (QA) procedures for ultrasound (U.S.)-guided external beam radiotherapy localization. This report describes the relevant literature, state of the art, and briefly summarizes U.S. imaging physics. Simulation, treatment planning and treatment delivery considerations are presented in order to improve consistency and accuracy. User training is emphasized in the report and recommendations regarding peer review are included. A set of thorough, yet practical, QA procedures, frequencies, and tolerances are recommended. These encompass recommendations to ensure both spatial accuracy and image quality.

  18. Parenting quality, DRD4, and the prediction of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, C; Willoughby, M; Halpern, C T; Carbone, M A; Cox, M

    2007-09-01

    Recent research has found that the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and maternal insensitivity may interact to predict externalizing behavior in preschoolers. The current study attempted to replicate and extend this finding in a sample of 18-30-month-old children. The current study examined two distinct dimensions of parenting (warm-responsive and negative-intrusive) as predictors of childhood externalizing and internalizing behavior. Further, race was investigated as a moderator of gene-environment relationships. Results revealed that high warm-responsive parenting was associated with decreased externalizing behavior only for African American children possessing the short polymorphism of DRD4. The data indicate that children may be differentially susceptible to different aspects of parenting depending on their genotype, and it is important to consider differences in racial composition when studying these relationships. .

  19. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a field study in Wisconsin to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 to 1.23 ìg/g wet weight (ww) in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0 - 8.1) and ...

  20. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 8 hours following the reaction. Getting the Flu Vaccine In the past, it was recommended that anyone ... talk to a doctor about whether receiving the flu vaccine was safe because it is grown inside eggs. ...

  1. 鸡蛋不同保存方法品质变化规律的研究%Study on Variational Discipline Eggs Quality in Different Preservation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉时; 张小燕; 葛庆联; 吴敏; 唐梦君; 蒲俊华; 徐菊琴

    2011-01-01

    选用具有抑菌作用的保鲜剂壳聚糖和苯甲酸钠对产后12h内的褐壳鸡蛋进行涂膜处理,研究其在夏季的保鲜效果.将鸡蛋的感官评价、品质变化及部分微生物变化作为衡量鸡蛋新鲜度变化的各种指标,结果表明,保存32d,对照组蛋壳表面的菌落总数超过鲜蛋卫生标准和绿色鸡蛋标准,但对照组和壳聚糖组的蛋内容物中菌落总数、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌均未检出;保存28d时,对照组的哈氏单位仪器全部检测不出来,壳聚糖处理组在40d全部检测不出来,降为次鲜蛋.此外,蛋的失重率、蛋黄指数和气室高度及其它一些检测指标均好于对照组.%In this paper, brown shell eggs within 12h after delivery were coated with preservative chitosan which had antibacterial effect and sodium benzoate were used to study their preservation in summer. The sensory evaluation, quality change and microbial changes were indicators to measure the fresh eggs. Results showed that when preserved for 32 days, the total number of bacterial colony on the surface of the eggshell of the control group was more than that of fresh eggs in health standards and green eggs standards and the colony count, E.coli, or Salmonella in egg contents of the control group and the chitosan group were not detected when saved for 28 days, Harrington units of all eggs of the control group could not be detected while that of the chitosan group could not detect until saved for 40 days. In addition, the weight loss rate, the yolk coefficient,the air room height and other detective charaetenstics of the chitosan group were much better than those of the control group.

  2. 高温条件下涂膜保存对禽蛋品质的影响%Influence of Coating on Eggs Quality Under High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉时; 张小燕; 葛庆联; 吴敏; 唐梦君; 蒲俊华; 徐菊琴

    2011-01-01

    Brown shell eggs within 12h after delivery were coated with preservative chitosan and sodium benzoate which had antibacterial effect to study their preservation in summer. The sensory evaluation, quality change and microbial changes were used as indicators to measure the fresh changes of eggs. Results showed that when saved for 32 days, the total number of bacterial colony on the surface of the eggshell of the control group is more than that of fresh eggs in health standards and green eggs standards and the colony count, E. coli, or Salmonella in egg contents of the control group and the chitosan group were not detected. When saved for 28 days,Harrington units of all eggs of the control group could not be detected while that of the chitosan group could not detect until saved for 40 days. In addition, the weight loss rate, the yolk coefficient, the air room height and other detective charaetenstics of the chitosan group were much better than those of the control group.%选用具有抑菌作用的保鲜剂壳聚糖和苯甲酸钠对产后12h内的褐壳鸡蛋进行涂膜处理,研究其在夏季的保鲜效果.将鸡蛋的感官评价、品质变化及部分微生物变化作为衡量鸡蛋新鲜度变化的各种指标.结果表明,保存32d,对照组蛋壳表面的菌落总数超过鲜蛋卫生标准和绿色鸡蛋标准,但对照组和壳聚糖组的蛋内容物中菌落总数、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌均未检出;保存28d时,对照组的哈氏单位仪器全部检测不出来,壳聚糖处理组在40d全部检测不出来,降为次鲜蛋.此外,蛋的失重率、蛋黄指数和气室高度及其它检测指标均好于对照组.

  3. Dietary levels of chia: influence on hen weight, egg production and sensory quality, for two strains of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2002-05-01

    1. Laying hens, 225 white and 225 brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet with diets containing 70, 140, 210 and 280 g/kg chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. 2. Hen weight was not significantly affected by diet; however, manure production was less for the hens fed on chia. 3. Egg weight and production, yolk weight, and yolk percentage were determined at d 0, 30, 43, 58, 72 and 90. 4. A sensory evaluation was conducted on eggs produced during the last week of the trial. 5. No significant differences in egg production were found among treatments for the brown hens. 6. With the 280 g/kg chia diet, the white hens produced fewer and lighter eggs than did the hens fed on the control diet. 7. No significant differences were detected in yolk weight until d 90. 8. On this date the yolks produced by the white hens fed on the 70 g/kg chia diet were significantly lighter in weight, whereas the brown hens produced significantly heavier yolks, compared with the hens fed on the control diet. 9. Yolk weight as a percentage of egg weight was lower for white hens throughout the trial except on d 58 with the 140 g/kg chia diet. Significant differences, however, were detected only with the 70 g/ kg chia diet on d 90 and with the 210 g/kg chia diet on d 58, 72 and 90. 10. No significant differences in taste preference or flavour were found among any of the chia treatments and the control.

  4. Unemployment Benefits and Redistributive Taxes in the Presence of Labor Quality Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a worker s productivity is assumed to depend on his own quality and on the average quality of other employed workers.In this setting, unemployment benefits that induce low quality workers to leave the labor force have important efficiency as well as equity implications.In addition to

  5. Key components of external facilitation in an acute stroke quality improvement collaborative in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidassie, Balmatee; Williams, Linda S; Woodward-Hagg, Heather; Matthias, Marianne S; Damush, Teresa M

    2015-05-14

    Facilitation is a key component for successful implementation in several implementation frameworks; however, there is a paucity of research specifying this component. As part of a stroke quality improvement intervention in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), facilitation plus data feedback was compared to data feedback alone in 11 VA medical facilities. The objective of this study was to elucidate upon the facilitation components of the stroke quality improvement. We conducted a secondary evaluation of external facilitation using semi-structured interviews. Five facilitators and two program directors were interviewed. Qualitative analysis was performed on transcribed interviews to gain an understanding of the role and activities of external facilitators during the on-site and telephone facilitation. Quantitative frequencies were calculated from the self-reported time spent in facilitation tasks by facilitators. The external facilitators saw their role as empowering the clinical teams to take ownership of the process changes at the clinical sites to improve their performance quality. To fulfill this role, they reported engaging in a number of core tasks during telephone and on-site visits including: assessing the context in which the teams were currently operating, guiding the clinical teams through their planned changes and use of process improvement tools, identifying resources and making referrals, holding teams accountable for plan implementation with on-site visits, and providing support and encouragement to the teams. Time spent in facilitation activities changed across time from guiding change (early) to supporting efforts made by the clinical teams (later). Facilitation activity transitioned to more monitoring, problem solving, and intentional work to hand over the clinical improvement process to the site teams with the coach's role being increasingly that of a more distant consultant. Overall, this study demonstrated that external facilitation is not

  6. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Lohakare, J D; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, phens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (phens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens.

  7. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  8. Effects of Fermentation Product Containing Phytase on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, and Phosphorous Apparent Metabolism of Laying Hens Fed Different Levels of Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; DONG Xiao-fang; TONG Jian-ming; XU Shang-zhong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermentation product containing phytase (FPP) that was fermented using waste vinegar residue (WVR) as substrate from Aspergillus ifcuum NTG-23 on productive performance, egg quality, and phosphorus apparent metabolism of laying hens. First, 375 22-wk-old Jinghong hens were allocated into 5 treatments (5 replicates of 15 hens each) in an 8-wk experiment for evaluating the parameters of productive performance, egg quality, serum, and tibia. Experimental diets contained 4%FPP and 96%corn-soybean diet. The levels of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) were 1.34, 1.01, 0.67, 0.34 and 0%. Next, thirty 31-wk-old Jinghong hens were fed 5 types of diets for evaluating phosphorous apparent metabolism rate. Egg productive rate, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, Haugh unit, egg albumen height, serum calcium, tibia ash, tibia ash calcium and tibia breaking strength were not different signiifcantly among 5 treatments. The signiifcant difference of average daily feed intake was not appeared when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.67%;the eggshell hardness, eggshell thickness and serum phosphorus were not reduced signiifcantly until the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.34%. The yolk color was improved when the laying hens fed deifcient DCP corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 22.14%reduction in excreta phosphorus was observed when the laying hens fed low phosphorus (0.67%DCP) corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 30%elevation of phosphorus apparent metabolism rate was obtained when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was decreased from 1.34 to 1.01%. The reducing cost of layer diet was totalized about 120 CNY 1 000 kg-1 diet when the content of DCP was 0.67%in corn-soybean-FPP diet. These results indicated that FPP could be applied in laying hen as a potential, cost-effective and rational application of WVR.

  9. The Effects of Externally Solidified Product on Wave Celerity and Quality of Die Cast Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll Mobley; Yogeshwar Sahai; Jerry Brevick

    2003-10-10

    The cold chamber die casting process is used to produce essentially all the die cast aluminum products and about 50% of the die cast magnesium products made today. Modeling of the cold chamber die casting process and metallographic observations of cold chamber die cast products indicate that typically 5 to 20% of the shot weight is solidified in the shot sleeve before or during cavity filling. The protion of the resulting die casting which is solidified in the shot sleeve is referred to as externally solidified product, or, when identified as a casting defect, as cold flakes. This project was directed to extending the understanding of the effects of externally solidified product on the cold chamber die casting process and products to enable the production of defect-free die castings and reduce the energy associated with these products. The projected energy savings from controlling the fraction of externally solidified product in die cast components is 40 x 10 Btu through the year 2025.

  10. Moisture-induced quality changes of hen egg white proteins in a protein/water model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Labuza, Theodore P

    2012-10-24

    In recent years, the intermediate-moisture foods (IMF), such as nutrition and energy bars, are a rapidly growing segment of the global food market. However, due to moisture-induced protein aggregation, commercial high protein nutrition bars generally become harder over time, thus losing product acceptability. In this study, the objectives were to investigate the moisture-induced protein aggregation in a hen egg white proteins/water dough model system (water activity (a(w)): 0.95) and to evaluate its molecular mechanisms and controlling factors. During storage at three different temperatures (23, 35, and 45 °C) for 70 days, four selected physicochemical changes of the dough system were analyzed: the a(w), the color (L* value), the fluorescent Maillard compounds (fluorescence intensity (FI) value), and the remaining free amino groups. Overall, the physicochemical changes of egg white proteins in the dough system are closely related to the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The effect of moisture content on both the L* and FI values occurred as a function of storage time at 45 °C due to the Maillard reaction. The change of the remaining free amino groups at different temperatures was derived from the coaction of both the Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis from molds. Additionally, through analyzing the buffer-soluble egg white proteins using gel electrophoresis, our results showed that moisture-induced aggregates were produced by two chemical reactions during storage: the disulfide interaction and the Maillard reaction. Furthermore, the effect of two processes during manufacturing, desugarization and dry-heat pasteurization, on the physicochemical changes of the egg white proteins was elucidated. In order to prevent or reduce moisture-induced protein aggregation during product storage and distribution, two potential solutions were also discussed.

