WorldWideScience

Sample records for external domino effects

  1. An external domino effects investment approach to improve cross-plant safety within chemical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, Genserik

    2010-01-01

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces the risk of being struck by an escalating accident at one of its neighbouring plants (the so-called external domino effect risks). These cross-plant risks can be reduced or eliminated if neighbouring companies are willing to invest in systems and measures to prevent them. However, since reducing such multi-plant risks does not lead to direct economic benefits, enterprises tend to be reluctant to invest more than needed for meeting minimal legal requirements and they tend to invest without collaborating. The suggested approach in this article indicates what information is required to evaluate the available investment options in external domino effects prevention. To this end, game theory is used as a promising scientific technique to investigate the decision-making process on investments in prevention measures simultaneously involving several plants. The game between two neighbouring chemical plants and their strategic investment behaviour regarding the prevention of external domino effects is described and an illustrative example is provided. Recommendations are formulated to advance cross-plant prevention investments in a two-company cluster.

  2. An external domino effects investment approach to improve cross-plant safety within chemical clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik

    2010-05-15

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces the risk of being struck by an escalating accident at one of its neighbouring plants (the so-called external domino effect risks). These cross-plant risks can be reduced or eliminated if neighbouring companies are willing to invest in systems and measures to prevent them. However, since reducing such multi-plant risks does not lead to direct economic benefits, enterprises tend to be reluctant to invest more than needed for meeting minimal legal requirements and they tend to invest without collaborating. The suggested approach in this article indicates what information is required to evaluate the available investment options in external domino effects prevention. To this end, game theory is used as a promising scientific technique to investigate the decision-making process on investments in prevention measures simultaneously involving several plants. The game between two neighbouring chemical plants and their strategic investment behaviour regarding the prevention of external domino effects is described and an illustrative example is provided. Recommendations are formulated to advance cross-plant prevention investments in a two-company cluster. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing an external domino accident prevention framework : Hazwim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, W.; Ale, B. J.M.; Soudan, K.

    Empirical research on major accident safety in the second largest chemical cluster worldwide, the Antwerp port area, supports the design of a meta-technical framework for optimizing external domino prevention. First, the majority of Seveso top tier companies have expressed a willingness to cooperate

  4. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Palacios, Adriana; Casal, Joaquim

    2010-11-15

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes are external events (31%) and mechanical failure (29%). Storage areas (35%) and process plants (28%) are by far the most common settings for domino accidents. Eighty-nine per cent of the accidents involved flammable materials, the most frequent of which was LPG. The domino effect sequences were analyzed using relative probability event trees. The most frequent sequences were explosion→fire (27.6%), fire→explosion (27.5%) and fire→fire (17.8%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Domino effects within a chemical cluster: a game-theoretical modeling approach by using Nash-equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik; Dullaert, Wout; Karel, Soudan

    2009-08-15

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces domino effect risks, whose magnitude depends on every company's own risk management strategies and on those of all others. Preventing domino effects is therefore very important to avoid catastrophes in the chemical process industry. Given that chemical companies are interlinked by domino effect accident links, there is some likelihood that even if certain companies fully invest in domino effects prevention measures, they can nonetheless experience an external domino effect caused by an accident which occurred in another chemical enterprise of the cluster. In this article a game-theoretic approach to interpret and model behaviour of chemical plants within chemical clusters while negotiating and deciding on domino effects prevention investments is employed.

  6. Enron and the domino effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D.Professor Paul Marinescu, Afiliation

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the effects of Enron's 2001 collapse has had on the business environment looked upon systemically, analyzing the interdependencies the American giant had with other components of this environment especially those that should have played and important system control role such as audit firms, financial analysts and investment banks. The premises from which we start are that exactly the failure of these control instruments has led to the escalation of the situation up to the point in which the fall becomes inevitable. I believe that this analysis can offer relevant lessons for the key on how the current situation of Greece must be judged, a subject of utmost importance.

  7. The significance of domino effect in chemical accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmatian, Behrouz; Abdolhamidzadeh, B; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    A historical survey was performed on 330 accidents involving domino effect, occurred in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials; only accidents occurred after 1st-January-1961 have been considered. The main features – geographical location, type of accident, materials involved, origin and causes, consequences, domino sequences – were analyzed, with special consideration to the situation in the developing countries and compared to those from other previous surve...

  8. Preventing external domino accidents : A framework for enhancing cooperation in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical research on major accident safety in the second largest chemical cluster worldwide, the Antwerp port area, supports the design of a meta-technical framework for optimizing external domino prevention. First, the majority of Seveso top tier companies have expressed a willingness to cooperate

  9. Contagion as Domino Effect in Global Stock Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Markwat (Thijs); H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper shows that stock market contagion operates through a domino effect, where small crashes evolve into more severe crashes. Using a novel unifying framework we model the occurrence of local, regional and global crashes in terms of past occurrences of these different crashes and

  10. LNG pool fire simulation for domino effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masum Jujuly, Muhammad; Rahman, Aziz; Ahmed, Salim; Khan, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire has been performed using ANSYS CFX-14. The CFD model solves the fundamental governing equations of fluid dynamics, namely, the continuity, momentum and energy equations. Several built-in sub-models are used to capture the characteristics of pool fire. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation for turbulence and the eddy-dissipation model for non-premixed combustion are used. For thermal radiation, the Monte Carlo (MC) radiation model is used with the Magnussen soot model. The CFD results are compared with a set of experimental data for validation; the results are consistent with experimental data. CFD results show that the wind speed has significant contribution on the behavior of pool fire and its domino effects. The radiation contours are also obtained from CFD post processing, which can be applied for risk analysis. The outcome of this study will be helpful for better understanding of the domino effects of pool fire in complex geometrical settings of process industries. - Highlights: • Simulation of pool fire using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. • Integration of CFD based pool fire model with domino effect. • Application of the integrated CFD based domino effect analysis

  11. Vulnerability analysis of process plants subject to domino effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik; Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Khan, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    In the context of domino effects, vulnerability analysis of chemical and process plants aims to identify and protect installations which are relatively more susceptible to damage and thus contribute more to the initiation or propagation of domino effects. In the present study, we have developed a methodology based on graph theory for domino vulnerability analysis of hazardous installations within process plants, where owning to the large number of installations or complex interdependencies, the application of sophisticated reasoning approaches such as Bayesian network is limited. We have taken advantage of a hypothetical chemical storage plant to develop the methodology and validated the results using a dynamic Bayesian network approach. The efficacy and out-performance of the developed methodology have been demonstrated via a real-life complex case study. - Highlights: • Graph theory is a reliable tool for vulnerability analysis of chemical plants as to domino effects. • All-closeness centrality score can be used to identify most vulnerable installations. • As for complex chemical plants, the methodology outperforms Bayesian network.

  12. A study on domino effect in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzolan, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Accidents caused by domino effect are among the most severe accidents in the chemical and process industry. Although the destructive potential of these accidental scenarios is widely known, little attention has been paid to this problem in the technical literature and a complete methodology for quantitative assessment of domino accidents contribution to industrial risk is still lacking. The present study proposed a systematic procedure for the quantitative assessment of the risk caused by domino effect in chemical plants that are part of nuclear fuel cycle plants. This work is based on recent advances in the modeling of fire and explosion damage to process equipment due to different escalation vectors (heat radiation, overpressure and fragment projection). Available data from literature and specific vulnerability models derived for several categories of process equipment had been used in the present work. The proposed procedure is applied to a typical storage area of a reconversion plant situated in a complex that shelters other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The top-events and escalation vectors are identified, their consequences estimated and credible domino scenarios selected on the basis of their frequencies. (author)

  13. Application of dynamic Bayesian network to risk analysis of domino effects in chemical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima

    2015-01-01

    A domino effect is a low frequency high consequence chain of accidents where a primary accident (usually fire and explosion) in a unit triggers secondary accidents in adjacent units. High complexity and growing interdependencies of chemical infrastructures make them increasingly vulnerable to domino effects. Domino effects can be considered as time dependent processes. Thus, not only the identification of involved units but also their temporal entailment in the chain of accidents matter. More importantly, in the case of domino-induced fires which can generally last much longer compared to explosions, foreseeing the temporal evolution of domino effects and, in particular, predicting the most probable sequence of accidents (or involved units) in a domino effect can be of significance in the allocation of preventive and protective safety measures. Although many attempts have been made to identify the spatial evolution of domino effects, the temporal evolution of such accidents has been overlooked. We have proposed a methodology based on dynamic Bayesian network to model both the spatial and temporal evolutions of domino effects and also to quantify the most probable sequence of accidents in a potential domino effect. The application of the developed methodology has been demonstrated via a hypothetical fuel storage plant. - Highlights: • A Dynamic Bayesian Network methodology has been developed to model domino effects. • Considering time-dependencies, both spatial and temporal evolutions of domino effects have been modeled. • The concept of most probable sequence of accidents has been proposed instead of the most probable combination of accidents. • Using backward analysis, the most vulnerable units have been identified during a potential domino effect. • The proposed methodology does not need to identify a unique primary unit (accident) for domino effect modeling

  14. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes a...

  15. The Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry: A Domino Effect-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri , Farid; Chatelet , E.; Lallement , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the field of risks analysis, the domino effect has been documented in technical literature since 1947. The accidents caused by the domino effect are the most destructive accidents related to industrial plants. Fire and explosion are among the most frequent primary accidents for a domino effect due to the units under pressure and the storage of flammable and dangerous substances. Heat radiation and overpressure are one of major factors leading to domino effect on ind...

  16. The Domino Effects of Federal Research Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanahan, Lauren; Graddy-Reed, Alexandra; Feldman, Maryann P

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which federal investment in research crowds out or decreases incentives for investment from other funding sources remains an open question. Scholarship on research funding has focused on the relationship between federal and industry or, more comprehensively, non-federal funding without disentangling the other sources of research support that include nonprofit organizations and state and local governments. This paper extends our understanding of academic research support by considering the relationships between federal and non-federal funding sources provided by the National Science Foundation Higher Education Research and Development Survey. We examine whether federal research investment serves as a complement or substitute for state and local government, nonprofit, and industry research investment using the population of research-active academic science fields at U.S. doctoral granting institutions. We use a system of two equations that instruments with prior levels of both federal and non-federal funding sources and accounts for time-invariant academic institution-field effects through first differencing. We estimate that a 1% increase in federal research funding is associated with a 0.411% increase in nonprofit research funding, a 0.217% increase in state and local research funding, and a 0.468% increase in industry research funding, respectively. Results indicate that federal funding plays a fundamental role in inducing complementary investments from other funding sources, with impacts varying across academic division, research capacity, and institutional control.

  17. Domino effects within a chemical cluster : A game-theoretical modeling approach by using Nash-equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik; Dullaert, Wout; Karel, Soudan

    2009-01-01

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces domino effect risks, whose magnitude depends on every company's own risk management strategies and on those of all others. Preventing domino effects is therefore very important to avoid catastrophes in the chemical process industry. Given that

  18. A decision model to allocate protective safety barriers and mitigate domino effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Jochen; Talarico, Luca; Reniers, Genserik; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model to support decision-makers about where to locate safety barriers and mitigate the consequences of an accident triggering domino effects. Based on the features of an industrial area that may be affected by domino accidents, and knowing the characteristics of the safety barriers that can be installed to stall the fire propagation between installations, the decision model can help practitioners in their decision-making. The model can be effectively used to decide how to allocate a limited budget in terms of safety barriers. The goal is to maximize the time-to-failure of a chemical installation ensuring a worst case scenario approach. The model is mathematically stated and a flexible and effective solution approach, based on metaheuristics, is developed and tested on an illustrative case study representing a tank storage area of a chemical company. We show that a myopic optimization approach, which does not take into account knock-on effects possibly triggered by an accident, can lead to a distribution of safety barriers that are not effective in mitigating the consequences of a domino accident. Moreover, the optimal allocation of safety barriers, when domino effects are considered, may depend on the so-called cardinality of the domino effects. - Highlights: • A model to allocate safety barriers and mitigate domino effects is proposed. • The goal is to maximize the escalation time of the worst case scenario. • The model provides useful recommendations for decision makers. • A fast metaheuristic approach is proposed to solve such a complex problem. • Numerical simulations on a realistic case study are shown

  19. A study on domino effect in nuclear fuel cycle facilities; Um estudo sobre o efeito domino em instalacoes do ciclo do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzolan, Jean-Claude

    2006-07-01

    Accidents caused by domino effect are among the most severe accidents in the chemical and process industry. Although the destructive potential of these accidental scenarios is widely known, little attention has been paid to this problem in the technical literature and a complete methodology for quantitative assessment of domino accidents contribution to industrial risk is still lacking. The present study proposed a systematic procedure for the quantitative assessment of the risk caused by domino effect in chemical plants that are part of nuclear fuel cycle plants. This work is based on recent advances in the modeling of fire and explosion damage to process equipment due to different escalation vectors (heat radiation, overpressure and fragment projection). Available data from literature and specific vulnerability models derived for several categories of process equipment had been used in the present work. The proposed procedure is applied to a typical storage area of a reconversion plant situated in a complex that shelters other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The top-events and escalation vectors are identified, their consequences estimated and credible domino scenarios selected on the basis of their frequencies. (author)

  20. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakzad, Nima, E-mail: nkhakzad@gmail.com [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Reniers, Genserik [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Antwerp Research Group on Safety and Security (ARGoSS), Faculty of Applied Economics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Research Group CEDON, Campus Brussels, KULeuven, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A Bayesian network methodology has been developed to estimate the total probability of major accidents in chemical plants. • Total probability of accidents includes the probability of individual accidents and potential domino effects. • The methodology has been extended to calculate on-site and off-site risks. • The results of the risk analysis have been used in a multi-criteria decision analysis technique to risk-based design of chemical plants. - Abstract: Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum.

  1. An improved probit method for assessment of domino effect to chemical process equipment caused by overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingguang, Zhang; Juncheng, Jiang

    2008-10-30

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Damage probability and relative threshold value are two necessary parameters in QRA of this phenomenon. Some simple models had been proposed based on scarce data or oversimplified assumption. Hence, more data about damage to chemical process equipments were gathered and analyzed, a quantitative relationship between damage probability and damage degrees of equipment was built, and reliable probit models were developed associated to specific category of chemical process equipments. Finally, the improvements of present models were evidenced through comparison with other models in literatures, taking into account such parameters: consistency between models and data, depth of quantitativeness in QRA.

  2. THE EFFECT OF THE USE OF PICTURE DOMINO CARDS MEDIA TOWARD HEARING IMPAIRMENT STUDENT’S COMPETENCE IN WRITING SIMPLE SENTENCES FOR STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurvidia Anassyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at describing: (1 the students’ competence before being given intervention with pictorial domino cards, (2 the students’ competence after being given intervention with pictorial domino cards, and (3 the effect of picture domino cards toward the students’ competence in writing simple sentences. The research method used was experimental method using Single Subject Research (SSR with A-B-A design. The research results showed that the overlap percentage was 0%, it’s mean that there was an effect of the usage of pictorial domino cards toward the improvement of writing simple sentences competence of a student with hearing impairment.   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan: 1 kemampuan peserta didik sebelum diberikan intervensi menggunakan kartu domino kata bergambar, 2kemampuan peserta didik setelah diberikan intervensi menggunakan kartu domino kata bergambar, dan 3 pengaruh kartu domino kata bergambar terhadap kemampuan menulis kalimat sederhana. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen dengan menggunakan Single Subject Reseach (SSR desain A-B-A. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa presentase overlap sebesar 0%, yang berarti terdapat pengaruh penggunaan media kartu domino kata bergambar terhadap peningkatan kemampuan menulis kalimat sederhana peserta didik tunarungu.

  3. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-12-15

    Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Repeatable timing of northward departure, arrival and breeding in Black-tailed Godwits Limosa l. limosa, but no domino effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, Pedro M.; Kentie, Rosemarie; Schroeder, Julia; Groen, Niko M.; Piersma, Theunis; Bairlein, F.; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.

    2011-01-01

    When early breeding is advantageous, migrants underway to the breeding areas may be time stressed. The timing of sequential events such as migration and breeding is expected to be correlated because of a "domino effect", and would be of particular biological importance if timings are repeatable

  5. Study on the Rationality and Validity of Probit Models of Domino Effect to Chemical Process Equipment caused by Overpressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dongliang; Huang, Guangtuan; Jiang, Juncheng; Zhang, Mingguang; Wang, Zhirong

    2013-01-01

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Some models considering propagation probability and threshold values of the domino effect caused by overpressure have been proposed in previous study. In order to prove the rationality and validity of the models reported in the reference, two boundary values of three damage degrees reported were considered as random variables respectively in the interval [0, 100%]. Based on the overpressure data for damage to the equipment and the damage state, and the calculation method reported in the references, the mean square errors of the four categories of damage probability models of overpressure were calculated with random boundary values, and then a relationship of mean square error vs. the two boundary value was obtained, the minimum of mean square error was obtained, compared with the result of the present work, mean square error decreases by about 3%. Therefore, the error was in the acceptable range of engineering applications, the models reported can be considered reasonable and valid.

  6. Study on the Rationality and Validity of Probit Models of Domino Effect to Chemical Process Equipment caused by Overpressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongliang; Huang, Guangtuan; Jiang, Juncheng; Zhang, Mingguang; Wang, Zhirong

    2013-04-01

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Some models considering propagation probability and threshold values of the domino effect caused by overpressure have been proposed in previous study. In order to prove the rationality and validity of the models reported in the reference, two boundary values of three damage degrees reported were considered as random variables respectively in the interval [0, 100%]. Based on the overpressure data for damage to the equipment and the damage state, and the calculation method reported in the references, the mean square errors of the four categories of damage probability models of overpressure were calculated with random boundary values, and then a relationship of mean square error vs. the two boundary value was obtained, the minimum of mean square error was obtained, compared with the result of the present work, mean square error decreases by about 3%. Therefore, the error was in the acceptable range of engineering applications, the models reported can be considered reasonable and valid.

  7. A Domino Effect? The Spread of Implantation of Penile Foreign Bodies in the Prison System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Malloy Flynn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous penile insertion of foreign bodies is a practice performed globally but has mostly been reported outside of the United States. An incarcerated 29-year-old Caucasian male in a midwestern prison whittled a domino into a dog bone shape and placed it into his ventral penile subcutaneous tissue. He presented to our facility with erosion of the corners of the foreign body through his skin without evidence of infection. Self-insertion of foreign bodies into penile subcutaneous tissue by incarcerated American men for sexual enhancement is more widespread than previously reported. Erosion is a novel presentation.

  8. HIV-Positive Patients' Perceptions of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Relation to Subjective Time: Imprinting, Domino Effects, and Future Shadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, David; Toupin, Isabelle; Engler, Kim; Lènàrt, Andràs; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment adherence barriers are major concerns in HIV care. They are multiple and change over time. Considering temporality in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers could improve adherence management. We explored how temporality manifests itself in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers. We conducted 2 semi-structured focus groups on adherence barriers with 12 adults with HIV which were analyzed with grounded theory. A third focus group served to validate the results obtained. Three temporal categories were manifest in HIV-positive patients' perceptions of barriers: (1) imprinting (events with lasting impacts on patients), (2) domino effects (chain of life events), and (3) future shadowing (apprehension about long-term adherence). An overarching theme, weathering (gradual erosion of abilities to adhere), traversed these categories. These temporalities explain how similar barriers may be perceived differently by patients. They could be useful to providers for adapting their interventions and improving understanding of patients' subjective experience of adherence.

  9. Electrostatic dominoes: long distance propagation of mutational effects in photosynthetic reaction centers of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebban, P; Maróti, P; Schiffer, M; Hanson, D K

    1995-07-04

    Two point mutants from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, both modified in the M protein of the photosynthetic reaction center, have been studied by flash-induced absorbance spectroscopy. These strains carry either the M231Arg --> Leu or M43ASN --> Asp mutations, which are located 9 and 15 A, respectively, from the terminal electron acceptor QB. In the wild-type Rb. sphaeroides structure, M231Arg is involved in a conserved salt bridge with H125Glu and H232Glu and M43Asn is located among several polar residues that form or surround the QB binding site. These substitutions were originally uncovered in phenotypic revertants isolated from the photosynthetically incompetent L212Glu-L213Asp --> Ala-Ala site-specific double mutant. As second-site suppressor mutations, they have been shown to restore the proton transfer function that is interrupted in the L212Ala-L213Ala double mutant. The electrostatic effects that are induced in reaction centers by the M231Arg --> Leu and M43Asn --> Asp substitutions are roughly the same in either the double-mutant or wild-type backgrounds. In a reaction center that is otherwise wild type in sequence, they decrease the free energy gap between the QA- and QB- states by 24 +/- 5 and 45 +/- 5 meV, respectively. The pH dependences of K2, the QA-QB QAQB- equilibrium constant, are altered in reaction centers that carry either of these substitutions, revealing differences in the pKas of titratable groups compared to the wild type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Risk assessment of mitigated domino scenarios in process facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Necci, Amos; Antonioni, Giacomo; Argenti, Francesca; Cozzani, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of accidents among process units may lead to severe cascading events or domino effects with catastrophic consequences. Prevention, mitigation and management of domino scenarios is of utmost importance and may be achieved in industrial facilities through the adoption of multiple safety layers. The present study was aimed at developing an innovative methodology to address the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of domino scenarios accounting for the presence and role of safety barriers. Based on the expected performance of safety barriers, a dedicated event tree analysis allowed the identification and the assessment of the frequencies of the different end-point events deriving from unmitigated and partially mitigated domino chains. Specific criteria were introduced in consequence analysis to consider the mitigation effects of end-point scenarios deriving from safety barriers. Individual and societal risk indexes were calculated accounting for safety barriers and the mitigated scenarios that may result from their actions. The application of the methodology to case-studies of industrial interest proved the importance of introducing a specific systematic and quantitative analysis of safety barrier performance when addressing escalation leading to domino effect. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to account for safety barrier performance in escalation prevention. • The methodology allows quantitative assessment accounting for safety barrier performance. • A detailed analysis of transient mitigated scenarios is allowed by the developed procedure. • The procedure allows accounting for safety barrier performance in QRA of domino scenarios. • An important reduction in the risk due to domino scenarios is evidenced when considering safety barriers.

  11. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  12. Quantitative assessment of safety barrier performance in the prevention of domino scenarios triggered by fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Argenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of domino scenarios triggered by fire critically depends on the presence and the performance of safety barriers that may have the potential to prevent escalation, delaying or avoiding the heat-up of secondary targets. The aim of the present study is the quantitative assessment of safety barrier performance in preventing the escalation of fired domino scenarios. A LOPA (layer of protection analysis) based methodology, aimed at the definition and quantification of safety barrier performance in the prevention of escalation was developed. Data on the more common types of safety barriers were obtained in order to characterize the effectiveness and probability of failure on demand of relevant safety barriers. The methodology was exemplified with a case study. The results obtained define a procedure for the estimation of safety barrier performance in the prevention of fire escalation in domino scenarios. - Highlights: • We developed a methodology for the quantitative assessment of safety barriers. • We focused on safety barriers aimed at preventing domino effect triggered by fire. • We obtained data on effectiveness and availability of the safety barriers. • The methodology was exemplified with a case study of industrial interest. • The results showed the role of safety barriers in preventing fired domino escalation

  13. The Domino Effect PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-24

    This 30 second public service announcement is about a deadly chain reaction in your body called sepsis.  Created: 10/24/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/24/2017.

  14. Motzkin numbers out of Random Domino Automaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Białecki, Mariusz, E-mail: bialecki@igf.edu.pl [Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Ks. Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa (Poland)

    2012-10-01

    Motzkin numbers are derived from a special case of Random Domino Automaton – recently proposed a slowly driven system being a stochastic toy model of earthquakes. It is also a generalisation of 1D Drossel–Schwabl forest-fire model. A solution of the set of equations describing stationary state of Random Domino Automaton in inverse-power case is presented. A link with Motzkin numbers allows to present explicit form of asymptotic behaviour of the automaton. -- Highlights: ► Motzkin numbers are derived from stochastic cellular automaton with avalanches. ► Explicit solution of toy model of earthquakes is presented. ► Case with inverse-power distribution of avalanches is found.

  15. The development of an inherent safety approach to the prevention of domino accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Valerio; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Salzano, Ernesto

    2009-11-01

    The severity of industrial accidents in which a domino effect takes place is well known in the chemical and process industry. The application of an inherent safety approach for the prevention of escalation events leading to domino accidents was explored in the present study. Reference primary scenarios were analyzed and escalation vectors were defined. Inherent safety distances were defined and proposed as a metric to express the intensity of the escalation vectors. Simple rules of thumb were presented for a preliminary screening of these distances. Swift reference indices for layout screening with respect to escalation hazard were also defined. Two case studies derived from existing layouts of oil refineries were selected to understand the potentialities coming from the application in the methodology. The results evidenced that the approach allows a first comparative assessment of the actual domino hazard in a layout, and the identification of critical primary units with respect to escalation events. The methodology developed also represents a useful screening tool to identify were to dedicate major efforts in the design of add-on measures, optimizing conventional passive and active measures for the prevention of severe domino accidents.

  16. Combined effect of external and internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the general regularities of the combined effect of external irradiation and iodine 131 are discussed. Data are adduced showing that modification of the effects of these two radiation factors, when jointly applied, is also determined by the quantitative relations of the applied doses of external and internal irradiation, referred to a particular moment of the effects. It was shown that the effects of the radionuclides in these combined radiation injuries are basically realized by two mechanisms: 1. changes are found in the radionuclide kinetic parameters (nonspecific effects); 2. changes in their kinetic parameters are absent (specific effect). These two mechanisms underlie different approaches to therapy

  17. Tiling a Pyramidal Polycube with Dominoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bodini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of pyramidal polycubes, namely the piling-up of bricks of a non-increasing size, generalizes in ℝ n the concept of trapezoidal polyominoes. In the present paper, we prove that n-dimensional dominoes can tile a pyramidal polycube if and only if the latter is balanced, that is, if the number of white cubes is equal to the number of black ones for a chessboard-like coloration, generalizing the result of [BC92] when n=2

  18. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  19. An efficient domino one-pot synthesis of novel spirofuran ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AFSHIN YAZDANI-ELAH-ABADI

    Abstract. A simple and convenient multi-component domino reaction has been described for the synthesis of novel ... interest due to their pharmaceutical and biological activ- ..... We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Research.

  20. Synthesis of the naturally occurring prenylated coumarins balsamiferone and cedrelopsin by domino reactions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patre, R.E.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    Regioselective one step synthesis of naturally occurring prenyl coumarin balsamiferone is described using domino Wittig reaction, 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangements and deprenylation, while regioselective synthesis of cedrelopsin is described via domino...

  1. External effects and social costs of road transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The article contains a welfare economic analysis of road transport's external effects. First, we discuss the definition of external effects. Applying this definition, it is concluded that road transport activities give rise to a wide range of external costs. However, there are no external benefits

  2. Domino model for geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Schmitt, D; Wicht, J; Ferriz-Mas, A; Mouri, H; Nakamichi, A; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    We solve the equations of motion of a one-dimensional planar Heisenberg (or Vaks-Larkin) model consisting of a system of interacting macrospins aligned along a ring. Each spin has unit length and is described by its angle with respect to the rotational axis. The orientation of the spins can vary in time due to spin-spin interaction and random forcing. We statistically describe the behavior of the sum of all spins for different parameters. The term "domino model" in the title refers to the interaction among the spins. We compare the model results with geomagnetic field reversals and dynamo simulations and find strikingly similar behavior. The aggregate of all spins keeps the same direction for a long time and, once in a while, begins flipping to change the orientation by almost 180 degrees (mimicking a geomagnetic reversal) or to move back to the original direction (mimicking an excursion). Most of the time the spins are aligned or antialigned and deviate only slightly with respect to the rotational axis (mimicking the secular variation of the geomagnetic pole with respect to the geographic pole). Reversals are fast compared to the times in between and they occur at random times, both in the model and in the case of the Earth's magnetic field.

  3. Biological Derived Nanomotors in a ``Domino Fashion''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    For disproportionation of H2 O2 , we also considers an electrokinetic mechanism they appear.So far, the more efficient micro/nanoscale motors are derived from biological systems [2003]. Besides, a control experimenting using 3 stripped Au/Pt/Au rods with catalyzed the composition of H2 O2 , at a similar rate-Walter F Paxton: ``Catalytic Nanomotors,'' JACS, 2004. We also intended to accomaplishes the HCCI quotes from Marcin Frackowiak, dissertation, 2009, just in several characters seems as twin of IGNITION through IceCube document project held since Oct 11, 2001 ever concludes as ``saw none'' so they can be follows the ITER/IFMIF. Refers to S29286 file in UI retrieved: ``magnetic quantum-dot cellular automata which is nonvolatile & lower power consist of nanomagnets. Since they are magnetically coupled, logic can be performed by switching, on the other hand in a DOMINO fashion..'' [A. Klenm: ``Fabrication of Magnetic Tunnel Junction-based Spintronic Devices..,'' convocation, Aug 11-14, 2010]. Acknowledgments devotes to BB Mandelbrot: ``Fractal Geometry: What is it & What Does it do?''.

  4. Effects of Externalities on Patterns of Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    Many real−life examples of exchanges with externalities exist. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct consequences of exchanges for the payoff of actors who are not involved in the exchange. This paper focuses on how externalities influence the partner choice in exchange networks. In an

  5. A Distributed AI Aided 3D Domino Game

    OpenAIRE

    Amrahov, Şahin Emrah; Nooraden, Orhan A.

    2010-01-01

    In the article a turn-based game played on four computers connected via network is investigated. There are three computers with natural intelligence and one with artificial intelligence. Game table is seen by each player's own view point in all players' monitors. Domino pieces are three dimensional. For distributed systems TCP/IP protocol is used. In order to get 3D image, Microsoft XNA technology is applied. Domino 101 game is nondeterministic game that is result of the game depends on the i...

  6. 'Domino' systems biology and the 'A' of ATP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Zakhartsev, M.; Reuss, M.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a strategic 'domino' approach that starts with one key feature of cell function and the main process providing for it, and then adds additional processes and components only as necessary to explain provoked experimental observations. The approach is here applied to the energy metabolism

  7. Domino approach to 2-aroyltrimethoxyindoles as novel heterocyclic combretastatin A4 analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthuis, Martin; Pontikis, Renée; Chabot, Guy G; Quentin, Lionel; Scherman, Daniel; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Two series of 2-aroyltrimethoxyindoles were designed to investigate the effects of the replacement of the trimethoxyphenyl ring of phenstatin with a trimethoxyindole moiety. These compounds were efficiently prepared through a domino palladium-catalyzed sequence from 2-gem-dibromovinylanilines substituted by three methoxy groups and arylboronic acids under carbon monoxide atmosphere. These novel heterocyclic combretastatin A4 analogues were evaluated for their cell growth inhibitory properties and their ability to inhibit the tubulin polymerization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Domino Platform: PVD Coaters for Arc Evaporation and High Current Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, J; Müller, J; Erkens, G

    2012-01-01

    AlTiN and CrN coatings were deposited in hybrid DOMINO platforms by magnetron sputtering (DC-MS, DC-MS+HCP-MS, HCP-MS) and vacuum arc evaporation. The ion cleaning was done by the AEGD process. The coating rates and the energy efficiency of both deposition processes were compared. The roughness effects of the different coating types were discussed. Preliminary results of the change of pulse characteristics during simultaneously running of HCP-MS plus vacuum arc evaporation are shown.

  9. Effect of external noise on the current response in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suqing Duan; Wu Binyi; Wang Zhigang; Zhao Xiangeng

    2004-01-01

    Within the single-band model and the nearest-neighbor approximation we investigate the effect of external noise on the current response driven by dc-ac field which has a fluctuating component. We find the external noise can destroy the current resonant peaks. When the strength of the external noise becomes enough large, all the current resonant peaks will completely disappear

  10. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  11. Vulnerability of industrial facilities to attacks with improvised explosive devices aimed at triggering domino scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Reniers, Genserik; Cozzani, Valerio; Salzano, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Process- and chemical plants may constitute a critical target for a terrorist attack. In the present study, the analysis of industrial accidents induced by intentional acts of interference is carried out focusing on accident chains triggered by attacks with home-made (improvised) explosives. The effects of blast waves caused by improvised explosive devices are compared with those expected from a net equivalent charge of TNT by using a specific methodology for the assessment of stand-off distances. It is demonstrated that a home-made explosive device has a TNT efficiency comprised between 0.2 and 0.5. The model was applied to a case study, demonstrating the potentiality of improvised explosives in causing accident escalation sequences and severe effects on population and assets. The analysis of the case-study also allowed obtaining suggestions for an adequate security management. - Highlights: • Improvised explosives possibly used for terrorist attacks were described. • The TNT efficiency of ANFO and TATP was characterized. • Domino effects caused by an attack with improvised explosive were analyzed. • Domino scenarios induced by an attack were compared to conventional scenarios

  12. Flexible synthesis of anthracycline aglycone mimics via domino carbopalladation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Leibeling

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of anthracycline aglycone derivatives is described. The key step utilizes a powerful domino carbopalladation approach and subsequent ring closure. During this process two of the four rings of the anthracycline scaffold are formed. Differently substituted carbohydrates and dialkyne chains serve as versatile and simple starting materials for the reaction sequence. Diverse building blocks lead to a variety of different products and a broad range of structural diversity.

  13. 'Domino' systems biology and the 'A' of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Malkhey; Zakhartsev, Maksim; Reuss, Matthias; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2013-01-01

    We develop a strategic 'domino' approach that starts with one key feature of cell function and the main process providing for it, and then adds additional processes and components only as necessary to explain provoked experimental observations. The approach is here applied to the energy metabolism of yeast in a glucose limited chemostat, subjected to a sudden increase in glucose. The puzzles addressed include (i) the lack of increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) upon glucose addition, (ii) the lack of increase in adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when ATP is hydrolyzed, and (iii) the rapid disappearance of the 'A' (adenine) moiety of ATP. Neither the incorporation of nucleotides into new biomass, nor steady de novo synthesis of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) explains. Cycling of the 'A' moiety accelerates when the cell's energy state is endangered, another essential domino among the seven required for understanding of the experimental observations. This new domino analysis shows how strategic experimental design and observations in tandem with theory and modeling may identify and resolve important paradoxes. It also highlights the hitherto unexpected role of the 'A' component of ATP. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental demonstration of subwavelength domino plasmon devices for compact high-frequency circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y G; Lan, L; Zhong, S M; Ong, C K

    2011-10-24

    In optical frequency, surface plasmons of metal provide us a prominent way to build compact photonic devices or circuits with non-diffraction limit. It is attributed by their extraordinary electromagnetic confining effect. But in the counterpart of lower frequencies, plasmonics behavior of metal is screened by eddy current induced in a certain skin depth. To amend this, spoof plasmons engineered by artificial structures have been introduced to mimic surface plasmons in these frequencies. But it is less useful for practical application due to their weak field confinement as manifested by large field decaying length in the upper dielectric space. Recently, a new type of engineered plasmons, domino plasmon was theoretically proposed to produce unusual field confinement and waveguiding capabilities that make them very attractive for ultra-compact device applications [Opt. Exp. 18, 754-764 (2010)]. In this work, we implemented these ideas and built three waveguiding devices based on domino plasmons. Their strong capabilities to produce versatile and ultra-compact devices with multiple electromagnetic functions have been experimentally verified in microwaves. And that can be extended to THz regime to pave the way for a new class of integrated wave circuits. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Effects of externalities on exchange in networks : An exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an exploration of the effects of externalities in exchange networks. Externalities of exchange arise when an exchange has direct consequences for the payoffs of actors who do not take part in the exchange. An experiment was conducted, employing the exclusively connected Line3 network,

  16. Design of ternary low-power Domino JKL flip—flop and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Yang Qiankun; Zheng Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    By researching the ternary flip—flop and the adiabatic Domino circuit, a novel design of low-power ternary Domino JKL flip—flop on the switch level is proposed. First, the switch-level structure of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is derived according to the switch-signal theory and its truth table. Then the ternary loop operation circuit and ternary reverse loop operation circuit are achieved by employing the ternary JKL flip—flop. Finally, the circuit is simulated by using the Spice tool and the results show that the logic function is correct. The energy consumption of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is 69% less than its conventional Domino counterpart. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Experimental demonstration of illusion optics with ``external cloaking'' effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Guochang; Li, Fang; Fang, Guangyou

    2011-08-01

    A metamaterial "illusion optics" with "complementary medium" and "restoring medium" is designed by using inductor-capacitor (L-C) network medium. The unprecedented effects of "external cloaking" and "transforming one object to appear as another" are demonstrated experimentally. We also demonstrate that the non-resonant nature of the L-C network decreases the sensitivity of the "external cloaking" effect to the variation of the frequency and results in an acceptable bandwidth of the whole device.