  11. Influence of Pistia stratiotes Plant Quality on Fecundity and Egg Distribution of the Biological Control Agent Spodoptera pectinicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    levels of N:P:K fertilizer . The results indicated that all three elements were higher overall in the high treatment and that nitrogen and potassium...levels decreased in the high treatments from the inner to the outer leaves. The phosphorus and potassium levels increased in the low fertilizer ...emerged from larvae fed the low fertilizer treatment lived 4.6 days or about one day longer than those from the high treatment. Most of the eggs were

  12. External quality assessment schemes raise standards: evidence from the UKNEQAS parasitology subschemes

    OpenAIRE

    Kettelhut, M M; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H.; Moody, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: The burden of parasitic disease imported into the temperate zone is increasing, and in the tropics remains very high. Thus, high quality diagnostic parasitology services are needed, but to implement clinical governance a measure of quality of service is required.

  13. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-10-01

    This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P hens.

  14. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Measles Virus by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Armored RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available In recent years, nucleic acid tests for detection of measles virus RNA have been widely applied in laboratories belonging to the measles surveillance system of China. An external quality assessment program was established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories to evaluate the performance of nucleic acid tests for measles virus. The external quality assessment panel, which consisted of 10 specimens, was prepared using armored RNAs, complex of noninfectious MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins encapsulated RNA of measles virus, as measles virus surrogate controls. Conserved sequences amplified from a circulating measles virus strain or from a vaccine strain were encapsulated into these armored RNAs. Forty-one participating laboratories from 15 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions that currently conduct molecular detection of measles virus enrolled in the external quality assessment program, including 40 measles surveillance system laboratories and one diagnostic reagent manufacturer. Forty laboratories used commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR kits, with only one laboratory applying a conventional PCR method developed in-house. The results indicated that most of the participants (38/41, 92.7% were able to accurately detect the panel with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Although a wide range of commercially available kits for nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used by the participants, only two false-negative results and one false-positive result were generated; these were generated by three separate laboratories. Both false-negative results were obtained with tests performed on specimens with the lowest concentration (1.2 × 104 genomic equivalents/mL. In addition, all 18 participants from Beijing achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Overall, we conclude that the majority of the laboratories evaluated have reliable diagnostic capacities for the detection

  15. Uterine fluid proteins and egg quality characteristics for 2 commercial and 2 heritage laying hen lines in response to manipulation of dietary calcium and vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Rathgeber, Bruce M; Thompson, Kristen L; Macisaac, Janice

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of eggs from 2 selected commercial strains of laying hens and 2 unselected lines of chickens fed diets with different combinations of Ca and vitamin D and relate it to the profile of uterine proteins and ultrastructure of the shell. A group of 4 chickens was housed in each of 24 cages. The group consisted of one representative from each of the following breeds: Lohmann LSL- Lite, Lohmann Classic-Brown, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex. Six dietary combinations of Ca and vitamin D(3) (3.35%, 2,500 IU; 4.10%, 2,500 IU (control); 4.85%, 2,500 IU; 3.35%, 200 IU; 4.10%, 200 IU; and 4.85%, 200 IU) were randomly assigned to 4 replicate cages for 2 treatment periods (26-29 and 56-59 wk of age). Data were analyzed as a split-plot design with cage as the main plot and hen as the subplot. Egg quality traits were different (P hens age.

  16. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg quality, liver antioxidant stress and shorten the recovery time.

  17. External Quality Assessment Scheme for Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Toxic Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Lee

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: The EQAS has taken a primary role in improving the reliability of analytical data. A total quality assurance scheme is suggested, including the validation of technical documentation for the whole analytical procedure.

  18. 鸡蛋品质与蛋白凝胶性的相关性研究%Correlation between Quality of Hen Egg and Gelling Properties of Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于滨; 王喜波

    2012-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the correlation between hen egg quality and gelling properties of albumin. Hen eggs were stored to investigate the weight loss, the Haugh unit, the content of dense albumin and the pH of albumin. The texture characteristic and the microstructure of gel from albumin were also tested during storage. The results showed that hen egg quality decreased with storage time, especially for higher temperature. The texture characteristic of gel from albumin increased with storage temperature. There was a significant correlation between hen egg quality and texture characteristic of gel from albumin, which had positive correlation to weight loss and pH of albumin, and negative correlation to the Haugh unit and the content of dense albumin. The microstructure of gel from albumin suggested variation of intermolecular force of proteins induced by decreasement of quality of hen egg changed the microstructure of gel from albumin and texture characteristic. The quality parameters could be used to indicate the change of the texture characteristic of gel from albumin during storage.%为探索贮藏过程中鸡蛋品质与蛋白凝胶质构性质的关系,试验研究了不同贮藏条件下,鸡蛋失重率、哈夫单位、浓蛋白含量、蛋白pH等品质变化及其对蛋白凝胶的质构性质、微观结构的影响。结果表明鸡蛋品质与贮藏时间呈负相关,且温度越高,品质下降速度越快,蛋白凝胶质构性质与贮藏时间呈正相关。鸡蛋品质与蛋白凝胶质构性质之间有显著的相关性:失重率和pHL5凝胶质构性质呈正相关,哈夫单位和浓蛋白含量与凝胶质构性质呈负相关。由蛋白凝胶的微结构变化推断,鸡蛋品质变化引起蛋白质分子问作用力的变化,改变了蛋白凝胶的微观结构和质构性质。鸡蛋贮藏过程中可以使用品质指标表征蛋白凝胶的质构性质变化规律。

  19. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  20. Effect of storage at different temperatures on development of external color and quality of pineapple fruits cv. Gold Extra Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ulloa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of the fruit, judged at the market as the degree of yellowing of the peel, 2 experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of storage temperature on change in external color of pineapple (Ananas comosus fruit cv. “Gold Extra Sweet”. The temperatures evaluated were 7.5°C; 10.0°C; 12.5°C and 15.0°C, and their effect on the color change and the chlorophyll content in the peel, respiration rate and parameters of external and internal quality were measured. The fruit was stored at different temperatures for 21 days and then transferred to 18.0°C during 4 additional days. At the end of the storage period, pineapples at 7.5°C showed the highest content of chlorophyll a (200 μg.g-1 f.w and the lowest degree of external color (0.32-0.70, fruits stored at 15.0°C had the lowest content of chlorophyll a (40 μg.g-1 f.w and the highest color grade (4.42-5.25. Pineapples stored at 7.5°C showed the lowest respiration rate at 21 days (6.4 ml CO2/kg*h, while fruit stored at 15.0°C had the highest respiration rate (15.8 ml CO2/kg*h. As the storage temperature increased the weight loss and mold growth in the peduncle increased. At the end of storage at 18.0°C, the color advance in the fruits previously stored at 7.5°C was the lowest, while the highest external yellow color developed on the fruits previously kept at 15.0°C. The results suggest that the storage temperature affects chlorophyll degradation and development of external yellow color, which could be useful in the commercial management of pineapple fruit.

  1. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Theo C M; Zbinden, Marc; Frommen, Joachim G; Weiss, Alexander; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2006-05-19

    The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm) may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  2. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommen Joachim G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. Results In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. Conclusion This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  3. Effect of External Quality Assurance Evaluation for Chest Radiography: 3-Year Follow-Up in the Medical Institution for Pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Soon Byung [Clinical Research Team, Occupational Lung Diseases Institute, Korea Worker' s Compensation and Welfare Service, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of external quality assurance (QA) evaluation for chest radiography in the medical institution for pneumoconiosis (MIP). The chest radiography of the MIPs were evaluated for a radiological technique (RT), image quality (IQ), and reading environment (RE), during a 3-year follow up according to the Korean guidelines. Same methods were implemented each year to ensure that the results are reliable. RT, IQ, and RE were compared between examination and medical care (EMP), and only medical care (MCP) for pneumoconiosis, film-screen (FSR) and digital (DR) radiography. Uneducated and educated for QA during a 3-year follow up referencing with 2008 were realized. RT and IQ of the MIPs showed a significantly higher score in 2009 and 2010 compared with 2008 (p < 0.01). However, RE was not significantly improved. The score of RT, IQ, and RE of the EMPs were higher than those of MCPs every year, and FSR showed a lower score in all evaluations, although, more improvement was seen than the DR. The chest radiography of the MIPs showed a significant effect as a result of a repeated external QA evaluation. However, the MIPs need to transfer from FSR to DR, and maintain a continuous QA evaluation for the MCPs.

  4. External Quality Assessment for Detection of Fetal Trisomy 21, 18, and 13 by Massively Parallel Sequencing in Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hongyun; Li, Yulong; Han, Yanxi; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2016-03-01

    An external quality assessment for detection of trisomy 21, 18, and 13 by massively parallel sequencing was implemented by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories of People's Republic of China in 2014. Simulated samples were prepared by mixing fragmented abnormal DNA with plasma from non-pregnant women. The external quality assessment panel, comprising 5 samples from pregnant healthy women, 2 samples with sex chromosome aneuploidies, and 13 samples with different concentrations of fetal fractions positive for trisomy 21, 18, and 13, was then distributed to participating laboratories. In total, 55.6% (47 of 84) of respondents correctly identified each of the samples in the panel. Seventeen false-negative and 87 gray zone results were reported, most [102 of 104 (98.1%)] of which were derived from for trisomy samples with effective fetal fractions trisomy sample generated by BGISEQ-100. Overall, most clinical laboratories detected samples containing effective fetal fractions >4%. Our study shows need for further laboratory training in the management of samples with low fetal fractions. For some assays, precision of Z values needs to be improved.

  5. [Guideline compliance in hip fracture: results of an external quality-assurance program in North Rhine Westphalia: 2003-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze Raestrup, U; Grams, A; Smektala, R

    2008-02-01

    Whereas the Scottish guidelines are audited annually, nobody evaluates guideline compliance in Germany. Thus, can external quality assurance data pursuant to section 137 of the German Social Code Book V be suitable for auditing guideline compliance? From North Rhine Westphalia, a total of 48,831 cases of femoral fractures near the hip joint were evaluated. Compliance with the guidelines was determined based on preoperative hospital stay, thrombosis, and antibiotic prophylaxis. Guideline rationale was reviewed in terms of mortality and thromboembolism rate. Sixty-four percent of the interventions were performed in a timely manner. Thrombosis prophylaxis was given in 99% of cases. Antibiotics were given as a single shot. There was no connection between mortality and thromboembolism rates or time to surgery. Guideline compliance is similar in German and Scotland. The external quality assurance data are suitable for evaluating guideline compliance. The literature recommends a short time to surgery. Given the short observation period, it was not possible to demonstrate any improvement in outcomes.

  6. The Research Progress in Fast Curing and Quality Control Technology of Salted Duck Egg%咸鸭蛋的快速腌制及品质控制技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鹤; 杨瑞金; 赵伟; 华霄; 张文斌

    2016-01-01

    Salted egg products is a kind of traditional food in China,its characteristics of convenience and rich nutrition is welcomed by consumers.But traditional curing method exist the problem of long curing period and high NaCl content in egg white,thus improving the salted egg processing technology to realize the fast curing, control the salt content of the salted egg and improve its quality are very important.In this paper,the fast curing technology of salted egg,low-salt salted egg and quality control technology was discussed.%咸蛋是我国的传统特色蛋制品,其食用方便,营养丰富的特点受到广大消费者的欢迎。但传统腌制方法存在腌制周期长,蛋清内NaCl含量过高的问题,因此改善咸蛋的加工技术,实现其快速腌制、控制咸蛋的盐分含量并且提高其品质很为重要。就咸蛋的快速腌制技术,低盐咸蛋的腌制及咸蛋品质控制技术的相关研究方面进行了探讨。

  7. The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on performance, egg quality and blood constituents of laying hens grown under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 216 laying hens was kept at high ambient temperature (32±4°C, 60% relative humidity from week 24 to 32 of age. Birds were divided in 8 treatments with 9 replicates of 3 hens each. The groups were fed the same basal diet and submitted to these dietary treatments: control, un-supplemented; green tea (GT, fed GT at 1 g/kg diet; brown marine algae (BMA, fed BMA at 1 g/kg diet; vitamin E (vit. E, fed vit. E at 300 mg/kg diet; GT+BMA, fed GT and BMA at 1 g/kg of each; GT+vit. E, fed GT and vit. E at 1 g and 300 mg/kg, respectively; BMA+vit. E, fed BMA and vit. E at 1 g and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Feeding BMA at 0.1% increased laying rate by 1.2% and improved feed conversion ratio by 5.2% compared to the control. Vitamin E significantly increased shell thickness by 6.6% and Haugh unit by 4.6% compared to the control. In addition, BMA+vit. E or GT+vit. E increased yolk colour by 9.1 and 10.7%, and Haugh unit of stored eggs by 10.9 and 11.1%. Cholesterol of fresh eggs and plasma were significantly decreased by 16.0 and 9.4% due to supplementation with BMA, and by 19.2 and 8.1% with vit. E addition. Plasma phosphorus increased by 19.1% after vit. E+BMA supplementation. In conclusion, use of BMA or vit. E or GT in laying hens diets which grow under heat stress is recommended as it improves production performance and egg quality.

  8. The influence of Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Starfish (Asterias rubens) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammershøj, Marianne; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    .05) in lightness (L*) and higher (P affected by starfish meal. The albumen dry matter content was not significantly different among diets, whereas the albumen gel fracture stress was lower (P .... The egg weight was not different from the egg weights of control diets, but the inclusion of 4 g mussel meal resulted in a lower (P affected by any of the diets. The egg yolk colour was lower (P ...The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment...

  9. Effect of glutamine supplementation and replacement of tris-egg yolk based extender with defatted cow milk on spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Dawra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of glutamine and replacement of Tris-egg yolk (TE based buffer with defatted cow milk on the spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from five Bhadawari bulls biweekly, and a total of 30 ejaculates were taken. The semen ejaculates were pooled and divided into three equal parts. The pooled semen was diluted by TE based extender (control, TE + glutamine (8 mM (T1 and 50% TE + 50% deffated cow milk + glutamine (8 mM (T2. At two stages viz. after equilibration and after 12 h of cryopreservation (thawed samples, progressive motility, percent live, and percent acrosomal damage of the spermatozoa was assessed. Results: Supplementation of glutamine improved (p<0.05 the spermatozoa quality with respect to the progressive motility, percent live and acrosomal damage both post-equilibration and post-thaw. T2 improved (p<0.05 the spermatozoa quality as compared to control, however; it was less (p<0.05 effective as compared T1 both post-equilibration and post-thaw. Conclusion: From the results of present study it can be concluded that glutamine supplementation was effective in maintaining post-equilibration and post-thaw spermatozoa quality whereas defatted cow milk was not as effective as TE based buffer in the extender in improving the spermatozoa quality.

  10. External Quality Assurance in Higher Education: How Can It Address Corruption and Other Malpractices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Corruption and malpractices in higher education are today a major concern in nearly all higher education systems worldwide. It is a multifaceted phenomenon and has become particularly visible in the academic domain. This paper represents an exploration of the possible role that quality assurance can play in addressing corruption and malpractices.…

  11. Enhancement of external quantum efficiency and quality of heterojunction white LEDs by varying the size of ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, N; Hussain, I; Sawaf, S; Alshammari, Abeer; Saleemi, F

    2017-06-16

    The size of ZnO nanorods (NRs) plays an important role in tuning the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and quality of light generated by white light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this work, we report on the enhancement of EQE and the quality of ZnO NR-based hetrojunction white LEDs fabricated on a p-GaN substrate using a low temperature solution method. Cathodoluminescence spectra demonstrate that ultraviolet (UV) emission decreases and visible deep band emission increases with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. The UV emission could be internally reabsorbed by the ZnO NR excitation, thus enhancing the emission intensity of the visible deep band. Photocurrent measurements validated the fact that the EQE depends on the size of ZnO NRs, increasing by 87% with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. Furthermore, the quality of white light was measured and clearly indicated an increase in the color rendering indices of the LEDs with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs, confirming that the quality of light generated by LEDs can be tuned by varying the length of the ZnO NRs. These results suggest that the EQE and visible deep band emission from n-ZnONRs/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs can be effectively controlled by adjusting the length of the ZnO NRs, which can be useful for realizing tunable white LEDs.

  12. [External quality assessment in clinical biochemistry laboratories: pilot study in 11 laboratories of Lomé (Togo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Kafui; Fétéké, Lochina; Assignon, Selom; Dorkenoo, Ameyo; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a few biochemistry analysis and make recommendations to the place of the stakeholders. It is a cross-sectional study conducted between the October 1(st), 2012 and the July 31, 2013 bearing on the results of 5 common examinations of clinical biochemistry, provided by 11 laboratories volunteers opening in the public and private sectors. These laboratories have analysed during the 3 cycles, 2 levels (medium and high) of serum concentration of urea, glucose, creatinine and serum aminotransferases. The performance of laboratories have been determined from the acceptable limits corresponding to the limits of total errors, defined by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC). A system of internal quality control is implemented by all laboratories and 45% of them participated in international programs of external quality assessment (EQA). The rate of acceptable results for the entire study was of 69%. There was a significant difference (p<0.002) between the performance of the group of laboratories engaged in a quality approach and the group with default implementation of the quality approach. Also a significant difference was observed between the laboratories of the central level and those of the peripheral level of our health system (p<0.047). The performance of the results provided by the laboratories remains relatively unsatisfactory. It is important that the Ministry of Health put in place a national program of EQA with mandatory participation.

  13. Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance and some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of metabolizable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Samie, Abdol-Hossein; Mehri, Mehran

    2017-03-01

    High-energy diets of laying hens may improve roductive performance, although some negative effects may also appear with respect to egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality by improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). The best feed conversion ratio was obtained in birds fed high-apparent metabolizable energy (AME) diets supplemented with 2.0 g kg(-1) CRP (P < 0.05). Although increasing dietary AME elevated the serum concentration of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05), dietary inclusion of CRP alleviates the blood levels of these enzymes (P < 0.01). Low level of dietary CRP boosted the immune responses to Newcastle virus (P < 0.01) and sheep red blood cells (P < 0.05) antigens but decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). Inclusion of at least 2.0 g kg(-1) CRP in the diet of laying decreased Escherichia coli enumerations in the ileal content (P < 0.01) and improved villus height, crypt depth and goblet cell numbers (P < 0.05). An improvement in the productive performance of laying hens fed high-energy diets might be associated with decreasing health indices and product quality, which could potentially be amended by nutritional modifications such as incorporating medicinal herbs in the feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Internal and External Dialogue: a Swedish Approach to Quality Work in Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie B. Hagsgård

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When evaluation shows that a court is not delivering justice in the best possible way, change in the way a court operates can be hard to accomplish. One way is to engage all judges and staff in an internal and external dialogue about the way the court is functioning and how to improve it. When judges and staff are actively involved in evaluating the present situation, in analyzing, suggesting and implementing new measures and in evaluating the effects of those measures, improvements can be reached in the way the court operates in a range of areas. The deployment of such approach in a growing number of Swedish courts is an indicator of the success of the method.At present the majority of Swedish courts are involved in a broad external dialogue, where judges and staff attend meetings with prosecutors and lawyers and interview court users. The aim of the dialogue is to evaluate and improve information and treatment of parties and witnesses and the writing of intelligible judgments. Cuando una evaluación muestra que un tribunal no está administrando justicia de la mejor manera posible, puede ser difícil lograr cambiar la forma en que ese tribunal funciona. Una opción es involucrar a todos los jueces y personal en un diálogo interno y externo sobre el funcionamiento del tribunal y cómo se podría mejorar. Cuando los jueces y el personal participan activamente en la evaluación de la situación actual, analizando, sugiriendo y desarrollando nuevas medidas y evaluando los efectos de esas medidas, se pueden conseguir mejoras en la forma en la que el tribunal opera en diferentes áreas. El uso de este enfoque en un número creciente de tribunales suecos es un indicador del éxito del método.En la actualidad la mayoría de los tribunales suecos están involucrados en un amplio diálogo externo, en el que jueces y personal participan en reuniones con fiscales y abogados y se entrevistan con usuarios de los tribunales. El objetivo del diálogo es

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebuski, Joseph R.; Freier, Timothy A.

    Chicken eggs are the eggs most commonly consumed by humans. The US per capita consumption was 255 eggs in 2005. Approximately 77 billion eggs were produced in the USA in 2005 (American Egg Board, 2005). Of these about 30% were further processed in some manner and the remainder were consumed as whole shell eggs. The greatest increase in production and consumption of eggs, however, is in the developing countries. China is now the number one producer of eggs, with the USA second, and India third. In fact, developing countries currently have >67% of the global egg production share (Clark, 2007). Only a small percentage of eggs are exported because shell eggs are relatively difficult to transport.

  16. Butylated hydroxytoluene can reduce oxidative stress and improve quality of frozen-thawed bull semen processed in lecithin and egg yolk based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumran, A M; Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Ariff, M O; Wahid, H; Kaka, Asmatullah; Ebrahimi, M; Sarsaifi, K

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of anti-oxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), when added at different concentrations into lecithin-based Bioxcell(®) (BX) and two egg-yolk-based; Tris (TY) and citrate (CE) semen extenders, on post-thaw bull sperm quality and oxidative stress. A total of 30 ejaculates from three bulls were collected using an electro ejaculator. Ejaculates were extended with one of the BX, TY and CE extenders, which contained different concentrations (0.0 - control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml) of BHT. The extended semen samples were chilled to 4 °C, and then frozen slowly to -196 °C in 0.25 ml straws before being stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Results showed that supplementation of BHT improved (Plecithin or egg-yolk based extenders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The organization of multidisciplinary care teams: modeling internal and external influences on cancer care quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Mary L; Das, Irene Prabhu; Clauser, Steven; Petrelli, Nicholas; Salner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Quality cancer treatment depends upon careful coordination between multiple treatments and treatment providers, the exchange of technical information, and regular communication between all providers and physician disciplines involved in treatment. This article will examine a particular type of organizational structure purported to regularize and streamline the communication between multiple specialists and support services involved in cancer treatment: the multidisciplinary treatment care (MDC) team. We present a targeted review of what is known about various types of MDC team structures and their impact on the quality of treatment care, and we outline a conceptual model of the connections between team context, structure, process, and performance and their subsequent effects on cancer treatment care processes and patient outcomes. Finally, we will discuss future research directions to understand how MDC teams improve patient outcomes and how characteristics of team structure, culture, leadership, and context (organizational setting and local environment) contribute to optimal multidisciplinary cancer care.

  18. Optimal freeware quality in the presence of network externalities: an evolutionary game theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ernan Haruvy; Ashutosh Prasad

    2001-01-01

    New software products often face difficulty in achieving market penetration. A potential remedy is to offer a freeware version of the software to encourage initial adoption and establish a larger user base for the software, thereby increasing the commercial version's value to adopters in future periods. However, to avoid complete cannibalization of the commercial version, the freeware version's quality must be sufficiently low and the price of the commercial version must not be too high. We m...

  19. The impact of legal responsibility of external auditors on auditing quality and investment level

    OpenAIRE

    Matar, Soud

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. This research aims to study the effects of legal liability rules on auditing quality in order to devise and implement a guideline for the optimal liability rules that can be applied to the auditing profession within society, and thus encourage investment. In an emerging market like Kuwait state, there is a weakness in the legal system, which may cause users to place less reliance on...