  18. High-speed dynamic domino circuit implemented with gaas mesfets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long (Inventor); Long, Stephen I. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic logic circuit (AND or OR) utilizes one depletion-mode metal-semiconductor FET for precharging an internal node A, and a plurality of the same type of FETs in series, or a FET in parallel with one or more of the series connected FETs for implementing the logic function. A pair of FETs are connected to provide an output inverter with two series diodes for level shift. A coupling capacitor may be employed with a further FET to provide level shifting required between the inverter and the logic circuit output terminal. These circuits may be cascaded to form a domino chain.

  19. Effect of Bendazac external medicine on radiodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Taiji

    1978-01-01

    With the object of preventing and treating skin injuries following radiation therapy. Bendazac cream, a non-steroid local antiphologistic, was applied to the irradiated part, and its effect was observed. The subject was 10 cases treated with radiation, which were composed of 6 cases of breast cancer, one case of cancer of the uterus, one case of thymoma, one case of esophageal carcinoma, and one case of malignant lymphoma. 3% Bendazac cream was applied simply twice a day in each case. This cream was applied when flare appeared. The effect of this cream was evaluated as effectiveness when skin response which would appear properly was inhibited or when skin symptoms which had been present previously were improved. When this inhibition and improvement actions were mild, it was judged as a little effectiveness. When there was not effect, it was judged as ineffectiveness. Effective response was recognized in 7 of 10 cases, and disappearance or improvement of pigmentation was recognized in them. A little effective response was recognized in two cases, and ineffective response was recognized in one case. It was suggested that Bendazac was an effective agent for prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. (Serizawa, K.)

  20. The effect of childhood malnutrition on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2006-10-01

    Childhood externalizing behavior (aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct disorder) has been increasingly viewed as a public health problem because of its etiology and outcome. The association between malnutrition and externalizing behavior has begun to receive attention. This review summarizes recent empirical findings on malnutrition as a risk factor for the development of externalizing behavior, with an emphasis on micronutrient deficiency, and explores brain dysfunction as a possible mechanism. Externalizing behavior is associated with both macromalnutrition (e.g. protein) and micromalnutrition (e.g. iron and zinc). Both prenatal and postnatal malnutrition is implicated. The long-term effects of malnutrition on behavior could be reversible. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid/omega-3 long-chain essential fatty acid on externalizing behavior are more mixed. From animal and human findings, it is hypothesized that malnutrition impairs neurocognitive functioning by reducing neurons, alternating neurotransmitter functioning, and increasing neurotoxicity, and that such neurocognitive impairments predispose to externalizing behavior. Different lines of evidence support the view that poor nutrition contributes to the development of child behavior problems. More randomized, controlled trials that manipulate nutritional intake and evaluate behavior in children are needed to evaluate the etiological role of nutrition in externalizing behavior in order to inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  1. Effective dose equivalents from external radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkin, V.G.; Debedev, O.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Parkhomenko, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized data on measurements of individual dose of external γ-sources in 1987-1990 of population of western areas of Bryansk region were presented. Type of distribution of effective dose equivalent, its significance for various professional and social groups of population depending on the type of the house was discussed. Dependences connecting surface soil activity in the populated locality with average dose of external radiation sources were presented. Tendency of dose variation in 1987-1990 was shown

  2. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting...... General practices and university clinics during the years 2007‑2009 in Scandinavia. Subjects Patients with tooth bleaching as part of the treatment plan. Results The prevalence of experienced tooth sensitivity at first follow-up was independent of bleaching procedure (at-home = 50.3% [n = 143]; in...... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  3. 3D replicon distributions arise from stochastic initiation and domino-like DNA replication progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löb, D; Lengert, N; Chagin, V O; Reinhart, M; Casas-Delucchi, C S; Cardoso, M C; Drossel, B

    2016-04-07

    DNA replication dynamics in cells from higher eukaryotes follows very complex but highly efficient mechanisms. However, the principles behind initiation of potential replication origins and emergence of typical patterns of nuclear replication sites remain unclear. Here, we propose a comprehensive model of DNA replication in human cells that is based on stochastic, proximity-induced replication initiation. Critical model features are: spontaneous stochastic firing of individual origins in euchromatin and facultative heterochromatin, inhibition of firing at distances below the size of chromatin loops and a domino-like effect by which replication forks induce firing of nearby origins. The model reproduces the empirical temporal and chromatin-related properties of DNA replication in human cells. We advance the one-dimensional DNA replication model to a spatial model by taking into account chromatin folding in the nucleus, and we are able to reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of the replication foci distribution throughout S-phase.

  4. Effects of interaural level differences on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Distant sound sources in our environment are perceived as externalized and are thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is due to the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and external ears, which provides frequency-dependent shaping of binaural cues such as interaural level...... differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs). In rooms, the sound reaching the two ears is further modified by reverberant energy, which leads to increased fluctuations in short-term ILDs and ITDs. In the present study, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the externalization of sound......, for sounds that contain frequencies above about 1 kHz the ILD fluctuations were found to be an essential cue for externalization....

  5. Effect of metakaolin on external sulfate attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M. [Toronto Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of high reactivity metakaolin (HRM) on the sulfate resistance of mortars was studied. Mortar bars with three cements of varying C{sub 3}A content were used for the experiment. After a six month exposure to a 5 per cent solution of sodium sulfate, mortar bars incorporating any level of HRM as a partial replacement for a high-C{sub 3}A was considered 'moderately sulfate resistant'; mortar bars with HRM and a moderate or low C{sub 3}A content as 'high sulfate resistant'. It was also determined that for long term sulfate resistance 15 per cent HRM or more may be required, depending on the C{sub 3}A content. The performance of HRM was found to be significantly influenced by the water-cementitious material ratio, and in turn, by permeability, suggesting that HRM might increase sulfate resistance more by lowering the permeability of the concrete than by any chemical action. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Welfare effects of the internalization of external cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Korteweg, J.A.; Derriks, H.

    2009-03-01

    The effect of passing through the cost of external effects such as accidents, environment and noise to traffic and transport have been mapped. In nine out of the ten examined variants this 'internalization' will lead to an increase in welfare in the Netherlands. Internalization leads to a decrease of external costs of over 100 million to more than 1.7 billion euros annually. Internalization also brings about collection costs, international transfers and logistic adjustments. The balance of these effects varies from a welfare loss of 20 million euros to a welfare increase of 1.2 billion euros annually. [nl

  7. Assessment of environmental external effects in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L.; Meyer, N.I.; Nielsen, P.S.; Nielsen, V.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark in 1994 concerning externalities. The main objective was to identify, quantify and - if possible - monetize the external effects in the production of energy, especially in relation to renewable technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared to the production of electricity based on a coal-fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas. In the report the individual externalities from the different ways of producing energy are identified, the stress caused by the effect is assessed, and finally the monetary value of the damage is estimated. The method is applied to the local as well as the regional and global externalities. (au) 8 tabs., 7 ills., 4 refs

  8. Assessment of environmental external effects in power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Meyer, N.I.; Nielsen, P.S.; Nielsen, V. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark in 1994 concerning externalities. The main objective was to identify, quantify and - if possible - monetize the external effects in the production of energy, especially in relation to renewable technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared to the production of electricity based on a coal-fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas. In the report the individual externalities from the different ways of producing energy are identified, the stress caused by the effect is assessed, and finally the monetary value of the damage is estimated. The method is applied to the local as well as the regional and global externalities. (au) 8 tabs., 7 ills., 4 refs.

  9. Synthetic studies on taxanes: A domino-enyne metathesis/Diels ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A domino enyne cross-metathesis/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction has been successfully used to synthesize a bicyclo[5.3.1] undecene, corresponding to AB-ring of taxol without the gem dimethyl group.

  10. A short synthesis-stuttgart of (S)-pyrrolam A via domino oxidation-witting reaction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Shet, J.; Tilve, S.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    A short synthesis of (S)-pyrrolam A starting from readily available N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L prolinol is described that makes use of a domino primary alcohol oxidation-Witting reaction as the key step...

  11. Domino Wittig Diels-Alder reaction: An expeditious entry into the AB ring system of furanosesquiterpenes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patre, R.E.; Gawas, S.; Sen, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    A domino Wittig Diels - Alder reaction has been employed in delineating a short and flexible synthetic stratagem for ready access to the AB ring system and the tricyclic framework of furanosesquiterpenes, such as the bioactive natural products...

  12. DOMINO, Coupling of Discrete Ordinate Program DOT with Monte-Carlo Program MORSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: DOMINO is a general purpose code for coupling discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations. 2 - Method of solution: DOMINO transforms the angular flux as a function of energy group, mesh interval and discrete angle into current and subsequently into normalized probability distributions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The discrete ordinates calculation is limited to an r-z geometry

  13. Correlation effects in the Ising model in an external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, H.E.; Silva, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the spin-1/2 Ising Model in an external field are evaluated through the use of the exponential differential operator method and Callen's exact relations. The correlations effects are treated in a phenomenological approach and the results are compared with other treatments. (Author) [pt

  14. Effects of external debt on national savings in Botswana | Oageng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effects of external debt on national savings in Botswana using time series economic tools for the period 1980-2014. Annual data for Savings as percentage of GDP, GDP per capita, Exports as percentage of GDP, Exchange rates, Gross Fixed Capital Formation as ...

  15. Effects of external debt burden on LDC's investments: empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of external debt burden on LDC's investments: empirical evidence from Nigeria. Michael I Moughalu, Chinedu B Ezirim. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol. 14(2) 2006: 3-18. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...

  17. Non-Covalent Organocatalyzed Domino Reactions Involving Oxindoles: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tecla Gasperi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous presence of spirooxindole architectures with several functionalities and stereogenic centers in bioactive molecules has been appealing for the development of novel methodologies seeking their preparation in high yields and selectivities. Expansion and refinement in the field of asymmetric organocatalysis have made possible the development of straightforward strategies that address these two requisites. In this review, we illustrate the current state-of-the-art in the field of spirooxindole synthesis through the use of non-covalent organocatalysis. We aim to provide a concise overview of very recent methods that allow to the isolation of unique, densely and diversified spirocyclic oxindole derivatives with high structural diversity via the use of cascade, tandem and domino processes.

  18. Internal and External Imagery Effects on Tennis Skills Among Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Amir; Gozalzadeh, Elmira

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of internal and external visual imagery perspectives on performance accuracy of open and closed tennis skills (i.e., serve, forehand, and backhand) among novices. Thirty-six young male novices, aged 15-18 years, from a summer tennis program participated. Following initial skill acquisition (12 sessions), baseline assessments of imagery ability and imagery perspective preference were used to assign participants to one of three groups: internal imagery ( n = 12), external imagery ( n = 12), or a no-imagery (mental math exercise) control group ( n = 12). The experimental interventions of 15 minutes of mental imagery (internal or external) or mental math exercises followed by 15 minutes of physical practice were held three times a week for six weeks. The performance accuracy of the groups on the serve, forehand, and backhand strokes was measured at pre- and post-test using videotaping. Results showed significant increases in the performance accuracy of all three tennis strokes in all three groups, but serve accuracy in the internal imagery group and forehand accuracy in the external imagery group showed greater improvements, while backhand accuracy was similarly improved in all three groups. These findings highlight differential efficacy of internal and external visual imagery for performance improvement on complex sport skills in early stage motor learning.

  19. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  20. Effect of External Electric Field Stress on Gliadin Protein Conformation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Shirin; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant effect on its surface properties. The study of hydrogen bond evolution during the course of simulation revealed that the root mean square deviation, radius of gyration and secondary structure formation, all de...

  1. Environmental Externalities of Geological Carbon Sequestration Effects on Energy Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekens, K.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2004-03-01

    Geological carbon sequestration seems one of the promising options to address, in the near term, the global problem of climate change, since carbon sequestration technologies are in principle available today and their costs are expected to be affordable. Whereas extensive technological and economic feasibility studies rightly point out the large potential of this 'clean fossil fuel' option, relatively little attention has been paid so far to the detrimental environmental externalities that the sequestering of CO2 underground could entail. This paper assesses what the relevance might be of including these external effects in long-term energy planning and scenario analyses. Our main conclusion is that, while these effects are generally likely to be relatively small, carbon sequestration externalities do matter and influence the nature of future world energy supply and consumption. More importantly, since geological carbon storage (depending on the method employed) may in some cases have substantial external impacts, in terms of both environmental damage and health risks, it is recommended that extensive studies are performed to quantify these effects. This article addresses three main questions: (1) What may energy supply look like if one accounts for large-scale CO2 sequestration in the construction of long-term energy and climate change scenarios; (2) Suppose one hypothesizes a quantification of the external environmental costs of CO2 sequestration, how do then these supposed costs affect the evolution of the energy system during the 21st century; (3) Does it matter for these scenarios whether carbon sequestration damage costs are charged directly to consumers or, instead, to electricity producers?

  2. Effect of external magnetic effect of external magnetic field annealing on magnetic texture of Mo containing NANOPERM-type alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanuch, T.; Miglierini, M.; Greneche, J.-M.; Skorvanek, I.; Schaaf, P.

    2006-01-01

    External magnetic fields are known to modify microstructure of materials during their solidification and/or crystallisation. In an external magnetic field strong particle to particle interactions lead to a highly anisotropic microstructure. If the alloy is in ferromagnetic state, stronger particle magnetization - external field interactions and also particle-to-particle couplings are expected. To reveal the magnetic texture, originally amorphous precursors of Fe 76 Mo 8 Cu 1 B 15 were annealed at 510 grad C and 550 grad C in an external longitudinal and transverse magnetic field of 0.025 T and 0.8 T, respectively. Magnetic measurements were applied to follow the changes of saturation magnetization and coercive force. Moessbauer experiments were performed at room and liquid nitrogen temperature to provide an information about orientation of with respect to an external magnetic field. The obtained results were compared with those achieved on zero field annealed samples. We can conclude that such a low external magnetic fields applied during crystallisation cause no significant changes in the magnetic microstructural anisotropy. Afterwards, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) was applied to investigate possible changes at the surface of the ribbon as a function of annealing temperature and applied magnetic field. We observed combination of uniaxial anisotropy, which originates from the shape anisotropy, and four-fold anisotropy, which is a contribution from crystallites of nanometre size embedded in the residual amorphous matrix. We expect more pronounced effects on cobalt substituted (Fe1 -x Co x ) 76 Mo 8 Cu 1 B 15 alloy. (authors)

  3. Effect of External Vibration on PZT Impedance Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowen Yang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT transducers, working on the principle of electromechanical impedance (EMI, are increasingly applied for structural health monitoring (SHM in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. The PZT transducers are usually surface bonded to or embedded in a structure and subjected to actuation so as to interrogate the structure at the desired frequency range. The interrogation results in the electromechanical admittance (inverse of EMI signatures which can be used to estimate the structural health or integrity according to the changes of the signatures. In the existing EMI method, the monitored structure is only excited by the PZT transducers for the interrogating of EMI signature, while the vibration of the structure caused by the external excitations other than the PZT actuation is not considered. However, many structures work under vibrations in practice. To monitor such structures, issues related to the effects of vibration on the EMI signature need to be addressed because these effects may lead to misinterpretation of the structural health. This paper develops an EMI model for beam structures, which takes into account the effect of beam vibration caused by the external excitations. An experimental study is carried out to verify the theoretical model. A lab size specimen with different external excitations is tested and the effect of vibration on EMI signature is discussed.

  4. Effect of External Vibration on PZT Impedance Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaowen; Miao, Aiwei

    2008-11-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducers, working on the principle of electromechanical impedance (EMI), are increasingly applied for structural health monitoring (SHM) in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. The PZT transducers are usually surface bonded to or embedded in a structure and subjected to actuation so as to interrogate the structure at the desired frequency range. The interrogation results in the electromechanical admittance (inverse of EMI) signatures which can be used to estimate the structural health or integrity according to the changes of the signatures. In the existing EMI method, the monitored structure is only excited by the PZT transducers for the interrogating of EMI signature, while the vibration of the structure caused by the external excitations other than the PZT actuation is not considered. However, many structures work under vibrations in practice. To monitor such structures, issues related to the effects of vibration on the EMI signature need to be addressed because these effects may lead to misinterpretation of the structural health. This paper develops an EMI model for beam structures, which takes into account the effect of beam vibration caused by the external excitations. An experimental study is carried out to verify the theoretical model. A lab size specimen with different external excitations is tested and the effect of vibration on EMI signature is discussed.

  5. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, A. [Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Faculty of Economics, Ryukoku University, Otsu (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership.

  6. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership

  7. Domino-Like Intercellular Delivery of Undecylenic Acid-Conjugated Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Deep Tumor Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tuying; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Li, Fuying; Yang, Hao; Gan, Lu; Yang, Xiangliang

    2016-10-05

    Improving the intratumoral distribution of anticancer agents remains the critical challenge for developing efficient cancer chemotherapy. Luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) have attracted considerable attention in the biomedical field especially in drug delivery. Here, we described the lysosomal exocytosis-mediated domino-like intercellular delivery of undecylenic acid-conjugated PSiNPs (UA-PSiNPs) for deep tumor penetration. UA-PSiNPs with significantly improved stability in physiological conditions were internalized into tumor cells by macropinocytosis-, caveolae-, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and mainly colocalized with Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. Substantial evidence showed that UA-PSiNPs was excreted from cells via lysosomal exocytosis after cellular uptake. The exocytosed UA-PSiNPs induced a domino-like infection of adjacent cancer cells and allowed encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) to deeply penetrate into both three-dimensional tumor spheroids and in vivo tumors. In addition, DOX-loaded UA-PSiNPs exhibited strong antitumor activity and few side effects in vivo. This study demonstrated that UA-PSiNPs as a drug carrier might be applied for deep tumor penetration, offering a new insight into the design of more efficient delivery systems of anticancer drugs.

  8. Beam-beam effects under the influence of external noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, K

    2014-01-01

    Fast external noise, which gives fluctuation into the beam orbit, is discussed in connection with beam-beam effects. Phase noise from crab cavities and detection devices (position monitor) and kicker noise from the bunch by bunch feedback system are the sources. Beam-beam collisions with fast orbit fluctuations with turn by turn or multi-turn correlations, cause emittance growth and luminosity degradation. We discuss the tolerance of the noise amplitude for LHC and HL-LHC

  9. Externality and framing effects in a bribery experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Barr; Danila Serra

    2007-01-01

    Using a simple one-shot bribery game, we find evience of a negative externality effect and a framing effect. When the losses suffered by a third parties due to a bribe being offered and accepted are increased bribes are less likely to be offered and accepted. And when the game is presented as a bribery scenario instead of in abstract terms bribes are less likely to be offered and accepted. We discuss two possible reasons as to why our experiment leads to the identification of these effects wh...

  10. Ratchet effect on a relativistic particle driven by external forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, Niurka R; Alvarez-Nodarse, Renato; Cuesta, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    We study the ratchet effect of a damped relativistic particle driven by both asymmetric temporal bi-harmonic and time-periodic piecewise constant forces. This system can be formally solved for any external force, providing the ratchet velocity as a nonlinear functional of the driving force. This allows us to explicitly illustrate the functional Taylor expansion formalism recently proposed for this kind of systems. The Taylor expansion reveals particularly useful to obtain the shape of the current when the force is periodic, piecewise constant. We also illustrate the somewhat counterintuitive effect that introducing damping may induce a ratchet effect. When the force is symmetric under time-reversal and the system is undamped, under symmetry principles no ratchet effect is possible. In this situation increasing damping generates a ratchet current which, upon increasing the damping coefficient eventually reaches a maximum and decreases toward zero. We argue that this effect is not specific of this example and should appear in any ratchet system with tunable damping driven by a time-reversible external force. (paper)

  11. Ratchet effect on a relativistic particle driven by external forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, Niurka R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, Universidad de Sevilla, Calle Virgen de Africa 7, E-41011 Sevilla (Spain); Alvarez-Nodarse, Renato [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo 1160, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Cuesta, Jose A, E-mail: niurka@us.es, E-mail: ran@us.es, E-mail: cuesta@math.uc3m.es [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-21

    We study the ratchet effect of a damped relativistic particle driven by both asymmetric temporal bi-harmonic and time-periodic piecewise constant forces. This system can be formally solved for any external force, providing the ratchet velocity as a nonlinear functional of the driving force. This allows us to explicitly illustrate the functional Taylor expansion formalism recently proposed for this kind of systems. The Taylor expansion reveals particularly useful to obtain the shape of the current when the force is periodic, piecewise constant. We also illustrate the somewhat counterintuitive effect that introducing damping may induce a ratchet effect. When the force is symmetric under time-reversal and the system is undamped, under symmetry principles no ratchet effect is possible. In this situation increasing damping generates a ratchet current which, upon increasing the damping coefficient eventually reaches a maximum and decreases toward zero. We argue that this effect is not specific of this example and should appear in any ratchet system with tunable damping driven by a time-reversible external force. (paper)

  12. Significance assessment of the external control effects of lecturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova Margarita, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The state policy regarding higher education has changed in the last decade. These changes were part of the efficiency programs of the public sector. Governments of different countries ruined previously existing system of higher education state regulation and attempted to build the quasi-market structure in the higher education industry. Such transformations served as timely and progressive reforms in the recent studies of the economics of education. Substitution of bureaucratic management mechanisms and modern competition managerial tools are articulated. Economic and institutional and sociological studies on the effects of the introduction of quasi-markets and managerial tools in higher education governance oppose to orthodox market approach. They drew attention to the fact that evaluation methods and improve the effectiveness of organizations and employees that are typical of the private sector often produce results that differ from those in the public sector. To assess the consequences of the introduction of managerial tools of external control activities of university lecturers used a methodology based on the allocation of the individual structural components (effects and building on their basis of a multi-level hierarchical model in the research. Each component of the model (single effect is characterized by a degree of significance (importance and the degree of severity. The results of the systematization and assessment of the significance of the effects of external control activity of lecturers of Russian universities implemented in conditions of quasi-market mechanisms of the higher education system are highlighted in the paper.

  13. Cadaveric domino liver transplantation: the first case in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Kenji; Jin, Maeng Bong; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Todo, Satoru; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Hattori, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Ryouji; Iwasaki, Sari; Sato, Masanori; Nakagawa, Takahito; Kurauchi, Noriaki; Kamachi, Hirohumi; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Matsushita, Michiaki

    2004-01-01

    The first case of domino liver transplantation from a brain-dead donor in Japan is described. A 49-year-old man with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy received a cadaver liver, and his native liver was transplanted into a 53-year-old man with polycystic liver and kidney disease. The cadaveric liver allograft was transplanted by the conventional technique. The graft taken from the first recipient had four outflow orifices (the left, middle, and right hepatic veins, and upper vena cava), for which a single orifice was created at the back table. This graft was transplanted in piggy-back fashion. The first recipient developed acute rejection on day 13 and hepatic artery stenosis on day 36. These were treated by steroid recycle therapy and percutaneous transarterial angioplasty. He was discharged on day 57 with normal liver function. The second recipient underwent re-operation for bleeding from the right adrenal gland and left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with acute rejection on day 7, which was treated by steroid pulse therapy. He was discharged uneventfully on day 39 with normal liver function.

  14. Dose-rate effects in external beam radiotherapy redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C. Clifton; Gerweck, Leo E.; Zaider, Marco; Yorke, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in external beam radiotherapy, both in technical advances and in clinical approaches, have prompted renewed discussions on the potential influence of dose-rate on radio-response in certain treatment scenarios. We consider the multiple factors that influence the dose-rate effect, e.g. radical recombination, the kinetics of sublethal damage repair for tumors and normal tissues, the difference in α/β ratio for early and late reacting tissues, and perform a comprehensive literature review. Based on radiobiological considerations and the linear-quadratic (LQ) model we estimate the influence of overall treatment time on radio-response for specific clinical situations. As the influence of dose-rate applies to both the tumor and normal tissues, in oligo-fractionated treatment using large doses per fraction, the influence of delivery prolongation is likely important, with late reacting normal tissues being generally more sensitive to the dose-rate effect than tumors and early reacting tissues. In conventional fractionated treatment using 1.8-2 Gy per fraction and treatment times of 2-10 min, the influence of dose-rate is relatively small. Lastly, the dose-rate effect in external beam radiotherapy is governed by the overall beam-on-time, not by the average linac dose-rate, nor by the instantaneous dose-rate within individual linac pulses which could be as high as 3 x 10 6 MU/min.

  15. Can we infer external effects from a study of the Irish indirect tax system?

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David (David Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates implied external effects for the Irish indirect tax system for the year 1987. The study uses the inverse optimum technique of Christiansen and Jansen (1978) which estimates implied external effects, given the assumption that the economy is at an optimum with regard to the indirect tax system. External effects are estimated for three goods: tobacco, alcohol and petrol and in all cases the estimated external effects are of the expected sign. The paper also estimates the imp...

  16. HOW DO FIRMS SOURCE EXTERNAL KNOWLEDGE FOR INNOVATION? ANALYSING EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT KNOWLEDGE SOURCING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    KI H. KANG; JINA KANG

    2009-01-01

    In the era of "open innovation", external knowledge is a very important source for technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between external knowledge and performance of technology innovation. The effect of external knowledge on the performance of technology innovation can vary with different external knowledge sourcing methods. We identify three ways of external knowledge sourcing: information transfer from informal network, R&D collaboration and technology acqui...

  17. Late biological effects from internal and external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Information on late biological effects of radiation was obtained from the long-term medical followup of a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954. Endocrine data are compatible with a sequence of nonstochastic radiation effects. The ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine produced clinical thyroid hypofunction in children, biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction in some adults, thyroid adenomatous module formation, and, as a possible indirect effect of thyroid damage, at least two cases of pituitary adenoma. In contrast, the only evidence of a stochastic effect has been a real increase in thyroid cancers among the more highly exposed people of Rongelap, none of whom have evidence of residual disease. While three nonthyroidal cancers which are known to be inducible in humans by external irradiation have been documented in the exposed population, three similar cancers have occurred in an unexposed comparison population of Marshallese. Nonstochastic effects of radiation exposure may be common but subtle. In the Marshallese experience the morbidity of delayed nonstochastic effects far exceeds that of the stochastic. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Equatorial electrojet and its response to external electromagnetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Savina, O. N.

    2012-09-01

    In the quiet low-latitude Earth's ionosphere, a sufficiently developed current system that is responsible for the Sq magnetic-field variations is formed in quiet Sun days under the action of tidal streams. The density of the corresponding currents is maximum in the midday hours at the equatorial latitudes, where the so-called equatorial electrojet is formed. In this work, we discuss the nature of the equatorial electrojet. This paper studies the value of its response to external effects. First of all, it is concerned with estimating the possibility of using the equatorial electrojet for generating low-frequency electromagnetic signals during periodic heating of the ionosphere by the heating-facility radiation. The equatorial electrojet can also produce electrodynamic response to the natural atmospheric processes, e.g., an acoustic-gravity wave.

  19. Meteorology during the DOMINO campaign and its connection with trace gases and aerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adame, J.A.; Martinez, M.; Sorribas, M.; Hidalgo, P.J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2014-01-01

    The DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms in relation to Nitrogen Oxides) campaign was carried out from 21 November to 8 December 2008 at the El Arenosillo station (SW of Spain) in a coastal-rural environment. The main weather conditions are analysed using local meteorological variables, meteorological

  20. Pizza Hut, Domino's, and the Public Schools: Making Sense of Commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Describes different types of partnerships between schools and businesses, discussing the benefits of and drawbacks to the commercial aspects of programs like Pizza Hut's, in which children who read a certain number of books receive free pizza, and programs like Dominos', in which schools receive materials or money in return for students buying…

  1. The effects of external conditions in turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian G.

    The effects of multiple external conditions on turbulent boundary layers were studied in detail. These external conditions include: surface roughness, upstream turbulence intensity, and pressure gradient. Furthermore, the combined effects of these conditions show the complicated nature of many realistic flow conditions. It was found that the effects of surface roughness are difficult to generalize, given the importance of so many parameters. These parameters include: roughness geometry, roughness regime, roughness height to boundary layer thickness, (k/delta), roughness parameter, ( k+), Reynolds number, and roughness function (Delta B+). A further complication, is the difficulty in computing the wall shear stress, tauw/rho. For the sand grain type roughness, the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were studied in inner and outer variables, as well as, boundary layer parameters, anisotropy tensor, production term, and viscous stress and form drag contributions. To explore the effects of roughness and Reynolds number dependence in the boundary layer, a new experiment was carefully designed to properly capture the x-dependence of the single-point statistics. It was found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the skin friction due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction, near-wall roughness parameters, and inner velocity profiles as k + increases into the fully rough regime. However, in the transitionally rough regime, (i.e., 5 component shows the largest influence of roughness, where the high peak near the wall was decreased and became nearly flat for the fully rough regime profiles. In addition, the Reynolds stresses in outer variables show self-similarity for fixed experimental conditions. However, as the roughness parameter, k +, increases, all Reynolds stress

  2. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed.

  3. 'More is less'. The tax effects of ignoring flow externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein Ivar; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2003-01-01

    Using a model of non-linear, non-monotone decay of the stock pollutant, and starting from the same initial conditions, the paper shows that an optimal tax that corrects for both stock and flow externalities may result in a lower tax, fewer cumulative emissions (less decay in emissions) and higher output at the steady state than a corrective tax that ignores the flow externality. This 'more is less' result emphasizes that setting a corrective tax that ignores the flow externality, or imposing a corrective tax at too low a level where there exists only a stock externality, may affect both transitory and steady-state output, tax payments and cumulative emissions. The result has important policy implications for decision makers setting optimal corrective taxes and targeted emission limits whenever stock externalities exist

  4. The effect of external irradiation on the prenatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerttler, K.

    1982-01-01

    Concerning the effect of external irradiation on prenatal development the pathologist must either admit that the number of observed developmental disorders produced by low doses is very small or he must confess that his methods for detecting such lesions are not sufficiently sophisticated. The author prefers the second alternative and tries to verify this viewpoint. Section I concerns the behaviour of the treated organism following an injury. In the author's opinion the course of such prenatal damage is not taken sufficiently into consideration today. Section II should explain the biological basis of sensitivity to injury. We have to consider the use of different parameters for each existent damage. Section III should point out the development of formal deviations from early development stages. This will be exemplified on irradiated chicken embryos. Comparable abnormal developmental steps also occur in human embryos. Section IV concerns the appearance of secondary effect as the result of prenatal disorders. These disorders have been taken only little or not at all into consideration until now. We have to recognize its importance in regard to prenatal irradiation. (orig./MG)

  5. The use of current risk analysis tools evaluated towards preventing external domino accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, W.; Ale, B. J.M.; Soudan, K.

    Risk analysis is an essential tool for company safety policy. Risk analysis consists of identifying and evaluating all possible risks. The efficiency of risk analysis tools depends on the rigueur of identifying and evaluating all possible risks. The diversity in risk analysis procedures is such that

  6. Managing domino effect-related security of industrial areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, W.; Audenaert, Amaryllis; Ale, B. J.M.; Soudan, K.

    In chemical enterprises, security managers are interested in easy-to-handle and user-friendly decision-support tools, providing them with straightforward information ready for implementation. Therefore, a theoretical conceptualization on how to manage-in a relatively simple way-the prevention and

  7. The Interactive Effects of Perceived External Prestige and Need for Organizational Identification on Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignonac, Karim; Herrbach, Olivier; Guerrero, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of understanding the influence of an organization's external image on its members. Although progress has been made in understanding how perceived external prestige relates to workplace outcomes, researchers have not examined the joint effect of perceived external prestige and individual differences on…

  8. Effect of Oral Hydration on External Cephalic Version at Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobbi, Virna Franca; Nespoli, Antonella; Spreafico, Elisa; Recalcati, Roberta; Loi, Federica; Scian, Antonietta; Galimberti, Stefania

    To evaluate the effect of oral hydration on the success rate of external cephalic version (ECV). Randomized controlled and single-blind trial. Academic tertiary hospital with approximately 3,000 births annually. One hundred sixty-four women at a gestational age of at least 37 weeks with breech-presenting fetuses and normal amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs). Participants were randomly assigned to drink 2000 ml or no more than 100 ml of water in the 2 hours before undergoing ECV. The AFIs were assessed before and after treatment by the same sonographer, who was blinded to the treatment group. Data were collected on relevant maternal and fetal characteristics and ECV success. The mean AFI after hydration was significantly greater than that in the control group (15.5 cm vs. 13.4 cm, p = .003). The ECV success rate was 53.7% in the hydration group and 46.3% in the control group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [0.69, 2.59]; p = .349). Hydration was well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events. Oral hydration significantly increased the AFIs but did not affect the success rate of ECVs. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Meyer, H J; Morthorst, P E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  10. Effect of Cervical Siphon of External and Internal Carotid Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajani; Tubbs, Richard Shane

    2017-10-01

    Variant courses, configuration, and branching pattern of the external and internal carotid arteries, especially when curved in S-shape, are important for hemodynamic changes and clinical implications. Therefore, the aim of the study is to report abnormal cervical siphons observed in external and internal carotid arteries to explore clinical significance by review of literature and hemodynamic changes theoretically.The right common carotid artery bifurcated into external and internal carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of thyroid cartilage in a 70-year-old female cadaver. After bifurcation, the external carotid artery underwent severe tortuosity coursing through 5 bends at points A, B, C, D, and E from its origin to termination and 2 bends at A' and B' in internal carotid artery in the cervical region. The angles between inflow and out flow of the blood at the bends were measured and the change in velocity at each bend was computed for both arteries. Hemodynamic changes were calculated, compared and relevant clinical complications were theoretically correlated.The angles of 20°, 30°, 51°, 52°, 60°, and 28°, 48° were formed by 5 bends of external and 2 bends of internal carotid arteries, respectively. The curved courses of these arteries caused reduction in velocity/stasis, turbulence, and low shear stress. Such kinks might cause stroke, ischemia and mistaken for tumors and abscess in imagery leading to or otherwise producing iatrogenic repercussions. This study will be useful for anatomists, clinicians, and radiologists.

  11. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  12. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  13. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environm......A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...... the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized....

  14. Effects of external field on elastic electron-ion collision in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang-Chul; Jung, Young-Dae

    2008-01-01

    The field effects on elastic electron-ion collision are investigated in a plasma with the presence of the external field. The eikonal method and effective interaction potential including the far-field term caused by the external field is employed to obtain the eikonal phase shift and eikonal cross section as functions of the field strength, external frequency, impact parameter, collision energy, thermal energy and Debye length. The result shows that the effect of the external field on the eikonal cross section is given by the second-order eikonal phase. In addition, the external field effects suppress the eikonal cross section as well as eikonal phase for the elastic electron-ion collision. The eikonal phase and cross section are found to be increased with an increase of the frequency of the external field. It is also shown that the eikonal cross section increases with an increase of the thermal energy and Debye length.

  15. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    rated by low-angle boundaries, leading to a decrease of atomic level strain ..... Fracture can only occur at defects or due to work ... slip planes and intersecting slip planes built in stress .... to an external compressive force the rather flexible elec-.

  16. Assessment of Environmental External Effects in Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Henrik Jacob; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1996-01-01

    to the production of electricity based on a coal fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas.In the report the individual externalities from...

  17. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Various externalities of energy systems and the integrated evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Keishiro

    2002-01-01

    The primacy of a nuclear fusion reactor in a competitive energy market remarkably depends on to what extent the reactor contributes to reduce the externalities of energy. The reduction effects are classified into two effects, which have quite dissimilar characteristics. One is an effect of environmental dimensions. The other is related to energy security. In this study I took up the results of EC's ExternE project studies as a representative example of the former effect. Concerning the latter effect, I clarified the fundamental characteristics of externalities related to energy security and the conceptual framework for the purpose of evaluation. In the socio-economical evaluation of research into and development investments in nuclear fusions reactors, the public will require the development of integrated evaluation systems to support the cost-effect analysis of how well the reduction effects of externalities have been integrated with the effects of technological innovation, learning, spillover, etc. (author)

  18. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  19. Post-Ugi gold-catalyzed diastereoselective domino cyclization for the synthesis of diversely substituted spiroindolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An Ugi four-component reaction of propargylamine with 3-formylindole and various acids and isonitriles produces adducts which are subjected to a cationic gold-catalyzed diastereoselective domino cyclization to furnish diversely substituted spiroindolines. All the reactions run via an exo-dig attack in the hydroarylation step followed by an intramolecular diastereoselective trapping of the imminium ion. The whole sequence is atom economic and the application of a multicomponent reaction assures diversity.

  20. o-Iodoxybenzoic acid mediated oxidative desulfurization initiated domino reactions for synthesis of azoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pramod S; Pathare, Sagar P; Akamanchi, Krishnacharaya G

    2012-04-20

    A systematic exploration of thiophilic ability of o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) for oxidative desulfurization to trigger domino reactions leading to new methodologies for synthesis of different azoles is described. A variety of highly substituted oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles, triazoles, and tetrazoles have been successfully synthesized in good to excellent yields, starting from readily accessible thiosemicarbazides, bis-diarylthiourea, 1,3-disubtituted thiourea, and thioamides. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. the effect of external knowledge on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    sajad khani; abdolhamid ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Most traditional organizations managers focus on tangible and financial assets such as land, money, labor and ... One of the industries where competition is intense day by day the concept of competitive advantage and value creation in its resolution finds the banking industry. In this regard, the present study sought to examine the impact of intangible assets (external knowledge) to improve service quality and brand equity in the banking industry and the Export Development Bank of Iran. ...

  2. Possible effects of external electrical fields on the corrosion of copper in bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, Claes (Swerea KIMAB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    External potentials that develop across a repository may interact with the copper canister. A study was undertaken to investigate the potential corrosion effects of voltage differences in a repository. A set of experiments was performed to study the tendency of copper in bentonite to corrode under influence of an externally applied electrical field. A model study was made to estimate possible corrosion effects of an external electrical field on a full-scale canister in the KBS-3 concept. The interaction between the repository represented by a copper canister in bentonite, and an external electrical field is illustrated with an example

  3. Investigating the effect of externalizing perspectives on cognitives biases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Fredrik Huitfeldt; Hicks, David L., David

    2007-01-01

    of intelligence analysis. We propose that complexity of maintaining multiple different perspectives the same data is one of the reasons for this. We further propose that a tool that facillitates the externalization multiple perspectives would reduce these biases and hence increase the overall quality...... the number of attacks that “get through”. There are many subproblems of this main problem, one of which is that relative quality of the intelligence analysis is too low [39, We observe that the analysts suffer from cognitive biases, and we assume that this is one of the reasons behind “low” quality...... of intelligence analyses....

  4. External boundary effects on simultaneous diffusion and reaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, M.N.; Wilhelmsson, H.

    1989-01-01

    External boundaries influence the spatial and temporal structure of evolution of dynamic systems governed by reaction-diffusion equations. Critical limits, i.e. thresholds for explosive growth or onset of diffusion dominated decay, are found to be caused by the presence of the boundary and to depend on: the position of the boundary, where the density is assumed to be zero at any instant of time: the mutual weights (coefficients) and powers of the nonlinear reaction and diffusion processes; and the initial spatial distribution. However, for particular relations between the nonlinear powers of the reaction and diffusion terms the critical limits do not depend on the initial conditions. The results are obtained by simulation experiment for one, two and three dimensions. Trends in the dynamic evolution of the system with an external boundary imposed are compared with the corresponding analytic results obtained for free boundary. Interesting applications are found in various areas, e.g. in the field of high temperature fusion plasma where the evolution of the temperature profile for the so-called H-mode (constant plasma density) is described

  5. Novel effect of interplay of internal and external noise on the dynamics of calcium oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongying; Ma Juan

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: When the external noise is small (D ≤ 0.8), R goes through a maximum at an optimal system size V, indicating the occurring of internal-noise stochastic resonance (INSR), and the curves become higher with the increases of D, which shows that INSR can be enhanced by the external noise in a certain range of external noise intensity ((D ≤ 0.8). If D > 0.8, R monotonically increases and the peak disappears. When D increases further, the R curve becomes lower. Research highlights: → External noise coherence resonance (ENCR) can be suppressed by internal noise. → Internal noise stochastic resonance (INSR) can be enhanced by external noise. → When INSR occurs, the optimal system size can be regulated by the external noise. - Abstract: Using a mesoscopic stochastic model, the effect of interplay of external and internal noise on the dynamics of calcium oscillations was studied. When the system was tuned near a Hopf bifurcation point and driven by external noise or internal noise only, the existence of external noise coherence resonance (ENCR) or internal-noise stochastic resonance (INSR) was found, respectively. When both of the noises were considered, it was found that ENCR could be suppressed by internal noise, while INSR could be enhanced by external noise in a certain range of external noise intensity. It was also interesting to note that the optimal system size can be regulated by the external noise when the INSR occurs. The cell system may adapt to adjust the optimal size according to the external noise, indicating some kind of self-tuning mechanism involved in stochastic calcium dynamics.

  6. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and children's personality on externalizing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    2003-01-01

    Parenting practices have been previously linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality differences among children on this relation. The current study assesses the additive effects of children's personality

  7. Spin-lattice dynamics simulation of external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Chui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of field-induced magnetization in ferromagnetic materials has been an active topic in the last dozen years, yet a dynamic treatment of distance-dependent exchange integral has been lacking. In view of that, we employ spin-lattice dynamics (SLD simulations to study the external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron. Our results show that an external field can increase the inflection point of the temperature. Also the model provides a better description of the effect of spin correlation in response to an external field than the mean-field theory. An external field has a more prominent effect on the long range magnetic order than on the short range counterpart. Furthermore, an external field allows the magnon dispersion curves and the uniform precession modes to exhibit magnetic order variation from their temperature dependence.

  8. Food or Thought? Assessing Internal and External Factors Affecting Evaluations of Instructor Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John; Kiggins, Ryan; Kickham, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Within the broader literature concerned with potential bias in student measures of instructor effectiveness, two broad types of bias have been shown to operate in a course: internal and external. Missing is an assessment of the relative influence of each bias type in the classroom. Do internal or external types of bias matter more or less to…

  9. External technology sourcing : The effect of uncertainty on governance mode choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vrande, V.; Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Duijsters, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    External knowledge sourcing is increasingly important for corporate entrepreneurship. In this study, we examine the effect of external and relational uncertainty on the governance choice for inter-organizational technology sourcing. We develop a number of hypotheses about the impact of environmental

  10. Scientific Team Effectiveness and the External CEO: A Study of Biotechnology University Spin-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Marianne; Englis, Paula Danskin; Englis, Basil G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical exploration of the effectiveness of scientific teams and the role of an external CEO in the spin-off formation process. The paper contributes to the literature by focusing on the role of the experienced or "external" entrepreneur (their commercial resources and capabilities) in the early phase of spin-off…

  11. Comprehension of Relations among Controversial Texts: Effects of External Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of external strategy use on the comprehension of relations among controversial texts. About 80 undergraduates read six controversial texts for the purpose of either finding intertextual relations or forming their opinion about the controversial issue. Half of them were permitted to use external strategies, the other…

  12. The Lifetime Value of a Loyal Customer: What Can a Child Care Director Learn from Domino's Pizza and a Cadillac Dealer in Dallas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Margaret Leitch; Gimilaro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In "The Service Profit Chain," Harvard Business School professors James Heskett, Earl Sasser, and Leonard Schlesinger (1997) offer two anecdotes--from Domino's Pizza and a Dallas Cadillac dealership--that illuminate the concept of valuing a lifetime customer. Experts estimate that the lifetime value of a loyal Domino's Pizza customer is $4,000 and…

  13. The effects of externalities and framing on bribery in a petty corruption experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Barr; Danila Serra

    2008-01-01

    Using a simple one-shot bribery game, we find evidence of a negative externality effect and a framing effect. When the losses suffered by third parties due to a bribe being offered and accepted are high and the game is presented as a petty corruption scenario instead of in abstract terms bribes are less likely to be offered. Higher negative externalities are also associated with less bribe acceptance. However, framing has no effect on bribe acceptance, suggesting that the issue of artificiali...

  14. Effect of External Loading on Force and Power Production During Plyometric Push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Taylour J; Stephenson, Mitchell L; Sha, Zhanxin; Dai, Boyi

    2018-04-01

    Hinshaw, TJ, Stephenson, ML, Sha, Z, and Dai, B. Effect of external loading on force and power production during plyometric push-ups. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1099-1108, 2018-One common exercise to train upper-body strength and power is the push-up. Training at the loads that would produce the greatest power is an effective way to increase peak power. The purpose of the current study was to quantify the changes in peak force, peak power, and peak velocity among a modified plyometric push-up and plyometric push-ups with or without external loading in physically active young adults. Eighteen male and 17 female participants completed 4 push-ups: (a) modified plyometric push-up on the knees, (b) plyometric push-up without external loading, (c) plyometric push-up with an external load of 5% of body weight, and (d) plyometric push-up with an external load of 10% of body weight. Two force platforms were set up to collect vertical ground reaction forces at the hands and feet. The modified plyometric push-up demonstrated the lowest force, power, and velocity (5.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥1.2). Peak force and force at peak velocity increased (3.8≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.3) and peak velocity and velocity at peak power decreased (1.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.8) for the push-up without external loading compared with the 2 push-ups with external loading. No significant differences were observed for peak power among the push-ups with or without external loading (0.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.1). Although peak power is similar with or without external loading, push-ups without external loading may be more beneficial for a quick movement, and push-ups with external loading may be more beneficial for a greater force production.

  15. Domino Liver Transplantation from a Child with Propionic Acidemia to a Child with Idiopathic Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moguilevitch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Domino liver transplant has emerged as a viable strategy to increase the number of grafts available for transplantation. In the domino transplant organs explanted from one patient are transplanted into another patient. The first successful domino liver transplant was performed in Portugal in 1995. Since then this innovative concept has been applied to several genetic or biochemical disorders that are treated by liver transplantation. An important consideration during this operation is that such livers can pose a risk of the de novo development of the disease in the recipient. That is why this surgical procedure requires careful planning, proper selection of the patients, and informed consent of both donor and recipient.

  16. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, A.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  17. Psychological Effects of Automated External Defibrillator Training A randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meischke, Hendrika; Diehr, Paula; Phelps, Randi; Damon, Susan; Rea, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to test if an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) training program would positively affect the mental health of family members of high risk patients. Methods 305 ischemic heart disease patients and their family members were randomized to one of four AED training programs: two video-based training programs and two face-to-face training programs that emphasized self-efficacy and perceived control. Patients and family members were surveyed at baseline, 3 and 9 months post ischemic event on demographic characteristics, measures of quality of life (SF=36) , self-efficacy and perceived control. For this study, family members were the focus rather than the patients. Results Regression analyses showed that family members in the face-to-face training programs did not score better on any of the mental health status variables than family members who participated in the other training programs but for an increase in self-efficacy beliefs at 3 months post training. Conclusion The findings suggest that a specifically designed AED training program emphasizing self-efficacy and perceived control beliefs is not likely to enhance family member mental health. PMID:21411144

  18. Domino-Fluorination-Protodefluorination Enables Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling of α-Oxocarboxylic Acids with Styrene via Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muliang; Xi, Junwei; Ruzi, Rehanguli; Li, Nan; Wu, Zhongkai; Li, Weipeng; Zhu, Chengjian

    2017-09-15

    Domino-fluorination-protodefluorination decarboxylative cross-coupling of α-keto acids with styrene has been developed via photoredox catalysis. The critical part of this strategy is the formation of the carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond by the capture of a carbon-centered radical intermediate, which will overcome side reactions during the styrene radical functionalization process. Experimental studies have provided evidence indicating a domino-fluorination-protodefluorination pathway with α-keto acid initiating the photoredox cycle. The present catalytic protocol also affords a novel approach for the construction of α,β-unsaturated ketones under mild conditions.

  19. Analysis and design of optimized truncated scarfed nozzles subject to external flow effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyne, Rickey J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Rao's method for computing optimum thrust nozzles is modified to study the effects of external flow on the performance of a class of exhaust nozzles. Members of this class are termed scarfed nozzles. These are two-dimensional, nonsymmetric nozzles with a flat lower wall. The lower wall (the cowl) is truncated in order to save weight. Results from a parametric investigation are presented to show the effects of the external flowfield on performance.

  20. Versatile synthesis of amino acid functionalized nucleosides via a domino carboxamidation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Gheerardijn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized oligonucleotides have recently gained increased attention for incorporation in modified nucleic acid structures both for the design of aptamers with enhanced binding properties as well as the construction of catalytic DNA and RNA. As a shortcut alternative to the incorporation of multiple modified residues, each bearing one extra functional group, we present here a straightforward method for direct linking of functionalized amino acids to the nucleoside base, thus equipping the nucleoside with two extra functionalities at once. As a proof of principle, we have introduced three amino acids with functional groups frequently used as key-intermediates in DNA- and RNAzymes via an efficient and straightforward domino carboxamidation reaction.

  1. Wittig Reaction: Domino Olefination and Stereoselectivity DFT Study. Synthesis of the Miharamycins' Bicyclic Sugar Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachatra, Vasco; Almeida, Andreia; Sardinha, João; Lucas, Susana D; Gomes, Ana; Vaz, Pedro D; Florêncio, M Helena; Nunes, Rafael; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José; Rauter, Amélia P

    2015-11-20

    2-O-Acyl protected-d-ribo-3-uloses reacted with [(ethoxycarbonyl)methylene]triphenylphosphorane in acetonitrile to afford regio- and stereoselectively 2-(Z)-alkenes in 10-60 min under microwave irradiation. This domino reaction is proposed to proceed via tautomerization of 3-ulose to enol, acyl migration, tautomerization to the 3-O-acyl-2-ulose, and Wittig reaction. Alternatively, in chloroform, regioselective 3-olefination of 2-O-pivaloyl-3-uloses gave (E)-alkenes, key precursors for the miharamycins' bicyclic sugar moiety.

  2. Radiation effects on relativistic electrons in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation of high energy electron beams are a major issue in almost all types of charged particle accelerators. The objective of this thesis is both the analytical and numerical study of radiation effects. Due to its many applications the study of the self force has become a very active and productive field of research. The main part of this thesis is devoted to the study of radiation effects in laser-based plasma accelerators. Analytical models predict the existence of radiation effects. The investigation of radiation reaction show that in laser-based plasma accelerators, the self force effects lower the energy gain and emittance for moderate energies electron beams and increase the relative energy spread. However, for relatively high energy electron beams, the self radiation and retardation (radiation effects of one electron on the other electron of the system) effects increase the transverse emittance of the beam. The energy gain decreases to even lower value and relative energy spread increases to even higher value due to high radiation losses. The second part of this thesis investigates with radiation reaction in focused laser beams. Radiation effects are very weak even for high energy electrons. The radiation-free acceleration and the simple practical setup make direct acceleration in a focused laser beam very attractive. The results presented in this thesis can be helpful for the optimization of future electron acceleration experiments, in particular in the case of laser-plasma accelerators.

  3. Effect of External Optical Feedback for Nano-laser Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the effect of optical feedback on a photonic crystal nanolaser, comparing with conventional in-plane and vertical-cavity lasers.......We theoretically investigated the effect of optical feedback on a photonic crystal nanolaser, comparing with conventional in-plane and vertical-cavity lasers....

  4. Characteristics of natural background external radiation and effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The two sources of natural radiation - cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides - are described. The factors affecting radiation doses received from natural radiation and the calculation of effective dose equivalent due to natural radiation are discussed. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuman Singh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3 multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  6. Effect of external jet-flow deflector geometry on OTW aero-acoustic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonglahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of geometry variations in the design of external deflectors for use with over-the-wing (OTW) configurations was studied at model scale and subsonic jet velocities. Included in the variations were deflector size and angle as well as wing size and flap setting. A conical nozzle (5.2-cm diameter) mounted at 0.1 chord above and downstream of the wing leading edges was used. The data indicate that external deflectors provide satisfactory takeoff and approach aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics for OTW configurations. These characteristics together with expected good cruise aerodynamics, since external deflectors are storable, may provide optimum OTW design configurations.

  7. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanuman; Konishi, K.; Bose, A.; Bhuktare, S.; Miwa, S.; Fukushima, A.; Yakushiji, K.; Yuasa, S.; Kubota, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Tulapurkar, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3) multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  8. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Within months of Roentgen's discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F 1 mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig

  9. Deficit and External Debt Effects on Money and Inflation in Brazil and Mexico: Some Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat R. Koluri; Demetrios S. Giannaros

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the monetarist propositions regarding the effects of budget deficits, external debt, and money growth on inflation in the cases of Brazil and Mexico. To this end, a money growth equation and a price equation have been specified and estimated for empirical analysis. In general, it is concluded that the government budget deficit is not a determinant of money supply growth or of inflation. External debt is found to be a significant factor of money growth. ...

  10. The Effect of External Debt on Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardin Senadza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper examines the effect of external debt on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA in view of an upsurge in the level of external debt in many countries on the continent. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses annual data for 39 SSA countries from 1990 to 2013 and employs the System Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM estimation technique. Findings: The paper finds that external debt negatively affects economic growth in SSA. Categorization of countries based on per capita income however does not affect the external debt-growth nexus, neither does there exist a non-linear relationship between external debt and economic growth. Research limitations/implications: The finding of a negative relationship between external debt and growth does not necessarily imply that SSA countries should cut back on foreign borrowing in other to boost growth. Rather, given the huge savings gaps in some of the countries, what governments in SSA must do is to ensure that the foreign loans are invested in projects that would eventually generate enough returns to amortize the debt. Originality/value: Not only does the present paper extend to more recent data but we also apply one of the frontier econometric techniques - the system GMM approach - to unravel the external debt-economic growth dynamics in SSA.

  11. Estimation of effective dose equivalente from external irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, T.

    1985-07-01

    A methodology for computing effective dose equivalent, derived from the computer code ALGAM: Monte Carlo Estimation of Internal Dose from Gamma-ray Sources in a Phantom Man, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is presented. The modified code was run for 12 different photon energy levels, from 0,010 Mev to 4.0 Mev, which provides computing the absorved dose, for these energy levels, in each one of the 97 organs of the original code. The code also was run for the principal energy levels used in the calibration of the dosimetric films. The results of the absorved doses per photon obtained for these levels of energy have been transformed in effective dose equivalents. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Intestinal uptake of bile acids: effect of external abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, A.B.R.; Cheeseman, C.I.; Walker, K.

    1984-01-01

    Abdominal irradiation has recently been shown to influence the uptake of hexoses, amino acids, fatty acids and cholesterol into the jejunum of rats. The present studies were undertaken with a previously validated in vitro technique to determine the effect of abdominal irradiation from a cesium source on the rates of uptake of six bile acids into the jejunum, ileum, and colon. The results show that: 1) there likely are multiple ileal carriers for bile acids: 2) abdominal irradiation has a variable effect on these carriers; 3) the passive permeability to bile acids varies with the bile acid and with the site along the intestine; and 4) abdominal irradiation is associated with a rise in the colonic permeability to only some bile acids

  13. Domino structures evolution in strike-slip shear zones; the importance of the cataclastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N.; Dias, R.

    2018-05-01

    The Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo dextral Shear Zone is one of the most important structures of the Iberian Variscides. In its vicinity, close to Abrantes (Central Portugal), a localized heterogeneous strain pattern developed in a decimetric metamorphic siliceous multilayer. This complex pattern was induced by the D2 dextral shearing of the early S0//S1 foliation in brittle-ductile conditions, giving rise to three main shear zone families. One of these families, with antithetic kinematics, delimits blocks with rigid clockwise rotation surrounded by coeval cataclasites, generating a local domino structure. The proposed geometrical and kinematic analysis, coupled with statistical studies, highlights the relation between subsidiary shear zones and the main shear zone. Despite the heterogeneous strain pattern, a quantitative approach of finite strain was applied based on the restoration of the initial fracture pattern. This approach shows the importance of the cataclastic flow coupled with the translational displacement of the domino domain in solving space problems related to the rigid block rotation. Such processes are key in allowing the rigid block rotation inside shear zones whenever the simple shear component is a fundamental mechanism.

  14. Coupling effects of chemical stresses and external mechanical stresses on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Fuzhen; Shao Shanshan; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between diffusion and stress fields has been investigated extensively in the past. However, most of the previous investigations were focused on the effect of chemical stress on diffusion due to the unbalanced mass transport. In this work, the coupling effects of external mechanical stress and chemical stress on diffusion are studied. A self-consistent diffusion equation including the chemical stress and external mechanical stress gradient is developed under the framework of the thermodynamic theory and Fick's law. For a thin plate subjected to unidirectional tensile stress fields, the external stress coupled diffusion equation is solved numerically with the help of the finite difference method for one-side and both-side charging processes. Results show that, for such two types of charging processes, the external stress gradient will accelerate the diffusion process and thus increase the value of concentration while reducing the magnitude of chemical stress when the direction of diffusion is identical to that of the stress gradient. In contrast, when the direction of diffusion is opposite to that of the stress gradient, the external stress gradient will obstruct the process of solute penetration by decreasing the value of concentration and increasing the magnitude of chemical stress. For both-side charging process, compared with that without the coupling effect of external stress, an asymmetric distribution of concentration is produced due to the asymmetric mechanical stress field feedback to diffusion.

  15. Handling magnetic anisotropy and magnetoimpedance effect in flexible multilayers under external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agra, K.; Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Callegari, G.L.; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the dynamic magnetic response though magnetoimpedance effect of ferromagnetic flexible NiFe/Ta and FeCuNbSiB/Ta multilayers under external stress. We explore the possibility of handling magnetic anisotropy, and consequently the magnetoimpedance effect, of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates. We quantify the sensitivity of the multilayers under external stress by calculating the ratio between impedance variations and external stress changes, and show that considerable values can be reached by tuning the magnetic field, frequency, magnetostriction constant, and external stress. The results extend possibilities of application of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates when under external stress and place them as very attractive candidates as element sensor for the development of sensitive smart touch sensors. - Highlights: • We investigate the magnetoimpedance effect in magnetostrictive flexible multilayers grown on flexible substrates. • The external applied stress enables to tuning the samples anisotropies, and consequently the MI performance. • The flexible substrate becomes promising candidate for RF-frequency devices.

  16. Effects of Internal and External Hydrogen on Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. J.; Frandsen, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Internal hydrogen embrittlement (IHE) and hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) tensile and bend crack growth tests were performed on Inconel 718. For the IHE tests, the specimens were precharged to approximately 90 ppm hydrogen by exposure to 34.5 MPa H2 at 650 C. The HEE tests were performed in 34.5 MPa H2. Parameters evaluated were test temperature, strain rate for smooth and notch specimen geometries. The strain rate effect was very significant at ambient temperature for both IHE and HEE and decreased with increasing temperatures. For IHE, the strain rate effect was neglible at 260'C, and for HEE the strain rate effect was neglible at 400 C. At low temperatures, IHE was more severe than HEE, and at high temperatures HEE was more severe than IHE with a cross over temperature about 350 C. At 350 C, the equilibrium hydrogen concentration in Inconel 718 is about 50% lower than the hydrogen content of the precharged IHE specimens. Dislocation hydrogen sweeping of surface absorbed hydrogen was the likely transport mechanism for increasing the hydrogen concentration in the HEE tests sufficiently to produce the same degree of embrittlement as that of the more highly hydrogen charged IHE specimens. The main IHE fracture characteristic was formation of large, brittle flat facets, which decreased with increasing test temperature. The IHE fracture matrix surrounding the large facets ranged between brittle fine faceted to microvoid ductility depending upon strain rate, specimen geometry as well as temperature. The HEE fractures were characteristically fine featured, transgranular and brittle with a significant portion forming a "saw tooth" crystallographic pattern. Both IHE and HEE fractures were predominantly along the {1 1 1) slip and twin boundaries. With respect to embrittlement mechanism, it was postulated that dislocation hydrogen sweeping and hydrogen enhanced localized plasticity were active in HEE and IHE for concentrating hydrogen along (1 1 1) slip and twin

  17. Effect of external fields in Axelrod's model of social dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Lucas R.; Fontanari, José F.

    2012-09-01

    The study of the effects of spatially uniform fields on the steady-state properties of Axelrod's model has yielded plenty of counterintuitive results. Here, we reexamine the impact of this type of field for a selection of parameters such that the field-free steady state of the model is heterogeneous or multicultural. Analyses of both one- and two-dimensional versions of Axelrod's model indicate that the steady state remains heterogeneous regardless of the value of the field strength. Turning on the field leads to a discontinuous decrease on the number of cultural domains, which we argue is due to the instability of zero-field heterogeneous absorbing configurations. We find, however, that spatially nonuniform fields that implement a consensus rule among the neighborhood of the agents enforce homogenization. Although the overall effects of the fields are essentially the same irrespective of the dimensionality of the model, we argue that the dimensionality has a significant impact on the stability of the field-free homogeneous steady state.

  18. Palladium-catalyzed domino C,N-coupling/carbonylation/Suzuki coupling reaction: an efficient synthesis of 2-aroyl-/heteroaroylindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthuis, Martin; Pontikis, Renée; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2009-10-15

    A convenient one-pot synthesis of 2-aroylindoles using a domino palladium-catalyzed C,N-coupling/carbonylation/C,C-coupling sequence is described. The reaction involved easily prepared 2-gem-dibromovinylanilines and boronic acids under carbon monoxide. Optimized reaction conditions allowed the construction of a wide variety of highly functionalized 2-aroyl-/heteroaroylindoles in satisfactory yields.

  19. DOMINO: development of informative molecular markers for phylogenetic and genome-wide population genetic studies in non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-López, Cristina; Sánchez-Herrero, José F; Guirao-Rico, Sara; Mora, Elisa; Arnedo, Miquel A; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Rozas, Julio

    2016-12-15

    The development of molecular markers is one of the most important challenges in phylogenetic and genome wide population genetics studies, especially in studies with non-model organisms. A highly promising approach for obtaining suitable markers is the utilization of genomic partitioning strategies for the simultaneous discovery and genotyping of a large number of markers. Unfortunately, not all markers obtained from these strategies provide enough information for solving multiple evolutionary questions at a reasonable taxonomic resolution. We have developed Development Of Molecular markers In Non-model Organisms (DOMINO), a bioinformatics tool for informative marker development from both next generation sequencing (NGS) data and pre-computed sequence alignments. The application implements popular NGS tools with new utilities in a highly versatile pipeline specifically designed to discover or select personalized markers at different levels of taxonomic resolution. These markers can be directly used to study the taxa surveyed for their design, utilized for further downstream PCR amplification in a broader set taxonomic scope, or exploited as suitable templates to bait design for target DNA enrichment techniques. We conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the performance of DOMINO via computer simulations and illustrate its utility to find informative markers in an empirical dataset. DOMINO is freely available from www.ub.edu/softevol/domino CONTACT: elsanchez@ub.edu or jrozas@ub.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Novel Leakage-tolerant Domino Logic Circuit With Feedback From Footer Transistor In Ultra Deep Submicron CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Peiravi, Ali; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    As the CMOS manufacturing process scales down into the ultra deep sub-micron regime, the leakage current becomes an increasingly more important consideration in VLSI circuit design. In this paper, a high speed and noise immune domino logic circuit is presented which uses the property of the footer...

  1. Multicomponent domino processes based on the organocatalytic generation of conjugated acetylides: efficient synthetic manifolds for diversity-oriented molecular construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, David; González-Cruz, David; Santos-Expósito, Alicia; Marrero-Tellado, Jose Juan; de Armas, Pedro; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2005-06-06

    The organocatalytic generation of a strong base by the action of a good nucleophile is the base for the in situ catalytic generation of conjugated acetylides in the presence of aldehydes or activated ketones. The method is affordable in a multicomponent, domino format able to generate a chemically diverse set of multifunctionalized adducts that are very well suited for diversity-oriented molecular construction. The domino process involves a nucleophile as catalyst and a terminal conjugated alkyne (H-C[triple chemical bond]C-Z) and an aldehyde or activated ketone as building blocks. The chemical outcome of this process changes dramatically as a function of the nucleophile (tertiary amine or phosphine), temperature, stoichiometry, and solvent. These multicomponent domino processes achieve molecular construction with good atom economy and, very importantly, with an exquisite chemo-differentiating incorporation of identical starting units into the products (nondegenerated chemical output). These properties convert the H-C[triple chemical bond]C-Z unit into a specific building block for diversity-oriented molecular construction. Applications to the modular and diversity-oriented synthesis of relevant heterocycles are discussed. A protocol involving two coupled domino processes linked in a one-pot manner will be discussed as an efficient synthetic manifold for the modular and diversity-oriented construction of multisubstituted nitrogen-containing heterocycles.

  2. Effects of external stress on biodegradable orthopedic materials: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable orthopedic materials (BOMs are used in rehabilitation and reconstruction of fractured tissues. The response of BOMs to the combined action of physiological stress and corrosion is an important issue in vivo since stress-assisted degradation and cracking are common. Although the degradation behavior and kinetics of BOMs have been investigated under static conditions, stress effects can be very serious and even fatal in the dynamic physiological environment. Since stress is unavoidable in biomedical applications of BOMs, recent work has focused on the evaluation and prediction of the properties of BOMs under stress in corrosive media. This article reviews recent progress in this important area focusing on biodegradable metals, polymers, and ceramics.

  3. Dirac vacuum: Acceleration and external-field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregui, R.; Torres, M.; Hacyan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The quantization of the massive spin-1/2 field in Rindler coordinates is considered, including the effects of a background magnetic field. We calculate the expectation values of conserved quantities such as the stress-energy tensor, current density, and spin distribution, as detected by an accelerated observer. The ratio of the energy and particle densities is given by a Fermi-Dirac distribution, but the spectrum of these quantities takes in general a complicated form that cannot be simply interpreted as a thermal spectrum. For the free-particle case the spectrum of the energy-stress tensor has a Fermi-Dirac form only in the massless limit. In the presence of the magnetic field the Dirac vacuum is magnetized and exhibits plasmalike properties

  4. Influence of external effects on the electron silicon properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orazgulyev, B.; Bigozha, O.D.

    2005-01-01

    It is noted, that study of angular dependence of longitudinal piezo-resistance of n-type silicon presents the both scientific and practical interest because the obtained data could serve the ground for creating a high-sensitive piezo-sensors. Measurement of angular dependence allows objectively estimate the errors of anisotropy parameter determination, constant of deformation potential caused of mistakes in maintenance of crystallographic directions during the samples production process. In the case of X||J||[111] at one-axis deformation a new kind of piezo-effect in electron silicon is revealed. It is explained by transformation of iso-energy rotation ellipsoid into three-axis ellipsoid at presence of shear silicon crystal deformation

  5. Effects of external influences in subsonic delta wing vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony E.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine inconsistencies in reported studies for the vortical flow over highly-swept delta wings. A 76-deg swept delta wing was tested in three facilities with open and closed test sections and different model-support systems. The results obtained include surface oil-flow patterns, off-body laser-light-sheet flow visualization, and aerodynamic load measurements. Parameters such as the wall boundaries and model-support systems can drastically alter the loads. The effect of a high level of free-stream turbulence on the delta-wing flowfield was also examined and found to be significant. The increase in free-stream turbulence caused boundary-layer transition, unsteadiness in the vortex core positions, and altered the loads and moments.

  6. Adverse effect after external radiotherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Takano, Shingo; Yanaka, Kiyoyuki

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the effects on normal brain tissue of radiotherapy in relation to age and irradiation dose as determined from whole-brain sections of the autopsied brains with tumors. Twenty four patients (7 glioblastomas, 2 benign gliomas, 12 brain metastases, 2 malignant lymphomas, and 1 pituitary adenoma) older than 65 years (aged), and 17 younger than 65 years (non-aged) were treated by cobalt- or linear accelerator radiotherapy. Nine patients without brain disease (4 aged and 5 non-aged) were used as a control group. The histological findings were evaluated by grading the small and capillary vessels, fibrinoid necrosis, and myelination in the white matter in whole-brain sections. Those findings were compared to the irradiation doses within all radiation fields in whole-brain sections corresponding to CT scans. Hyalinization of the small vessels was observed within the postradiation 12 months in fields exposed to total doses of less than 800 neuret. Hyalinization of the capillary vessels was greater in the irradiated group than in the control group. Demyelination was observed within the postradiation 12 months in fields irradiated by more than 800 neuret in aged patients and in fields irradiated by less than 800 neuret in non-aged patients. Fibrinoid necrosis was observed after the post-radiation 12 months in fields irradiated by less than 800 neuret in aged patients and in fields irradiated by more than 800 neuret in non-aged patients. It is worth noting that in non-aged patients with brain tumors, adverse effects of radiotherapy on vessels and parenchyma were very high even in low-dose radiation areas; and in aged patients fibrinoid necrosis, which indicates irreversible damage of vessels, was observed in low-dose radiation areas. (author)

  7. The effective dose equivalent from external and internal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren

    1989-01-01

    The various sources of low-level ionizing radiation are discussed and compared in terms of mean effective dose equivalent to man. For the most nonoccupationally exposed individuals, natural sources given the dominating contribution to the effective dose equivalent. The size of this contribution is strongly dependent on human activities. Natural sources contribution on average 2.4 mSV per year, of which half is due to irradiation of lungs and airways from short lived radon daughters present in indoor air. In Sweden this radon daughter contribution is considerably higher and contributes a mean of 3 mSv per year, thus giving a total contribution from natural radiation of about 4 mSV per year. In extreme cases, radon daughter contributions of several hundreds of mSv per year may be reached. Medical exposure, mainly diagnostic X-rays, contributes 0.4-1 mSv per year both in Sweden and as a world average. The testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere has given 1-2 mSv to each person in the world as a mean. The contribution from the routine operation of nuclear reactors is insignificant. The reactor accident in Chernobyl resulted in widely varying exposures of the European population. The average for Sweden is estimated to be 0.1 mSv during the first year and about 1 mSv during a 50-year period. For groups of Swedes who eat a considerable amount of game this contribution will be 10 times higher, and for the Lapps who breed reindeer in the most contaminated areas, typical values of 20-70 mSv and extreme values of about 1 Sv may be reached in 50 years. This means that the Chernobyl reactor accident for several years will be their dominating source of irradiation

  8. Some biochemical effects of combined action of external irradiation and strontium 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhirusev, S.; Kiradzhiev, G.; Lalova, Kh.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to assess the influence of strontium 89 on some biochemical effects, induced by external total X-irradiation of the organism in the early terms after treatment. The serum alkaline and acid phosphatase activities and the serum copper and ceruloplasmin content in rats served as indices. Inference is made that in cases, when either of the two radiation actors is alone responsible for obtaining a definite effects, their combination may integrate the biological effect, their combination may integrate the biological effects. Considerations are adduced on the dose span, within which integration of the effect may be expected. The data of this study indicate, that there is integration, when the effective dose external irradiaton effective dose internal irradiation ratio ranks from 1 : 3 to 1 : 1. No integration of effect was found in case when the effective dose of external irradiation eceeds that of internal irradiation. Data are also presented that, in conformity with the parameters studied, the minimal effective radiostrontium dose, generated in the critical organs, is approximately 3 times higher than the minimal effective dose of external irradiation. (author)

  9. An experimental study of the effect of external thermocouples on rewetting during reflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shires, G.L.; Butcher, A.A.; Carpenter, B.G.; McCune, D.S.; Pearson, K.G.

    1980-04-01

    The validation of computer codes used for PWR safety assessment often depends upon experiments carried out with either real fuel pins or electrically heated fuel pin simulators. In some cases, and this applies particularly to in-pile tests, temperatures are measured by means of sheathed thermocouples attached externally to the pins and this raises the question of the possible effect of such thermocouples on the two phase hydraulics and heat transfer which are being studied. This paper describes the experiments which subjected two realistic fuel pin simulators, one with and one without external thermocouples, to identical bottom flooding conditions. They demonstrate very clearly that external thermocouples act as preferential rewetting sites and thereby increase the rate of propagation of the quench front. In the view of the authors of this paper the facts described raise serious doubts about the validity of rewetting data obtained from experiments employing external thermocouples. (U.K.)

  10. Dipole nano-laser: the effect of an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghannam, T, E-mail: gtalal@hotmail.co [KAIN Institute for Nano-Technology, King Saud University, PO Box 2454, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-08-14

    Using the Langevin formalism we study the effects an external electromagnetic field induces in a system made of a pumped two-level system (TLS) and a metallic nano-particle (NP) that interact together via their near-fields. The surface plasmons of the NP greatly enhance the scattered light. With the absence of the external EM field the spectral width of the scattered light is broader than that of the system, covering almost the entire optical range. However, with the inclusion the external EM field, a reduction in the spectral width of the scattered light of order of 10-50 times below that of the system is observed for certain parameter regimes.This system exhibits also bistability in the population difference of the TLS with the external field acting as an order parameter, but only for certain values of the noise quanta.