  20. Management by objectives and its impact on specialist prescription quality at discharge and in external consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, M; Galvan, L; Capdevila, J; Serna, C; Mangues, I; Schoenenberger, J A

    2011-01-01

    To verify that implementing a policy of management by objectives, based on collaboration between hospital pharmacy, primary care and specialised medical managers, improves prescription quality indicators in specialised care and reduces unwanted "induced" prescriptions (i.e. those issued by specialists, hospital doctors or the patients themselves) in primary care. A four year quasi-experimental controlled intervention study on prescription at discharge and in outpatient hospital consultations was conducted. In hospital A, a quality cycle was applied: assessment, identifying improvement opportunities, implementing corrective actions and re-assessment. However, it was not applied in control hospital B. The indicators chosen were the percentage of generic medicines prescribed, the percentage of prescriptions for new therapies with no added value and the percentage of prescriptions for ACE inhibitors recommended. In hospital A, an increase in indicators 1 and 3 has been observed, both being statistically significant, between the last year of intervention and the year previous to intervention. Hospital A managed to reduce indicator 2 to 4.5%, while this indicator increased in hospital B to 8.8%. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference in indicators between the two hospitals has been registered. Pay-for-Performance programs in prescription practices of hospital physicians are effective actions to improve quality indicators of medication use. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of supplementation of diets for quails with vitamins A, D and E on performance of the birds and quality and enrichment of eggs Efeito da suplementação de dieta de codornas com vitaminas A, D e E sobre o desempenho das aves e a qualidade e o enriquecimento dos ovos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Henrique Marques

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of birds and the quality and enrichment of eggs from quails fed diets supplemented with vitamins A, D and E. Three experiments were performed, one for each vitamin, under completely randomized experimental design, with six replicates and eight birds per plot, totaling 192 quails. Performance of birds was evaluated by the daily feed intake, egg weight, laying percentage (% and food conversion, per kg and dozen of eggs. It was also evaluated the internal quality (Haugh unit, yolk index and yolk and albumen percentages and external quality (eggshell percentage, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight and the concentration of vitamins in egg yolk by using the high performance liquid chromatography method. Vitamins supplementation did not improve productive performance neither the internal and external quality of the eggs, except for vitamin D supplementation, which increased intake. Incorporation of vitamin A in yolk increased 536.27% at level 30,000 UI/kg, vitamin D increased 13.43% at 1,500 UI/kg and vitamin E increased 479.05% at 600 UI/kg, and these results evidence that the nutritional value of eggs, related to vitamins, can be increased through supplementation of diets for quails.Objetivou-se nesta pesquisa avaliar o desempenho das aves e a qualidade e o enriquecimento de ovos de codornas sob suplementação com vitaminas A, D e E. Foram realizados três experimentos, um para cada vitamina, em delineamentos inteiramente casualizados, com seis repetições e oito aves por parcela, totalizando 192 codornas. O desempenho das aves foi avaliado pelo consumo diário de ração, peso dos ovos, porcentagem de postura e conversão alimentar, por kg e dúzia de ovos. Também foram avaliadas a qualidade interna (unidade Haugh, índice gema e porcentagens de gema e albúmen e externa (porcentagem de casca, peso específico, espessura e peso da casca e a concentração das vitaminas

  2. Harmonisation and dosimetric quality assurance in individual monitoring for external radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Ambrosi, P.; Back, C.

    2001-01-01

    The current situation amongst Member States is that there are widely differing national requirements for dosimetric services and for dosemeter performance. It is clear that with the free movement of workers within the European Union (EU) and the requirements for individual dosimetry given...... in Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM, a degree of harmonisation of requirements and procedures of EU Member States would be desirable. A EURADOS action group, made up of members from each of the EU Member States plus Switzerland, was set up with the overall objectives of consolidating within the EU the quality...

  3. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  4. Impact of physical fitness and biometric data on the quality of external chest compression: a randomised, crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Sebastian G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During circulatory arrest, effective external chest compression (ECC is a key element for patient survival. In 2005, international emergency medical organisations changed their recommended compression-ventilation ratio (CVR from 15:2 to 30:2 to acknowledge the vital importance of ECC. We hypothesised that physical fitness, biometric data and gender can influence the quality of ECC. Furthermore, we aimed to determine objective parameters of physical fitness that can reliably predict the quality of ECC. Methods The physical fitness of 30 male and 10 female healthcare professionals was assessed by cycling and rowing ergometry (focussing on lower and upper body, respectively. During ergometry, continuous breath-by-breath ergospirometric measurements and heart rate (HR were recorded. All participants performed two nine-minute sequences of ECC on a manikin using CVRs of 30:2 and 15:2. We measured the compression and decompression depths, compression rates and assessed the participants' perception of exhaustion and comfort. The median body mass index (BMI; male 25.4 kg/m2 and female 20.4 kg/m2 was used as the threshold for subgroup analyses of participants with higher and lower BMI. Results HR during rowing ergometry at 75 watts (HR75 correlated best with the quality of ECC (r = -0.57, p 75, the compression depth decreased over time, beginning after four minutes for the 15:2 CVR and after three minutes for the 30:2 CVR. Although found to be more exhausting, a CVR of 30:2 was rated as being more comfortable. Conclusion The quality of the ECC and fatigue can both be predicted by BMI and physical fitness. An evaluation focussing on the upper body may be a more valid predictor of ECC quality than cycling based tests. Our data strongly support the recommendation to relieve ECC providers after two minutes.

  5. An Internet-based external quality assessment in cytogenetics that audits a laboratory's analytical and interpretative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Rosalind J; Maher, Eddy J; Quellhorst-Pawley, Bettina; Howell, Rodney T

    2008-10-01

    A novel approach to external quality assessment (EQA) using the Internet mimics the diagnostic situation so that multiple tests can be requested and EQA cases can be 'tailor made' to address a specific chromosome syndrome, disease, or clinical dilemma. The web-based EQA system was trialled on a large UK EQA scheme, UK NEQAS for Clinical Cytogenetics. It has also been used to implement a new Cytogenetics European Quality Assessment scheme, CEQA, set up with the intention of providing laboratories in countries without access to a local EQA scheme the opportunity of participation in EQA. Overall, Internet-based EQA allows for a varied EQA programme. Poor performance was detected in both CEQA and UK NEQAS constitutional EQA schemes and also in the UK NEQAS oncology EQA scheme. The Internet-based EQA overcomes submission delays due to international surface mail. There is also a reduction in administration and assessors' time compared to a retrospective EQA involving the submission of unique cases for EQA assessment, as participants analyse the same three Internet-based EQA cases simultaneously. Many EU27 (EU member states) laboratories still do not participate in their national EQA schemes, so until EQA participation becomes mandatory as a component of compulsory laboratory accreditation, the quality of laboratory diagnostic service is unpredictable.

  6. Quality of cervical cancer screening in Brazil: external assessment of the PMAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Mara Rejane Barroso; Lima, Rita de Cássia Duarte; Tomasi, Elaine; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-07-20

    To examine whether demographic and socioeconomic variables and the variables of the organization of services are associated with the quality of cervical cancer screening. This is a survey carried out in the health services of the five Brazilian regions in 2012. The sample consisted of users of basic health units participating in the Program for Improving Access and Quality of the Primary Care. The independent variables analyzed were: socioeconomic characteristics (municipal context), demographic characteristics (user profile), and two domains related to the organization of basic services (work structure and process). The low quality of the screening was assessed from the lack of access, late examination, and lack of guidance. Crude and adjusted analyses by Poisson regression assessed the association between outcomes and independent variables. The values of lack of access, late examination, and lack of guidance were 6.7%, 11.2%, and 19.2%, respectively. Problems of quality were lower according to the increase in Municipal Human Development Index and per capita household income, increasing with population size and municipal coverage of the Family Health Strategy. The Midwest region of the country presented the highest occurrences of low quality outcomes. Indigenous and yellow women had the highest prevalence of outcomes. Women with partner, who received the Bolsa Família Program, and who had paid work had less chances of having lack of access, late examination, and lack of guidance. The appropriate work process in health services decreased the likelihood of low quality in all indicators. Investments in the work process of health teams, social cash transfer programs, and social conditions of the population are essential to improve the quality of the program of cervical cancer screening in Brazil. Analisar se as variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e da organização dos serviços estão associadas à qualidade do rastreamento do câncer de colo uterino. Inqu

  7. 林下和虫子养鸡的鸡蛋品质对比研究%Egg Quality Comparison between the Chicken Raised in Forest and that Fed with Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 杨夫光; 郭保玮; 母应春

    2011-01-01

    以林下放养和用虫子饲养的鸡产下的蛋为材料,从鸡蛋的外观和营养成分对两种蛋的品质进行对比研究.结果表明:两种鸡蛋品质存在差异,两种鸡蛋的蛋质量、蛋密度、蛋白质量、蛋白pH值、水分、灰分、蛋白质、脂肪、钙、磷、铁11个指标存在极显著差异(P<0.01),蛋黄质量、蛋黄pH值等存在显著性差异(P<0.05).%The quality of eggs from the hens raised in forest and fed with insects were compared in egg appearance and nutrition constituents in the present work. The results showed that there were significant differences between two kind of eggs in weight, density, egg white weight, pH value of egg white, moisture content, ash content, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, and ferrum etc (P<0.01). Also, obvious differences between two types of eggs were investigated in yolk weight, ant yolk pH value (P<0.05).

  8. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of cholesterol decreased, but egg shell thickness and Hough unit increased in the hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  9. Quality assurance in personal dosimetry of external radiation: present situation and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, N. [Malaysian Institue For Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    Whole body personal dosimetry is well established for the individual monitoring of radiation workers. High quality radiation dosimetry is essential for workers who rely upon personal dosemeters to record the amount of radiation to which they are exposed. The mandate has been given to the Personal Dosimetry, (secondary standard dosimetry laboratories) S.S.D.L., (Malaysian institute for nuclear energy research) M.I.N.T. to assure the individual monitoring for radiation workers in Malaysia. In 2005, the S.S.D.L;-M.I.N.T. supply, process and read out of personal dosemeters of nearly 13,000 dosimeters monthly, whereby. 12,000 are films and 1,000 are T.L.D.s. The objective of individual monitoring is not limited to the measurement of doses delivered to individuals, but it should demonstrate that limits of exposure have not been exceeded and that working conditions have not unexpectedly deteriorated. Dosimetry measurements are an important component of radiation protection programs and must be of high quality. The exposure of workers to radiation must be controlled and monitored in order to comply with regulatory requirements. S.S.D.L.-M.I.N.T; demonstrates that its performance is at an acceptable level by implementing overall system performance, as evidenced by the ISO 9001 certification of the Personal Dosimetry Service in 2002 and ISO/I.E.C. 17025 accreditation to the calibration laboratory in 2004. The certification and accreditation processes achieved the goal by formalizing the recognition of satisfactory performance, and providing evidence of this performance. Overall performances are assessed, personnel operating the system will be trained and are well qualified and all actions will be documented. The paper describes the overview of the Q.M.S. carried out at the S.S. D.L.-M.I.N.T.. During the implementation of Q.M.S. a few areas has been identified for future consideration. These include performance specification and type testing of dosemeters, which provide a

  10. Decadal regional air quality simulations over Europe in present climate: near surface ozone sensitivity to external meteorological forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Katragkou

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional air quality decadal simulations were carried out using the air quality model CAMx driven off-line by the regional climate model RegCM3 for the time slice 1991–2000 using two different datasets of external meteorological forcing to constrain RegCM3: the ERA40 global atmospheric reanalysis dataset and the output from the GCM ECHAM5. The focus of this work is to compare the perfect lateral boundary conditions experiment with the GCM driven control experiment and to investigate how this external meteorological forcing affects near surface ozone. The different RegCM3 meteorological forcings resulted in changes of near surface ozone over Europe ranging between ±5 ppb for winter and summer, while all model parameterizations and anthropogenic emissions remained unchanged. Changes in near surface ozone are induced by changes in meteorological fields and biogenic emissions, which are on-line calculated and meteorology-dependent. The model simulations suggest that the change in solar radiation is the factor that mostly modulates the ozone changes in summer. During winter season it is found that the induced changes in NOx explain about 40% of the ozone variability. The meteorological induced changes in biogenic emissions are quite low for winter with rather small impact on ozone while they are more temperature than radiation dependent. Using multiple regression analysis to associate the changes in near surface ozone with the respective changes in selected meteorological parameters and ozone precursors, an explained variance of 70% in summer and 60% in winter is reproduced.

  11. Rapid inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs by plant-derived antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a common foodborne pathogen transmitted to humans largely by consumption of contaminated eggs. The external surface of eggs becomes contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis from various sources on farms, the main sources being hens' droppings and contaminated litter. Therefore, effective egg surface disinfection is critical to reduce pathogens on eggs and potentially control egg-borne disease outbreaks. This study investigated the efficacy of GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDA), namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and eugenol (EUG), as an antimicrobial wash for rapidly killing Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs in the presence or absence of chicken droppings. White-shelled eggs inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of nalidixic acid (NA) resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (8.0 log cfu/mL) were washed in sterile deionized water containing each PDA (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75%) or chlorine (200 mg/kg) at 32 or 42°C for 30 s, 3 min, or 5 min. Approximately 6.0 log cfu/mL of Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from inoculated and unwashed eggs. The wash water control and chlorine control decreased Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs by only 2.0 log cfu/mL even after washing for 5 min. The PDA were highly effective in killing Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs compared with controls (P Salmonella Enteritidis to undetectable levels as rapidly as within 30 s of washing, whereas TC (0.75%) completely inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs washed at 42°C for 30 s (P Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in any PDA or chlorine wash solution; however, substantial pathogen populations (~4.0 log cfu/mL) survived in the antibacterial-free control wash water (P Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs to undetectable levels in the presence of 3% chicken droppings at 32°C (P Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs. Sensory and quality studies of PDA-washed eggs need to be conducted before recommending their use.

  12. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  13. External influences on Europe's air quality: Baseline methane, carbon monoxide and ozone from 1990 to 2030 at Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, R. G.; Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Stevenson, D. S.; Collins, W. J.; Sanderson, M. G.; Johnson, C. E.; Dentener, F.; Cofala, J.; Mechler, R.; Amann, M.

    A global 3-D chemistry-transport model STOCHEM has been employed to study trends in the mole fractions of methane, carbon monoxide and ozone in baseline air masses entering Europe from the Atlantic Ocean over the period from 1990 to 2030. With a range of emission scenarios for man-made ozone precursor emission sources available, a wide range of model trends were predicted for the period up to 2030. In the scenario based on current planned air pollution controls, IIASA CLE, methane shows a strong upward trend, ozone shows a weaker upward trend, and carbon monoxide is approximately flat in baseline air masses. In one of the more pessimistic IPCC SRES scenarios, A2, all three gases show future increases. However, in the scenario based on maximum feasible emission reductions, IIASA MFR all three trace gases decline. By 2030, projected climate change reduces the growth in CH 4, but has insignificant effects on baseline CO and O 3 in these simulations. Global or hemispheric ozone precursor emissions and their controls exert a potentially large external influence on Europe's air quality. This influence is currently not taken into account in future European air quality policy formulation.

  14. Intensive educational efforts combined with external quality assessment improve the preanalytical phase in general practitioner offices and nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Bjelkarøy, Wenche Iren; Berg, Kari van den; Saga, Anne Lise; Hager, Helle Borgstrøm; Sandberg, Sverre

    2017-05-05

    Errors in the preanalytical phase in clinical laboratories affect patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensive educational efforts together with external quality assessment (EQA) of the preanalytical phase from 2013 to 2015 to improve patient identification in primary health care in Norway. In addition, routines for venous and capillary blood sampling were investigated. A preanalytical EQA was circulated in 2013 by the Norwegian Quality Improvement of Laboratory Examinations (Noklus) to general practitioner offices and nursing homes (n=2000) to obtain information about important issues to focus on before launching an intensive educational program with courses, posters and visits in 2013-2015. Preanalytical EQA surveys were further circulated in 2014 and 2015. The response rate varied between 42% and 55%. The percentages of participants asking for the patients' name and the Norwegian identification number increased from about 8% in 2013 to about 35% in 2015. The increase was similar for those participating in only one EQA survey and for those who participated in EQA surveys both in 2013 and 2015. Guidelines for venous and capillary blood sampling were not always followed. Educational efforts more than the preanalytical EQA influenced the actions and resulted in an increase in the percentages of participants that followed the guidelines for patient identification. Some aspects of blood sampling routines need improvement.

  15. Health-related quality of life of patients with endometrial cancer who are disease-free following external irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Marianne; Machin, David [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology

    2001-11-01

    Health-related quality of life (HQoL) is assessed through the patients' own evaluation of the impact that a disease and its treatment may have on some of the physical, psychological and social aspects of their lives. The purpose of this study is to describe the HQoL of patients with endometrial cancer who are free of disease after undergoing external irradiation. An HQoL questionnaire was designed and validated, and consisted of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and 80 additional questions. The patients provided self-reported assessments at the end of radiotherapy, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months later. Forty-nine out of 66 potential subjects participated in the study, which was confined to the period during which the women were disease free. Most patients experience physical side effects at the end of treatment and up to 6 months thereafter; 10% of the patients have chronic local symptoms and a large number of the patients think about their treatment even two years later. The patients' overall evaluation of their quality of life is lower than that of a matched population of healthy women.

  16. [Assessment of the quality of laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasitic diseases by the laboratories participating in the Federal System of External Quality Assessment of Clinical Laboratory Testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhov, V N; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Serdiuk, A P

    2014-01-01

    In 2010-2013, the quality of microscopic detection of the causative agents ofparasitic diseases in the feces has been assessed by the specialists of the laboratories of the therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions (TPIs) and Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers, Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, which are participants of the Federal System of External Quality Assessment of Clinical Laboratory Testing. Thirty-two specimens containing 16 species of human helminths and 4 species of enteric protozoa in different combinations were examined. The findings suggest that the quality of microscopic detection of the causative agents of parasitic diseases is low in the laboratories of health care facilities and that the specialists of the laboratories of TPIs and Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers, Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, do not not possess the knowledge and skills necessary to make a laboratory diagnosis of helminths and enteric protozoa. The average detection rates of helminths and protozoa were at a level of 64 and 36%, respectively. The correct results showed that the proportion of helminths and protozoa were 94.5 and 5.5%, respectively. According to the biological and epidemiological classification of helminths, there were higher detection rates for contact group parasites (Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana) and geohelminths (Ascaris, Trichuris trichiura, and others). Biohelminths (Opisthorchis, tapeworms, and others) Were detectable slightly worse.

  17. La calcárea phosphórica en el mejoramiento de la calidad de la cáscara del huevo en gallinas ponedoras (Phosphoric calcarea on the impruvement of egg shell thickness quality in eggs laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada, C., Osmaida; Larrent, N., Marroquin, T. Angelita; Cos, D. Yusell, Bárzaga, G.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente trabajo se realizó en una granja de ponedora comercial raza White Leghorn (L33 en baterías. Con el objetivo de evaluar la utilización de la Calcárea phosphórica como estimulante para mejorar la calidad de la cáscara del huevo, se escogieron al azar un total de 50 jaulas con 4 gallinas por jaula, por un total de 200 animales; se establecieron dos grupos de estudio de 100 aves cada uno, control y experimental al que se le suministró: Calcárea phosphorica 12CH en solución hidroalcohólica, evaluando los siguientes indicadores: grosor de la cáscara, % huevos cascados, % de huevos rotos, y como indicador complementario, producción de huevos. Para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos se utilizó la prueba de hipótesis para dos proporciones, mediante el paquete estadístico Statistic versión 6.0 para Windows. Se pudo evidenciar que la producción total de huevos, grosor de la cáscara y % de huevos rotos y cascados tuvo mejores resultados en el grupo experimental. Se concluye que la aplicación de la Calcárea phosphorica influye positivamente sobre los indicadores previamente mencionados.Abstract This work was done at the layer farm, the breed exploited being the White Leghorn (L33 in battery.With the objective to evaluate the homeopathic remedy “Calcárea Phosphorica” 12CH in hydro alcoholic solution was applied at a dose of 5 drops or 0.25ml per animal in drinking water. 50 cages with 4 animals per cage were selected randomly, giving a total of 200 animals, 25 control cages and 25 subject cages. The following indicators were observed and monitored: egg shell thickness, cracked egg shell percentage, broken egg shell percentage, the final eggs production, % of broken eggs, Statistic package version 6.0 was used for statistical processing Hypothesis test was made for two proportions. Were observed better results in the experimental group with relation of egg shell thickness, cracked egg shell percentage, broken

  18. Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on maize- or barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesch, M; Broz, J; Brufau, J

    2005-06-01

    A 24-week performance trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus excretion in laying hens fed on either a maize- or a barley-based diet. At the end of the trial, an ileal absorption assay was conducted in order to determine the influence of phytase supplementation on the apparent absorption of calcium and total phosphorus (P). Each experimental diet was formulated either as a positive control containing 3.2 g/kg non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), with the addition of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), or as a low P one, without DCP addition. Both low P diets (containing 1.3 or 1.1 g/kg NPP) were supplemented with microbial phytase at 0, 150, 300 and 450 U/kg. The birds were housed in cages, allocating two hens per cage as the experimental unit. Each of 10 dietary treatments was assigned to 16 replicates. Low dietary NPP (below 1.3 g/kg) was not able to support optimum performance of hens during the laying cycle (from 22 to 46 weeks of age), either in maize or barley diets. Rate of lay, daily egg mass output, feed consumption, tibia ash percentage and weight gain were reduced in hens fed low NPP diets. The adverse effects of a low P diet were more severe in hens on a maize diet than in those on a barley diet. Low dietary NPP reduced egg production, weight gain, feed consumption and tibia ash content and microbial phytase supplementation improved these parameters. Hens given low NPP diets supplemented with phytase performed as well as the hens on positive control diets containing 3.2 g/kg of NPP. A 49% reduction of excreta P content was achieved by feeding hens on low NPP diets supplemented with phytase, without compromising performance. Phytase addition to low NPP diets increased total phosphorus absorption at the ileal level, from 0.25 to 0.51 in the maize diet and from 0.34 to 0.58 in the barley diet. Phosphorus absorption increased linearly with increasing levels of dietary phytase

  19. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,

  20. Effect of melamine-contaminated diet on tissue distribution of melamine and cyanuric acid, blood variables, and egg quality in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchý, P; Novák, P; Zapletal, D; Straková, E

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of melamine-contaminated feed (100 mg/kg) on the distribution of melamine and cyanuric acid in the tissues of laying hens. The effect of a 5-week melamine administration in feed on the egg quality and blood variables of layers was also investigated. 2. A total of twenty 36-week-old ISA Brown layers were used in the experiment. The layers were equally divided into an experimental melamine group (n = 10) and a control group without melamine (n = 10). At the end of the experiment, samples of liver, kidney, breast and thigh muscles were collected from all hens and analysed for the presence of melamine and cyanuric acid by gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. 3. Layers receiving the melamine-contaminated diet laid eggs with decreased eggshell strength. The decrease in shell strength was found in weeks 3 and 4 compared to the initial state (week 0) and week 1. 4. Hens receiving the melamine-contaminated diet also exhibited a higher total red blood cell count and lower mean corpuscular haemoglobin compared to the control group. However, melamine at 100 mg/kg feed had no effects on the blood variables of layers. 5. Melamine was detected in all analysed tissues of layers fed on the melamine-contaminated diet, with its mean concentrations decreasing in the following order: kidney (7.43 mg/kg) > breast muscle (3.88 mg/kg) > liver (3.11 mg/kg) > thigh muscle (1.91 mg/kg). The kidney and liver of layers fed on the melamine-contaminated diet also exhibited the presence of cyanuric acid. 6. On the basis of our results, it can be concluded that the biotransformation of melamine into cyanuric acid proceeded mainly in the liver, and cyanuric acid was eliminated in urine.

  1. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1).

  2. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  3. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  4. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  5. Incubabilidade e Qualidade de Pintos de Ovos Matrizes de Frangos de Corte Submetidos a Estresse de Temperatura Hatchability and Chick Quality of Broiler Breeder Eggs Submitted to Stress Due to Temeperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NSM Leandro

    2000-04-01

    temperature of 37.8C, relative air humidity of 60%, and mechanically turned on every two hour. At 16 days of incubation (D16, the embryos were submitted to heat (40C or cold (32C stress for 5 hours in two of the three machines. The non-stressed embryos of the third incubator were used as control. The data were analyzed in a complete randomized design with 3 treatments. The hatchability and chick’s quality, evaluated by the number of neonatal and viable chicks, body weight at birth, and legs and navel qualities, were not different (P>0.05 among the control and temperature-stressed groups. However, results revealed that the eggs exposed to cold or heat stress showed a longer (P<0.05 incubation period - 506.5h and 504.2h, respectively - than those kept at normal temperature - 496.3h - as a consequence of a delay on internal (7 and 6h and external piping (13 and 12h. It can be concluded that the 5-hour cold or heat stress at D16 is not enough to damage the hatchability or the quality of the chicks, but increase total incubation period, denoting that even a brief period of variation on the normal incubation temperature at a critical period of development is enough to determine stress in broiler embryos.