  11. Shielding effects of concrete and foam external pipeline coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlo, T.J.; Werner, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The research project began in July, 1986 and was completed in December, 1990. The objectives of the research were: To determine whether concrete and urethane foam-barrier coatings shield the pipe from cathodic-protection current, To determine whether the barrier coatings also effectively shield the pipe from the environment, thus reducing the need for cathodic protection, To determine what levels of cathodic protection will be required to overcome shielding, and To establish what types of barrier coatings are most compatible with obtaining adequate levels of cathodic protection. To achieve these objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted with five barrier coating materials. These materials were (1) 2-lb/ft 3 , closed-cell urethane foam, (2) 3-lb/ft 3 , closed-cell urethane foam, (3) concrete barrier material, (4) glass fiber-reinforced concrete barrier material, and (5) sand. The barrier materials, whole and intentionally cracked, were applied to the bare, FBE-coated, and tape-coated steel specimens. The specimens were tested in aqueous electrolytes at room temperature and 140 degree F with no protection, protection to -0.95 V, and overprotection to -1.2 V (Cu/CuSO 4 )

  12. Modeling Natural Space Ionizing Radiation Effects on External Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.

  13. Integration of external estimated breeding values and associated reliabilities using correlations among traits and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, J; Colinet, F G; Glorieux, G; Bertozzi, C; Gengler, N

    2015-12-01

    Based on a Bayesian view of linear mixed models, several studies showed the possibilities to integrate estimated breeding values (EBV) and associated reliabilities (REL) provided by genetic evaluations performed outside a given evaluation system into this genetic evaluation. Hereafter, the term "internal" refers to this given genetic evaluation system, and the term "external" refers to all other genetic evaluations performed outside the internal evaluation system. Bayesian approaches integrate external information (i.e., external EBV and associated REL) by altering both the mean and (co)variance of the prior distributions of the additive genetic effects based on the knowledge of this external information. Extensions of the Bayesian approaches to multivariate settings are interesting because external information expressed on other scales, measurement units, or trait definitions, or associated with different heritabilities and genetic parameters than the internal traits, could be integrated into a multivariate genetic evaluation without the need to convert external information to the internal traits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the integration of external EBV and associated REL, expressed on a 305-d basis and genetically correlated with a trait of interest, into a multivariate genetic evaluation using a random regression test-day model for the trait of interest. The approach we used was a multivariate Bayesian approach. Results showed that the integration of external information led to a genetic evaluation for the trait of interest for, at least, animals associated with external information, as accurate as a bivariate evaluation including all available phenotypic information. In conclusion, the multivariate Bayesian approaches have the potential to integrate external information correlated with the internal phenotypic traits, and potentially to the different random regressions, into a multivariate genetic evaluation. This allows the use of different

  14. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  15. Effect of Equilibrium Current Profiles on External Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Liu Yue; Ma Zhaoshuai

    2014-01-01

    Based on a linearized MHD model, the effect of equilibrium current profiles on external kink modes in tokamaks is studied by MARS code. Three types of equilibrium current profiles are adopted in this work. Firstly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles are chosen. In these profiles the maximum current values in the center of the plasma are fixed, and the currents have different gradient and jump at the plasma boundary. The effects of the current gradient and jump on the growth rate of external kink mode are investigated. It is found that the current jump which causes the q profiles to change plays an important role in the external kink modes in tokamaks. Secondly, a set of step equilibrium current profiles with different jump positions are chosen. The effect of jump position on external kink modes is discussed. Thirdly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles with current bumps are chosen for the case of off-axis heating. The effects of height, width and position of the current bumps on external kink modes are analyzed. The flat equilibrium current profiles are disadvantageous for the MHD stabilities of tokamaks, because of the large current jump at the plasma edge. The peaked equilibrium current profiles and a large and localized current bump near the plasma edge benefit the MHD stabilities of tokamaks

  16. The use of external electronic tags on fish: an evaluation of tag retention and tagging effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Thorstad, Eva B.; Havn, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    External tagging of fish with electronic tags has been used for decades for a wide range of marine and freshwater species. In the early years of fish telemetry research, it was the most commonly used attachment method, but later internal implants became preferred. Recently, the number of telemetry...... unsuitable for surgical implantation, or when using tags with sensors recording the external environment. The most commonly reported problems with external tags are tissue damage, premature tag loss, and decreased swimming capacity, but the effects are highly context dependent and species specific. Reduced......, but particularly there are few studies on predation risk, social interactions, and studies distinguishing capture and handling effects from tagging effects. For PSATs, especially those that are large relative to fish size, there are particular problems with a high proportion of premature tag losses, reduced...

  17. The Effect of External Representations on Compare Word Problems: Supporting Mental Model Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu; Rosales, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of external representations presented together with compare word problems, and whether such effectiveness was moderated by working memory. Participants were 49 secondary school students. Each participant solved 48 problems presented in 4 presentation types that included 2 difficulty treatments (number of steps…

  18. Effect of cyclic loading and retightening on reverse torque value in external and internal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woong-Rae; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cyclic loading and screw retightening on reverse torque value (RTV) in external and internal type implants. Cement-retained abutments were connected with 30 Ncm torque to external and internal type implants. Experimental groups were classified according to implant connection type and retightening/loading protocol. In groups with no retightening, RTV was evaluated after cyclic loading for 100,000 cycles. In groups with retightening, RTV was measured after 3, 10, 100 cycles as well as every 20,000 cycles until 100,000 cycles of loading. Every group showed decreased RTV after cyclic loading. Before and after cyclic loading, external type implants had significantly higher RTVs than internal type implants. In external type implants, retightening did not affect the decrease in RTV. In contrast, retightening 5 times and retightening after 10 cycles of dynamic loading was effective for maintaining RTV in internal type implants. Retightening of screws is more effective in internal type implants than external type implants. Retightening of screws is recommended in the early stage of functional loading.

  19. THE EFFECT OF EXTERN AND INTERN ENVIRONMENT TOWARD BUSINESS STRATEGIES AND THEIR IMPACT TOWARD BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo A.Y.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to see the effect of extern and intern environment toward business strategies and the performance of micro, small and medium enterprises. The population of this study was business owners in Bajawa Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Indonesia, represented by 122 respondents as the samples of this study. The samples were chosen using a proportionate stratified random sampling. The data of this study were then analyzed using Partial Least Square technique. The result of this study shows that extern and intern environment have significant effects toward business strategies and performance as mediators.

  20. Effect of externally applied periodic force on ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Snigdha; Mandi, Laxmikanta; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2018-04-01

    Ion acoustic solitary waves in superthermal plasmas are investigated in the presence of trapped electrons. The reductive perturbation technique is employed to obtain a forced Korteweg-de Vries-like Schamel equation. An analytical solution is obtained in the presence of externally applied force. The effect of the external applied periodic force is also observed. The effect of the spectral index (κ), the strength ( f 0 ) , and the frequency ( ω ) on the amplitude and width of the solitary wave is obtained. The result may be useful in laboratory plasma as well as space environments.

  1. Combined effect of external irradiation and radiostrontium administration (extrapolation of experimental data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1987-01-01

    Assessment was made of the activities of strontium-89 and strontium-90, which may aggravate the effect of external irradiation, causing changes in peripheral blood leucocytes. Extrapolation of the results was carried out on the basis of the so called radiosensitivity coefficients (laboratory rat/man). Inference is drawn that summing of the effects of the radiation factors may be expected in cases of external irradiation with 100 Gy and oral administration of 150-200 MBq strontium-89 or 60-90 MBq strontium-90 and through the air passages of 110-150 MBq strontium-89 or 40-60 MBq strontium-90

  2. Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects of Internal and External Focus Instructions on Children's Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Abswoude, Femke; Nuijen, Nienke B; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2018-06-01

    A large pool of evidence supports the beneficial effect of an external focus of attention on motor skill performance in adults. In children, this effect has been studied less and results are inconclusive. Importantly, individual differences are often not taken into account. We investigated the role of working memory, conscious motor control, and task-specific focus preferences on performance with an internal and external focus of attention in children. Twenty-five children practiced a golf putting task in both an internal focus condition and external focus condition. Performance was defined as the average distance toward the hole in 3 blocks of 10 trials. Task-specific focus preference was determined by asking how much effort it took to apply the instruction in each condition. In addition, working memory capacity and conscious motor control were assessed. Children improved performance in both the internal focus condition and external focus condition (ŋ p 2  = .47), with no difference between conditions (ŋ p 2  = .01). Task-specific focus preference was the only factor moderately related to the difference between performance with an internal focus and performance with an external focus (r = .56), indicating better performance for the preferred instruction in Block 3. Children can benefit from instruction with both an internal and external focus of attention to improve short-term motor performance. Individual, task-specific focus preference influenced the effect of the instructions, with children performing better with their preferred focus. The results highlight that individual differences are a key factor in the effectiveness in children's motor performance. The precise mechanisms underpinning this effect warrant further research.

  3. [Domino principle--monoamines in bottom-view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümegi, András

    2008-06-01

    One of the first neurobiological theories of major depression was the monoamine deficiency hypothesis. The classic monoamine theory of depression suggested that a deficit in monoamine neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft was the main and primary cause of depression. Recent and newer versions and modifications of the primary classic theory also mainly included this postulate, while other theories of depression preferred departing from the monoamine-based model altogether. Unfortunately, the clear neurobiology of major depression remains an elusive issue, despite intense research. It is clearly held that most, if not all, antidepressant pharmacotherapies treatments produce their therapeutic antidepressant effects, at least in part, by modulating monoamine systems (noradrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic) by a selective or a multi-acting way; however, much less is known about the neurobiological pathology of these monoamine systems in depression. Much of the past 10-15 years of research in the biology of mood disorders has led to considerable evidence in depression implicating multiple system pathology, including abnormalities of monoamine as well as other neurotransmitter systems. These approaches and findings have led researchers to propose broader theories regarding the neurobiology of depression, just like a spreading disorder of specific neuronal networks in the brain. A model for the pathophysiology of depression ill be discussed in the next pages, after describing the main components of depression pathogenesis. Suggestion is that the primary defect emerges in the cross-regulation and vulnerability of special monoaminergic and non-monoaminergic neural networks, which leads to a decrease in the tonic release of neurotransmitters in their projection areas, altering postsynaptic sensitivity, and following, overexaggerated responses to acute increases in the presynaptic firing rate and transmitter release. It is proposed that the primary defect should be

  4. [Observation on therapeutic effect of acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB 34) on sprain of external ankle joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-fang; Xu, Hai-bin

    2006-08-01

    To observe the increasing effect of Yanglingquan (GB 34) on sprain of external ankle joint. Seventy-nine cases of sprain of external ankle joint were semi-randomly divided into a treatment group (n = 46) and a control group (n = 33). The treatment group were treated with acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB 34) and electro-magnetic therapy at local acupoints, and the control group with electro-magnetic therapy. The cured rate and the total effective rate were 67.4% and 91.3% in the treatment group, and 36.4% and 69.7% in the control group, respectively, with a significant difference between the two groups (Psprain of the external ankle joint.

  5. Infant Functional Regulatory Problems and Gender Moderate Bidirectional Effects Between Externalizing Behavior and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J.; McDonough, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 251 families examined bidirectional associations between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavioral problems. Functional regulatory problems in infancy and gender were examined as moderators. Mothers rated children’s regulatory problems of crying, feeding, and sleeping in infancy, toddler-age externalizing behavior, and their own depressive symptoms when children were ages 7, 15, and 33 months. Using a structural equation model we found that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 7 months predicted high levels of child externalizing behavior at 15 and 33 months. Gender moderated the effect, such that maternal depressive symptoms only predicted boys’ externalizing behavior at 33 months. Toddler-age externalizing behavior predicted high levels of maternal depressive symptoms at 33 months, only among those who had relatively few regulatory problems as infants. Infancy seems to be a period of heightened vulnerability to effects of maternal depression and boys are more likely than girls to develop resulting externalizing problems. Mothers of infants with few regulatory problems may develop worse depressive symptoms in response to their children’s preschool-age behavioral problems. PMID:23545078

  6. Effects of external focus of attention on balance: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Hee; Yi, Chae Woo; Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The present study reviewed studies that examined the effects of attentional focus on balance. [Methods] Keywords such as "attentional", "focus", and "balance" were used to find relevant research papers in PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Forty-five papers were found, and 18 of them were used for this study, excluding review papers and papers irrelevant to the topic of this study. [Results] Among the papers used for the review, the number of papers in which external focus produced effective outcomes was 15 (83.3%). The number of papers in which both external and internal focus produced effective outcomes was 2 (11.1%). The number of paper in which no instruction about attentional focus was effective was 1 (5.5%), and the number of papers in which internal focus was effective was zero. [Conclusion] This short review suggests clinical implications about how physical therapists can use attentional focus for balance rehabilitation of patients. Instructions about external focus of attention can generally be useful as a method to improve posture and balance control. Furthermore, the present reviews indicates that external focus of attention would be more useful in a rehabilitation stage in which the difficulty level of balance performance is gradually increased.

  7. Organocatalyzed Domino [3+2] Cycloaddition/Payne-Type Rearrangement using Carbon Dioxide and Epoxy Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleij, Arjan Willem; Sopeña, Sergio; Cozzolino, Mariachiara; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Martínez Belmonte, Marta; Maquilón, Cristina

    2018-05-09

    An unprecedented organocatalytic approach towards highly substituted cyclic carbonates from tri- and tetra-substituted oxiranes and carbon dioxide has been developed. The protocol involves the use of a simple and cheap superbase under mild, additive- and metal-free conditions towards the initial formation of a less substituted carbonate product that equilibrates to a tri- or even tetra-substituted cyclic carbonate under thermodynamic control. The latter are conveniently trapped in situ providing overall a new domino process for synthetically elusive heterocyclic scaffolds. Control experiments provide a rationale for the observed cascade reactions, which demonstrate high similarity with the well-known Payne rearrangement of epoxy alcohols. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of Cyclopentanes bearing Four Stereocenters by a Rhodium Carbene–Initiated Domino Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Brendan T.; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of a cyclopentane nucleus by convergent annulations constitutes a significant challenge for synthetic chemists. Though a number of biologically relevant cyclopentane natural products are known, more often than not, the cyclopentane core is assembled in a stepwise fashion due to lack of efficient annulation strategies. Herein, we report the rhodium-catalyzed reactions of vinyldiazoacetates with (E)-1,3-disubstituted 2-butenols generate cyclopentanes, containing four new stereogenic centers with very high levels of stereoselectivity (99% ee, >97 : 3 dr). The reaction proceeds by a carbene–initiated domino sequence consisting of five distinct steps: rhodium–bound oxonium ylide formation, [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, oxy-Cope rearrangement, enol–keto tautomerization, and finally an intramolecular carbonyl ene reaction. A systematic study is presented detailing how to control chirality transfer in each of the four stereo-defining steps of the cascade, consummating in the development of a highly stereoselective process. PMID:25082301

  9. Time and charge calibration of Cherenkov telescope data acquired by Domino Ring Sampler 4 chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerbe, Mario; Doert, Marlene [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Bruegge, Kai; Buss, Jens; Bockermann, Christian; Egorov, Alexej [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy aims to give an insight into the most energetic phenomena in our Universe. Earthbound Cherenkov telescopes can measure Cherenkov light emitted by atmospheric particle showers which are produced by incoming cosmic particles at high energies. Current Cherenkov telescopes, e.g. operated in the FACT and the MAGIC experiments, utilize Domino Ring Sampler 4 (DRS4) chips for recording signals at high speed coming from the telescopes' cameras. DRS4 chips will also be used in the cameras of the Large-Size telescopes of the projected Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We aim at developing a software solution for the calibration of DRS4 data based on the streams-framework, a software tool for streaming analysis which has been developed within the Collaborative Research Center SFB 876. The objectives and the current status of the project are presented.

  10. The effect of external electron injection and the environment composition on development of atmospheric discharge investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachenkov, V.A.; Oginov, A.V.; Chajkovskij, S.A.; Shpakov, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of external electron injection (with energy about 150 keV) on initial phase development of the high-voltage (1.0-1.2 MV) long (500-700 mm) gas discharge is investigated. The experiments were conducted in atmospheric pressure air and in a mixture of air and water droplet phase [ru

  11. Determining eyeball surface area directly exposed to the effects of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliszewski, Tadeusz; Kadłuczka, Filip; Kiełbasa, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses determining the surface area of eyeballs of men and women exposed to the direct effects of external factors in the working environment. For one eye, the mean surface is 172-182 mm(2). The determined surface area can be used in formulas for calculating the exposure of eyeballs to harmful chemical substances in workplace air.

  12. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  13. The Effects of Demographic, Internal and External University Environment Factors on Faculty Job Satisfaction in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh-Quang

    2016-01-01

    University faculty members with higher job satisfaction are more productive, creative and positive attitude towards their job. Even less is known about university faculty job satisfaction in developing countries like Vietnam. This study examines the effects of demographic, internal and external university environment factors on faculty job…

  14. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  15. The effect of elbow angle and external moment on load sharing of elbow muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, M.; Chadwick, E.K.J.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    To study elbow muscle load sharing we investigated the effect of external flexion-extension (FE) and pronation-supination (PS) moments and elbow angle on muscle activation and oxygen consumption (V̇O2).Two data sets were obtained. First, (n=6) electromyography (EMG) of elbow flexors (long and short

  16. The Protective Effects of Adaptability, Study Skills, and Social Skills on Externalizing Student-Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sycarah D.; Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Sheehan, Chelsea E.

    2016-01-01

    Although students with externalizing behaviors inherently exhibit behaviors that contribute to poor teacher relationships, little research has examined the positive characteristics these students may possess that serve to facilitate positive teacher relationships. This study explores the moderating effects of adaptability, social skills, and study…

  17. Renewable Energy and Negative Externalities: The Effect of Wind Turbines on House Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Koster, H.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, wind turbines are constructed as part of a strategy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this paper, we measure the external effect of wind turbines on the transaction prices of nearby houses. A unique Dutch house price dataset covering the period 1985–2011 is used, as well as

  18. Renewable energy and negative externalities: the effect of wind turbines on house prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Koster, H.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, wind turbines are constructed as part of a strategy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this paper, we measure the external effect of wind turbines on the transaction prices of nearby houses. A unique house price dataset covering the period 1985-2011 is used, including the

  19. Effects of External Agentification in Local Government: A European Comparison of Municipal Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torsteinsen, H.; Genugten, M.L. van; Mikuła, Ł.; Puiggròs Mussons, C.; Pano, E.; Koprić, I.; Wollmann, H.; Marcou, G.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores the economic, political, and organisational effects of external agentification in the municipal waste service in four countries: Poland, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain (Catalonia). Using Van Thiel´s typology of agentification, it turns out that the four countries have all

  20. The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

  1. Effects of External Learning Aids on Learning with Ill-Structured Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astleitner, Hermann

    1997-01-01

    Describes three experiments with high school and college students concerning learning with ill-structured hypertext; in each study, one different kind of external learning aid (memo pads, learning time, and teaching objectives) was manipulated and examined for its effect on intentional and incidental knowledge acquisition. Findings are discussed…

  2. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Novices' Rehearsal Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.; Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal and external focus of attention on novices' rehearsal evaluations. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to these rehearsals, participants were led in score study and…

  3. Testing the External Effect of Household Behavior: The Case of the Demand for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Junsen

    2009-01-01

    This paper tests the external effect of household childbearing behavior by drawing on microfertility data from China. The test is executed by regressing one woman's fertility on the average fertility of neighboring women. China's unique affirmative birth control policy provides us with quasi-experimental fertility variation that facilities…

  4. Effect of external pulsation on kinematics of fluid particles in the field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of external pulsation on a pair of stationary Lamb–Oseen vortices of equal strength has been analyzed to investigate kinematic behavior of a fluid particle. The assumption of vortices being treated stationary or fixed vortex filaments is valid in a reference frame attached to the vortex system with axes along and ...

  5. Effect of pion external distortion on low energy pion double-charge-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khankhasaev, M.Kh.; Kurmanov, Zh.B.; Johnson, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the external pion distortion for iso-elastic charge exchange scattering (within the framework of the isospin invariant optical model) is considered. An approximated method of taking into account the distortion based on the separable expansion of the optical potential in momentum space is developed. The result of external distortions for sequential scattering 14 C(π + , π - ) 14 O at 50 MeV is presented. It is shown that this distortion gives a small enhancement to forward and reduced the differential cross sections at large angels. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaoxian; Jiao Zhiyong

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-±1, spin-0 and spin-±2 exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field, respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-±1 and spin-±2. The tunneling current among spin-±1 and spin-±2 may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-±1, spin-0 and spin-±2, the tunneling currents exhibit irregular oscillation behavior

  7. Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhao-xian; Jiao, Zhi-yong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-$\\pm1$, spin-0 and spin-$\\pm2$ exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$. The tunneling current among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$ may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-$\\p...

  8. Electronic properties of phosphorene/graphene heterostructures: Effect of external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sumandeep; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Centre for Physical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India 151001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We report the electronic properties of electrically gated heterostructures of black and blue phosphorene with graphene. The heterostructure of blue phosphorene with graphene is energetically more favorable than black phospherene/graphene. However, both are bonded by weak interlayer interactions. Graphene induces the Dirac cone character in both heterostructure which shows tunabilities with external electric field. It is found that Dirac cone get shifted depending on the polarity of external electric field that results into the so called self induced p-type or n-type doping effect. These features have importance in the fabrication of nano-electronic devices based on the phosphorene/graphene heterostructures.

  9. Effect of External Electric Field on Substrate Transport of a Secondary Active Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Yu, Li-Ying; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2016-08-22

    Substrate transport across a membrane accomplished by a secondary active transporter (SAT) is essential to the normal physiological function of living cells. In the present research, a series of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under different electric field (EF) strengths was performed to investigate the effect of an external EF on the substrate transport of an SAT. The results show that EF both affects the interaction between substrate and related protein's residues by changing their conformations and tunes the timeline of the transport event, which collectively reduces the height of energy barrier for substrate transport and results in the appearance of two intermediate conformations under the existence of an external EF. Our work spotlights the crucial influence of external EFs on the substrate transport of SATs and could provide a more penetrating understanding of the substrate transport mechanism of SATs.

  10. Long-term effects of external radiation on the pituitary and thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, Z.; Glatstein, E.; Marsa, G.W.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Chronic damage following external irradiation of the normal pituitary and thyroid glands, delivered incidentally during radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck may be more common than has been appreciated in the past. A case of a child who developed pituitary dwarfism 5 1 / 2 years after radiation therapy had been delivered for an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is described. A review of similar cases from the literature is presented. Likewise, external irradiation of the normal thyroid gland produces a spectrum of radiation-induced syndromes. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands is usually manifested months to years after treatment and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. A careful exclusion of these glands from radiation treatment fields is recommended whenever possible. An early detection of endocrine function abnormalities in patients receiving radiation to these glands is desirable, since appropriate treatment may prevent the late deleterious effects of external irradiation of the pituitary and thyroid glands

  11. Effects of external magnetic field on biodistribution of nanoparticles: A histological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hua, M.-Y. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Chen Jyhping [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Wei, K.-C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jung, S.-M. [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-J. [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jou, M.-J. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ma, Y.-H. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yhma@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of external magnetic fields on the biodistribution of nanoparticles (NP). A NdFeB magnet of 2.4 kG was externally applied over the left femoral artery or right kidney. The 250 nm dextran-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NP was injected via tail vein in healthy rats, and organs were taken 1 or 24 h later. Prussian blue stain revealed that NP were more rapidly retained in the liver and spleen than in the lungs. NP aggregation observed in the kidney and femoral artery after application of external magnets was time dependent. Hollow organs such as the intestine, colon, and urinary bladder retained little NP.

  12. Effects of external magnetic field on biodistribution of nanoparticles: A histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tony; Hua, M.-Y.; Chen Jyhping; Wei, K.-C.; Jung, S.-M.; Chang, Y.-J.; Jou, M.-J.; Ma, Y.-H.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of external magnetic fields on the biodistribution of nanoparticles (NP). A NdFeB magnet of 2.4 kG was externally applied over the left femoral artery or right kidney. The 250 nm dextran-coated Fe 3 O 4 NP was injected via tail vein in healthy rats, and organs were taken 1 or 24 h later. Prussian blue stain revealed that NP were more rapidly retained in the liver and spleen than in the lungs. NP aggregation observed in the kidney and femoral artery after application of external magnets was time dependent. Hollow organs such as the intestine, colon, and urinary bladder retained little NP

  13. Effects of plyometric exercise training with external weights on punching ability of experienced amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzas, Vidas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Mockus, Pranas

    2018-03-01

    During competition, a boxer must continue to deliver high-impact punches despite increasing fatigue. It is unclear whether the effects of plyometric training using external weights are transferred to sport-specific movements such as punching. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week cycle of plyometric training with external weights on punching ability. The study involved eight male amateur boxers aged 22.3±2.5 years with at least 7 years of competitive experience. They performed 12 plyometric training sessions, each comprising eight exercises of various muscle groups performed at maximum movement velocity. Six drills were performed with external weights, and two drills were performed using the body weight as resistance. All exercises required coordination. The punching ability was tested at baseline and after the 4 weeks of training using the Kiktest-100 boxing bag. The force of single punches and the frequency of punches within a series did not change from before to after the 4 weeks, except for increased power in the rear-hand low punch (Pplyometric training with external weights did not change the maximum punching power or movement frequency significantly, but had a beneficial effect on punching power endurance in boxers.

  14. Multiple-city e Smart-city. OPEN-DOMINO nei territori marginali e interrotti dell’estremo sud / Multiple-city and smart-city. OPEN-DOMINO in the marginal and interrupted areas of the far south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tornatora

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Il patrimonio edilizio esistente oggi è inadeguato alle esigenze della contemporaneità e pone all’architettura la necessità di sperimentare modalità d’intervento, implementate dalle nuove tecnologie ma all’interno dei propri strumenti espressivi e del proprio universo tecnico costruttivo. Un’esperienza didattica su un quartiere marginale della periferia meridionale, preso come campione emblematico, è l’occasione per rielaborare il modello base ricorrente - Maison Domino - come un sistema aperto. / Today The existing building is inadequate to contemporary needs and this raises to architecture the need to experiment with methods of intervention, implemented by new technologies but within its own universe of expressive tools and technical constructive. Teaching experience on a marginal neighborhood of the southern suburbs, taken as a typical example, is an opportunity to rework the model recurring basis - Maison Domino - as an open system.

  15. The working memory stroop effect: when internal representations clash with external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Egner, Tobias

    2014-08-01

    Working memory (WM) has recently been described as internally directed attention, which implies that WM content should affect behavior exactly like an externally perceived and attended stimulus. We tested whether holding a color word in WM, rather than attending to it in the external environment, can produce interference in a color-discrimination task, which would mimic the classic Stroop effect. Over three experiments, the WM Stroop effect recapitulated core properties of the classic attentional Stroop effect, displaying equivalent congruency effects, additive contributions from stimulus- and response-level congruency, and susceptibility to modulation by the percentage of congruent and incongruent trials. Moreover, WM maintenance was inversely related to attentional demands during the WM delay between stimulus presentation and recall, with poorer memory performance following incongruent than congruent trials. Together, these results suggest that WM and attention rely on the same resources and operate over the same representations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-01-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material.

  17. Effective response of nonlinear cylindrical coated composites under external AC and DC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Yan, Shen; Xiao-Gang, Chen; Wei, Cui; Yan-Hua, Hao; Qian-Qian, Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses the perturbation method to study effective response of nonlinear cylindrical coated composites. Under the external AC and DC electric field E a (1 + sin ωt), the local potentials of composites at all harmonic frequencies are induced. An effective nonlinear response to composite is given for the cylindrical coated inclusions in the dilute limit. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of perceptual learning: effects of task difficulty and external noise in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoss, Denton J; Watanabe, Takeo; Andersen, George J

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown a wide array of age-related declines in vision. The current study examined the effects of perceptual learning (PL), external noise, and task difficulty in fine orientation discrimination with older individuals (mean age 71.73, range 65-91). Thirty-two older subjects participated in seven 1.5-h sessions conducted on separate days over a three-week period. A two-alternative forced choice procedure was used in discriminating the orientation of Gabor patches. Four training groups were examined in which the standard orientations for training were either easy or difficult and included either external noise (additive Gaussian noise) or no external noise. In addition, the transfer to an untrained orientation and noise levels were examined. An analysis of the four groups prior to training indicated no significant differences between the groups. An analysis of the change in performance post-training indicated that the degree of learning was related to task difficulty and the presence of external noise during training. In addition, measurements of pupil diameter indicated that changes in orientation discrimination were not associated with changes in retinal illuminance. These results suggest that task difficulty and training in noise are factors important for optimizing the effects of training among older individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. External Volume Expansion in Irradiated Tissue: Effects on the Recipient Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Michael S; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Babchenko, Oksana; Bannon, Elizabeth; Perry, Dylan J; Chappell, Ava G; Lo, Yuan-Chyuan; Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Lalikos, Janice F

    2016-05-01

    External volume expansion prepares recipient sites to improve outcomes of fat grafting. For patients receiving radiotherapy after mastectomy, results with external volume expansion vary, and the relationship between radiotherapy and expansion remains unexplored. Thus, the authors developed a new translational model to investigate the effects in chronic skin fibrosis after radiation exposure. Twenty-four SKH1-E mice received 50 Gy of β-radiation to each flank and were monitored until fibrosis developed (8 weeks). External volume expansion was then applied at -25 mmHg to one side for 6 hours for 5 days. The opposite side served as the control. Perfusion changes were assessed with hyperspectral imaging. Mice were euthanized at 5 (n = 12) and 15 days (n = 12) after the last expansion application. Tissue samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Ki67, Masson trichrome for skin thickness, and picrosirius red to analyze collagen composition. All animals developed skin fibrosis 8 weeks after radiotherapy and became hypoperfused based on hyperspectral imaging. Expansion induced edema on treated sides after stimulation. Perfusion was decreased by 13 percent on the expansion side (p External volume expansion temporarily reduces perfusion, likely because of transient ischemia or edema. Together with mechanotransduction, these effects encourage a proangiogenic and proliferative environment in fibrotic tissue after radiotherapy in the authors' mouse model. Further studies are needed to assess these changes in fat graft retention.

  1. Research on the effect of the external magnetic field in the joule balance at NIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxin; You, Qiang; Li, Zhengkun; Bai, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; He, Qing

    2018-06-01

    The first determination of the Planck constant with the second generation of the joule balance, NIM-2, was completed in 2017 with an uncertainty of 2.4  ×  10‑7. Due to the movement of the magnet during the measurement process, the effect of the external field is a critical problem in NIM-2. At present, the electromagnet system is used in NIM-2. By taking the average of the results with positive and negative exciting currents, the uncertainty from the external field is reduced to 1.7  ×  10‑7, which is still the largest source in the uncertainty budget as all the other items are less than 1  ×  10‑7. In the near future, a permanent magnet system will be applied in NIM-2 and the main field cannot be reversed. Although the coupling of the external magnetic field in the permanent magnet system is about 40 times less than that in the electromagnet system, further reduction of this effect is still required in the permanent magnet system. In this paper, the effect of the external field is analyzed in both an electromagnet system and a permanent magnet system based on simulations and experiments. Then, the methods of magnetic shielding and compensation coils are proposed and simulated in the permanent magnet system. The results show that it may be possible to reduce the uncertainty of the external field to less than 2  ×  10‑8 in the permanent magnet system by employing the two methods.

  2. Effects of external rotation on anteroposterior translations in the shoulder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew J; Debski, Richard E; Voycheck, Carrie A; McMahon, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Using physical examination to make the diagnosis of shoulder instability can be difficult, because typical examination maneuvers are qualitative, difficult to standardize, and not reproducible. Measuring shoulder translation is especially difficult, which is a particular problem, because measuring it inaccurately may result in improper treatment of instability. The objective of this study was to use a magnetic motion tracking system to quantify the effects of external rotation of the abducted shoulder on a simulated simple translation test in healthy subjects. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) increasing external rotation of the abducted shoulder would result in decreasing translation; (2) intraobserver repeatability would be less than 2 mm at all external rotation positions; and (3) mean side-to-side differences would be less than 2 mm at all external rotation positions. The intraobserver repeatability and side-to-side differences of AP translation were quantified with a noninvasive magnetic motion tracking system and automated data analysis routine in nine healthy subjects at four positions of external rotation with the arm abducted. A shoulder positioning apparatus was used to maintain the desired arm position. No differences in translations between the positions of external rotation were found (p = 0.48). Intraobserver repeatability was 1.1 mm (SD, 0.8 mm) and mean side-to-side differences were small: 2.7 mm (SD, 2.8 mm), 2.8 mm (SD, 1.8 mm), 2.5 mm (SD, 1.8 mm), and 4.0 mm (SD, 2.6 mm) at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of external rotation, respectively. The intraobserver repeatability was strong and the side-to-side differences in translation were small with the magnetic motion tracking system, which is encouraging for development of an improved quantitative test to assess shoulder translation for fast and low-cost diagnosis of shoulder instability. Clinicians may not have to position the contralateral, normal, abducted shoulder in precisely the same position

  3. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  4. Effects of external potassium (k) supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiguang; Li, Caihong; Li, Yong; Jiang, Gaoming; Cheng, Guanglei; Zheng, Yanhai

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM) and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20%) for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+) content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  5. Subcutaneous penile insertion of domino fragments by incarcerated males in southwest United States prisons: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Steven J; McGeady, James; Shindel, Alan W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2012-02-01

    Self-insertion of penile foreign bodies is performed worldwide, largely due to a perception that it will enhance sexual performance and virility. There are relatively few cases reported in the United States. We report three cases of Hispanic men incarcerated in separate southwest United States prisons who utilized a similar technique to insert foreign bodies fabricated out of dominos into the subcutaneous tissues of the penis. Details of the three cases were retrospectively reviewed. Resolution of the case. In each case, an incarcerated Hispanic male or fellow inmate filed a domino into a unique shape for placement under the penile skin. Utilizing the tip of a ballpoint pen or a sharpened shard of plastic to create a puncture wound, each man inserted the domino fragment into the subcutaneous tissue of the penis. All three men presented with infection requiring operative removal. Incarcerated males put themselves at risk for injury and infection when attempting penile enhancement with improvised equipment. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. The Effect of Fatigued External Rotator Muscles of the Shoulder on the Shoulder Position Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Iida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of fatigue in shoulder external rotator muscles on position sense of shoulder abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. The study included 10 healthy subjects. Shoulder position sense was measured before and after a fatigue task involving shoulder external rotator muscles. The fatigue task was performed using an isokinetic machine. To confirm the muscle fatigue, electromyography (EMG was recorded, and an integrated EMG and median power frequency (MDF during 3 sec performed target torque were calculated. After the fatigue task, the MDF of the infraspinatus muscle significantly decreased. This indicates that the infraspinatus muscle was involved in the fatigue task. In addition, the shoulder position sense of internal and external rotation significantly decreased after the fatigue task. These results suggest that the fatigue reduced the accuracy of sensory input from muscle spindles. However, no significant difference was observed in shoulder position sense of abduction before and after the fatigue task. This may be due to the fact that infraspinatus muscle did not act as prime movers in shoulder abduction. These results suggest that muscle fatigue decreased position sense during movements in which the affected muscles acted as prime movers.

  7. The Effect of an Externally Attached Neutrally Buoyant Transmitter on Mortal Injury during Simulated Hydroturbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2012-02-03

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing through hydroturbines experience a rapid decrease in pressure as they pass by the turbine blade and the severity of this decompression can be highly variable. This rapid decrease in pressure can result in injuries such as swim bladder rupture, exophthalmia, and emboli and hemorrhaging in the fins and tissues. However, recent research indicates that the presence of a telemetry tag (acoustic, radio, inductive) implanted inside the coelom of a juvenile salmon increases the likelihood that the fish will be injured or die during turbine passage. Thus, previous research conducted using telemetry tags implanted into the coelom of fish may have been inaccurate. Thus, a new technique is needed to provide unbiased estimates of survival through turbines. This research provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter. Both nontagged fish and fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter were exposed to a range of rapid decompressions simulating turbine passage. Juvenile Chinook salmon tagged with a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter did not receive a higher degree of barotrauma than their nontagged counterparts. We suggest that future research include field-based comparisons of survival and behavior among fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter and those internally implanted with transmitters.