  6. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  7. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  8. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  9. Analytical performance specifications based on how clinicians use laboratory tests. Experiences from a post-analytical external quality assessment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thue, Geir; Sandberg, Sverre

    2015-05-01

    Analytical performance specifications can be based on three different models: the effect of analytical performance on clinical outcome, based on components of biological variation of the measurand or based on state-of-the-art. Models 1 and 3 may to some degree be combined by using case histories presented to a large number of clinicians. The Norwegian Quality Improvement of Primary Care Laboratories (Noklus) has integrated vignettes in its external quality assessment programme since 1991, focusing on typical clinical situations in primary care. Haemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), HbA1c, glucose, u-albumin, creatinine/estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and Internationl Normalised Ratio (INR) have been evaluated focusing on critical differences in test results, i.e., a change from a previous result that will generate an "action" such as a change in treatment or follow-up of the patient. These critical differences, stated by physicians, can translate into reference change values (RCVs) and assumed analytical performance can be calculated. In general, assessments of RCVs and therefore performance specifications vary both within and between groups of doctors, but with no or minor differences regarding specialisation, age or sex of the general practitioner. In some instances state-of-the-art analytical performance could not meet clinical demands using 95% confidence, whereas clinical demands were met using 80% confidence in nearly all instances. RCVs from vignettes should probably not be used on their own as a basis for setting analytical performance specifications, since clinicians seem "uninformed" regarding important principles. They could rather be used as a background for focus groups of "informed" physicians in discussions of performance specifications tailored to "typical" clinical situations.

  10. Results of Use of WHO Global Salm-Surv External Quality Assurance System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella Isolates from 2000 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Jensen, Arne Bent;

    2009-01-01

    . In particular, further training and dissemination of information on quality control, appropriate interpretive criteria (breakpoints), and harmonization of the methodology worldwide through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other programs will contribute to the generation of comparable and reliable antimicrobial......An international External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella was initiated in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Salm-Surv in order to enhance the capacities of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data...

  11. Routine internal- and external-quality control data in clinical laboratories for estimating measurement and diagnostic uncertainty using GUM principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Bertil; Ossowicki, Haakan; Rienitz, Olaf; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2012-05-01

    Healthcare laboratories are increasingly joining into larger laboratory organizations encompassing several physical laboratories. This caters for important new opportunities for re-defining the concept of a 'laboratory' to encompass all laboratories and measurement methods measuring the same measurand for a population of patients. In order to make measurement results, comparable bias should be minimized or eliminated and measurement uncertainty properly evaluated for all methods used for a particular patient population. The measurement as well as diagnostic uncertainty can be evaluated from internal and external quality control results using GUM principles. In this paper the uncertainty evaluations are described in detail using only two main components, within-laboratory reproducibility and uncertainty of the bias component according to a Nordtest guideline. The evaluation is exemplified for the determination of creatinine in serum for a conglomerate of laboratories both expressed in absolute units (μmol/L) and relative (%). An expanded measurement uncertainty of 12 μmol/L associated with concentrations of creatinine below 120 μmol/L and of 10% associated with concentrations above 120 μmol/L was estimated. The diagnostic uncertainty encompasses both measurement uncertainty and biological variation, and can be estimated for a single value and for a difference. This diagnostic uncertainty for the difference for two samples from the same patient was determined to be 14 μmol/L associated with concentrations of creatinine below 100 μmol/L and 14 % associated with concentrations above 100 μmol/L.

  12. A pilot evaluation of external quality assessment of GenoType MTBDRplus versions 1 and 2 using dried culture spot material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gous, N; Isherwood, L E; David, A; Stevens, W; Scott, L E

    2015-04-01

    Dried culture spots (DCS) of inactivated Mycobacteria strains designed as part of an external quality assessment (EQA) program for the GeneXpert system has applications to other molecular tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic platforms. DCS tested on the GenoType MTBDRplus and Mycobacterium CM assays performed well with MTBDRplus version 2 but require increased bacterial concentration for use with version 1.

  13. VIPR-1基因SNP位点与如皋黄鸡产蛋性能和蛋品质的关联分析%Association of SNP of VIPR-1 Gene with Egg Production and Egg Quality Traits in Rugao-yellow Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 王克华; 李东锋; 杨宁

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the effect of genotype combinations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VIPR-1) gene on the egg production and egg quality traits in Rugao-yellow Chicken. 410 purebred Rugao-yellow Chicken were used.The SNPs of the base mutation G-T at position 1063 (PA site) and mutation C-T at position 3522 (Pbsite)in the intron of PRL gene were detected by SELDI-TOF. Association analyses showed that the PA site was significantly associated with the age of first egg (AFE), the total number of egg of 40 w(EN40), egg shell strength(ESS), yolk rate(YR)and yolk-albumen rate(YAR)(P0.05), was significantly associated with egg weight (EW), egg shape index (ESI), egg specific gravity(ESG),egg shell thickness (EST)of the egg quality traits (P<0.05). The result of genotype combinations effect suggested that among nine different genotype combinations, GTTT and TTTC genotypes were the dominant combination with the egg production traits.%本研究旨在分析VIPR-1基因的SNP位点与产蛋性能和蛋品质之间的关联性.实验以如皋黄鸡为素材,采用飞行时间质谱技术对VIPR-1基因内含子2第+1063位碱基(PA位点)的G-T突变和第+3522位碱基(PB位点)的T-C突变进行单位点和多位点组合效应分析.结果表明:PA位点的多态性与产蛋性状中的开产日龄(AFE)和40周龄总产蛋数(EN40)呈显著相关(P<0.05);与蛋品质性状中的蛋壳强度(ESS)、蛋黄比率(YR)和蛋黄蛋白比(YAR)呈显著相关(P<0.05);等位基因T有利于产蛋量和蛋品质的改善.PB位点与本次实验所测的5个产蛋性状相关均不显著(P>0.05),与蛋品质性状中的蛋重(EW)、蛋形指数(ESI)、蛋壳厚度(EST)和蛋比重(ESG)相关显著(P<0.05).组合效应分析结果表明,对于产蛋性能,GTTT和TTTC组合基因型个体的组合效应显著.

  14. Research on External Evaluation of the Quality of Internal Audit%内部审计质量外部评估探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范经华

    2012-01-01

    内部审计质量外部评估是由内部审计机构以外的其他机构和人员对内部审计质量所进行的检查、考核和评价活动。内部审计质量外部评估所涉及的内容十分广泛,除了涵盖对内部审计业务质量产生直接影响的各主要因素外,还涵盖对内部审计质量产生重要影响的内部审计环境中的各主要因素。内部审计质量外部评估对于改善内部审计环境,提升内部审计质量,提高内部审计人员的专业胜任能力等方面都有明显作用。基于中铁大桥局集团有限公司2012年5月已通过的内部审计质量外部评估的基本经验,指出了当前企业参与内部审计质量外部评估必须做好的各项基本工作,并提出了如何加强和完善我国内部审计质量外部评估的若干建议及思考。%External evaluation of internal auditing quality refers to the examination, assessment and appraisalconducted by other institutions and staffs other than internal auditing institution. The external evaluation of internal auditing quality contains a wide range of content, covering not only the main factors which will exert a direct influence on business quality of internal auditing, but also relating to main factors of internal audit environment which has greatly influenced internal audit quality. The external evaluation of internal auditing quality plays an active role in terms of improving internal audit environment, upgrading internal auditing quality and promoting professional capability of internal audit staffs. Based on the experience and understanding regarding the external evaluation of internal audit quality which China Railway Major Bridge Engineering Group Co., Ltd. passed in May 2012, this paper is to present the basic works whilst attending external evaluation of internal audit quality, and also to elaborate several suggestions and thinking on how to reinforce and improve external evaluation of internal audit quality

  15. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de ovo integral pasteurizado produzido com e sem a etapa de lavagem no processamento Influence of washing in the microbial quality of pasteurized egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Casale Aragon-Alegro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Microrganismos patogênicos podem contaminar ovos em diferentes estágios do processamento. Na tentativa de reduzir problemas decorrentes dessa contaminação por microrganismos patogênicos e/ou deteriorantes, os ovos são submetidos a processos como lavagem da casca e pasteurização. Vários estudos mostraram que alguns agentes químicos utilizados nessa lavagem podem causar danos físicos ao produto, facilitando a entrada de microrganismos através da casca. O nosso objetivo foi avaliar a eficiência da lavagem dos ovos, anteriormente à quebra, na redução da contaminação de ovo integral líquido. Foram colhidas amostras de ovo integral em 3 pontos da linha de produção, provenientes de ovos lavados e não lavados. Foram feitas pesquisa de Salmonella sp e enumeração de S. aureus, L. monocytogenes e bactérias aeróbias. Os resultados foram analisados no nível de significância de 5% e pôde-se concluir que o emprego, ou não, da etapa de lavagem não tem influência na qualidade microbiológica do produto final.Pathogenic microrganisms can contaminate eggs at different stages of processing. In an attempt to reduce problems resulting from contamination by pathogenic and/or deteriorating microrganisms, the eggs are submitted to processes such as washing the egg shell and pasteurization. Some studies have shown that chemical agents used to wash the egg shells can cause physical damage to the product, facilitating the entry of microrganisms through the shell. Our aim was to evaluate the efficiency of washing the eggs, prior to breaking them, to reduce the contamination of whole liquid egg (intended for pasteurization. Samples of whole eggs from both washed and unwashed eggs were taken at three points in the production line. Tests for Salmonella sp and enumeration of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria were carried out. The results were analysed at the significant level of 5% and it was concluded that whether the eggs were

  16. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain rel

  17. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    Six external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) External Quality-Assurance (QA) Project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2002 through 2003. Each program measured specific components of the overall error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assessed the variability and bias of pH and specific conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators twice per year with respect to accuracy goals. The percentage of site operators that met the pH accuracy goals decreased from 92.0 percent in spring 2002 to 86.3 percent in spring 2003. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, the percentage of site operators that met the accuracy goals for specific conductance ranged from 94.4 to 97.5 percent. The blind-audit program and the sample-handling evaluation (SHE) program evaluated the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly NADP/NTN samples. The blind-audit program data indicated that the variability introduced by sample handling might be environmentally significant to data users for sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ion concentrations during 2002. In 2003, the blind-audit program was modified and replaced by the SHE program. The SHE program was designed to control the effects of laboratory-analysis variability. The 2003 SHE data had less overall variability than the 2002 blind-audit data. The SHE data indicated that sample handling buffers the pH of the precipitation samples and, in turn, results in slightly lower conductivity. Otherwise, the SHE data provided error estimates that were not environmentally significant to data users. The field-audit program was designed to evaluate the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. Field-audit results indicated that exposure of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples

  18. Efeito da suplementação enzimática no desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais = Effects of the enzyme complex supplementation on the performance and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da utilização de um complexo multienzimático sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 336 poedeiras comerciais, HyLine W36, com 29 semanas de idade distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 7 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 8 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta basal suplementada com o complexo enzimático nos níveis de 400 ou 500 ppm com valorização do nível de proteína, energia metabolizável e aminoácidos do farelo de soja em 5/5/5, 7/7/7 e 7/7/9%, respectivamente. As variáveisestudadas foram: consumo de ração (g ave-1 dia-1, conversão alimentar (kg dz-1 de ovos, peso médio dos ovos (g, produção de ovos (%, gravidade específica (g mL-1, Unidade Haugh, coloração da gema, percentuais de sólidos totais, de gema, clara e casca (%,espessura da casca (mm e composição bromatológica das excretas. A adição do complexo multienzimático apresentou resultados produtivos e de qualidade dos ovos semelhantes à dieta controle.The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a commercial enzyme complex on the performance and egg quality of commerciallaying hens. A total of 336 29-week old Hyline W36 layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and six replications of eight birds each. The treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with inclusion of (500 or 400ppm, overestimating the percentages of protein, ME and amino acids of the soybean meal by 5:5:5, 7:7:7 and 7:7:9, respectively. The studied variables were: feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, feed:egg (kg feed-1 egg dozen-1, egg weight (g, egg laying percentage (hen day-1 specific gravity (g ml-1, Haugh Unit, color of the egg yolk, total solids percentage (%, egg yolk percentage, albumen and eggshell (%, eggshell thickness (mm and chemical compositionof hen manure. The inclusion of enzyme complex in the

  19. Using additional external inputs to forecast water quality with an artificial neural network for contamination event detection in source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Source water quality plays an important role for the safety of drinking water and early detection of its contamination is vital to taking appropriate countermeasures. However, compared to drinking water, it is more difficult to detect contamination events because its environment is less controlled and numerous natural causes contribute to a high variability of the background values. In this project, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a Contamination Event Detection Process (CED Process) were used to identify events in river water. The ANN models the response of basic water quality sensors obtained in laboratory experiments in an off-line learning stage and continuously forecasts future values of the time line in an on-line forecasting step. During this second stage, the CED Process compares the forecast to the measured value and classifies it as regular background or event value, which modifies the ANN's continuous learning and influences its forecasts. In addition to this basic setup, external information is fed to the CED Process: A so-called Operator Input (OI) is provided to inform about unusual water quality levels that are unrelated to the presence of contamination, for example due to cooling water discharge from a nearby power plant. This study's primary goal is to evaluate how well the OI fits into the design of the combined forecasting ANN and CED Process and to understand its effects on the online forecasting stage. To test this, data from laboratory experiments conducted previously at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, have been used to perform simulations highlighting features and drawbacks of this method. Applying the OI has been shown to have a positive influence on the ANN's ability to handle a sudden change in background values, which is unrelated to contamination. However, it might also mask the presence of an event, an issue that underlines the necessity to have several instances of the algorithm run in parallel. Other difficulties

  20. Protein hydrolysate of salted duck egg white as a substitute of phosphate and its effect on quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2009-10-01

    Protein hydrolysate from salted egg white (PHSEW) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) (3%, 6%, and 9%) was produced using pepsin. Disappearance of proteins with molecular weight (MW) of 108 and 85 kDa with the concomitant formation of proteins with MW of 23, 20, 13, and 5 kDa was observed in PHSEW. The use of PHSEW for quality improvement of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Shrimp soaked in 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2.5% mixed phosphates (0.625% sodium acid pyrophosphate [SAPP] and 1.875% tetrasodium pyrophosphate [TSPP]) had the highest cooking yield with the lowest cooking loss (P 0.05). Cooked shrimp treated with 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2.5% mixed phosphate or those treated with 4% NaCl containing 3.5% mixed phosphate had the higher score of appearance, texture, and overall likeness but less shear force, in comparison with the control (no treatment) (P < 0.05). Microstructure study revealed that muscle fibers of cooked shrimp from both treatments had the swollen fibrils and gaps, while the control had the swollen compact structure. Therefore, use of PHSEW could reduce phosphate residue in shrimps without an adverse effect on sensory properties.

  1. [Bringing criteria for external assessment of the quality of biochemical studies within the framework of the Federal System for External Evaluation of the Quality of Clinical Laboratory Studies, in conformity with requirements of the Order No. 45 of the Ministry of Health of Russia, 2/7/2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, E V; Malakhov, V N

    2000-07-01

    Criteria for external assessment of the quality of evaluation of 23 biochemical parameters of the blood, meeting the standards of accuracy determined by the Order No. 45 of Ministry of Health of Russia of February 7, 2000 for intralaboratory quality control have been estimated. According to the data of the Federal System for External Evaluation of the Quality of Clinical Laboratory Studies, the percentage of results of analyses of test sera meeting these criteria has been estimated. Introduction of new criteria for external assessment of the quality of biochemical tests into the practice of the Federal System will not notably modify the currently used criteria with regard to the majority of biochemical parameters, except introduction of more stringent criteria for albumin and magnesium and less stringent for creatine kinase.

  2. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  3. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  4. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  5. The relevance of external quality assessment for molecular testing for ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer: results from two pilot rounds show room for optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Tembuyser

    Full Text Available Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK rearrangement status is a critical biomarker to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. To promote high quality testing in non-small cell lung cancer, the European Society of Pathology has introduced an external quality assessment scheme. This article summarizes the results of the first two pilot rounds organized in 2012-2013.Tissue microarray slides consisting of cell-lines and resection specimens were distributed with the request for routine ALK testing using IHC or FISH. Participation in ALK FISH testing included the interpretation of four digital FISH images.Data from 173 different laboratories was obtained. Results demonstrate decreased error rates in the second round for both ALK FISH and ALK IHC, although the error rates were still high and the need for external quality assessment in laboratories performing ALK testing is evident. Error rates obtained by FISH were lower than by IHC. The lowest error rates were observed for the interpretation of digital FISH images.There was a large variety in FISH enumeration practices. Based on the results from this study, recommendations for the methodology, analysis, interpretation and result reporting were issued. External quality assessment is a crucial element to improve the quality of molecular testing.

  6. Minimal requirements for quality controls in radiotherapy with external beams; Controlli di qualita' essenziali in radioterapia con fasci esterni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Physical dosimetric guidelines have been developed by the Italian National Institute of Health study group on quality assurance in radiotherapy to define protocols for quality controls in external beam radiotherapy. While the document does not determine strict rules or firm recommendations, it suggests minimal requirements for quality controls necessary to guarantee an adequate degree of accuracy in external beam radiotherapy. [Italian] Il gruppo di studio Assicurazione di qualita' in radioterapia dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' presenta le linee guida per la stesura dei protocolli di controllo di qualita' essenziali necessari a garantire un adeguato livello di accuratezza del trattamento radiante e rappresenta pertanto una parte essenziale del contributo fisico-dosimetrico globale di assicurazione di qualita' in radioterapia con fasci esterni.

  7. Changes in Quality of Native and Frozenthawed Semen in Relation to Two Collections Performed in a 24-hour Interval and Adition of Clarified Egg Yolk to Extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folková P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of repeated semen collection and the substitution of normal egg yolk with clarified egg yolk to commercially produced semen extender on qualitative parameters of frozen-thawed canine semen. Two semen collections were scheduled in a 24-hour interval and in each of six dogs, three 1st and three 2nd collections were performed. The frozen-thawed sperm samples were prepared either with clarified or normal egg yolk and motility and viability were evaluated. The effect of the sequence of semen collection was demonstrated by significant differences in motility and also in viability of sperms both in native and frozen-thawed ejaculate. The percentage of viable sperms was significantly higher in samples from the 2nd compared to the 1st collection. This trend was the same also in motility except in native ejaculate. The addition of clarified egg yolk was beneficial for higher survival of sperms immediately after thawing and also after 30 min of incubation, compared to samples with normal egg yolk. Sperm motility evaluated after thawing was higher in samples with clarified egg yolk, without an apparent connection with semen collection sequence. The decrease of values of the qualitative parameters of sperms observed in the period of 30 min of incubation was significantly slowed down when clarified egg yolk was used. This was especially obvious in samples from the 2nd collection.

  8. First External Quality Assessment of Molecular and Serological Detection of Rift Valley Fever in the Western Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Monaco

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis which affects humans and a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants. The large spread of RVF in Africa and its potential to emerge beyond its geographic range requires the development of surveillance strategies to promptly detect the disease outbreaks in order to implement efficient control measures, which could prevent the widespread of the virus to humans. The Animal Health Mediterranean Network (REMESA linking some Northern African countries as Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia with Southern European ones as France, Italy, Portugal and Spain aims at improving the animal health in the Western Mediterranean Region since 2009. In this context, a first assessment of the diagnostic capacities of the laboratories involved in the RVF surveillance was performed. The first proficiency testing (external quality assessment--EQA for the detection of the viral genome and antibodies of RVF virus (RVFV was carried out from October 2013 to February 2014. Ten laboratories participated from 6 different countries (4 from North Africa and 2 from Europe. Six laboratories participated in the ring trial for both viral RNA and antibodies detection methods, while four laboratories participated exclusively in the antibodies detection ring trial. For the EQA targeting the viral RNA detection methods 5 out of 6 laboratories reported 100% of correct results. One laboratory misidentified 2 positive samples as negative and 3 positive samples as doubtful indicating a need for corrective actions. For the EQA targeting IgG and IgM antibodies methods 9 out of the 10 laboratories reported 100% of correct results, whilst one laboratory reported all correct results except one false-positive. These two ring trials provide evidence that most of the participating laboratories are capable to detect RVF antibodies and viral RNA thus recognizing RVF infection in affected ruminants with the diagnostic methods

  9. External quality assessment of tumour marker analysis: state of the art and consequences for estimating diagnostic sensitivity and specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood, William Graham

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This review shows the current analytical quality for the following analytes used as tumour markers in the external quality assessment (EQA-programmes of Instand e.V., a national EQA-organiser in Germany: Corticotropin (ACTH, growth hormone (GH, hGH, prolactin (PRL, chorionic gonadotropin (CG, hCG, calcitonin (CT, hCT, thyroglobulin (Tg, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CA-Antigens 125, 72-4, 15-3 and 19-9, alpha foetoprotein (AFP and prostate-specific antigen (PSA. The results from the participants show a large variation in the precision of the methods used as well as in the comparability of results between methods for the same analyte. In general, the hormones used as tumour markers show better performance than the "CA-markers", which are often inadequately standardised and defined. In the case of one CA-marker (CA 72-4/TAG 72-4, the differences between the lowest kit median concentration and highest kit median concentration for one sample pair were 440% and 580%. The corresponding figures for ACTH were 123% and 156% and for CEA 180% and 184%. The classical tumour markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and alpha foetoprotein (AFP performed markedly better than the CA-markers and PSA with regards to both inter- and intra-method comparability. The inter-laboratory precision for a given kit and marker was acceptable in many cases. The results show that only results from the same kit/method for each tumour marker can be used for cumulative or time-dependent comparison of results - for example pre-operative and post-operative follow up. In the case of prostate specific antigen (PSA, the kits used for free and total PSA must come from the same producer, if the generally accepted ratios are to have any diagnostic value. The need for kit- and laboratory-specific reference ranges and cut-off values for setting diagnostic specificity and sensitivity is highlighted from the EQA-results. The situation for inter-method comparability for the CA

  10. Competitiveness of the EU egg sector, base year 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import levies on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied, for both shell eggs and whole egg powder. As a result of the costs of transportation, import levies and the effects on product quality and safety, there will barely be imports of s

  11. Effect of egg washing and correlation between eggshell characteristics and egg penetration by various Salmonella Typhimurium strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav C Gole

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL, and strain 5 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05 in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05. When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.

  12. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  13. Ostrich (Struthio camelus Egg Embryonic Death During Artificial Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha E. Faki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of ostrich farming revealed that egg hatchability was remarkably lower than the wild. This review considers the factors leading to, as pertaining to the ostrich, egg and incubator. Ostrich genotype, age, season and congenital problems affect clutch and egg sizes and egg quality- fertility to lead a successful hatch. Egg treatment prior incubation can later reduce hatchability, affected by storage conditions and duration. Most detrimental factors lie in the incubator and hatcher management. Egg correct positioning and turning in the appropriate incubator humidity and temperature are likely to yield high hatch. Variability in egg size, shell quality, pore sizes and numbers govern the water loss and exchange of gases. The hatcher management is important when chicks need intervention. Dead-in-shell embryos, early or late were likely to be affected by all of the above factors plus egg microbial contamination or be merely nutritional.

  14. Quail egg yield and quality of the Coturnix coturnix response to the addition level of agave inulin to the drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Pérez de la Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of agave inulin addition to drinking water, one hundred (65 days old Coturnix coturnix japonica hens were divided randomly into four groups with five birds per cage. Twenty five birds were assigned to each of the following treatments: i control; addition of agave inulin in the drinking water at; ii 2.0% (w/w, iii 4.0%; and iv 6%. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks. Inulin increased (P0.05. The egg weight was similar among treatments (average 12.70 g and varied slightly with the inulin level (P=0.0537. The egg shell (percentage of the egg was not influenced by the inulin. But, the calcium concentration in the eggshell of the present trial varied with the level on the agave inulin in the drinking water (P0.05. Then, the agave inulin addition to the drinking water increases the egg yield of Japanese quails.