  8. Effect of carrier doping and external electric field on the optical properties of graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Tista; Basak, Tushima

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the optical properties of finite-sized graphene quantum dots can be effectively controlled by doping it with different types of charge carriers (electron/hole). In addition, the role played by a suitably directed external electric field on the optical absorption of charge-doped graphene quantum dots have also been elucidated. The computations have been performed on diamond-shaped graphene quantum dot (DQD) within the framework of the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian, which takes into account long-range Coulomb interactions. Our results reveal that the energy band-gap increases when the DQD is doped with holes while it decreases on doping it with electrons. Further, the optical absorption spectra of DQD exhibits red/blue-shift on doping with electrons/holes. Our computations also indicate that the application of external transverse electric field results in a substantial blue-shift of the optical spectrum for charge-doped DQD. However, it is observed that the influence of charge-doping is more prominent in tuning the optical properties of finite-sized graphene quantum dots as compared to externally applied electric field. Thus, tailoring the optical properties of finite-sized graphene quantum dots by manipulative doping with charge carriers and suitably aligned external electric field can greatly enhance its potential application in designing nano-photonic devices.

  9. The effect of interaural-level-difference fluctuations on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Buchholz, Jörg M.

    2013-01-01

    Real-world sound sources are usually perceived as externalized and thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is largely due to (1) the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and pinna, resulting in modifications of the signal spectrum and thereby a frequency-dependent shaping...... of interaural cues and (2) interaural cues provided by the reverberation inside an enclosed space. This study first investigated the effect of room reverberation on the spectro-temporal behavior of interaural level differences (ILDs) by analyzing dummy-head recordings of speech played at different distances...... in a standard listening room. Next, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the degree of externalization was investigated in a psychoacoustic experiment performed in the same listening room. Individual binaural impulse responses were used to simulate a distant sound source delivered via headphones. The ILDs were...

  10. Dollarization hysteresis, network externalities and the “past legacy” effect: the case of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo X. Fernández Tellería

    2007-01-01

    Dollarization in Bolivia rose rapidly immediately after the hyperinflation and currency crisis episode that took place between 1984 and 1985, but failed to reduce and, in fact, continued increasing the following years. In order to explain this dollarization hysteresis, this document proposes and estimates a model, based in the work of Oomes (2003), where network externalities can generate multiple steady-states for dollarization while a so-called past legacy effect increases the likelihood of...

  11. External heavy atom effect on intersystem crossing reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojnarovits, L.; Foeldiak, G.

    1988-01-01

    The external heavy atom effect by xenon on the S 1 → T n and T 1 → S o transitions of naphthalene and pyrene was investigated in hydrocarbon solvents by fluorescence or absorption spectroscopy. The quencher forms a short-lived encounter complex (that may be called exciplex as well) with the excited molecules in equilibrium process. This exciplex formation in solutions with naphthalene leads to some deviation from the Stern-Volmer type concentration dependence of the quenching. (author)

  12. Effect of Internal Factors and External Factors on Learning Achievement Intermediate Financial Accounting Course I

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Syamsul; Diana, Nana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of internal and external factors of students on the achievement of intermediate financial accounting courses 1 partially and simultaneously. This type of research is quantitative, while the data used in this study is primary data in the form of questionnaires and secondary data in the form of midterm semester exam on intermediate financial accounting 1 semester odd academic year 2016/2017. Hypothesis testing using multiple regression analy...

  13. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie externe sur la glande thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, A. [Centre Hospitalier general A-Boulloche, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

    1997-12-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto`s disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  14. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  15. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  16. Opposing effects of external gibberellin and Daminozide on Stevia growth and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Javad; Ahmadi, Ali; Abbasi, Alireza; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tavarini, Silvia; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Angelini, Luciana G

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycosides (SVglys) and gibberellins are originated from the shared biosynthesis pathway in Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). In this research, two experiments were conducted to study the opposing effects of external gibberellin (GA3) and Daminozide (a gibberellin inhibitor) on Stevia growth and metabolites. Results showed that GA3 significantly increased the stem length and stem dry weight in Stevia. Total soluble sugar content increased while the SVglys biosynthesis was decreased by external GA3 applying in Stevia leaves. In another experiment, the stem length was reduced by Daminozide spraying on Stevia shoots. The Daminozide did not affect the total SVglys content, while in 30 ppm concentration, significantly increased the soluble sugar production in Stevia leaves. Although the gibberellins biosynthesis pathway has previously invigorated in Stevia leaf, the Stevia response to external gibberellins implying on high precision regulation of gibberellins biosynthesis in Stevia and announces that Stevia is able to kept endogenous gibberellins in a low quantity away from SVglys production. Moreover, the assumption that the internal gibberellins were destroyed by Daminozide, lack of Daminozide effects on SVglys production suggests that gibberellins biosynthesis could not act as a competitive factor for SVglys production in Stevia leaves.

  17. Effect of sample shape on nonlinear magnetization dynamics under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Dmitry V.; Polyakov, Oleg P.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of sample shape on the nonlinear collective dynamics of magnetic moments in the presence of oscillating and constant external magnetic fields is studied using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) approach. The uniformly magnetized sample is considered to be an ellipsoidal axially symmetric particle described by demagnetization factors and uniaxial crystallographic anisotropy formed some angle with an applied field direction. It is investigated as to how the change in particle shape affects its nonlinear magnetization dynamics. To produce a regular study, all results are presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams for all sufficient dynamics regimes of the considered system. In this paper, we show that the sample's (particle's) shape and its orientation with respect to the external field (system configuration) determine the character of magnetization dynamics: deterministic behavior and appearance of chaotic states. A simple change in the system's configuration or in the shapes of its parts can transfer it from chaotic to periodic or even static regime and back. Moreover, the effect of magnetization precession stall and magnetic moments alignment parallel or antiparallel to the external oscillating field is revealed and the way of control of such 'polarized' states is found. Our results suggest that varying the particle's shape and fields' geometry may provide a useful way of magnetization dynamics control in complex magnetic systems

  18. An assessment of effective dose to staff in external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, D.J.; Nicholson, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation safety in external beam radiotherapy is governed by national legislation. Annual doses recorded by radiographers and others associated with external beam radiotherapy are typically much lower than the relevant dose limit. However, it is possible that larger doses might be received as a result of an accidental irradiation. In the event of a significant exposure resulting in a dose at or near a relevant dose limit, an accurate conversion has to be made from the dose meter reading to the limiting quantity. A method was devised to demonstrate ratios of effective dose to personal dose equivalent which might be anticipated in the even of an individual other than the patient being irradiated within a radiotherapy treatment room consisting of a linear accelerator. The variation of ratios obtained under different conditions is discussed. (author)

  19. Effects of internalising external production costs in a North European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Ramskov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of integrating national power markets is to improve the overall efficiency thereby making a potential for reducing electricity prices. However, efficiency is not necessarily improved if external environmental protection costs are neglected. In this paper, we analyse the effects of regulating an integrated power market by using environmental producer taxes based on external production costs. The analysis is based on an empirical equilibrium model for the North European power market. The results show that internalising costs will increase electricity producer prices by 40-50% in the period from 1995 to 2020. Further, demand for electricity will be reduced by 10%. We conclude, however, that in order to achieve the national Kyoto targets of reducing CO 2 emissions, further regulation is needed, such as national CO 2 taxes or cost efficient mechanisms like tradeable permits and joint implementation. (author)

  20. Effects of external boundary layer flow on jet noise in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarohia, V.; Massier, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects on jet flow of the external boundary layer flow emanating from the trailing edge of an engine cowl in flight has been shown to be the main reason for the disparity between predicted and experimental results obtained from flight measurements. Flight simulation experiments indicate that the external boundary layer flow tends to shield the jet flow in flight. This in turn modifies the jet noise source in flight and consequently the radiated noise from aircraft in flight. Close to 90 deg angle to the intake and in the forward quadrant, this study indicates that the far field jet noise and its spectrum scales approximately with the absolute jet velocity instead of the relative velocity as has been assumed in the existing prediction models.

  1. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of Externally Tunable, Hydrogel Encapsulated Quantum Dot Nanospheres in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesree GhoshMitra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Dots (QDs have become an interesting subject of study for labeling and drug delivery in biomedical research due to their unique responses to external stimuli. In this paper, the biological effects of a novel hydrogel based QD nano-structure on E. coli bacteria are presented. The experimental evidence reveals that cadmium telluride (CdTe QDs that are encapsulated inside biocompatible polymeric shells have reduced or negligible toxicity to this model cell system, even when exposed at higher dosages. Furthermore, a preliminary gene expression study indicates that QD-hydrogel nanospheres do not inhibit the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP gene expression. As the biocompatible and externally tunable polymer shells possess the capability to control the QD packing density at nanometer scales, the resulting luminescence efficiency of the nanostructures, besides reducing the cytotoxic potential, may be suitable for various biomedical applications.

  2. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Background Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Methods Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Results Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. Conclusion The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans. PMID:29390029

  3. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans.

  4. Equivalent to Represent Inertial and Primary Frequency Control Effects of an External System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel equivalent, which is suitable for simulation of inertial and primary frequency control effects. In the model reduction procedure, dynamic power injectors are used to replace the external system and to mimic its dynamic behavior. The parameters of the equivalents...... are tuned with a simple approach presented in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a modified version of the ENTSO-E Dynamic Study Model. The results show that the system frequency response of the unreduced system is retained and a speedup of the simulations of around 4...

  5. Scanning gate microscopy of quantum rings: effects of an external magnetic field and of charged defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, M G; Baltazar, S; Martins, F; Hackens, B; Sellier, H; Ouisse, T; Bayot, V; Huant, S

    2009-07-01

    We study scanning gate microscopy (SGM) in open quantum rings obtained from buried semiconductor InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures. By performing a theoretical analysis based on the Keldysh-Green function approach we interpret the radial fringes observed in experiments as the effect of randomly distributed charged defects. We associate SGM conductance images with the local density of states (LDOS) of the system. We show that such an association cannot be made with the current density distribution. By varying an external magnetic field we are able to reproduce recursive quasi-classical orbits in LDOS and conductance images, which bear the same periodicity as the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  6. Calculating the Effect of External Shading on the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient of Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shukla, Yash [CEPT Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Rawal, Rajan [CEPT Univ., Ahmedabad (India)

    2017-08-09

    Current prescriptive building codes have limited ways to account for the effect of solar shading, such as overhangs and awnings, on window solar heat gains. We propose two new indicators, the adjusted Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (aSHGC) which accounts for external shading while calculating the SHGC of a window, and a weighted SHGC (SHGCw) which provides a seasonal SHGC weighted by solar intensity. We demonstrate a method to calculate these indices using existing tools combined with additional calculations. The method is demonstrated by calculating the effect of an awning on a clear double glazing in New Delhi.

  7. Effect Of Low External Flow On Flame Spreading Over ETFE Insulated Wire Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Osamu; Ito, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Masao; Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Fire safety is one of the most important issues for manned space missions. A likely cause of fires in spacecraft is wire insulation combustion in electrical system. Regarding the wire insulation combustion it important to know the effect of low external flow on the combustion because of the presence of ventilation flow in spacecraft. Although, there are many researches on flame spreading over solid material at low external flows under microgravity, research dealing with wire insulation is very limited. An example of wire insulation combustion in microgravity is the Space Shuttle experiments carried out by Greenberg et al. However, the number of experiments was very limited. Therefore, the effect of low flow velocity is still not clear. The authors have reported results on flame spreading over ETFE (ethylene - tetrafluoroetylene) insulated wire in a quiescent atmosphere in microgravity by 10 seconds drop tower. The authors also performed experiments of polyethylene insulated nichrom wire combustion in low flow velocity under microgravity. The results suggested that flame spread rate had maximum value in low flow velocity condition. Another interesting issue is the effect of dilution gas, especially CO2, which is used for fire extinguisher in ISS. There are some researches working on dilution gas effect on flame spreading over solid material in quiescent atmosphere in microgravity. However the research with low external flow is limited and, of course, the research discussing a relation of the appearance of maximum wire flammability in low flow velocity region with different dilution gas cannot be found yet. The present paper, therefore, investigates the effect of opposed flow with different dilution gas on flame spreading over ETFE insulated wire and change in the presence of the maximum flammability depending on the dilution gas type is discussed within the limit of microgravity time given by ground-based facility.

  8. Insecurity of petroleum supplies and external effect: the case of security storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, B.

    1997-01-01

    The public intervention in the domain of security of petroleum supplies is in general justified in the literature by the existence of external effects linked with the phenomenon of insecurity of supplies. This work proposes to analyse in detail the validity of this justification and its implication in terms of energy policy recommendations. The components of the insecurity cost is analyzed in the first part. Two components are retained: the macro-economical effects of insecurity and the monopsony cost. The study of the macro-economical component of insecurity uses a disequilibrium economy-type approach. On the basis of a modeling of the macro-economical effects of insecurity on a conventionalized economy, a relation is evidenced between rupture probability and level of usefulness. This model is applied to 4 European Union countries and the effects of supplies insecurity is measured for each of them. For the monopsony component of supplies insecurity, the additional cost generated by insecurity in relation with the monopsony situation is analyzed. A numerical analysis illustrates this analysis. Then, the relevance of the monopsony concept in the description of the situation of petroleum consuming economies is questioned. The analysis of the US case leads to reject the existence of a petroleum monopsony made of the USA alone and to favour the definition of a monopsony made of the IEA member countries. Then, the analysis of the insecurity cost is made using the external cost notion. This study allows to settle the status of the macro-economical component: there effectively exists a macro-economical cost of insecurity but this cost cannot be considered as external. This result is interesting because many analyses justify the public intervention using the external cost property of the macro-economical effects. On the contrary, the monopsony component can be unambiguously identified as being at the origin of a pecuniary external cost. The insecurity of supplies can be

  9. Effectiveness of an Intervention for Children with Externalizing Behavior and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, Hilde; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Standing Strong Together (SST), a combined group based parent and child intervention for externalizing behavior in 9–16 year-old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Children with externalizing behavior and MBID (IQ from 55 to

  10. A case of the hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with external radiation. Efficacy and severe side effect of external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Hideaki; Yasui, Ouki; Ise, Norihito

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic hilar bile duct cancer was difficult to cure by surgical treatment and its prognosis was very poor. We present the case of non-curative resection of hepatic hilar bile duct cancer, controlled with external radiation. 72 years-old-female, she complained jaundice and diagnosed hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with abdominal ultrasonography. Hepatic hilar resection was performed but curative resection could not be done, because cancer was diffusely spreaded to the hepatic and duodenal ends of the bile duct. After surgery, external radiation (1.8 Gy/day; total 50.4 Gy) was performed. Three months after operation, sometimes, cholangitis was occurred but we could not detect the intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and improved with antibiotics. After seven months, she was dead for sepsis, liver abscess and biliary cirrhosis. From autopsy findings, severe hepatic hilar fibrosis around the irradiation area, stenosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy and portal vein were existed but could not detect the remnant cancer cells. External radiation was sometimes effective, especially for this case. But we should consider the side effect of fibrosis and preventive treatments such as biliary stenting or early biliary drainage. (author)

  11. A case of the hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with external radiation. Efficacy and severe side effect of external radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Hideaki; Yasui, Ouki; Ise, Norihito [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Hepatic hilar bile duct cancer was difficult to cure by surgical treatment and its prognosis was very poor. We present the case of non-curative resection of hepatic hilar bile duct cancer, controlled with external radiation. 72 years-old-female, she complained jaundice and diagnosed hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with abdominal ultrasonography. Hepatic hilar resection was performed but curative resection could not be done, because cancer was diffusely spreaded to the hepatic and duodenal ends of the bile duct. After surgery, external radiation (1.8 Gy/day; total 50.4 Gy) was performed. Three months after operation, sometimes, cholangitis was occurred but we could not detect the intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and improved with antibiotics. After seven months, she was dead for sepsis, liver abscess and biliary cirrhosis. From autopsy findings, severe hepatic hilar fibrosis around the irradiation area, stenosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy and portal vein were existed but could not detect the remnant cancer cells. External radiation was sometimes effective, especially for this case. But we should consider the side effect of fibrosis and preventive treatments such as biliary stenting or early biliary drainage. (author)

  12. Effect of Spatial Dimension and External Potential on Joule-Thomson Coefficients of Ideal Bose Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Duqi; Wang Canjun

    2010-01-01

    Based on the form of the n-dimensional generic power-law potential, the state equation and the heat capacity, the analytical expressions of the Joule-Thomson coefficient (JTC) for an ideal Bose gas are derived in n-dimensional potential. The effect of the spatial dimension and the external potential on the JTC are discussed, respectively. These results show that: (i) For the free ideal Bose gas, when n/s ≤ 2 (n is the spatial dimension, s is the momentum index in the relation between the energy and the momentum), and T → T C (T C is the critical temperature), the JTC can obviously improve by means of changing the throttle valve's shape and decreasing the spatial dimension of gases. (ii) For the inhomogeneous external potential, the discriminant Δ = [1 - Π[ n i=1 (kT/varpi i ) 1/t i Γ(1/t i + 1)] (k is the Boltzmann Constant, T is the thermodynamic temperature, varpi i is the external field's energy), is obtained. The potential makes the JTC increase when Δ > 0, on the contrary, it makes the JTC decrease when Δ i < 1. (general)

  13. The effect of the external medium on the gravitropic curvature of rice (Oryza sativa, Poaceae) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    The roots of rice seedlings, growing in artificial pond water, exhibit robust gravitropic curvature when placed perpendicular to the vector of gravity. To determine whether the statolith theory (in which intracellular sedimenting particles are responsible for gravity sensing) or the gravitational pressure theory (in which the entire protoplast acts as the gravity sensor) best accounts for gravity sensing in rice roots, we changed the physical properties of the external medium with impermeant solutes and examined the effect on gravitropism. As the density of the external medium is increased, the rate of gravitropic curvature decreases. The decrease in the rate of gravicurvature cannot be attributed to an inhibition of growth, since rice roots grown in 100 Osm/m3 (0.248 MPa) solutions of different densities all support the same root growth rate but inhibit gravicurvature increasingly with increasing density. By contrast, the sedimentation rate of amyloplasts in the columella cells is unaffected by the external density. These results are consistent with the gravitational pressure theory of gravity sensing, but cannot be explained by the statolith theory.

  14. Effect of static deformation and external forces on the oscillations of levitated droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, P. V. R.; Bayazitoglu, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The oscillations of an aspherical droplet subjected to different external forces are considered. For an arbitrary shape deformation, it is shown that the frequency spectrum splits into (2l - 1) peaks for a mode l oscillation, and the splitting of the frequency spectrum is calculated for mode 2, 3, and 4 oscillations. The deformation is then treated as a consequence of a general external force, and the frequency split is obtained in terms of the external force parameters. Droplets levitated by acoustic, electromagnetic, and combined acoustic-electromagnetic forces are considered in particular, and it is shown that the effects of asphericity adequately explain the splitting of the frequency spectrum observed commonly in experiments. The interpretation of spectra with regard to accurate surface tension measurement using the oscillations of levitated droplets is discussed, and the results applied to some previous experimental results. It is shown that the accuracy of surface tension measurements can improve if the asphericity caused by the levitating force, and the resulting frequency split, are taken into account.

  15. The effect of internal and external focus of attention on game performance in tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tsetseli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Great importance has been given in recent years to the impact of focus of attention cues during skills execution but not during real game play, where more cognitive skills are involved besides technical performance. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of internal and external focus of attention instructions on the components of the game performance (decision making, skill execution, base in tennis. Methods: The participants (N = 60 were divided into three groups and followed an intervention training program that lasted 6 weeks; IF group (n = 20 under internal focus of attention instructions, EF group (n = 20 under external focus of attention instructions and CON group (n = 20 under no attentional focus instructions. Three measurements took place (pre, post and ret in which the participants were recorded on video while playing matches in real scoring conditions. Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI was used to evaluate the components of game performance in tennis in three game situations; service, return of the service, base line game. Results: ANOVA repeated measures in a 3 (groups: IF, EF & CON × 3 (measurements: pre, post, ret revealed a significant interaction between groups and measurements and post hoc analysis indicated that the group that was instructed to focus externally improved significantly only in decision making compared to the internal focus of attention and to the control group. The score difference was maintained at the retention test as well, which indicates that the impact concerned not only performance but also learning. Conclusions: Instructions that aim to an external focus of attention enhance decision making skills, which are considered the most important element of game performance in tennis.

  16. The effects of femoral external derotational osteotomy on frontal plane alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelitz, M; Wehner, T; Steiner, M; Dürselen, L; Lippacher, S

    2014-11-01

    Femoral osteotomies are the preferred treatment in significant torsional deformity of the femur. The influence of torsional osteotomies on frontal plane alignment is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of external derotational osteotomies on proximal, mid-shaft and distal levels onto frontal plane alignment. The effect of rotation around the anatomical axis of the femur on frontal plane alignment was determined with a 3D computer model, created from CT data of a right human cadaver femur. Virtual torsional osteotomies of 10°, 20° and 30° were performed at proximal, mid-shaft and distal levels under five antecurvatum angles of the femur. The change of the frontal plane alignment was expressed by the mechanical lateral femoral angle. Proximal derotational osteotomies resulted in an increased mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA) of 0.8°-2.6° for 10°, of 1.6°-5.1° for 20° and of 2.3-7.9° for 30° derotational osteotomy, indicating an increased varus angulation. Supracondylar derotational osteotomy resulted in a decreased mLDFA of -0.1° to -1.7° for 10°, of -0.2 to -3.7° for 20° and of -0.7 to -6.9° for 30° derotational osteotomy, indicating an increased valgus angulation. The effect increased with the amount of torsional correction and virtually increased antecurvatum angles. Mid-shaft torsional osteotomies had the smallest effect on frontal plane alignment. This three-dimensional computer model study demonstrates the relationship between femoral torsional osteotomies and frontal plane alignment. Proximal external derotational osteotomies tend to result in an increased varus angulation, whilst distal external derotational osteotomies tend to result in an increased valgus angulation. As a clinical consequence, torsional osteotomies have an increased risk of unintentional implications on frontal plane alignment.

  17. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  18. Effects of confinement and external fields on structure and transport in colloidal dispersions in reduced dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, D; Virnau, P; Binder, K; Deutschländer, S; Siems, U; Franzrahe, K; Henseler, P; Keim, P; Schwierz, N; Maret, G; Nielaba, P

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we focus on low-dimensional colloidal model systems, via simulation studies and also some complementary experiments, in order to elucidate the interplay between phase behavior, geometric structures and transport properties. In particular, we try to investigate the (nonlinear!) response of these very soft colloidal systems to various perturbations: uniform and uniaxial pressure, laser fields, shear due to moving boundaries and randomly quenched disorder. We study ordering phenomena on surfaces or in monolayers by Monte Carlo computer simulations of binary hard-disk mixtures, the influence of a substrate being modeled by an external potential. Weak external fields allow a controlled tuning of the miscibility of the mixture. We discuss the laser induced de-mixing for the three different possible couplings to the external potential. The structural behavior of hard spheres interacting with repulsive screened Coulomb or dipolar interaction in 2D and 3D narrow constrictions is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Due to misfits between multiples of the lattice parameter and the channel widths, a variety of ordered and disordered lattice structures have been observed. The resulting local lattice structures and defect probabilities are studied for various cross sections. The influence of a self-organized order within the system is reflected in the velocity of the particles and their diffusive behavior. Additionally, in an experimental system of dipolar colloidal particles confined by gravity on a solid substrate we investigate the effect of pinning on the dynamics of a two-dimensional colloidal liquid. This work contains sections reviewing previous work by the authors as well as new, unpublished results. Among the latter are detailed studies of the phase boundaries of the de-mixing regime in binary systems in external light fields, configurations for shear induced effects at structured walls, studies on the effect of confinement on the structures

  19. Two-temperature accretion disks with electron-positron pairs - Effects of Comptonized external soft photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, Masaaki; Takahara, Fumio

    1990-01-01

    The present account of the effects of soft photons from external sources on two-temperature accretion disks in electron-positron pair equilibrium solves the energy-balance equation for a given radial distribution of the input rate of soft photons, taking into account their bremsstrahlung and Comptonization. Critical rate behavior is investigated as a function of the ratio of the energy flux of incident soft photons and the energy-generation rate. As in a previous study, the existence of a critical accretion rate is established.

  20. Roles of effective helical ripple rates in nonlinear stability of externally induced magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic islands are externally produced by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in toroidal plasmas. Spontaneous annihilation of RMP-induced magnetic islands called self-healing has been observed in helical systems. A possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by helical ripple-induced neoclassical flows, which give rise to neoclassical viscous torques. In this study, effective helical ripple rates in multi-helicity helical systems are revisited, and a multi-helicity effect on the self-healing is investigated, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands. It is confirmed that effective helical ripple rates are sensitive to magnetic axis positions. It is newly found that self-healing thresholds also strongly depend on magnetic axis positions, which is due to dependence of neoclassical viscous torques on effective helical ripple rates.

  1. Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tran Van

    2013-01-01

    Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)

  2. Calculation of age-dependent effective doses for external exposure using the MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, ThuDuc, HoChiMinh City (VT)

    2013-07-15

    Age-dependent effective dose for external exposure to photons uniformly distributed in air were calculated. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources with source energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years-old and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. From the calculated results, it is shown that the effective doses depend on the body size; the effective doses in younger phantoms are higher than those in the older phantoms, especially below 100 keV. (orig.)

  3. Effect of External Use of Sesame Oil in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Phlebitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekuzad, Nilufar; Ashke Torab, Tahereh; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Azadeh, Payam; Ehtejab, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous chemotherapy is an important mean for the treatment of cancers. Infusion phlebitis (Ph) is a common and acute complication of chemotherapy. The frequency of Ph is about 70% in patients undergoing chemotherapeutic management. It can induce the pain, increase the risk of thrombophlebitis, lead to incomplete follow-up, and thereby, affect the patient’s health status. Respecting the great importance of these issues, it is essential to prevent Ph. This study conducted to determine the effect of external use of Sesame Oil (SO) in the prevention of Ph. Sixty patients with colon or rectum cancer, who admitted for chemotherapeutic management, enrolled in clinical trial and were randomly divided into two equal groups: Control and Intervention. Ten drops of SO was applied twice a day for 14 days externally in intervention group, whereas the control group received nothing. Incidence and grade of Ph was measured in both groups. Data was analyzed through independent t-test, Χ2, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney, and Lagrange survival using SPSS 16. The incidence of Ph was 10% and 80% in intervention group and control group, respectively.There was a significant difference between two groups (p < 0.05). Ph was 8 times more frequent in control group (R R = 8; AR R = 70%). In addition, there was statistically significant difference between the grade and incidence of Ph with SO and control group (p < 0.05). According to these results, it seems that external use of SO is effective, safe and well-tolerated for prophylaxis from Ph. Therefore, it can be suggested as a selected prevention method for reducing the complication. PMID:24250538

  4. External Costs and Benefits of Energy. Methodologies, Results and Effects on Renewable Energies Competitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, R.; Cabal, H.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to give a summarised vision of the concept of eternality in energy production, the social and economic usefulness of its evaluation and consideration as support to the political decision-marking in environmental regulation matters, technologies selection of new plants, priorities establishment on energy plans, etc. More relevant environmental externalisation are described, as are the effects on the health, ecosystems, materials and climate, as well as some of the socioeconomic externalisation such as the employment, increase of the GDP and the reduction and depletion of energy resources. Different methodologies used during the last years have been reviewed as well as the principals resulted obtained in the most relevant studies accomplished internationally on this topic. Special mention has deserved the European study National Implementation of the Extern E Methodology in the EU . Results obtained are represented in Table 2 of this study. Also they are exposed, in a summarised way, the results obtained in the evaluation of environmental externalisation of the Spanish electrical system in function of the fuel cycle. In this last case the obtained results are more approximated since have been obtained by extrapolation from the obtained for ten representative plants geographically distributed trough the Peninsula. Finally it has been analysed the influence that the internalization of the external costs of conventional energies can have in the competitiveness and in te market of renewable energy, those which originate less environmental effects and therefore produce much smaller external costs. The mechanisms of internalization and the consideration on the convenience or not of their incorporation in the price of energy have been also discussed. (Author) 30 refs

  5. Effect of Slow External Flow on Flame Spreading over Solid Material: Opposed Spreading over Polyethylene Wire Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, O.; Nishizawa, K.; Ito, K.; Olson, S. L.; Kashigawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of slow external flow on solid combustion is very important from the view of fire safety in space because the solid material in spacecraft is generally exposed to the low air flow for ventilation. Further, the effect of low external flow on fuel combustion is generally fundamental information for industrial combustion system, such as gas turbine, boiler incinerator and so on. However, it is difficult to study the effect of low external flow on solid combustion in normal gravity, because the buoyancy-induced flow strongly disturbs the flow field, especially for low flow velocity. In this research therefore, the effect of slow external flow on opposed flame spreading over polyethylene (PE) wire insulation have been investigated in microgravity. The microgravity environment was provided by Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) in Japan and KC-135 at NASA GRC. The tested flow velocity range is 0-30cm/s with different oxygen concentration and inert gas component.

  6. Age-dependent conversion coefficients for organ doses and effective doses for external neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizaki, Chihiro; Endo, Akira; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2006-06-01

    To utilize dose assessment of the public for external neutron irradiation, conversion coefficients of absorbed doses of organs and effective doses were calculated using the numerical simulation technique for six different ages (adult, 15, 10, 5 and 1 years and newborn), which represent the member of the public. Calculations were performed using six age-specific anthropomorphic phantoms and a Monte Carlo radiation transport code for two irradiation geometries, anterior-posterior and rotational geometries, for 20 incident energies from thermal to 20 MeV. Effective doses defined by the 1990 Recommendation of ICRP were calculated from the absorbed doses in 21 organs. The calculated results were tabulated in the form of absorbed doses and effective doses per unit neutron fluence. The calculated conversion coefficients are used for dose assessment of the public around nuclear facilities and accelerator facilities. (author)

  7. Influence of external beam technique and brachytherapy quality assurance on the side effects in the combined external beam- and brachytherapy treatment of local advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.; Galalae, R.; Wirth, B.; Bertermann, H.; Wilhelm, R.; Kohr, P.; Kimmig, B.

    1996-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound(TRUS) guided HDR implantation of the prostate has been established at the Kiel University by Bertermann and Brix in 1986 and there are to date 179 (T1b-T3 No Mo) patients treated in a combined modality. The dose for the implant was 2x 15 Gy on the capsule of the prostate in 14-20 days. For local and regional lymph nodes 20 Gy external beam therapy (AP-PA pelvic portals), 20 Gy with an individual transmission block (100% for subclinical disease, 70% and 50% according to the implant dosimetry for the prostate) and 10 Gy small volume irradiation for the prostate was applied, conventional fractioned. Total dose after the therapy 70 Gy for the prostate and 50 Gy for the subclinical disease in 6-7 weeks. As a quality control method we use since 1991 in vivo dosimetry on the medial rectum wall as well as in the prostatic part of the urethra. Regular follow-up 3-118 months after therapy (median 55) with PSA, digital rectal examination, control TRUS with volumetry (after one year with biopsy) and bone scan. There were no major early side effects within the first three months. Proctitis till 1991 with a duration up to 12 months 49%, prolonging more than one year in 23 %, (total proctitis 72.6%). Dysuria in up to 12 months 30 %, long lasting 30% (total number of dysuria 60 %). Erectile dysfunction in 56 %. Because of the number of the side effects 1991 we changed the external beam technique: instead of the biaxial arch therapy the AP-PA portals, and reduced irradiated volume (from 6480 cm 3 to 5040 cm 3 ). We introduced instead of the small volume arch therapy for 10 Gy external boost the box-technique with shielding the back part of the rectum and the upper part of the bladder resulting additional volume reduction. Through the 15 Gy HDR brachytherapy dose on the prostate capsule there are up to 8 Gy on the medial rectal wall, measured by in vivo dosimetry. This dose could not be responsible for the high number of side effects (see gynecological

  8. The Effects of Different External Carbon Sources on Nitrous Oxide Emissions during Denitrification in Biological Nutrient Removal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Hongxun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different external carbon sources (acetate and ethanol) on the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during denitrification in biological nutrient removal processes. Results showed that external carbon source significantly influenced N2O emissions during the denitrification process. When acetate served as the external carbon source, 0.49 mg N/L and 0.85 mg N/L of N2O was produced during the denitrificaiton processes in anoxic and anaerobic/anoxic experiments, giving a ratio of N2O-N production to TN removal of 2.37% and 4.96%, respectively. Compared with acetate, the amount of N2O production is negligible when ethanol used as external carbon addition. This suggested that ethanol is a potential alternative external carbon source for acetate from the point of view of N2O emissions.

  9. Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Ligustrazine Combined with Holistic Nursing on Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junzhi; Han, Lin; Gong, Fen

    2016-08-15

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of external application of ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing on pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS From February 2014 to March 2015, a total of 32 patients with Phase II and Phase III pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The clinical data were comparable between the 2 groups. In addition to holistic nursing, the patients in the experimental group received 4 weeks of continuous external application of ligustrazine, whereas patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream. Therapeutic effect and healing time were recorded. HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro model for mechanism analysis of the effect of ligustrazine in treating pressure sores. After culturing with different concentrations of ligustrazine or the inhibitor of AKT (LY294002) for 72 h, cell viability, clone formation numbers, and levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined. RESULTS Compared to the control group, the total effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher, and the healing time was significantly reduced. Cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by ligustrazine in a dose-dependent manner. Both the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly inhibited by application of LY294002. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing is an effective treatment of pressure sores. The protective effect may be associated with the promotion of cell growth by activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  10. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reasons between effective doses for tomographic and mathematical models due to external exposition by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H.J.; Yoriyaz, H.; Lima, F.R.A.; Loureiro, E.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of Monte Carlo codes and new and sophisticated tomographic human models, or based on voxel, motivated the ICRP to propose a revision of the traditional exposition models, which have been used to calculate doses on organs and tissues using mathematical phantoms MIRD-type 5. This article presents calculations made with tomographic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel), recently developed and also, for comparison, with ADAM and Eve mathematician phantoms. All models were coupled to the EGS4 and MCNP4 codes for full body external irradiation by photons. It were simulated expositions AP, PA and rotational for energies varying between 10 keV and 10 MeV. The effective calculated doses were compared separately to evaluate: the replacement of the Monte Carlo code; the composition of the tissues and the replacement of tomographic phantoms by mathematical ones. Effective doses calculated results indicate that for external exposures by photons to introduce models based on voxels can cause a reduction of about 10% to the energies considered in this study

  12. The effect of an external electric field on the growth of incongruent-melting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Satoshi; Huang, Xinming; Wang, Shou-Qi

    2005-02-01

    The significance of an electric field on the crystallization process is differentiated into two consequences; (i) thermodynamic effect and (ii) growth-dynamic effect. The former modifies the chemical potential of the associated phases which changes the equilibrium phase relationship while the latter influences the solute transport, growth kinetics, surface creation and defect generation during growth. The intrinsic electric field generating during growth is attributed to the crystallization-related electromotive force and the thermoelectric power driven by the temperature gradient at the interface which influences the solute transport and solute partitioning. The external electric field was applied to the growth apparatus in the ternary system of La2O3- Ga2O3- SiO2 so that the chemical potential of both solid and liquid phases changed leading to the variation of the equilibrium phase relationship. Imposing a 500 V/cm electric field on the system moved the boundary of primary phase field of lanthanum gallate ( LaGaO3) and Ga-bearing lanthanum silicate ( La14GaxSi9-xO) toward the SiO2 apex by 5 mol% which clearly demonstrated the change of the phase relationship by the external electric field.

  13. Effects of externally rated job demand and control on depression diagnosis claims in an industrial cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSanto Iennaco, Joanne; Cullen, Mark R; Cantley, Linda; Slade, Martin D; Fiellin, Martha; Kasl, Stanislav V

    2010-02-01

    This study examined whether externally rated job demand and control were associated with depression diagnosis claims in a heavy industrial cohort. The retrospective cohort sample consisted of 7,566 hourly workers aged 18-64 years who were actively employed at 11 US plants between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2003, and free of depression diagnosis claims during an initial 2-year run-in period. Logistic regression analysis was used to model the effect of tertiles of demand and control exposure on depression diagnosis claims. Demand had a significant positive association with depression diagnosis claims in bivariate models and models adjusted for demographic (age, gender, race, education, job grade, tenure) and lifestyle (smoking status, body mass index, cholesterol level) variables (high demand odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.86). Control was associated with greater risk of depression diagnosis at moderate levels in unadjusted models only (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.93), while low control, contrary to expectation, was not associated with depression. The effects of the externally rated demand exposure were lost with adjustment for location. This may reflect differences in measurement or classification of exposure, differences in depression diagnosis by location, or other location-specific factors.

  14. The central tendency bias in color perception: effects of internal and external noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; McCarthy, Patrice F; Allred, Sarah R

    2014-09-05

    Perceptual estimates can be biased by previously seen stimuli in delayed estimation tasks. These biases are often toward the mean of the whole stimulus set. Recently, we demonstrated such a central tendency bias in delayed color estimation. In the Bayesian framework of perceptual inference, perceptual biases arise when noisy sensory measurements are combined with prior information about the world. Here, we investigate this idea in color perception by manipulating stimulus range and stimulus noise while characterizing delayed color estimates. First, we manipulated the experimental prior for stimulus color by embedding stimuli in collections with different hue ranges. Stimulus range affected hue bias: Hue estimates were always biased toward the mean of the current set. Next, we studied the effect of internal and external noise on the amount of hue bias. Internal noise was manipulated by increasing the delay between the reference and test from 0.4 to 4 s. External noise was manipulated by increasing the amount of chromatic noise in the reference stimulus, while keeping the delay between the reference and test constant at 2 s. Both noise manipulations had a reliable effect on the strength of the central tendency bias. Furthermore, there was a tendency for a positive relationship between variability of the estimates and bias in both noise conditions. In conclusion, observers are able to learn an experimental hue prior, and the weight on the prior can be manipulated by introducing noise in the estimation process. © 2014 ARVO.

  15. External electric field effects on Schottky barrier at Gd3N@C80/Au interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Koichi; Nakashima, Fumihiro; Jin, Ge; Eto, Daichi; Hattori, Hayami; Miyoshi, Noriko; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sun, Yong

    2017-08-01

    The effects of the external electric field on the height of the Schottky barrier at the Gd3N@C80/Au interface were studied by measuring current-voltage characteristics at various temperatures from 200 K to 450 K. The Gd3N@C80 sample with the conduction/forbidden/valence energy band structure had a face-centered cubic crystal structure with the average grain size of several nanometers. The height of the Gd3N@C80/Au Schottky barrier was confirmed to be 400 meV at a low electric field at room temperature. Moreover, the height decreases with the increasing external electric field through a change of permittivity in the Gd3N@C80 sample due to a polarization of the [Gd3] 9 +-[N3 -+("separators="|C80 ) 6 -] dipoles in the Gd3N@C80 molecule. The field-dependence of the barrier height can be described using a power math function of the electric field strength. The results of the field-dependent barrier height indicate that the reduction in the Schottky barrier is due to an image force effect of the transport charge carrier at the Gd3N@C80/Au interface.

  16. Stochastic health effects assessment due to short-term external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Raskob, W.; Merkle, M.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The new model for calculation of stochastic health effects is presented in this paper. The exposure pathways which are briefly considered are the short-term external exposure due to passage of the radioactive cloud (cloudshine) and the short-term external exposure due to radioactive material deposited on skin and clothes (skin contamination). The quantitative assessment of stochastic effects is expressed in numbers of deaths, which are given as a functions of the time at the accident, and age at death, what on the other side enables estimation of the number of deaths within the specified range of the time/age parameters. That means the model calculates the number of deaths within one particular year, summed up over all ages at deaths, or vice versa, it finds the number of deaths within the specified range of ages at death, summed up over all observation times. Results presented in this paper are implemented in the module LATEHEAL, which is incorporated in RODOS, a new European system for decision support for nuclear emergencies. (author)

  17. Effects of hand grip exercise on shoulder joint internal rotation and external rotation peak torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Rour; Jong-Soon Kim, Laurentius

    2016-08-10

    The goal of this study is to analyze the effects of hand grip training on shoulder joint internal rotation (IR)/external rotation (ER) peak torque for healthy people. The research was conducted on 23 healthy adults in their 20 s-30 s who volunteered to participate in the experiment. Hand grip power test was performed on both hands of the research subjects before/after the test to study changes in hand grip power. Isokinetic machine was used to measure the concentric IRPT (internal rotation peak torque) and concentric ERPT (external rotation peak torque) at the velocity of 60°/sec, 90°/sec, and 180°/sec before/after the test. Hand grip training was performed daily on the subject's right hand only for four weeks according to exercise program. Finally, hand grip power of both hands and the maximum torque values of shoulder joint IR/ER were measured before/after the test and analyzed. There was a statistically significant difference in the hand grip power of the right hand, which was subject to hand grip training, after the experiment. Also, statistically significant difference for shoulder ERPT was found at 60°/sec. Hand grip training has a positive effect on shoulder joint IRPT/ERPT and therefore can help strengthen muscles around the shoulder without using weight on the shoulder. Consequently, hand grip training would help maintain strengthen the muscles around the shoulder in the early phase of rehabilitation process after shoulder surgery.

  18. High speed and leakage-tolerant domino circuits for high fan-in applications in 70nm CMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    This paper presents two proposed circuits that employ a footer transistor that is initially OFF in the evaluation phase to reduce leakage and then turned ON to complete the evaluation. Also a new circuit is added using a NAND gate that improves the performance more than 10% -15% compared...... with latter proposed circuit. According to simulations in a predictive 70 nm process, the proposed circuit increases noise immunity by more than 26X for wide OR gates and shows performance improvement of up to 20% compared to conventional domino logic circuits. The proposed circuit reduces the contention...

  19. Assessement of the effect of Pyrimetin in combined injury with external irradiation and oral cerium-144 incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.; Khadzhidekova, E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the preparation Pyrimetin on rats, subjected to external irradiation combined with oral cerium 144 incorporation was studied. LD 50/30 of cerium-144 was used as biological criterion. It was shown that by this criterion Pyrimetin essentially abolished the potentiated by external radiation effect of cerium. Probably, the preparation leads to normalization of the gastro-intestinal motor function and the dose loading of the colon

  20. Dispersion of pollutants, environmental externalities due to a pulverized coal power plant and their effect on the cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Lucyna; Frangopoulos, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion systems generate pollution that causes damages to the environment and the society. The objective of this work is to study the dispersion of pollutants and assess the environmental and social cost due to pollution from such a system. For this purpose, a pulverized coal power plant is selected. Using thermodynamic principles combined with empirical techniques, the quantities of pollutants emitted by the plant are estimated. Then, using the EcoSenseWeb software, which is based on the results of the ExternE project, the external environmental cost (externalities) of pollution is assessed. The plant is considered as located in four different cities in Poland and the externalities are calculated for each city separately. It is shown that the external environmental cost has a strong influence on the unit cost of electricity. In addition, the dispersion of pollutants is presented for the plant located in Olsztyn city. Furthermore, the plant is considered as located near the capitals of European countries and the environmental externalities are calculated for each city. The neighboring countries that are strongly affected by the plant in each particular city are identified. The sensitivity of the unit cost of electricity to certain important parameters is investigated. -- Highlights: ► The external cost of pollution has a significant impact on the cost of electricity. ► The results depend on the particular plant, location and level (local-global). ► Externalities make the installation of abatement equipment economical. ► The source location of emissions has a significant effect on the external cost. ► The transboundary pollution has a strong effect on the environmental cost.

  1. Siting a municipal solid waste disposal facility, part II: the effects of external criteria on the final decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Karademir, Aykan

    2014-02-01

    The procedure of a multi-criteria decision analysis supported by the geographic information systems was applied to the site selection process of a planning municipal solid waste management practice based on twelve different scenarios. The scenarios included two different decision tree modes and two different weighting models for three different area requirements. The suitability rankings of the suitable sites obtained from the application of the decision procedure for the scenarios were assessed by a factorial experimental design concerning the effect of some external criteria on the final decision of the site selection process. The external criteria used in the factorial experimental design were defined as "Risk perception and approval of stakeholders" and "Visibility". The effects of the presence of these criteria in the decision trees were evaluated in detail. For a quantitative expression of the differentiations observed in the suitability rankings, the ranking data were subjected to ANOVA test after a normalization process. Then the results of these tests were evaluated by Tukey test to measure the effects of external criteria on the final decision. The results of Tukey tests indicated that the involvement of the external criteria into the decision trees produced statistically meaningful differentiations in the suitability rankings. Since the external criteria could cause considerable external costs during the operation of the disposal facilities, the presence of these criteria in the decision tree in addition to the other criteria related to environmental and legislative requisites could prevent subsequent external costs in the first place.

  2. A review of the hemodynamic effects of external leg and lower body compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, M; Gommers, D; Groeneveld, A B J

    2014-03-01

    External leg and lower body compression (ELC) has been used for decades in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis and the treatment of leg ischemia. Because of systemic effects, the methods have regained interest in anesthesia, surgery and critical care. This review intends to summarize hemodynamic effects and their mechanisms. Compilation of relevant literature published in English as full paper and retrieved from Medline. By compressing veins, venous stasis is diminished and venous return and arterial blood flow are increased. ELC has been suggested to improve systemic hemodynamics, in different clinical settings, such as postural hypotension, anesthesia, surgery, shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mechanical ventilation. However, the hemodynamic alterations depend upon the magnitude, extent, cycle, duration and thus the modality of ELC, when applied in a static or intermittent fashion (by pneumatic inflation), respectively. ELC may help future research and optimizing treatment of hemodynamically unstable, surgical or critically ill patients, independent of plasma volume expansion.

  3. Effects of external stores on the air combat capability of a delta wing fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Delta wing point-design fighters with two pylon mounted missiles and aft tail controls (similar to several Soviet designs) have been investigated for a Mach number range from about 0.6 to 2.0. Whereas minimum drag penalties that are expected with the addition of external stores do occur, the effects at higher lifts, corresponding to maneuvering flight, are less severe and often favorable. The drag-due-to-lift factor is less with stores on although the lift curve slope is unaffected. The longitudinal stability level is reduced by the addition of stores while the pitch control effectiveness is unchanged. The directional stability was generally reduced at subsonic speeds and increased at supersonic speeds by the addition of stores but sufficiently high stability levels are obtainable that are compatible with the longitudinal maneuvering limits. Some examples of the potential maneuvering capability in terms of normal acceleration and turn radius are included.

  4. Effect of physisorbed molecules and an external external fields on the metallic Shockley surface state of Cu(111): A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Kristian; Einstein, T. L.; Hyldgaard, Per

    2012-02-01

    To manipulate the Cu(111) partially-filled Shockley surface state, we study its response to an external fieldootnotetextKB, TLE, PH; arXiv 1109:6706 E and physisorbed PAHs and quinone molecules. We use density-functional theory calculations with periodic-boundary conditions. The van der Waals density functional version vdW-DF2 accounts for the molecular adsorption. The issue that the Kohn-Sham wave functions couple to both sides of the Cu slab is handled with a decoupling scheme based on a rotation in Hilbert space. A convergence study reveals that to obtain a proper Shockley surface state, 6 Cu layers is sufficient, while 15 is optimal. We use 6 layers for the response to the molecules and 15 to external field. We find that the surface state displays isotropic dispersion (up to order k^6), free-electron like until the Fermi wave vector but with a significant quartic component beyond. The shift in band minimum and effective mass depend linearly on E, with a smaller fractional change in the latter. Charge transfer occurs beyond the outermost copper atoms, and most of the screening is due to bulk electrons. We find that the molecular physisorption increases the band minimum, with the effect the of a quinone being much stronger than the corresponding PAH.

  5. The Effect of Insertion Technique on Temperatures for Standard and Self-Drilling External Fixation Pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah; Lee, Adam K; Widmaier, James C

    2017-08-01

    No studies have assessed the effects of parameters associated with insertion temperature in modern self-drilling external fixation pins. The current study assessed how varying the presence of irrigation, insertion speed, and force impacted the insertion temperatures of 2 types of standard and self-drilling external fixation half pins. Seventy tests were conducted with 10 trials for 4 conditions on self-drilling pins, and 3 conditions for standard pins. Each test used a thermocouple inside the pin to measure temperature rise during insertion. Adding irrigation to the standard pin insertion significantly lowered the maximum temperature (P drilling pin tests dropped average rise in temperature from 151.3 ± 21.6°C to 124.1 ± 15.3°C (P = 0.005). When the self-drilling pin insertion was decreased considerably from 360 to 60 rpm, the temperature decreased significantly from 151.3 ± 21.6°C to 109.6 ± 14.0°C (P drilling pin temperature increase was not significant. The standard pin had lower peak temperatures than the self-drilling pin for all conditions. Moreover, slowing down the insertion speed and adding irrigation helped mitigate the temperature increase of both pin types during insertion.

  6. Kinetic Ising model in a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field: effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Shi et al. [2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 5922] have studied the dynamical response of the kinetic Ising model in the presence of a sinusoidal oscillating field and presented the dynamic phase diagrams by using an effective-field theory (EFT) and a mean-field theory (MFT). The MFT results are in conflict with those of the earlier work of Tomé and de Oliveira, [1990 Phys. Rev. A 41 4251]. We calculate the dynamic phase diagrams and find that our results are similar to those of the earlier work of Tomé and de Oliveira; hence the dynamic phase diagrams calculated by Shi et al. are incomplete within both theories, except the low values of frequencies for the MFT calculation. We also investigate the influence of external field frequency (ω) and static external field amplitude (h 0 ) for both MFT and EFT calculations. We find that the behaviour of the system strongly depends on the values of ω and h 0 . (general)

  7. Effects of external feedback about body tilt: Influence on the Subjective Proprioceptive Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringoux, L; Bourdin, C; Nougier, V; Raphel, C

    2006-11-06

    The present study investigated a cognitive aspect upon spatial perception, namely the impact of a true or false verbal feedback (FB) about the magnitude of body tilt on Subjective Proprioceptive Horizon (SPH) estimates. Subjects were asked to set their extended arm normal to gravity for different pitch body tilts up to 9 degrees . True FB were provided at all body tilt angles, whereas false FB were provided only at 6 degrees backward and 6 degrees forward body tilts for half of the trials. Our data confirmed previous results about the egocentric influence of body tilt itself upon SPH: estimates were linearly lowered with forward tilts and elevated with backward tilts. In addition, results showed a significant effect of the nature of the external FB provided to the subjects. When subjects received a false FB inducing a 3 degrees forward bias relative to physical body tilt, they set their SPH consequently higher than when they received a false FB inducing a 3 degrees backward bias. These findings clearly indicated that false cognitive information about body tilt might significantly modify the judgement of a geocentric direction of space, such as the SPH. This may have deleterious repercussions in aeronautics when pilots have to localize external objects relative to earth-based directions in darkened environments.

  8. Combined effects of external electric and magnetic fields on electromagnetically induced transparency of a two-dimensional quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Gh.; Shojaeian Kish, S.; Avazpour, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the electromagnetically induced transparency of a hydrogenic impurity confined in a two-dimensional quantum dot are investigated. To do this the probe absorption, group velocity and refractive index of the medium in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields are discussed. It is found that, electromagnetically induced transparency occurs in the system and its frequency, transparency window and group velocity of the probe field strongly depend on the external fields. In comparison with atomic system, one may control the electromagnetically induced transparency and the group velocity of light in nano structures with the dot size and confinement potential.

  9. Effect of external jet-flow deflector geometry on OTW aero-acoustic characteristics. [Over-The-Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Glahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of geometry variations in the design of external deflectors for use with OTW configurations was studied at model scale and subsonic jet velocities. Included in the variations were deflector size and angle as well as wing size and flap setting. A conical nozzle (5.2-cm diameter) mounted at 0.1 chord above and downstream of the wing leading edges was used. The data indicate that external deflectors provide satisfactory take-off and approach aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics for OTW configurations. These characteristics together with expected good cruise aerodynamics, since external deflectors are storable, may provide optimum OTW design configurations.

  10. Kink Waves in Non-isothermal Stratified Solar Waveguides: Effect of the External Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopin, I. [Ussuriisk Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Nagorny, I., E-mail: lopin78@mail.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of an external magnetic field on the properties of kink waves, propagating along a thin non-isothermal stratified and diverging magnetic flux tube. A wave equation, governing the propagation of kink waves under the adopted model is derived. It is shown that the vertical gradient of temperature introduces a spatially local cut-off frequency ω {sub c}. The vertical distribution of the cut-off frequency is calculated for the reference VAL-C model of the solar atmosphere and for different values of a ratio of external to internal magnetic fields. The results show that the cut-off frequency is negative below the temperature minimum due to the negative temperature gradient. In the chromosphere the cut-off frequency at a given height is smaller for a stronger external magnetic field. For the appropriate range of a ratio B{sub e} / B{sub i}  ≈ 0–0.8, the cutoff lies in the range ω{sub c}  ≈ 0.003–0.010 s{sup −1} (periods 600 < P{sub c} < 2000 s). The estimate of the cut-off frequency in the transition region is provided as well. In the propagating wave regime, the effective wave energy flux in the non-isothermal diverging flux tubes is the same as in the straight and homogeneous cylindrical waveguides. The obtained wave equation in the limit β  = 0 is used to study the kink oscillations of non-isothermal coronal loops. It is found that the gradient of temperature along the coronal loops reduces the frequency ratio of the first overtone to the fundamental mode, i.e., ω{sub 2}/ ω{sub 1} < 2. This reduction grows for a larger ratio of temperature at the loop top to the temperature at the footpoints. Moreover, the effect of reduction is most pronounced for the steeper temperature profiles.

  11. Differential School Contextual Effects for Math and English: Integrating the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and the Internal/External Frame of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference and the big-fish-little-pond effect are two major models of academic self-concept formation which have considerable theoretical and empirical support. Integrating the domain specific and compensatory processes of the internal/external frame of reference model with the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests a…

  12. Effectiveness of an Intervention for Children with Externalizing Behavior and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schuiringa, Hilde; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Standing Strong Together (SST), a combined group based parent and child intervention for externalizing behavior in 9?16?year-old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Children with externalizing behavior and MBID (IQ from 55 to 85) (N?=?169) were cluster randomly assigned to SST combined with care as usual or to care as usual only. SST led to a significant benefit on teacher reported but not on parent reported externalizin...

  13. The social underpinnings of absorptive capacity: the moderating effects of structural holes on innovation generation based on external knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Tortoriello, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Building on absorptive capacity and social network research, in this paper I investigate how individuals inside the organization use external knowledge to generate innovations. Through original sociometric data collected from 276 scientists, researchers, and engineers from the Research and Development division of a large multinational high-tech company, I show that the effects of external knowledge on individuals' innovativeness are contingent upon individuals' position in the internal social...

  14. Risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip in breech presentation: the effect of successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeek, A F; De Hundt, M; Vlemmix, F; Akerboom, B M C; Bais, J M J; Papatsonis, D N M; Mol, B W J; Kok, M

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of successful external cephalic version on the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) requiring treatment in singleton breech presentation at term. Observational cohort study. Three large teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Women with a singleton breech presentation of 34 weeks of gestation or more, who underwent an external cephalic version attempt. We made a comparison of the incidence of DDH between children born in breech presentation and children born in cephalic presentation after a successful external cephalic version. The incidence of DDH requiring either conservative treatment, with a harness, or surgical treatment. A total of 498 newborns were included in the study, of which 40 (8%) were diagnosed with DDH and 35 required treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.23-6.35) and successful external cephalic version (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09-0.95) were independently associated with DDH. A successful external cephalic version is associated with a lower incidence of DDH, although a high percentage of children born after a successful external cephalic version still appear to have DDH. A larger cohort study is needed to establish the definite nature of this relationship. Until then, we recommend the same screening policy for infants born in cephalic position after a successful external cephalic version as for infants born in breech position. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  15. The effect of external visible light on the breakdown voltage of a long discharge tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishpanov, A. I.; Ionikh, Yu. Z.; Meshchanov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The breakdown characteristics of a discharge tube with a configuration typical of gas-discharge light sources and electric-discharge lasers (a so-called "long discharge tube") filled with argon or helium at a pressure of 1 Torr have been investigated. A breakdown has been implemented using positive and negative voltage pulses with a linear leading edge having a slope dU/ dt ~ 10-107 V/s. Visible light from an external source (halogen incandescent lamp) is found to affect the breakdown characteristics. The dependences of the dynamic breakdown voltage of the tube on dU/ dt and on the incident light intensity are measured. The breakdown voltage is found to decrease under irradiation of the high-voltage anode of the tube in a wide range of dU/ dt. A dependence of the effect magnitude on the light intensity and spectrum is obtained. Possible physical mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed.

  16. The effect of internal and external fields of view on visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; de Vries, Sjoerd C; van Emmerik, Martijn L; Groen, Eric L

    2010-07-01

    Field of view (FOV) is said to affect visually induced motion sickness. FOV, however, is characterized by an internal setting used by the graphics generator (iFOV) and an external factor determined by screen size and viewing distance (eFOV). We hypothesized that especially the incongruence between iFOV and eFOV would lead to sickness. To that end we used a computer game environment with different iFOV and eFOV settings, and found the opposite effect. We speculate that the relative large differences between iFOV and eFOV used in this experiment caused the discrepancy, as may be explained by assuming an observer model controlling body motion. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of incongruent auditory and visual room-related cues on sound externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens

    Sounds presented via headphones are typically perceived inside the head. However, the illusion of a sound source located out in space away from the listener’s head can be generated with binaural headphone-based auralization systems by convolving anechoic sound signals with a binaural room impulse...... response (BRIR) measured with miniature microphones placed in the listener’s ear canals. Sound externalization of such virtual sounds can be very convincing and robust but there have been reports that the illusion might break down when the listening environment differs from the room in which the BRIRs were...... recorded [1,2,3]. This may be due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction [2]. Alternatively, an expectation effect caused by the visual impression of the room may affect the position of the perceived auditory image [3]. Here, we systematically...

  18. Effects of Exponential Nonlinear Electrodynamics and External Magnetic Field on Holographic Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, A.; Abdollahzadeh, Z.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effects of an external magnetic field as well as exponential nonlinear electrodynamics on the properties of s-wave holographic superconductors. Our strategy for this study is the matching method, which is based on the match of the solutions near the horizon and on the boundary at some intermediate point. When the magnetic field is turned off, we obtain the critical temperature as well as the condensation operator and show that the critical exponent is still 1/2, which is the universal value in the mean field theory. Then, we turn on the magnetic field and obtain the critical magnetic field, B c , in order to study its behavior in terms of the temperature. Interestingly enough, we find that in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics, the critical temperature decreases, while the critical magnetic field increases compared to the Maxwell case. We also observe that the critical magnetic field increases with increasing the nonlinear parameter b.

  19. Low energy constituent quark and pion effective couplings in a weak external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2018-03-01

    An effective model with pions and constituent quarks in the presence of a weak external background electromagnetic field is derived by starting from a dressed one gluon exchange quark-quark interaction. By applying the auxiliary field and background field methods, the structureless pion limit is considered to extract effective pion and constituent quark couplings in the presence of a weak magnetic field. The leading terms of a large quark and gluon masses expansion are obtained by resolving effective coupling constants which turn out to depend on a weak magnetic field. Two pion field definitions are considered for that. Several relations between the effective coupling constants and parameters can be derived exactly or in the limit of very large quark mass at zero and weak constant magnetic field. Among these ratios, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner and the quark level Goldberger-Treiman relations are obtained. In addition to that, in the pion sector, the leading terms of Chiral Perturbation Theory coupled to the electromagnetic field are recovered. Some numerical estimates are provided for the effective coupling constants and parameters.

  20. External knowledge acquisition and innovation output: an analysis of the moderating effect of internal knowledge transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Ciprés, Mercedes; Roca Puig, Vicente; Bou Llusar, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the advantages of accessing knowledge from outside the firm as a means of enhancing the firm’s innovation efforts. However, access to external knowledge is not without organisational problems, including rejection of external knowledge by firm members or difficulties in applying such knowledge to the firm’s operations. Based on the knowledge management literature, this paper analyses the conditions within the firm that favour external knowledge acqu...

  1. Microwave Assisted Expeditious and Green Cu(II-Clay Catalyzed Domino One-Pot Three Component Synthesis of 2H-indazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad Dar

    2018-01-01

    How to Cite: Dar, B.A., Safvi, S.W., Rizvi, M.A. (2018. Microwave Assisted Expeditious and Green Cu(II-Clay Catalyzed Domino One-Pot Three Component Synthesis of 2H-indazoles. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 82-88 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.963.82-88

  2. Domino Aza-Michael-ih-Diels-Alder Reaction to Various 3-Vinyl-1,2,4-triazines: Access to Polysubstituted Tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouha, Jabrane; Buttard, Floris; Lorion, Magali; Berthonneau, Clément; Khouili, Mostafa; Hiebel, Marie-Aude; Guillaumet, Gérald; Brière, Jean-François; Suzenet, Franck

    2017-09-15

    A straightforward domino aza-Michael-inverse-electron-demand-hetero-Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder reaction between primary and secondary propargylamine derivatives and 3-vinyl-1,2,4-triazines is developed highlighting not only the uniqueness of this dual-heterocyclic platform but also a novel and unprecedented path to polysubstituted tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridine scaffolds.

  3. Estimate on external effective doses received by the Iranian population from environmental gamma radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozitalab, J.; Reza deevband, M.; Rastkhah, N. [National Radiation Protection Dept. Atomic Energy Organization (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabi, M. [Intenatinal atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Concentration of natural radioactive materials, especially available U 238, Ra 226, Th 232, and K 40 in construction materials and soil, as well as absorb dose from cosmic rays, is the most important source of the people for effective doses from the environment radiation. In order to evaluate external effective dose, it has been carried out more than 1000 measurements in 36 cities by sensitive dosimeters to environmental gamma radiation for indoor and outdoor conditions in residential areas; which its results show that range of gamma exposure for inside of buildings in Iran is 8.7-20.5 {mu}R/h, and outdoor environments of different cities is 7.9-20.6 {mu}R/h, which their mean value are 14.33 and 12.62 {mu}R/h respectively. Meanwhile, it has been estimated that beam-absorbing ratio between indoor and outdoor in measured environments is 1.55, except contribution of cosmic rays. This studies show that average effective dose for each Iranian person from environmental gamma is 96.9 n Sv/h, and annually effective dose for every person is 0.848 mSv. (authors)

  4. Estimate on external effective doses received by the Iranian population from environmental gamma radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozitalab, J.; Reza deevband, M.; Rastkhah, N.; Sohrabi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Concentration of natural radioactive materials, especially available U 238, Ra 226, Th 232, and K 40 in construction materials and soil, as well as absorb dose from cosmic rays, is the most important source of the people for effective doses from the environment radiation. In order to evaluate external effective dose, it has been carried out more than 1000 measurements in 36 cities by sensitive dosimeters to environmental gamma radiation for indoor and outdoor conditions in residential areas; which its results show that range of gamma exposure for inside of buildings in Iran is 8.7-20.5 μR/h, and outdoor environments of different cities is 7.9-20.6 μR/h, which their mean value are 14.33 and 12.62 μR/h respectively. Meanwhile, it has been estimated that beam-absorbing ratio between indoor and outdoor in measured environments is 1.55, except contribution of cosmic rays. This studies show that average effective dose for each Iranian person from environmental gamma is 96.9 n Sv/h, and annually effective dose for every person is 0.848 mSv. (authors)

  5. Preventing adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Cutuli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP, a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697 were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention, or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007 reported analyses examining PRP’s effects on average and clinical levels of depression symptoms. We examine PRP’s effects on parent-, teacher-, and self-reports of adolescents’ externalizing and broader internalizing (depression/anxiety, somatic complaints, and social withdrawal symptoms over three years of follow-up. Relative to no intervention control, PRP reduced parent-reports of adolescents’ internalizing symptoms beginning at the first assessment after the intervention and persisting for most of the follow-up assessments. PRP also reduced parent-reported conduct problems relative to no-intervention. There was no evidence that the PRP program produced an effect on teacher- or self-report of adolescents’ symptoms. Overall, PRP did not reduce symptoms relative to the alternate intervention, although there is a suggestion of a delayed effect for conduct problems. These findings are discussed with attention to developmental trajectories and the importance of interventions that address common risk factors for diverse forms of negative outcomes.

  6. Effectiveness of external respiratory surrogates for in vivo liver motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kai-Hsiang; Ho, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Chien; Lian, Feng-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Yen, Jia-Yush; Chen, Yung-Yaw

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Due to low frame rate of MRI and high radiation damage from fluoroscopy and CT, liver motion estimation using external respiratory surrogate signals seems to be a better approach to track liver motion in real-time for liver tumor treatments in radiotherapy and thermotherapy. This work proposes a liver motion estimation method based on external respiratory surrogate signals. Animal experiments are also conducted to investigate related issues, such as the sensor arrangement, multisensor fusion, and the effective time period. Methods: Liver motion and abdominal motion are both induced by respiration and are proved to be highly correlated. Contrary to the difficult direct measurement of the liver motion, the abdominal motion can be easily accessed. Based on this idea, our study is split into the model-fitting stage and the motion estimation stage. In the first stage, the correlation between the surrogates and the liver motion is studied and established via linear regression method. In the second stage, the liver motion is estimated by the surrogate signals with the correlation model. Animal experiments on cases of single surrogate signal, multisurrogate signals, and long-term surrogate signals are conducted and discussed to verify the practical use of this approach. Results: The results show that the best single sensor location is at the middle of the upper abdomen, while multisurrogate models are generally better than the single ones. The estimation error is reduced from 0.6 mm for the single surrogate models to 0.4 mm for the multisurrogate models. The long-term validity of the estimation models is quite satisfactory within the period of 10 min with the estimation error less than 1.4 mm. Conclusions: External respiratory surrogate signals from the abdomen motion produces good performance for liver motion estimation in real-time. Multisurrogate signals enhance estimation accuracy, and the estimation model can maintain its accuracy for at least 10 min. This

  7. Two Palladium-Catalyzed Domino Reactions from One Set of Substrates/Reagents: Efficient Synthesis of Substituted Indenes and cis-Stilbenoid Hydrocarbons from the Same Internal Alkynes and Hindered Grignard Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cheng-Guo; Yeung, Pik; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Two types of domino reactions from the same internal alkynes and hindered Grignard reagents based on carbopalladation, Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction and C-H activation strategy are described. The realization of these domino reactions relied on the control of the use of the ligand and the reaction temperature. Our study provides an efficient access to useful polysubstituted indenes and cis-substituted stilbenes, and may offer new means to the development of tandem/domino reactions in a more efficient way. PMID:17217305

  8. Effects of differently hardened brass foil laminate on the electromechanical property of externally laminated CC tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Mean, Byoung Jean; Lee, Jae Hun [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductor (CC) wires under uniaxial tension are largely determined by the thick component layers in the architecture, namely, the substrate and the stabilizer or even the reinforcement layer. Depending on device applications of the CC tapes, it is necessary to reinforce thin metallic foils externally to one-side or both sides of the CC tapes. Due to the external reinforcement of brass foils, it was found that this could increase the reversible strain limit from the Cu-stabilized CC tapes. In this study, the effects of differently hardened brass foil laminate on the electromechanical property of CC tapes were investigated under uniaxial tension loading. The tensile strain dependence of the critical current (I{sub c}) was measured at 77 K and self-field. Depending on whether the I{sub c} of CC tapes were measured during loading or after unloading, a reversible strain (or stress) limit could be determined, respectively. The both-sides of the Cu-stabilized CC tapes were laminated with brass foils with different hardness, namely 1/4H, 1H and EH. From the obtained results, it showed that the yield strength of the brass laminated CC tapes with EH brass foil laminate was comparable to the one of the Cu-stabilized CC tape due to its large yield strength even though its large volume fraction. It was found that the brass foil with different hardness was mainly sensitive on the stress dependence of I{sub c}, but not on the strain sensitivity due to the residual strain induced in the laminated CC tapes during unloading.

  9. Role of an external cell membrane and its thiols in realization of the radioprotective effect of anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, M.M.; Dontsova, G.V.; Panaeva, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with Ehrlich ascites tumor cells using a specific thiol blocker 6.6-dithiodinicitinic acid that does not penetrate the cell and therefore only binds SH-groups of peripheral areas of an external cell membrane it was demonstrated that (1) the external cell membrane is the site where the radioprotective effect of anoxia (the oxygen effect) is realized (2) thiols of the esternal cell membrane contribute markedly to the oxygen effect and (3) they are needed at both stages of its realization

  10. The effect of partial poloidal wall sections on the wall stabilization of external kink modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    An analysis of the effect on the wall stabilization of external kink modes due to toroidally continuous gaps in the resistive wall is performed. The effects with and without toroidal rotation are studied. For a high-β equilibrium, the mode structure is localized on the outboard side. Therefore, outboard gaps greatly increase the growth rate when there is no rotation. For resistive wall stabilization by toroidal rotation, the presence of gaps has the same effect as moving the wall farther away, i.e. destabilizing for the ideal plasma mode, and stabilizing for the resistive wall mode. The region of stability, in terms of wall position, is reduced in size and moved closer to the plasma. However, complete stabilization becomes possible at considerably reduced rotation frequencies. For a high-β, reverse-shear equilibrium both the resistive wall mode and the ideal plasma mode can be stabilized by close fitting discrete passive plates on the outboard side. The necessary toroidal rotation frequency to stabilize the resistive wall mode using these plates is reduced by a factor of three compared to that for a poloidally continuous and complete wall at the same plasma-wall separation. (author) 15 figs., 24 refs

  11. Stay Cool Kids?! Effectiveness, Moderation and Mediation of a Preventive Intervention for Externalizing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Stable externalizing behavior in childhood places children at risk for the development of a chronic and persistent pattern of externalizing behavior problems. Preventive interventions that aim to interrupt this developmental trajectory are crucial. Until now, no evidence-based intervention for

  12. Ten Years of External Quality Audit in Australia: Evaluating Its Effectiveness and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood

    2012-01-01

    External quality audits are now being used in universities across the world to improve quality assurance, accountability for quality education and transparency of public funding of higher education. Some countries such as Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark have had external quality audits for more than a decade but there…

  13. Effects of internal and external vividness on hippocampal connectivity during memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Successful memory for an image can be supported by retrieval of one's personal reaction to the image (i.e., internal vividness), as well as retrieval of the specific details of the image itself (i.e., external vividness). Prior research suggests that memory vividness relies on regions within the medial temporal lobe, particularly the hippocampus, but it is unclear whether internal and external vividness are supported by the hippocampus in a similar way. To address this open question, the current study examined hippocampal connectivity associated with enhanced internal and external vividness ratings during retrieval. Participants encoded complex visual images paired with verbal titles. During a scanned retrieval session, they were presented with the titles and asked whether each had been seen with an image during encoding. Following retrieval of each image, participants were asked to rate internal and external vividness. Increased hippocampal activity was associated with higher vividness ratings for both scales, supporting prior evidence implicating the hippocampus in retrieval of memory detail. However, different patterns of hippocampal connectivity related to enhanced external and internal vividness. Further, hippocampal connectivity with medial prefrontal regions was associated with increased ratings of internal vividness, but with decreased ratings of external vividness. These findings suggest that the hippocampus may contribute to increased internal and external vividness via distinct mechanisms and that external and internal vividness of memories should be considered as separable measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On quantum electrodynamics in an external gravitational field. Part 2. Discussion of the effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotze, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    The S matrix constructed in Part I of this work is evaluated for processes which it includes. Some of them are discussed in more detail: pair creation and scattering in an external gravitational field, pair creation by a photon and creation of an electron-positron pair and a photon in an external gravitational field. (author)

  15. Human Capital Externalities : Effects for Low-Educated Workers and Low-Skilled Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; Edzes, Arjen J. E.; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2016-01-01

    Investments in human capital are essential themes in many policy programmes. Besides the direct private returns of education, there is evidence of positive human capital externalities at the level of regions and firms. The results in this paper show that both production and consumption externalities

  16. Photochemistry Saturn's Atmosphere. 2; Effects of an Influx of External Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Bezard, Bruno; Gladstone, G. Randall; Allen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    We use a one-dimensional diurnally averaged model of photochemistry and diffusion in Saturn's stratosphere to investigate the influence of extraplanetary debris on atmospheric chemistry. In particular, we consider the effects of an influx of oxygen from micrometeoroid ablation or from ring-particle diffusion; the contribution from cometary impacts, satellite debris, or ring vapor is deemed to be less important. The photochemical model results are compared directly with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations to constrain the influx of extraplanetary oxygen to Saturn. From the ISO observations, we determine that the column densities of CO2 and H2O above 10 mbar in Saturn's atmosphere are (6.3 +/- 1) x 10(exp 14) and (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 15)/ square cm, respectively; our models indicate that a globally averaged oxygen influx of (4+/-2) x 10(exp 6) O atoms /sq cm/s is required to explain these observations. Models with a locally enhanced influx of H20 operating over a small fraction of the projected area do not provide as good a fit to the ISO H2O observations. If volatile oxygen compounds comprise one-third to one-half of the exogenic source by mass, then Saturn is currently being bombarded with (3 +/- 2) x 10(exp -16) g/square cm/s of extraplanetary material. To reproduce the observed CO2/H2O ratio in Saturn's stratosphere, some of the exogenic oxygen must arrive in the form of a carbon-oxygen bonded species such as CO or CO2. An influx consistent with the composition of cometary ices fails to reproduce the high observed CO2/H2O ratio, suggesting that (i) the material has ices that are slightly more carbon-rich than is typical for comets, (ii) a contribution from an organic-rich component is required, or (iii) some of the hydrogen-oxygen bonded material is converted to carbon-oxygen bonded material without photochemistry (e.g., during the ablation process). We have also reanalyzed the 5-micron CO observations of Noll and Larson and determine that the CO

  17. Enhanced External Counterpulsation Is an Effective Treatment for Depression in Patients With Refractory Angina Pectoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) on depression in patients with refractory angina pectoris (Canadian Cardiovascular Society class 2–4). Method: The study was a prospective observational investigation with a 2-month control period preceding the EECP therapy (to minimize a possible effect of the regression-toward-the-mean phenomenon). The patients were examined 2 months before and just before EECP and just after, 3 months after, and 12 months after EECP. Depression was assessed using the Major Depression Inventory and the ICD-10. During EECP, 3 sets of cuffs were fastened around the lower extremities and were inflated sequentially to a pressure of 260 mm Hg in each diastole for 60 minutes 5 days a week for 7 weeks (35 sessions). The study was conducted at a regional hospital in Denmark from May 2006 to January 2011. Results: Fifty patients with angina pectoris and an abnormal coronary angiography, with no possibility for revascularization, were included (72% men, mean age of 63 years) between May 2006 and January 2011. The prevalence of depression before EECP was 18%, just after was 2%, 3 months after was 2%, and 12 months after was 4% (P = .013). The depressive state was more severe at a lower age (P = .016). No significant predictors of effect of EECP on depression were found (P > .05), and no association was detected between decline in depressive state and chest pain (P > .05). Conclusions: The study indicates that EECP is an effective treatment for depression in patients with refractory angina pectoris, that depression is more severe in younger patients, and that the effect of EECP on depression is not related to the effect on chest pain. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01112163 PMID:26693035

  18. Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2013-05-01

    Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers' parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation.