  15. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  16. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  17. External quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing in Africa: A collaborative country-partner approach to strengthen diagnostic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrah I. Boeras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the role of diagnostics and the critical need for quality diagnostics services in resource-limited settings. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and the prevention and control of most infectious diseases. As countries plan for implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and viral load point-of-care testing, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has worked with countries and partners with an interest in external quality assurance to support quality point-of-care testing on the continent. Through a series of collaborative consultations and workshops, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has gathered lessons learned, tools, and resources and developed quality assurance models that will support point-of-care testing. The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is committed to the continued advancement of laboratory diagnostics in Africa and quality laboratory services and point-of-care testing.

  18. External quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing in Africa: A collaborative country-partner approach to strengthen diagnostic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeras, Debrah I; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2016-01-01

    It is important to consider the role of diagnostics and the critical need for quality diagnostics services in resource-limited settings. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and the prevention and control of most infectious diseases. As countries plan for implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and viral load point-of-care testing, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has worked with countries and partners with an interest in external quality assurance to support quality point-of-care testing on the continent. Through a series of collaborative consultations and workshops, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has gathered lessons learned, tools, and resources and developed quality assurance models that will support point-of-care testing. The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is committed to the continued advancement of laboratory diagnostics in Africa and quality laboratory services and point-of-care testing.

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone conc...

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone conc...

  1. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  2. 山东地方鸡与海兰褐鸡蛋品质的比较研究%Comparison on Egg Quality between Shandong Local Hens and Hyline Brown Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷秋霞; 逯岩; 韩海霞; 曹顶国; 李福伟; 周艳; 李桂明; 黄保华; 武彬

    2011-01-01

    [目的]比较山东地方鸡品种与高产蛋鸡品种之间蛋品质的差异.[方法]选取山东省3个地方鸡品种济宁百日鸡、汶上芦花鸡、莱芜黑鸡和引进的高产蛋鸡海兰褐鸡,进行蛋品质的比较研究.[结果]山东地方鸡的蛋黄比例、蛋形指数和蛋壳强度均显著高于海兰褐鸡(P<0.05),而平均蛋重和哈氏单位显著低于海兰褐鸡(P<0.085).山东地方鸡鸡蛋内的人体必需氨基酸以及亚油酸含量都显著高于海兰褐鸡(P<0.05),但维生素A和维生素E的含量以及总氨基酸和脂肪酸含量在地方品种与海兰褐鸡之间差异不显著(P>0.05).[结论]该试验研究了不同品种鸡蛋品质的差异,为今后蛋鸡品种的改良提供了参考.%[Objective] To observe differences in egg quality between Shandong local hens and Hyline Brown hens. [Method] Hyline Brown hens and three Shandong local chicken breeds including Jining Bairi chicken, Wenshang Luhua chicken and Laiwu Black chicken were selected for egg quality comparison. [ Result ] The percentage of yolk, egg-shape index and shell strength were significantly higher in the Shandong local hens than in Hyline Brown hens (P < 0.05 ) , but the opposite results were found for average egg size and Haugh unit ( P < 0.05). The contents of essential amino acids and linoleic acid were significantly higher in the eggs of Shandong local hens than in Hyline Brown hens (P<0.05) , but no significant difference in vitamin A content, vitamin E content, total amino acid content and fatty acid content was found between the Shandong local hens than in Hyline Brown hens. [ Conclusion ] The study investigated the differences of egg quality between different chicken breeds, which provides a reference for improvement of laying chicken breeds in future.

  3. Effect of Ostrich Egg Yolk on Boar Spermatozoa Quality after Freezing-thawing%鸵鸟卵黄对猪精子冷冻后质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲琴; 贾永宏; 马国际; 袁建民

    2012-01-01

    为了提高猪冷冻精液品质和精子抵抗低温打击的能力,本研究以5%、10%、15%、20%和25%等不同浓度的鸵鸟卵黄作为冷冻保护剂,以20%的鸡蛋卵黄和20%的鸽蛋卵黄为对照,将冷冻-解冻后的精子活率、质膜完整率和顶体完整率作为评价指标,分析鸵鸟卵黄对猪精子的抗冷冻保护作用。结果表明:稀释液中添加20%鸽蛋卵黄时,精子活率、顶体完整率和质膜完整性分别为52.11%、55.62%和54.94%,显著高于其他组(P〈0.05)。虽然稀释液中添加15%鸵鸟卵黄时,冷冻-解冻后精子活率、顶体完整率和质膜完整率显著高于5%、10%、20%和25%鸵鸟卵黄组,但仍然显著低于稀释液中添加20%鸽蛋卵黄处理组。本研究表明,鸵鸟卵黄在冷冻过程中对猪精子具有一定的保护作用,但相对于鸽子蛋和鸡蛋卵黄效果并不理想。%In order to improve the frozen semen quality and sperm resistance to cold shock,the different concentrations of 5%,10%,15%,20% and 25% ostrich egg yolk were added in extender as cryoprotectants,and 20% egg yolk and 20% pigeon egg yolk were control.The cryoprotective effects of ostrich egg yolk on the boar spermatozoa were analyzed and spermatozoa motility,acrosome integrity and membrane integrity after freezing-thawing were evaluated.The results indicated that the sperm motility,acrosome integrity,membrane integrity were 52.11%,55.62% and 54.94% respectively while the extender was supplied with 20% pigeon egg yolk,which was higher than that of other groups(P0.05).Although sperm motility,acrosome integrity and membrane integrity in the extender supplemented with 15% ostrich egg yolk were significantly higher than that of 5%,10%,20% and 25% ostrich egg yolk groups,they were significantly lower than that of 20% pigeon egg yolk group.According to our study,the ostrich egg yolk could protect the boar spermatozoa during the frozen-thawed,but is not as effective as pigeon egg yolk and egg

  4. Effects of Rhubarb on Laying Performance of the Hens and Egg Quality%大黄对蛋鸡产蛋性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of rhubarb on laying performance of the hens and egg quality. Methods : 430 - day - old 48 healthy Roman layer hens which weight and laying performance were similar were selected and randomly di- vided into two groups, each group with four replicates, every replicate with six laying hens. Group A was the control group which hens fed with the basal diet, and Group B was the treatment group which hens fed with the basal diet added 1% rhu- barb. Pretest period was a week, and the test period was six weeks. Results:The experiment results showed that two groups of egg production, egg shell color, the average egg weight, egg shape index, the index of egg yolk, the rate of soft and bro- ken egg shell, feed conversion ratio,intake and HF unit differences were not significant ( P 〉 0.05 ). Compared with group A, the egg density of group B was increased significantly (P 〈 0.05), however, egg shell thickness was increased, but the difference was not significant ( P 〉0.05 ). Egg yolk color was improved significantly ( P 〈0.01 ) ,and the content of ash was also decreased significantly ( P 〈 0.01 ), and the content of fat was decreased significantly ( P 〈 0.05), then the content of protein was increased, but the difference was not significant ( P 〉 0.05 ). Conclusion : Adding 1% rhubarb in the layer diet performance is not significant impact, but it can significant improve the physical characteristics of the egg.%目的:研究中药大黄对蛋鸡产蛋性能及蛋品质的影响。方法:选择体重及生产性能相近的430日龄健康罗曼蛋鸡48只,随机分为对照组和试验组2组,每组设4个重复,每个重复6只鸡。其中A组为对照组,饲喂基础日粮,B组为试验组,在基础日粮中添加1%的中药大黄。预试期1周,正试期为6周。结果:试验结果表明2组间的产蛋率、蛋壳颜色、平均蛋重、蛋形指数、蛋黄指数、

  5. External quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing in Africa: A collaborative country-partner approach to strengthen diagnostic services

    OpenAIRE

    Debrah I. Boeras; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2016-01-01

    It is important to consider the role of diagnostics and the critical need for quality diagnostics services in resource-limited settings. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and the prevention and control of most infectious diseases. As countries plan for implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and viral load point-of-care testing, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has worked with countries and partners with an interest in external quali...

  6. Adding Medicinal Herbs Including Garlic (Allium sativum and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris to Diet of Laying Hens and Evaluating Productive Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In trying to finding phytogenic antibiotic-substitutes this study was done and effects of adding graded levels of Medicinal Herbs (MH including garlic (Allium sativum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris to laying hens’ diet on productive performance investigated. Approach: A total number of 108 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens after production peak were randomly divided in 18 cages (n = 6. Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME = 2720 Kcal Kg-1 and CP = 154.2 g Kg-1 including three levels (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 of ground mixture of garlic and thyme (1:1 were fed to hens with 6 replicates per diet during 6 week trial period. Collected data of Feed Intake (FI, Egg Production (EP, Egg Mass (EM and calculated Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR as well as egg traits were analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS. Results: Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on EP, EM and FCR in laying hens (p>0.05. Dietary inclusion of MH decreased FI in weeks 1-6 (p≤0.05. Including diet with 0.1% MP improved means of egg weight (g comparing to the other two experimental diets. Adding 0.2% MH to diet increased egg yolk color as well as blood lymphocyte counts and decreased egg shell weight comparing to other dietary treatments (p≤0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary inclusion of garlic and thyme can have beneficial effects on performance of laying hens in terms of improving egg weight and yolk color.

  7. Most but not all laboratories can detect the recently emerged Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA mutants - results from the QCMD 2013 N. gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijt, D; Di Lorenzo, C; van Loon, A M; Unemo, M

    2014-02-27

    We describe the results of the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 Neisseria gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme that included an N. gonorrhoeae strain harbouring an N. meningitidis porA gene which causes false-negative results in molecular diagnostic assays targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Enhanced awareness of the international transmission of such gonococcal strains is needed to avoid false-negative results in both in-house and commercial molecular diagnostic assays used in laboratories worldwide, but particularly in Europe.

  8. EFFECT OF EGGSHELL COLOR ON THE EGG CHARACTERISTICS AND HATCHABILITY OF GUINEA FOWL (NUMIDA MELEAGRIS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Eleroğlu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eggshell color of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris eggs on eggshell quality and hatchery results. The highest mean grey value (MGV, integrated density (ID, lightness (L* and Hue angle (H* values were obtained in eggs with lighter eggshell color. The effects of color difference (DE* value levels on egg characteristics were evaluated. Eggshell color presented different (p0.05. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, eggshell color influenced eggshell thickness and weight loss, but not hatching parameters of guinea fowl eggs. Further studies on this subject should be carried out.

  9. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.25 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the same dose at 0.4 g/kg. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period in order of the groups: 135.6, 136.7 and 138.5 units, at an average intensity of laying 90.4, 91.13 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the egg production, egg mass, egg weight and all of qualitative parameters of egg yolk (egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (°HLR were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or pollen addition (P>0.05.

  10. Effect of yeast culture on laying performance and egg quality of laying quails%酵母培养物对蛋鹌鹑产蛋性能及产蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书全; 李丽

    2014-01-01

    研究酵母培养物对蛋用鹌鹑产蛋性能及产蛋品质的影响。对照组饲喂基础日粮,低、中和高水平酵母培养物组在基础日粮的基础上分别添加0.1%、0.3%和0.5%酵母培养物。结果表明:中、高水平酵母培养物组能显著提高蛋鹌鹑的产蛋率、蛋壳强度和哈夫单位,显著降低蛋鹌鹑的料蛋比、次品蛋率和死淘率。说明酵母培养物能提高产蛋性能和一定程度的提高产蛋品质,酵母培养物的适宜添加水平为0.3%%Effects of Yeast Culture (YC)on laying performance and egg quality of laying quails were studied in this research.In this case,quails in control group were fed with basal diet.0.1%,0.3%,0.5%of YC were added into the basal diet of testgroups,labeling as low-,mid-and high-dose groups respectively.Results showed that a significant increase was found in thelaying rate,eggshell strength and haugh unit of the mid-and high-dose groups.While the feed-egg ratio,defective egg rate andmortality rate were sharply falling down.It indicates that the YC can improve the laying performance and egg quality.The optimaldosage is 0.3%.

  11. 腌制对鸭蛋中油脂品质的影响%The effect o