  19. Effect of shocks on film cooling of a full scale turbojet exhaust nozzle having an external expansion surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Cooling is one of the critical technologies for efficient design of exhaust nozzles, especially for the developing technology of nonaxisymmetric (2D) nozzles for future aircraft applications. Several promising 2D nozzle designs have external expansion surfaces which need to be cooled. Engine data are scarce, however, on nozzle cooling effectiveness in the supersonic flow environment (with shocks) that exists along external expansion surfaces. This paper will present experimental film cooling data obtained during exploratory testing with an axisymmetric plug nozzle having external expansion and installed on an afterburning turbojet engine in an altitude test facility. The data obtained shows that the shocks and local hot gas stream conditions have a marked effect on film cooling effectiveness. An existing film cooling correlation is adequate at some operating conditions but inadequate at other conditions such as in separated flow regions resulting from shock-boundary-layer interactions.

  20. Effects of the number of inducer blades on the anti-cavitation characteristics and external performance of a centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, XiaoMei; Shi, GaoPing; Zhu, ZuChao; Cui, BaoLing

    2016-01-01

    Installing an inducer upstream of the main impeller is an effective approach for improving the anti-cavitation performance of a high speed centrifugal pump. For a high-speed centrifugal pump with an inducer, the number of inducer blades can affect its internal flow and external performance. We studied the manner in which the number of inducer blades can affect the anti-cavitation characteristics and external performance of a centrifugal pump. We first use the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and the mixture model to simulate the vapor liquid flow in a centrifugal pump with an inducer, and then predict its external performance. Finally, we tested the external performance of a centrifugal pump with 2-, 3- and 4-bladed inducers, respectively. The results show that the simulations of external performance in a centrifugal pump are in accordance with our experiments. Based on this, we obtained vapor volume fraction distributions for the inducer, the impeller, and in the corresponding whole flow parts. We discovered that the vapor volume fraction of a centrifugal pump with a 3- bladed inducer is less than that of a centrifugal pump with 2- or 4-bladed inducers, which means that a centrifugal pump with a 3-bladed inducer has a better external and anti-cavitation performance.

  1. The effect of the external medium on the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in Chara corallina (Characeae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    Gravity induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in vertical internodal cells of Chara such that the downwardly directed stream moves faster than the upwardly directed stream. In order to determine whether the statolith theory (in which intracellular sedimenting particles are responsible for gravity sensing) or the gravitational pressure theory (in which the entire protoplast acts as the gravity sensor) best explain the gravity response in Chara internodal cells, we controlled the physical properties of the external medium, including density and osmolarity, with impermeant solutes and examined the effect on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. As the density of the external medium is increased, the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming decreases and finally disappears when the density of the external medium is equal to that of the cell (1015 kg/m3). A further increase in the density of the external medium causes a reversal of the gravity response. These results are consistent with the gravitational pressure theory of gravity sensing since the buoyancy of the protoplast is dependent on the difference between the density of the protoplast and the external medium, and are inconsistent with the statolith theory since the buoyancy of intracellular particles are unaffected by changes in the external medium.

  2. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  3. The effects of the integration of external and internal communication features in digital magazines on consumers' magazine attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwers, F.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Neijens, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of external and internal communication features on consumers' digital magazine attitude, and the processes (i.e., perceived interactivity and social presence) underlying these effects. Both feature types enable communication between two or more people. Though, in

  4. Early effects of external gamma irradiation on iodide metabolism in rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niatsetskaya, Z.; Nadolnik, L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The exposure of the thyroid gland to therapeutic doses of external gamma irradiation is frequently associated with thyroid dysfunction. Although late irradiation effects are well documented, little is still known about the early functional alterations in the thyroid subjected to radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the early effect of single external gamma irradiation on iodide metabolism in the thyroid. The Wistar female rats were irradiated using a 60 Co installation with a constant capacity of 0.64 Gy/min. The doses used were 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 Gy. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours following the irradiation. T he thyroid organ culture was cultivated during 24 h and than was irradiated with a single dose of 5 Gy. The thyroid tissue was assayed for thyro-peroxidase activity and concentrations of total, free and protein -binding iodide. It was shown that the 0.25 Gy irradiation depressed thyroid iodide uptake, which was manifested in decreasing total iodide by 25%. The same tendency was observed after the 0.5 Gy irradiation. In the 1, 2, 5 Gy groups, the concentrations of total and free iodide increased by 26 -34% and 50-68%, accordingly. The level of protein-binding iodide in these groups was within the control values. However, protein-binding/total iodide and protein binding/ free iodide ratios decreased by 17 -41%, suggesting inhibition of thyroglobulin iodination. Thyro-peroxidase (T.P.O.) plays a key role in thyroid hormone synthesis by catalyzing both the iodination of thyroglobulin and the coupling some of the iodo-tyrosyl residues. After 24 hours on irradiation, a 31.5-54% dose-dependent inhibition of T.P.O. activity was shown in the 1, 2 and 5 Gy groups. The irradiation of the rat thyroid organ culture with a single dose of 5 Gy also led to significant inhibition of T.P.O. by 56.91% after 2 hours. We compared the enzyme kinetics of thyro-peroxidase from thyroid microsomal fraction control and

  5. Biological effectiveness of /sup 67/Ga relative to external x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Govelitz, G.F.; Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of electron-capture decay, /sup 67/Ga emits several low energy electrons. The dosimetry of such Auger-emitters in vivo is of considerable interest. The effects of /sup 67/Ga-citrate are investigated using gametogenesis in male and female mice as the experimental models. Spermatogonial cells in mouse testes and primary oocytes in mouse ovary are very sensitive to radiation. Damage caused to spermatogonial cells can be observed as reduced number of sperm heads after a defined period of time, whereas the reduction in the primary oocytes can be readily counted following simple histological procedures. The sperm head survival curve with internally administered /sup 67/Ga-citrate gave a D/sub o/ value of 42 cGy. This value for primary oocyte survival is found to be 4.5 cGy. With external 120 kVp X-rays, the corresponding D/sub o/ values are 67 cGy for the testis and 8.5 cGy for the ovary. The values of relative biological effectiveness are therefore 1.6 and 1.9 respectively. These observed higher RBE values suggest that the conventional MIRD procedure to calculate the absorbed doses is insufficient and the localized deposition of energy at the cellular level must be taken into consideration

  6. Predicted VO2max and effectiveness of external chest compression by Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Leo S T; Jones, Alice Y M; Rainer, Timothy H

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the influence of sex and body position on external chest compression (ECC) to a manikin by Chinese nurses and to determine the relationship between rescuer's predicted VO2max and ECC depth. A total of 40 nurses performed ECC on a manikin for 5 min in the standing (S) and bed-mount kneeling (K) position, then completed a Chester step-test, in 3 separate days. The rate and depth of compressions and oxygen consumption during ECC were measured. Mean compression rate recorded was above 100/min in both positions throughout ECC. Mean compression depth for male participants was more than 38 mm for 5 min in the K-position but only 3 min in the S-position. Female participants achieved this compression depth for less than 90 s in the K-position but not at all in the S-position. Irrespective of sex, the K-position appears to facilitate effective ECC. The relationship between aerobic fitness of female nurses and their ability to perform effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation warrants further investigation.

  7. Internal and external cooling methods and their effect on body temperature, thermal perception and dexterity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Maley

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity.Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON (34°C, 58% relative humidity. The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0, phase change cooling vest melting at 14°C (CV14, evaporative cooling vest (CVEV, arm immersion in 10°C water (AI, portable water-perfused suit (WPS, heliox inhalation (HE and ice slushy ingestion (SL. Immediately before and after cooling, participants were assessed for fine (Purdue pegboard task and gross (grip and pinch strength manual dexterity. Rectal and skin temperature, as well as thermal sensation and comfort, were monitored throughout.Compared with CON, SL was the only method to reduce rectal temperature (P = 0.012. All externally applied cooling methods reduced skin temperature (P0.05.The present study observed that ice ingestion or ice applied to the skin produced the greatest effect on rectal and skin temperature, respectively. AI should not be utilised if workers require subsequent fine manual dexterity. These results will help inform future studies investigating appropriate pre-cooling methods for the occupational worker.

  8. Internal and external cooling methods and their effect on body temperature, thermal perception and dexterity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Geoffrey M.; Bach, Aaron J. E.; Zietek, Stephanie A.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Stewart, Ian B.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity. Methods Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON) (34°C, 58% relative humidity). The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0), phase change cooling vest melting at 14°C (CV14), evaporative cooling vest (CVEV), arm immersion in 10°C water (AI), portable water-perfused suit (WPS), heliox inhalation (HE) and ice slushy ingestion (SL). Immediately before and after cooling, participants were assessed for fine (Purdue pegboard task) and gross (grip and pinch strength) manual dexterity. Rectal and skin temperature, as well as thermal sensation and comfort, were monitored throughout. Results Compared with CON, SL was the only method to reduce rectal temperature (P = 0.012). All externally applied cooling methods reduced skin temperature (Ptemperature versus other cooling methods. Participants felt cooler with CV0, CV14, WPS, AI and SL (P0.05). Conclusion The present study observed that ice ingestion or ice applied to the skin produced the greatest effect on rectal and skin temperature, respectively. AI should not be utilised if workers require subsequent fine manual dexterity. These results will help inform future studies investigating appropriate pre-cooling methods for the occupational worker. PMID:29357373

  9. Butterfly effect and holographic mutual information under external field and spatial noncommutativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wung-Hong; Du, Yi-Hsien [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University,No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-07

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  10. Social costs of energy consumption. External effects of electricity consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany. Soziale Kosten des Energieverbrauchs. Externe Effekte des Elektrizitaetsverbrauchs in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmeyer, O

    1988-01-01

    This study provides a first systematic quantification and conversion into monetary terms of the relevant social costs and benefits, in order to create a basis for corrective measures with respect to the use of wind power and the photovoltaic use of solar energy. Four main areas of social costs of energy systems are looked at in the study: Environmental costs, including the effect on human health. Inadequate consideration of the long-term shortage of resources in present-day market prices. Macroeconomic effects such as changes in the net product or employment. Subsidies via state agencies, which are made partly in the form of direct payments and partly in an indirect way in the form of state services. State subsidies in the area of research and development can be subsumed under the last point. In each of these main fields there is a multiplicity of separate external effects which are dealt with at length in a special chapter. (orig./UA) With 20 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Adaptive plasticity in speech perception: Effects of external information and internal predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, Sara; Fiez, Julie A; Holt, Lori L

    2016-07-01

    When listeners encounter speech under adverse listening conditions, adaptive adjustments in perception can improve comprehension over time. In some cases, these adaptive changes require the presence of external information that disambiguates the distorted speech signals, whereas in other cases mere exposure is sufficient. Both external (e.g., written feedback) and internal (e.g., prior word knowledge) sources of information can be used to generate predictions about the correct mapping of a distorted speech signal. We hypothesize that these predictions provide a basis for determining the discrepancy between the expected and actual speech signal that can be used to guide adaptive changes in perception. This study provides the first empirical investigation that manipulates external and internal factors through (a) the availability of explicit external disambiguating information via the presence or absence of postresponse orthographic information paired with a repetition of the degraded stimulus, and (b) the accuracy of internally generated predictions; an acoustic distortion is introduced either abruptly or incrementally. The results demonstrate that the impact of external information on adaptive plasticity is contingent upon whether the intelligibility of the stimuli permits accurate internally generated predictions during exposure. External information sources enhance adaptive plasticity only when input signals are severely degraded and cannot reliably access internal predictions. This is consistent with a computational framework for adaptive plasticity in which error-driven supervised learning relies on the ability to compute sensory prediction error signals from both internal and external sources of information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Corvino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers small-sided handball games (each repeated twice. The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE. Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s-1 highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70 and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73 and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51 speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69 with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities, the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m, a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES. The rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher during the drill with the 32×16m court compared with the 24

  13. Specifics of heat and mass transfer in spherical dimples under the effect of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, A. V.; Il'inkov, A. V.; Takmovtsev, V. V.; Khabibullin, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    The specifics are examined of heat transfer enhancement with spherical dimples under the effect of factors important for practice and characteristic of cooling systems of gas-turbine engines and power units. This experimental investigation deals with the effect of the following factors on the flow in a channel with hemispherical dimples: continuous air swirl in an annulus with dimples on its concave wall, dimples on the convex or concave wall of a curved rectangular channel, imposition of regular velocity fluctuations on the external flow in a straight rectangular channel, and adverse or favorable pressure gradient along the flow direction. The flow is turbulent. Reynolds numbers based on the channel hydraulic diameter are on the order of 104. Results of the investigation of a model of a two-cavity diffuser dimple proposed by the authors are presented. It has been found that results for channels with spherical dimples and for smooth channels differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, if the effect of centrifugal mass forces on convex and concave surfaces with hemispherical dimples and in a smooth channel is almost the same (quantitative and qualitative indicators are identical), the pressure gradient in the flow direction brings about the drastically opposite results. At the same time, the quantitative contribution to a change in heat transfer in hemispherical dimples is different and depends on the impact type. The results are discussed with the use of physical models created on the basis of the results of flow visualization studies and data on the turbulence intensity, pressure coefficient, etc. Results of the investigations suggest that application of spherical dimples under nonstandard conditions requires the calculated heat transfer to be corrected to account for one or another effect.

  14. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. Key points To cover the specific game demands, more

  15. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. Key pointsTo cover the specific game demands, more

  16. Protection against external impacts and missiles - Load assumption and effects on the plant design of a 1300 MW PWR-Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremm, O.; Orth, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    The load assumptions and effects of the external impacts are given. The fundamental properties of the KWU standard design according to these impacts and the consequences for the engineering safeguards are explained. The protection against external impacts includes the protection against all external missiles. The basic measure of protection against internal missiles is the strict separation of redundancies. (author)

  17. Effects of external loads on postural sway during quiet stance in adults aged 20-80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M W; Duncan, M J; Oxford, S W; Kay, A D; Price, M J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of holding external loads on postural sway during upright stance across age decades. Sixty-five healthy adults (females, n = 35), aged 18-80 years were assessed in four conditions; (1) standing without holding a load, holding a load corresponding to 5% body mass in the (2) left hand, (3) right hand and (4) both hands. The centre of pressure (COP) path length and anteroposterior and mediolateral COP displacement were used to indirectly assess postural sway. External loading elicited reductions in COP measures of postural sway in older age groups only (P  0.05). Holding external loads during standing is relevant to many activities of daily living (i.e. holding groceries). The reduction in postural sway may suggest this type of loading has a stabilising effect during quiet standing among older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitivity to psychosocial chronic stressors and adolescents' externalizing problems: Combined moderator effects of resting heart rate and parental psychiatric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Ormel, Johan; Dietrich, Andrea; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2018-04-01

    From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining these inconsistencies. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1914 subjects, obtained in three measurement waves (mean age 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey population-based cohort and the parallel clinic-referred cohort. As hypothesized, more chronic stressors predicted more externalizing problems in vulnerable individuals with high resting HR but not in those with low resting HR, suggesting high vs. low sensitivity, respectively, to adverse environmental influences. Low sensitivity to adverse environmental influences in vulnerable individuals exposed to high stressor levels was additionally confirmed by high heart rate variability (Root Mean Squared Successive Difference; RMSSD). In adolescents with low vulnerability, in contrast, the association between chronic stressors and externalizing problems did not substantially differ by resting HR and RMSSD. Future research may demonstrate whether our findings extend to other adverse, or beneficial, influences. Notwithstanding their theoretical interest, the effects were small, only pertained to parent-reported externalizing problems, refer to a small subset of respondents in our sample, and are in need of replication. We conclude that HR and RMSSD are unlikely to be strong moderators of the association between stressors and externalizing problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects on foot external rotation of the modified ankle-foot orthosis on post-stroke hemiparetic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Hong Min; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of heel-opened ankle foot orthosis (HOAFO) on hemiparetic gait after stroke, especially on external foot rotation, and to compare the effects of HOAFO with conventional plastic-AFO (pAFO) and barefoot during gait. This cross-over observational study involved 15 hemiparetic patients with external rotation of the affected foot. All subjects were able to walk independently, regardless of their usual use of a single cane, and had a less than fair-grade in ankle dorsiflexion power. Each patient was asked to walk in three conditions with randomized sequences: 1) barefoot, 2) with a pAFO, and 3) with an HOAFO. Their gait patterns were analyzed using a motion analysis system. Fifteen patients consisted of nine males and six females. On gait analysis, hip and foot external rotation were significantly greater in pAFO (-3.35° and -23.68°) than in barefoot and HOAFO conditions (pexternal rotation compared with pAFO; although there was no significant difference between HOAFO and barefoot walking. Walking speed and percentage of single limb support were significantly greater for HOAFO than in barefoot walking. HOAFO was superior to pAFO in reducing hip and foot external rotation during the stance phase in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. HOAFO may, therefore, be useful in patients with excessive external rotation of the foot during conventional pAFO.

  20. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solid state with organic molecules through host-guest interactions with unique ... for separation of compounds and extraction processes.2. CDs are very attractive ... of external electric field on hydrogen adsorption over activated carbon sepa-.

  1. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: The Effects of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation of Gifted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brenda T.

    1985-01-01

    E. Deci's cognitive evaluation theory, which suggests that external rewards undermine intrinsic interest in an activity, is applied to the decline of instrinsic motivation in gifted students. Implications for feedback, rewards, and teacher role are noted. (CL)

  2. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, B.; Cavalié, I.; Pereira, S.; Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  3. Valuing external effects of carbon sink in ley production for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aengquist, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, an attempt is made to calculate the external effects of carbon sink in soil and biomass on land use for ley production. A crop production including ley is compared with the energy obtained from the forest and other crop outputs without ley. Ley production occupies a larger portion of the carbon sink into the soil than the energy obtained either from the forest or from crop production without ley. Considering the amount of energy obtained from living materials, the portion gained from the forest covers a larger sink than the two other crop systems. A carbon sink, which keeps the carbon away from the atmosphere, helps reduce the greenhouse effect. Hence, the value of this effect is calculated by following the overall cost-benefit analysis principles. Furthermore, as the carbon sink will be in use for a very long time, the analysis also covers the issue, importance and choice of discounting rates. Accordingly, it is argued that the social discount rate should be the same as the expected economic growth rate for the actual period in question. For instance, during the last 20 years, the growth rate has been less than 2% per year. From this rate one must subtract environmental costs which were not included in the GDP. Likewise, including the logistic discount rate, the future growth rate may be restricted by environmental legislations. In addition to the choice of social and logistic discount rates, different valuation methods are also discussed. The Swedish Parliament's target for stabilizing the emission rate of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 to the level of 1990 is taken as a basis for valuation. The marginal cost for reaching this target is used as a main valuation method and is calculated at the rate of 0.386 SEK/kg carbon dioxide. 38 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  4. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  5. Effectiveness of External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) strategy for APR1400 and issues of phenomenological uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.J.; Kim, H.T.

    2007-01-01

    The APR1400(Advanced Power Reactor 1400) is an evolutionary advanced light water reactor with rated thermal power of 4000 MWt. For APR1400, External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) is adopted as a primary severe accident management strategy for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium. The ERVC is a method of IVR by submerging the reactor vessel exterior. At the early stage of the APR1400 design, only ex-vessel cooling, cooling of the core melt outside the vessel after vessel is breached, is considered based on the EPRI Utility Requirement Document for Evolutionary LWR. However, based on the progress in implementation of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) for operating plants, as well as the research findings related to ERVC, ERVC strategy is adopted as a part of key severe accident management strategies. To improve its success, the strategy is reviewed and we implemented necessary design arrangement to increase its usefulness in managing the severe accident. In this paper, we examine the evolution of ERVC concept and its implementation in APR1400. Then, we review possible approach, including Risk-Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy. (authors)

  6. Effect of external stress on deuteride (hydride) precipitation in Zircaloy-4 using in situ neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jun-li [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); An, Ke; Stoica, Alexandru D. [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Heuser, Brent J., E-mail: bheuser@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    In situ neutron diffraction is utilized to study the deuteride (hydride) precipitation behavior in a cold-worked stress-relieved (CWSR) Zircaloy-4 material upon cooling from 420 °C to room temperature with a 78 MPa external stress applied along the rolling direction (RD) of the material. Two banks detector capture the diffraction signal from two principal directions of the specimen, the normal direction (ND) and the rolling direction (RD). The evolution of deuterium concentration in zirconium solid solution along the two specimen directions is measured by studying the δ-(220) peak intensity, applying the Rietveld refinement method to the diffraction data and using the measured zirconium c-axis lattice distortion. The deuterium concentration is observed to be higher for zirconium grains in the ND than the RD. The terminal solid solubility of precipitation (TSSp) for deuterium in the solution is then described using the Arrhenius equation. It is observed that the applied stress reduces the energy term Q in the Arrhenius equation when compared with the unstressed Q values from the work of others. A model by Puls is applied to study the effect of stress on deuterium solubility, with polycrystalline hydride precipitation strain calculated using the Kearns factor representative of the studied material. The experimental result does not agree with the model prediction of Puls.

  7. External tank chill effect on the space transportation system launch pad environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R. A.; Boraas, S.

    1991-01-01

    The external tank (ET) of the STS contains liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as oxidizer and fuel for the SSMEs. Once the cryogen have been loaded into the ET, the temperature of the air surrounding the STS is chilled by the cold outer surface of the ET. This paper describes a two-dimensional flow and thermal analysis to determine this chill effect on the STS launch pad environment subsequent to the ET loading operation. The analysis was done assuming winter conditions and a northwest wind direction. An existing CFD code, PHOENICS '81, was used in the study. The results are presented as local and average values of the heat transfer coefficient, the Nusselt number, and the surface temperature around the redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRMs) and the ET. The temperature depression caused by the ET chilling of the air in the vicinity of the RSRMs was calculated to be 3 F below the ambient. This compares with the observed 1-2 F RSRM surface temperature depression based upon measurements made prior to the winter flight of STS-29. Since the surface temperature would be expected to be slightly higher than the local air temperature, the predicted temperature depression of the air appears to be substantiated.

  8. On modelling adiabatic N-soliton interactions and perturbations. Effects of external potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdjikov, V.; Baizakov, B.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze several perturbed versions of the complex Toda chain (CTC) in an attempt to describe the adiabatic N-soliton train interactions of the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS). Particular types of perturbations, including quadratic and periodic external potentials are treated by both analytical and numerical means. We show that the perturbed CTC model provides a good description for the N-soliton interactions in the presence of a weak external potential. (authors)

  9. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan M; Macario, Alex; Carvalho, Brendan; Druzin, Maurice L; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2010-01-21

    External cephalic version (ECV) is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc.) was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery), utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) was used to determine cost-effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion to breech, successful second ECV trial, or adverse

  10. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External cephalic version (ECV is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. Methods A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc. was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery, utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY was used to determine cost-effectiveness. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion

  11. Effects of low-dose fractionated external irradiation on metabolic and structural characteristics of rat thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadolnik, L.; Niatsetskaya, Z. [Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Grodno (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The problem of thyroid radiosensitivity to the effect of low dose external ionizing irradiation presently seems to be the least studied, and the experimental findings - the most contradictory. The aim of the work was to study the effects of long-term low-dose fractionated irradiation on the iodide metabolism and structure of the thyroid. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-160 g were irradiated 20 times (5 times a week, for 4 weeks) using a 60 Co installation. The single absorbed doses were 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy and the total ones - 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 Gy, respectively. The animals were decapitated after 1 day, 4 and 24 weeks following the last irradiation. The thyroid tissue was used to assay for thyro-peroxidase (T.P.O.) activity as well as total, protein -bound and free iodide concentrations. Microscopic and morphometric examination of histologic thyroid preparations was carried out. Blood was assayed for thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. After a day following the irradiation, the thyroid showed a pronounced increase in the concentration of total iodide (30.0-54.4%) as well in that of free (32.1-60.8%) and protein-bound ones (24.4-37.4%). The most pronounced iodide concentration elevation was noted in the 0.1 -Gy animals, with thyroid T.P.O. activity being raised by 48.0%. Only the 0.5 Gy-group had 1.4-1.5-fold reduced thyroid hormone levels. Four weeks after the irradiation, studied parameters of irradiated rats were brought back to the control values, except for the 0.5 Gy-group. However, after 24-weeks, the 0.5-and 0.25- irradiated rats experienced a 12-20% thyroid weight elevation in comparison with the control. The thyroid of these animals demonstrated reduced contents of total and free iodide as well as T.P.O. activity by 24.5 and 34.8%. The 0.1 Gy-group had a 1.7-fold increased T.P.O. activity. The concentration of the thyroid hormones was maintained diminished only in the 0.5 Gy -irradiated group. However

  12. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of external nitrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Granato, T. C.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic cultures containing 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- was measured daily during a 24-d period of vegetative development to determine if amplitude of maximum and minimum rates of net NO3- uptake are responsive to external concentrations of NO3-. Removal of NO3- from the replenished solutions during each 24-h period was determined by ion chromatography. Neither dry matter accumulation nor the periodicity of oscillations in net uptake rate was altered by the external NO3- concentrations. The maxima of the oscillations in net uptake rate, however, increased nearly 3-fold in response to external NO3- concentrations. The maxima and minima, respectively, changed from 4.0 and 0.6 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 0.5 mol m-3 NO3- to 15.2 and -2.7 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 10.0 mol m-3 NO3-. The negative values for minimum net uptake rate from 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- solutions show that net efflux was occurring and indicate that the magnitude of the efflux component of net uptake was responsive to external concentration of NO3-.

  13. Effects of oral rehydration and external cooling on physiology, perception, and performance in hot, dry climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C X; Carney, K R; Schick, M K; Coburn, J W; Becker, A J; Judelson, D A

    2012-12-01

    Only limited research evaluates possible benefits of combined drinking and external cooling (by pouring cold water over the body) during exercise. Therefore, this study examined cold water drinking and external cooling on physiological, perceptual, and performance variables in hot, dry environments. Ten male runners completed four trials of walking 90 min at 30% VO(2max) followed by running a 5-km time trial in 33 ± 1 °C and 30 ± 4% relative humidity. Trials examined no intervention (CON), oral rehydration (OR), external cooling (EC), and oral rehydration plus external cooling (OR + EC). Investigators measured rectal temperature, skin temperatures, heart rate, thirst, thermal sensation, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Oral rehydration (OR and OR + EC) significantly lowered heart rate (P External cooling (EC and OR + EC) significantly reduced chest and thigh temperature (P external cooling (CON and OR) during low-intensity exercise. Performance exhibited no differences (CON = 23.86 ± 4.57 min, OR = 22.74 ± 3.20 min, EC = 22.96 ± 3.11 min, OR + EC = 22.64 ± 3.73 min, P = 0.379). Independent of OR, pouring cold water on the body benefited skin temperature, thermal sensation, and RPE during low-intensity exercise in hot, dry conditions but failed to influence high-intensity performance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. The effect of low ceiling on the external combustion of the cabin fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shichuan; Chen, Changyun; Wang, Liang; Wei, Chengyin; Cui, Haibing; Guo, Chengyu

    2018-06-01

    External combustion is a phenomenon where the flame flares out of the window and burns outside. Because of the particularity of the ship's cabin structure, there is a great danger in the external combustion. In this paper, the numerical calculation and analysis of three kinds of low ceiling ship cabin fire are analyzed based on the large eddy numerical simulation technique. Through the analysis of temperature, flue gas velocity, heat flux density and so on, the external combustion phenomenon of fire development is calculated. The results show that when external combustion occurs, the amount of fuel escaping decreases with the roof height. The temperature above the window increases with the height of the ceiling. The heat flux density in the external combustion flame is mainly provided by radiation, and convection is only a small part; In the plume area there is a time period, in this time period, the convective heat flux density is greater than the radiation heat flux, this time with the ceiling height increases. No matter which ceiling height, the external combustion will seriously damage the structure of the ship after a certain period of time. The velocity distribution of the three roof is similar, but with the height of the ceiling, the area size is also increasing.

  15. Effect of in-core instrumentation mounting location on external reactor vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jungsoo; Ha, Huiun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations were conducted for the evaluation of an IVR-ERVC application. • The ULPU-V experiment was simulated for the validation of numerical method. • The effect of ICI mounting location on an IVR-ERVC application was investigated. • TM-ICI is founded to be superior to BM-ICI for successful application of IVR-ERVC. - Abstract: The effect of in-core instrumentation (ICI) mounting location on the application of in-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC), used to mitigate severe accidents in which the nuclear fuel inside the reactor vessel becomes molten, was investigated. Numerical simulations of the subcooled boiling flow within an advanced pressurized-water reactor (PWR) in IVR-ERVC applications were conducted for the cases of top-mounted ICI (TM-ICI) and bottom-mounted ICI (BM-ICI), using the commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX. Shear stress transport (SST) and the RPI model were used for turbulence closure and subcooled flow boiling, respectively. To validate the numerical method for IVR applications, numerical simulations of ULPU-V experiments were also conducted. The BM-ICI reactor vessel was modeled using a simplified design of an advanced PWR with BM-ICI; the TM-ICI counterpart was modeled by removing the ICI parts from the original geometry. It was found that TM-ICI was superior to BM-ICI for successful application of IVR-ERVC. For the BM-ICI case, the flow field was complicated because of the existence of ICIs and a significant temperature gradient was observed near the ICI nozzles on the lower part of the reactor vessel, where the ICIs were attached. These observations suggest that the existence of ICI below the reactor vessel hinders reactor vessel cooling.

  16. Prevalence of diabetes treatment effect modifiers: the external validity of trials to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carlos O; Boyd, Cynthia M; Wolff, Jennifer L; Leff, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    Potential treatment effect modifiers (TEMs) are specific diseases or conditions with a well-described mechanism for treatment effect modification. The prevalence of TEMs in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Objectives were to 1) determine the prevalence of pre-specified potential TEMs; 2) demonstrate the potential impact of TEMs in the older adult population using a simulated trial; 3) identify TEM combinations associated with number of hospitalizations to test construct validity. Data are from the nationally-representative United States National Health and Examination Survey, 1999-2004: 8646 Civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged 45-64 or 65+ years, including 1443 with DM. TEMs were anemia, congestive heart failure, liver inflammation, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency, cognitive impairment, dizziness, frequent mental distress, mobility difficulty, and visual impairment. A trial was simulated to examine prevalence of potential TEM impact. The cross-sectional association between TEM patterns and number of hospitalizations was estimated to assess construct validity. The prevalence of TEMs was substantial such that 19.0% (95% CI 14.8-23.2) of middle-aged adults and 38.0% (95% CI 33.4-42.5) of older adults had any two. A simulated trial with modest levels of interaction suggested the prevalence of TEMs could nullify treatment benefit in 3.9-27.2% of older adults with DM. Compared to having DM alone, hospitalization rate was increased by several combinations of TEMs with substantial prevalence. We provide national benchmarks that can be used to evaluate TEM prevalence reported by clinical trials of DM, and correspondingly their external validity to older adults.

  17. Practical Coupled Resonators in Domino Arrangements for Power Transmission and Distribution: Replacing Step-Down Power Transformers and Their Branches across the Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the potential of replacing step-down power transformers of the entire power grid as well as part of their transmission line branches with wireless power transfer (WPT technology components. Exploiting the state-of-the-art evolutions in the fields of WPT technology, coupled resonators in domino arrangements—domino coupled resonator (DCR configurations—are proposed as suitable technological substitute for step-down power transformers and are investigated in terms of performance metrics such as power transfer efficiency (PTE and transformation ratio (TR. The contribution of this paper is fivefold. First, an analytical theoretical analysis appropriate to the study of practical DCR configurations is demonstrated. In order to support the DCR configuration replacement venture, a detailed set of assumptions regarding efficient mid- and long-range high-power WPTs as well as related technical issues is first presented. The validity of the theoretical analysis is verified through experimental measurements. Second, applying the proposed theoretical analysis, a wealth of system parameters that mainly influences the PTE and TR of DCR configurations is identified. Their quantitative effect as well as corresponding DCR configuration adjustments are first presented. Third, an approximate method, denoted as approximate chain scattering matrix (CSM method, is first introduced. Based on the scattering matrix theory formalism, the approximate CSM method is suitable for mid- and long-range DCR configurations when the theoretical analysis becomes computationally slow. The numerical results of approximate CSM method are compared with the respective ones of theoretical analysis validating the extent and the accuracy of approximate CSM method. Fourth, the potential of power transformer replacement with practical DCR configurations is thoroughly investigated in terms of their TRs. A plethora of high-voltage/medium-voltage (HV/MV, MV

  18. Risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip in breech presentation: the effect of successful external cephalic version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeek, A. F.; de Hundt, M.; Vlemmix, F.; Akerboom, B. M. C.; Bais, J. M. J.; Papatsonis, D. N. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Kok, M. [=Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of successful external cephalic version on the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) requiring treatment in singleton breech presentation at term. Observational cohort study. Three large teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Women with a singleton breech

  19. The mond external field effect on the dynamics of the globular clusters: general considerations and application to NGC 2419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derakhshani, Kamran, E-mail: kderakhshani@iasbs.ac.ir [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P. O. Box 45195-1159 Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the external field effect in the context of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) on the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of globular clusters (GCs). Using N-MODY, which is an N-body simulation code with a MOND potential solver, we show that the general effect of the external field for diffuse clusters, which obey MOND in most of their parts, is that it pushes the dynamics toward the Newtonian regime. On the other hand, for more compact clusters, which are essentially Newtonian in their inner parts, the external field is effective mainly in the outer parts of compact clusters. As a case study, we then choose the remote Galactic GC NGC 2419. By varying the cluster mass, half-light radius, and mass-to-light ratio, we aim to find a model that will reproduce the observational data most effectively, using N-MODY. We find that even if we take the Galactic external field into account, a Newtonian Plummer sphere represents the observational data better than MOND to an order of magnitude in terms of the total χ{sup 2} of surface brightness and velocity dispersion.

  20. The mond external field effect on the dynamics of the globular clusters: general considerations and application to NGC 2419

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the external field effect in the context of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) on the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of globular clusters (GCs). Using N-MODY, which is an N-body simulation code with a MOND potential solver, we show that the general effect of the external field for diffuse clusters, which obey MOND in most of their parts, is that it pushes the dynamics toward the Newtonian regime. On the other hand, for more compact clusters, which are essentially Newtonian in their inner parts, the external field is effective mainly in the outer parts of compact clusters. As a case study, we then choose the remote Galactic GC NGC 2419. By varying the cluster mass, half-light radius, and mass-to-light ratio, we aim to find a model that will reproduce the observational data most effectively, using N-MODY. We find that even if we take the Galactic external field into account, a Newtonian Plummer sphere represents the observational data better than MOND to an order of magnitude in terms of the total χ 2 of surface brightness and velocity dispersion.

  1. The Mediation Effects of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Emotional Regulation on Children's Perceived Parental Conflict and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-yeon; Wesbecher, Kristen; Lee, Mihwa; Lee, Jeeyon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediational effects of dysfunctional beliefs and difficulties in emotional regulation on children's perception of interparental conflict and subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. The participants in this study were 335 fifth grade elementary school students in Korea. We hypothesized that…

  2. An experimental study of the effect of external turbulence on the decay of a single vortex and a vortex pair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld, J.P.J.; Holten, A.P.C.; Elsenaar, A.; Trieling, R.R.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with the effect of external turbulence on the decay of vortices. Single vortices and vortex pairs were generated with wing(s) mounted in the sidewalls of a wind tunnel. The distance between the two vortices could be adjusted such that they just touched each other or

  3. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy on Externalizing Behavior Problems Among Street and Working Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Ghodousi

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: It seems that one of the effective ways to lessen externalizing behavior problems among street and working children is cognitive-behavioral play therapy; therefore, coaches and teachers of such children are recommended to make use of this method to lower their behavioral problems. 

  4. Sensitivity to psychosocial chronic stressors and adolescents’ externalizing problems : Combined moderator effects of resting heart rate and parental psychiatric history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, A.R.E.; Ormel, J.; Dietrich, A.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.

    2018-01-01

    From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining

  5. The Effects of Idealized and Grounded Materials on Learning, Transfer, and Interest: An Organizing Framework for Categorizing External Knowledge Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Daniel M.; Schalk, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Research in both cognitive and educational psychology has explored the effect of different types of external knowledge representations (e.g., manipulatives, graphical/pictorial representations, texts) on a variety of important outcome measures. We place this large and multifaceted research literature into an organizing framework, classifying three…

  6. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kal, E. C.; van der Kamp, J.; Houdijk, H.; Groet, E.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients' automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects),

  7. External influences on agro-enterprise innovation platforms in Benin, Ghana and Mali – Options for effective responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essegbey, George O.; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Kossou, Dansou; Ouologuem, Bara; Dembele, Fidiala; Adu-Acheampong, Richard; Jiggins, Janice

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses external influences on innovation platforms (IPs) and the options for effective responses. The platforms examined in this paper were conceived as vehicles for facilitating institutional change in support of innovation that benefits smallholders, in selected agro-enterprise

  8. The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

  9. SOILD: A computer model for calculating the effective dose equivalent from external exposure to distributed gamma sources in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.; Yu, C.; Schafetz, S.; Mehta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The SOLID computer model was developed for calculating the effective dose equivalent from external exposure to distributed gamma sources in soil. It is designed to assess external doses under various exposure scenarios that may be encountered in environmental restoration programs. The models four major functional features address (1) dose versus source depth in soil, (2) shielding of clean cover soil, (3) area of contamination, and (4) nonuniform distribution of sources. The model is also capable of adjusting doses when there are variations in soil densities for both source and cover soils. The model is supported by a data base of approximately 500 radionuclides. 4 refs

  10. Effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L R; Jin, C X; Yan, J; Han, S Z; He, X B; Yang, X F

    2015-03-31

    This study compared the efficacy between external fixator combined with palmar T-plate internal fixation and simple plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures. A total of 61 patients classified as type C according to the AO/ASIF classification underwent surgery for comminuted distal radius fractures. There were 54 and 7 cases of closed and open fractures, respectively. Moreover, 19 patients received an external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation, and 42 received simple plate internal fixation. All patients were treated successfully during 12-month postoperative follow-up. The follow-up results show that the palmar flexion and dorsiflexion of the wrist, radial height, and palmar angle were significantly better in those treated with the external fixator combined with T-plate compared to those treated with the simple plate only (P 0.05). Hence, the effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures was satisfactory. Patients sufficiently recovered wrist, forearm, and hand function. In conclusion, compared to the simple T-plate, the external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation can reduce the possibility of the postoperative re-shifting of broken bones and keep the distraction of fractures to maintain radial height and prevent radial shortening.

  11. Integration of anatomical and external response mappings explains crossing effects in tactile localization: A probabilistic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badde, Stephanie; Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    To act upon a tactile stimulus its original skin-based, anatomical spatial code has to be transformed into an external, posture-dependent reference frame, a process known as tactile remapping. When the limbs are crossed, anatomical and external location codes are in conflict, leading to a decline in tactile localization accuracy. It is unknown whether this impairment originates from the integration of the resulting external localization response with the original, anatomical one or from a failure of tactile remapping in crossed postures. We fitted probabilistic models based on these diverging accounts to the data from three tactile localization experiments. Hand crossing disturbed tactile left-right location choices in all experiments. Furthermore, the size of these crossing effects was modulated by stimulus configuration and task instructions. The best model accounted for these results by integration of the external response mapping with the original, anatomical one, while applying identical integration weights for uncrossed and crossed postures. Thus, the model explained the data without assuming failures of remapping. Moreover, performance differences across tasks were accounted for by non-individual parameter adjustments, indicating that individual participants' task adaptation results from one common functional mechanism. These results suggest that remapping is an automatic and accurate process, and that the observed localization impairments in touch result from a cognitively controlled integration process that combines anatomically and externally coded responses.

  12. Variation of heavy metals within and among feathers of birds of prey: effects of molt and external contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauwe, T.; Bervoets, L.; Pinxten, R.; Blust, R.; Eens, M

    2003-08-01

    Concentrations of many heavy metals in feathers, except Hg, did not reflect the molting sequence, suggesting external contamination. - In this study we examined the effect of external contamination on the heavy metal (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentration in feathers. We compared the heavy metal content among the 10 primary wing feathers of sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), little owls (Athene nocta) and barn owls (Tyto alba) and the variation within the outermost tail feather of sparrowhawks and tawny owls (Strix aluco). The concentration of Hg was significantly higher in feathers molted first, suggesting that levels in feathers reflect levels in the blood during formation. For some other elements (Al, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn) on the other hand, there are strong indications that external contamination may have an important impact on the levels detected in the feathers. This should be taken into account in future monitoring studies.

  13. Effects of External Stimuli on Microstructure-Property Relationship at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoming

    The technical contribution of this research is a unique nanofabricated experimental setup that integrates nanoscale specimens with tools for interrogating mechanical (stress-strain, fracture, and fatigue), thermal and electrical (conductivity) properties as function of external stimuli such as strain, temperature, electrical field and radiation. It addresses the shortcomings of the state of the art characterization techniques, which are yet to perform such simultaneous and multi-domain measurements. Our technique has virtually no restriction on specimen material type and thickness, which makes the setup versatile. It is demonstrated with 100 nm thick nickel, aluminum, zirconium; 25 nm thick molybdenum di-sulphide (MoS2), 10 nm hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) specimens and 100nm carbon nanofiber, all in freestanding thin film form. The technique is compatible with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM captures microstructural features, (defects, phases, precipitates and interfaces), diffraction patterns and chemical microanalysis in real time. 'Seeing the microstructure while measuring properties' is our unique capability. It helps identifying fundamental mechanisms behind thermo-electro-mechanical coupling and degradation, so that these mechanisms can be used to (i) explain the results obtained for mesoscale specimens of the same materials and experimental conditions and (ii) develop computational models to explain and predict properties at both nano and meso scales. The uniqueness of this contribution is therefore simultaneously quantitative and qualitative probing of length-scale dependent external stimuli effects on microstructures and physical properties of nanoscale materials. The scientific contribution of this research is the experimental validation of the fundamental hypothesis that, if the nanoscale size can cause significant deviation in a certain domain, e.g., mechanical, it can also make that domain more sensitive to external stimuli when

  14. Lopsidedness of Self-consistent Galaxies Caused by the External Field Effect of Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xufen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Wang, Yougang [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Feix, Martin [CNRS, UMR 7095 and UPMC, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Zhao, HongSheng, E-mail: xufenwu@ustc.edu.cn [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-01

    Adopting Schwarzschild’s orbit-superposition technique, we construct a series of self-consistent galaxy models, embedded in the external field of galaxy clusters in the framework of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). These models represent relatively massive ellipticals with a Hernquist radial profile at various distances from the cluster center. Using N -body simulations, we perform a first analysis of these models and their evolution. We find that self-gravitating axisymmetric density models, even under a weak external field, lose their symmetry by instability and generally evolve to triaxial configurations. A kinematic analysis suggests that the instability originates from both box and nonclassified orbits with low angular momentum. We also consider a self-consistent isolated system that is then placed in a strong external field and allowed to evolve freely. This model, just like the corresponding equilibrium model in the same external field, eventually settles to a triaxial equilibrium as well, but has a higher velocity radial anisotropy and is rounder. The presence of an external field in the MOND universe generically predicts some lopsidedness of galaxy shapes.

  15. Lopsidedness of Self-consistent Galaxies Caused by the External Field Effect of Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xufen; Wang, Yougang; Feix, Martin; Zhao, HongSheng

    2017-08-01

    Adopting Schwarzschild’s orbit-superposition technique, we construct a series of self-consistent galaxy models, embedded in the external field of galaxy clusters in the framework of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). These models represent relatively massive ellipticals with a Hernquist radial profile at various distances from the cluster center. Using N-body simulations, we perform a first analysis of these models and their evolution. We find that self-gravitating axisymmetric density models, even under a weak external field, lose their symmetry by instability and generally evolve to triaxial configurations. A kinematic analysis suggests that the instability originates from both box and nonclassified orbits with low angular momentum. We also consider a self-consistent isolated system that is then placed in a strong external field and allowed to evolve freely. This model, just like the corresponding equilibrium model in the same external field, eventually settles to a triaxial equilibrium as well, but has a higher velocity radial anisotropy and is rounder. The presence of an external field in the MOND universe generically predicts some lopsidedness of galaxy shapes.

  16. Effect of Ovality on Maximum External Pressure of Helically Coiled Steam Generator Tubes with a Rectangular Wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong In; Lim, Eun Mo; Huh, Nam Su [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Shin Beom; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    A structural integrity of steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants is one of crucial parameters for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Thus, many studies have been made to provide engineering methods to assess integrity of defective tubes of commercial nuclear power plants considering its operating environments and defect characteristics. As described above, the geometric and operating conditions of steam generator tubes in integral reactor are significantly different from those of commercial reactor. Therefore, the structural integrity assessment of defective tubes of integral reactor taking into account its own operating conditions and geometric characteristics, i. e., external pressure and helically coiled shape, should be made to demonstrate compliance with the current design criteria. Also, ovality is very specific characteristics of the helically coiled tube because it is occurred during the coiling processes. The wear, occurring from FIV (Flow Induced Vibration) and so on, is main degradation of steam generator tube. In the present study, maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with wear is predicted based on the detailed 3-dimensional finite element analysis. As for shape of wear defect, the rectangular shape is considered. In particular, the effect of ovality on the maximum external pressure of helically coiled tubes with rectangular shaped wear is investigated. In the present work, the maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with rectangular shaped wear is investigated via detailed 3-D FE analyses. In order to cover a practical range of geometries for defective tube, the variables affecting the maximum external pressure were systematically varied. In particular, the effect of tube ovality on the maximum external pressure is evaluated. It is expected that the present results can be used as a technical backgrounds for establishing a practical structural integrity assessment guideline of

  17. Sling-based Exercise for External Rotator Muscles: Effects on Shoulder Profile in Young Recreational Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Charles; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2016-12-19

    Context: Tennis playing generates specific adaptations, particularly at the dominant shoulder. It remains to be established whether shoulder strength balance can be restored by sling-based training for adolescent recreational tennis players. Objective: We added a sling-based exercise for shoulder external rotators to investigate its effects on external rotator muscle strength, on internal rotator muscle strength, on glenohumeral range of motion and on tennis serve performance. Design: Test-retest design. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Participants: Twelve adolescent male players volunteered to participate in this study (age: 13.3 ± 0.5 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.07 cm, mass: 51.7 ± 5.8 kg, International Tennis Number: 8). Intervention: The procedure spanned 10 weeks. For the first five weeks, players performed their regular training (RT) twice a week. For the last five weeks, a sling-based exercise (SE) for strengthening the shoulder external rotator muscles was added to their regular training. Main Outcome Measures: Maximal isometric strength of shoulder external and internal rotator muscles and glenohumeral range of motion in external and internal rotation were assessed in both shoulders. Serve performance was also evaluated by accuracy and post-impact ball velocity, using a radar gun. Results: No change was found in any measurement after the RT period. Significant increases in external (~+5%; pexternal/internal strength ratio (~+4%; pexternal rotator muscles appears effective in restoring strength balance at the dominant shoulder, and may prevent adolescent tennis players from sustaining degenerative shoulder problems which could later impair their performance of daily and work-related tasks.

  18. The Effectiveness of Parent Management Training-Oregon Model in Clinically Referred Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Jill; Vink, Gerko; Muris, Peter; de Ruiter, Corine

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of parent management training-Oregon model (PMTO) as a treatment for children with externalizing behavior problems in The Netherlands. Clinically referred children (N = 146) aged 4-11 years and their parents were partly randomized to either PMTO (n = 91) or Care As Usual (CAU; n = 55). Families were assessed at four time points: at pretreatment, and after 6, 12, and 18 months. Results showed that both PMTO and CAU were effective in reducing child externalizing behavior, parenting stress and parental psychopathology, with no significant differences between the two treatment conditions. PMTO and CAU interventions also produced some improvements in self-reported parenting skills, but not in observed parenting skills. According to the Reliable Change Index, 16.9 and 45.8 % of the children within the PMTO group showed full recovery or improvement in externalizing behavior, respectively, versus 9.7 and 42.8 % in the CAU condition. Finally, the effect size of PMTO on parent-reported externalizing behavior problems as found in the present study was comparable to that found in previous studies evaluating PMTO as an intervention for this type of child psychopathology.

  19. Effect of maternal intravenous fluid therapy on external cephalic version at term: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jorge; Quintana, Eider; Cobos, Patricia; Osuna, Carmen; Centeno, María del Mar; Melchor, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    We sought to analyze whether maternal intravenous fluid therapy prior to external cephalic version (ECV) increases the amount of amniotic fluid and the success rate of the procedure. This was a prospective single-center cohort study of 200 women with a consecutive cohort of 100 pregnant women with a breech presentation at term who were administered intravenous fluid therapy with 2 L of hypotonic saline before the version attempt, compared to a control cohort of 100 pregnant women not given hydration treatment. The mean increase in the amniotic fluid index (AFI) after intravenous maternal hydration was 3.75 ± 2.71 cm. The amount of fluid before hydration was the only variable found to be associated with increases in amniotic fluid levels, both in absolute and relative terms (odds ratio, -0.21; 95% confidence interval, -0.37 to -0.05 and odds ratio, -4.62; 95% confidence interval, -6.17 to -3.06; P < .01, respectively). We did not observe any severe complications secondary to the intravenous fluid therapy. The ECV success rate was 43% in the study group compared to 47% in the control group (P = .67). The success rate was significantly lower the larger the relative increase in the AFI, although no correlation was found in absolute terms (χ(2) for linear trend = 0.03 and 0.34, respectively). Maternal intravenous fluid therapy with 2 L of hypotonic saline prior to ECV is an effective and safe technique for increasing the AFI. However, its use in ECV does not increase the success rate of the procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cause or effect of arteriogenesis: compositional alterations of microparticles from CAD patients undergoing external counterpulsation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Ali; Traupe, Tobias; Stutz, Monika; Buchs, Natasha; Heller, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a clinical study on patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) showed that external counterpulsation therapy (ECP) at high (300 mmHg) but not at low inflation pressure (80 mmHg) promoted coronary collateral growth, most likely due to shear stress-induced arteriogenesis. The exact molecular mechanisms behind shear stress-induced arteriogenesis are still obscure. We therefore characterized plasma levels of circulating microparticles (MPs) from these CAD patients because of their ambivalent nature as a known cardiovascular risk factor and as a promoter of neovascularization in the case of platelet-derived MPs. MPs positive for Annexin V and CD31CD41 were increased, albeit statistically significant (Pcollateral flow index (CFI), a measure for collateral growth. MPs from the high inflation pressure group had a more sustained pro-angiogenic effect than the ones from the low inflation pressure group, with the exception of one patient showing also an increased CFI after treatment. A total of 1005 proteins were identified by a label-free proteomics approach from MPs of three patients of each group applying stringent acceptance criteria. Based on semi-quantitative protein abundance measurements, MPs after ECP therapy contained more cellular proteins and increased CD31, corroborating the increase in MPs. Furthermore, we show that MP-associated factors of the innate immune system were decreased, many membrane-associated signaling proteins, and the known arteriogenesis stimulating protein transforming growth factor beta-1 were increased after ECP therapy. In conclusion, our data show that ECP therapy increases platelet-derived MPs in patients with CAD and that the change in protein cargo of MPs is likely in favor of a pro angiogenic/arteriogenic property. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00414297.

  1. Preliminary Assessment for the Effects of the External Hazard Factors on the Safety of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, So Beom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Sung Kyu; Hur, Youl

    2010-01-01

    The Ch.etsu Offshore Earthquake(2007.7.16) in Japan caused damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa(K-K) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with seismic ground motion that exceeded the design level. This incident drew the interest of the safety evaluation studies for NPPs subjected to earthquakes exceeding the design basis around the world. Also, the Indian Ocean Tsunami(2004.12.26) tripped the Madras NPP by reason of flooding of the intake pump house and inundated the construction site of a fast breeder reactor site in India. In addition, from the various man-made and natural hazards such as the oil spill accident near Mallipo, Taean, Chungnam (2007.12), the forest fire near the Ulchin NPP site, the several inflows of marine organism into the intake of the Ulchin NPP, it was confirmed that the safety of NPPs may be affected by natural and human induced disasters. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been warned about global warming; the average temperature rose about 1.5 .deg. C during the 20th century and the damages caused by typhoons and heavy rains have also increased in Korea. Accordingly, a natural disaster prevention research team(hereafter team) ,which have been organized and operated since 2009, has assessed the impact of various hazards such as earthquakes and environmental changes due to global warming on the safety of NPP and has discussed to establish countermeasures. This paper introduces that the preliminary assessment for the effects of the external hazard factors on the safety of NPPs was conducted by the team

  2. Effects of Interaural Level and Time Differences on the Externalization of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien

    Distant sound sources in our environment are perceived as externalized and are thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is due to the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and external ears, which provides frequency dependent shaping of binaural cues, such as interaural level...... differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs). Further, the binaural cues provided by reverberation in an enclosed space may also contribute to externalization. While these spatial cues are available in their natural form when listening to real-world sound sources, hearing-aid signal processing...... is consistent with the physical analysis that showed that a decreased distance to the sound source also reduced the fluctuations in ILDs....

  3. Etude de la vulnérabilité de structures cylindriques soumises à une forte explosion externe

    OpenAIRE

    Duong , Duy-Hung

    2012-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the assessment and prevention of potential domino effects caused by an explosion in an industrial area. It focuses specifically on the vulnerability of storage tanks subjected to a blast wave. Within this context, we investigate the effects of gaseous detonation. The objective is twofold: on one hand, to characterize the blast loading and, on the other, to predict the structural response. Three representative atmospheric chemical tanks were selected. Experiments...

  4. The effect of the downturn in oil prices on the external surpluses of the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of the downturn in oil prices on the performance of the external sectors of the members of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC). The paper also develops and tests a simultaneous-equations model to examine the interaction between the economies of the GCC and the rest of the world. The analysis shows that the slump in oil exports has reduced drastically the external surplus of the GCC and has resulted in structural shifts in the import and resource balance functions. (author)

  5. Effects of external environment on thermocapillary convection of high prandtl number fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ruquan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of external environment on thermocapillary convection in high Prandtl number (Pr=68 liquid. The geometric model of physical problem is that the the liquid bridge surrounded by ambient air under zero or ground gravity. The interface velocity, temperature, heat flux and flow pattern in the liquid bridge are presented and discussed under different conditions by changing the external environment. The buoyancy convection produces a symmetrical vortex in the liquid bridge. The ambient air affects the distributions of the temperature velocity and heat flux on the interface by changing the thermocapillary convection.

  6. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, E. C.; van der Kamp, J.; Houdijk, H.; Groet, E.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients’ automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects), rather than an internal focus (on movement execution). Thirty-nine individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke performed a one-leg-stepping task with both legs in single- and dual-task conditions. Attentional focus was manipulated with instructions. Motor performance (movement speed), movement automaticity (fluency of movement), and dual-task performance (dual-task costs) were assessed. The effects of focus on movement speed, single- and dual-task movement fluency, and dual-task costs were analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results showed that, overall, single-task performance was unaffected by focus (p = .341). Regarding movement fluency, no main effects of focus were found in single- or dual-task conditions (p’s ≥ .13). However, focus by leg interactions suggested that an external focus reduced movement fluency of the paretic leg compared to an internal focus (single-task conditions: p = .068; dual-task conditions: p = .084). An external focus also tended to result in inferior dual-task performance (β = -2.38, p = .065). Finally, a near-significant interaction (β = 2.36, p = .055) suggested that dual-task performance was more constrained by patients’ attentional capacity in external focus conditions. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus, an external focus did not result in more automated movements in chronic stroke patients. Contrary to expectations, trends were found for enhanced automaticity with an internal focus. These findings might be due to patients’ strong preference to use an internal focus in daily life. Future work needs to establish the more permanent effects of learning with different attentional foci on re-automating motor

  7. [Synergetic killing effects of external magnetic fields combined with porphyrin-dextran magnetic nanoparticles on the human bladder cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dao-sheng; Mi, Qi-wu; Meng, Xiang-jun; Gao, Yong; Dai, Yu-ping; Deng, Chun-hua

    2012-08-18

    To study the synergetic killing effects of external magnetic fields combined with the photodynamic action of porphyrin-dextran iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (PDMN) on human bladder cancer cells in vitro. The PDMN were produced by using the chemical co-precipitation and redox process and the physicochemical properties were characterized. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and flow cytometry were used to determine the effects of photodynamic therapy of PDMN combined with external pulsed electromagnetic fields (5 mT) on killing human bladder cancer BIU-87 cells respectively. The diameters of PDMN were 10-15 nm and the saturation magnetization was 0.20 emu/g. Effective diameter of PDMN was 94.8 nm. PDMN could remarkably inhibit the proliferation and induce the obvious apoptosis of BIU-87 cells, and the rates of growth inhibition and apoptosis were (17.61±2.73)% and (24.53±5.74)% respectively. Moreover, external pulsed electromagnetic fields (5 mT) could also suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis of BIU-87 cells. Furthermore, the photodynamic action of PDMN combined with external magnetic fields significantly inhibited the proliferation and promote apoptosis of BIU-87 cells, and the rates of growth inhibition and apoptosis was (28.11±4.25)% and (24.53±5.74)%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of other groups (Peffectively inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of BIU-87 cells. Moreover, these effects on BIU-87 cells could be strengthened by the combination with external magnetic fields.

  8. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J; Houdijk, H; Groet, E; van Bennekom, C A M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients' automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects), rather than an internal focus (on movement execution). Thirty-nine individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke performed a one-leg-stepping task with both legs in single- and dual-task conditions. Attentional focus was manipulated with instructions. Motor performance (movement speed), movement automaticity (fluency of movement), and dual-task performance (dual-task costs) were assessed. The effects of focus on movement speed, single- and dual-task movement fluency, and dual-task costs were analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results showed that, overall, single-task performance was unaffected by focus (p = .341). Regarding movement fluency, no main effects of focus were found in single- or dual-task conditions (p's ≥ .13). However, focus by leg interactions suggested that an external focus reduced movement fluency of the paretic leg compared to an internal focus (single-task conditions: p = .068; dual-task conditions: p = .084). An external focus also tended to result in inferior dual-task performance (β = -2.38, p = .065). Finally, a near-significant interaction (β = 2.36, p = .055) suggested that dual-task performance was more constrained by patients' attentional capacity in external focus conditions. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus, an external focus did not result in more automated movements in chronic stroke patients. Contrary to expectations, trends were found for enhanced automaticity with an internal focus. These findings might be due to patients' strong preference to use an internal focus in daily life. Future work needs to establish the more permanent effects of learning with different attentional foci on re-automating motor control

  9. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

  10. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirker, H.J. [Peace Country Agricultural Protection Association, AB (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta`s Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

  11. Effect of regional anesthesia on the success rate of external cephalic version: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzinger, Katherine R; Harper, Lorie M; Tuuli, Methodius G; Macones, George A; Colditz, Graham A

    2011-11-01

    To estimate whether the use of regional anesthesia is associated with increased success of external cephalic version. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 through April 2011 for published, randomized controlled trials in the English language comparing regional anesthesia with no regional anesthesia for external cephalic version. The primary outcome was external cephalic version success. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery, maternal discomfort, and adverse events. Pooled risk ratios (relative risk) were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran's Q statistic and quantified using the I Z method. Six randomized controlled trials met criteria for study inclusion. Regional anesthesia was associated with a higher external cephalic version success rate compared with intravenous or no analgesia (59.7% compared with 37.6%; pooled relative risk 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.93). This significant association persisted when the data were stratified by type of regional anesthesia (spinal compared with epidural). The number needed to treat with regional anesthesia to achieve one additional successful external cephalic version was five. There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity (P=.32, I Z=14.9%) or publication bias (Harbord test P=.78). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of cesarean delivery comparing regional anesthesia with intravenous or no analgesia (48.4% compared with 59.3%; pooled relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0.55-1.17). Adverse events were rare and not significantly different between the two groups. Regional anesthesia is associated with a higher success rate of external cephalic version.

  12. The effects of materials' composition and some external factors on measuring precision for nuclear conveyor belt scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Hong Pingshun; Wang Min

    1997-01-01

    The effects of some external factors on the metrological precision of a nuclear conveyor belt scale were verified with a series of tests. It is shown that the precision is related not only with the moisture content and composition of the covered materials, but also with the belt's deviation and the evenness of the materials. Mild wind seems to have no effect on the precision

  13. Update on the use of dissolved oxygen addition to monitor the effectiveness of noble metal applications in external manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, J.A.; Huie, H.H.; Seeman, R.A.; Bourne, C.M.; Odell, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) measurements in a Mitigation Monitoring System (MMS) ECP manifold have historically been a primary indicator of the effectiveness of an On-Line NobleChem™ (OLNC) application, with the MMS ECP intended to measure the catalytic effect of noble metal deposited on the ECP manifold surface. In some plants ECP measurements made on untreated surfaces prior to an OLNC application were significantly lower than what would be expected for stainless steel under reactor bulk chemistry conditions. This is due to the consumption and depletion of bulk liquid dissolved oxygen (DO) in the lines supplying reactor water to these external ECP measurement locations. This phenomenon degrades the ability to use these external manifolds to confirm noble metal deposition. Previous papers have described how the injection of an oxygen-rich stream to the MMS supply stream (DO Addition) can be used to re-establish the capability of external ECP measurements to monitor the catalytic behavior of platinum deposited during an OLNC injection. This paper will provide an update of how this method is being successfully used in operating BWRs to monitor OLNC injections. The paper will outline the overall approach used to characterize the catalytic behavior of external ECP manifolds before and after the noble metal application and present plant data collected during DO Additions performed under various conditions. (author)

  14. Perceived environmental uncertainty in Dutch dairy farming: The effect of external farm context on strategic choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which dairy farmers perceive their environment (PE), i.e., the external context of their farm, and the uncertainty (PEU) this poses to them. The environment is defined using the STEP concept (society, technology, economy and politics) and Porter¿s five forces model.

  15. Effectiveness of a Play Therapy Intervention on Children's Externalizing and Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meany-Walen, Kristin K.; Teeling, Sunny; Davis, Aubrey; Artley, George; Vignovich, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Children's externalizing and off-task behaviors are deemed a major concern for elementary teachers and interfere with the classroom learning environment (Abidin & Robinson, 2002; Shillingford-Butler & Theodore, 2013). Children with these behaviors are at risk of falling behind academically and experiencing ongoing behavioral problems…

  16. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…

  17. The effect of preoperative internal and external biliary drainage on mortality of jaundiced rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; Coelho, J. C.; Schlegel, J. F.; Li, Y. F.; Moody, F. G.

    1987-01-01

    Mortality following abdominal infection induced by cecal ligation and puncture was studied in rats with obstructive jaundice and after relief of the obstruction by preoperative internal or external biliary drainage. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used: common bile duct ligation (BDL),

  18. Comparative Effects Of Training In External And Internal Concentration On Two Counseling Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A training procedure that appears to facilitate both empathic understanding and selective response to client statements is one built around the training of Zen Buddhist monks. Subjects trained in Zen techniques of external and internal concentration were found to increase their ability in these two counseling behaviors. (Author/LA)

  19. Effects of anomalous magnetic moment and temperature on pair production in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, W.; Bauhoff, W.

    1981-01-01

    It is re-examined the problem of spontaneous pair creation in an external magnetic field. In contrast to earlier findings, it is shown that pair production does not occur due to the anomalous magnetic moment interaction. However, pairs may be observed in a situation of thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperatures. (author)

  20. Effects of Decreasing External Incentives on Higher Education--Reflections from the Case of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-feng

    2016-01-01

    Widened participation in post-compulsory and higher education is generally regarded as a result of the growing recognition of the internal and external benefits of higher education, which are categorised either as a private or public good. However, a question can be raised: once these incentives become less promising or less evident, will a strong…

  1. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product quality throughout

  2. Quantum effects in external fields determined by potentials with point-like support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamev, S.G.; Trunov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    Exact expressions are obtained for the vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor of a scalar field in external potentials of the delta-function type. The conditions for the onset of the vacuum instability are found and the properties of the resulting condensate are studied. Particle production in the field of a nonstationary delta potential is studied

  3. The effect of internal and external fields of view on visually induced motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Vries, S.C. de; Emmerik, M.L. van; Groen, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    Field of view (FOV) is said to affect visually induced motion sickness. FOV, however, is characterized by an internal setting used by the graphics generator (iFOV) and an external factor determined by screen size and viewing distance (eFOV). We hypothesized that especially the incongruence between

  4. Effect of an External Electric Field on Positronium Formation in Positron Spur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.

    1975-01-01

    The decrease of positronium (Ps) formation in condensed matter caused by the presence of an external electric field is discussed in terms of the spur reaction model of Ps formation. The rather few experimental results available are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of the model...

  5. Effects of Managers’ Work Motivation and Networking Activity on Their Reported Levels of External Red Tape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, R.; Akkerman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together two perspectives on managers’ reported levels of red tape. The work motivation perspective explains how managers’ characteristics, such as work engagement (alienation) or commitment, affect their reported levels of red tape. The external control perspective explains how

  6. Restoration of symmetry by temperature effect under influence of external electro magnetic field in gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, V.M. de.

    1987-01-01

    We have analysed, within a semi classical approach, the influence of external electromagnetic field on phase transitions in gauge theories. The critical temperature was calculated for an Abelian case, scalar electrodynamics, and for an non Abelian case, the Weinberg Salam model. (author)

  7. Analogical Reasoning in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Effects of External Memories and Time Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaes, Caroline; Berger, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning involves the comparison of pictures as well as the memorisation of relations. Young children (4-7 years old) and students with moderate intellectual disability have a short memory span, which hampers them in succeeding traditional analogical tests. In the present study, we investigated if, by providing external memory hints,…

  8. The effect of external boundary conditions on condensation heat transfer in rotating heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, T. C.; Williams, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental evidence shows the importance of external boundary conditions on the overall performance of a rotating heat pipe condenser. Data are presented for the boundary conditions of constant heat flux and constant wall temperature for rotating heat pipes containing either pure vapor or a mixture of vapor and noncondensable gas as working fluid.

  9. Simulation studies on the effect of a buffer layer on the external ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    parameters of hydrogenated amorphous silicon p–i–n solar cells ... of a buffer layer in between the p- and i-layers of the p–i–n solar cell on the external parameters such as dark .... H 1988 Photovoltaic specialist conference, in Conference re-.

  10. The influence of external effects on the design and price of structural installations for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, W.; Ramm, W.

    1976-01-01

    In the first part of the paper external effects such as earthquakes, chemical explosions, aircraft crashes, and the stress functions associated therewith are briefly considered. A few examples of global and local effects of an aircraft crash are given in order to illustrate general arrangements. In the second part of the paper the philosophy of objectives to provide protection is briefly discussed (safer shutdown, ensuring after-heat removal, preventing intolerable levels of activity release). From this emerge the layout criteria for the individual buildings of a plant. Factors affecting building arrangement and interaction between buildings are discussed. In conclusion the influence of external effects on the overall structural concept of individual buildings is described. With the aid of selected examples the structural layout required is indicated. (orig.) [de

  11. Inhibitory effect of chronic oral treatment with fluoxetine on capsaicin-induced external carotid vasodilatation in anaesthetised dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; González-Hernández, Abimael; Lozano-Cuenca, Jair; Ramírez-Rosas, Martha Beatríz; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Centurión, David; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2015-10-01

    During migraine, capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), resulting in cranial vasodilatation and central nociception. Moreover, 5-HT is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine and depression. Interestingly, some limited lines of evidence suggest that fluoxetine may be effective in migraine prophylaxis, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Hence, this study investigated the canine external carotid vasodilator responses to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine before and after acute and chronic oral treatment with fluoxetine. Forty-eight vagosympathectomised male mongrel dogs were prepared to measure blood pressure, heart rate and external carotid blood flow. The thyroid artery was cannulated for infusions of agonists. In 16 of these dogs, a spinal cannula was inserted (C1-C3) for infusions of 5-HT. The external carotid vasodilator responses to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine remained unaffected after intracarotid or i.v. fluoxetine. In contrast, the vasodilator responses to capsaicin, but not those to α-CGRP or acetylcholine, were inhibited after chronic oral treatment with fluoxetine (300 µg/kg; for 90 days) or intrathecal 5-HT. Chronic oral fluoxetine inhibited capsaicin-induced external carotid vasodilatation, and this inhibition could partly explain its potential prophylactic antimigraine action. © International Headache Society 2015.

  12. The effect of external mean flow on sound transmission through double-walled cylindrical shells lined with poroelastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Bhaskar, Atul; Zhang, Xin

    2014-03-01

    Sound transmission through a system of double shells, lined with poroelastic material in the presence of external mean flow, is studied. The porous material is modeled as an equivalent fluid because shear wave contributions are known to be insignificant. This is achieved by accounting for the energetically most dominant wave types in the calculations. The transmission characteristics of the sandwich construction are presented for different incidence angles and Mach numbers over a wide frequency range. It is noted that the transmission loss exhibits three dips on the frequency axis as opposed to flat panels where there are only two such frequencies—results are discussed in the light of these observations. Flow is shown to decrease the transmission loss below the ring frequency, but increase this above the ring frequency due to the negative stiffness and the damping effect added by the flow. In the absence of external mean flow, porous material provides superior insulation for most part of the frequency band of interest. However, in the presence of external flow, this is true only below the ring frequency—above this frequency, the presence of air gap in sandwich constructions is the dominant factor that determines the acoustic performance. In the absence of external flow, an air gap always improves sound insulation.

  13. The effects of an external electric field on the dynamics of cold plasma jets—experimental and computational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidis, G V; Walsh, J L

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets provide a convenient and stable means to transport highly reactive plasma species beyond the confines of the plasma generating electrodes and into the ambient air; such characteristics make them an ideal tool for many emerging plasma processing applications. As the guided streamer exits the jet capillary, the application of an external electric field can significantly influence the dynamics of propagation, potentially providing a means to manipulate the transport of plasma species to a downstream substrate. In this paper the influence of positive and negative voltages pulses applied to an external electrode situated along the axis of streamer propagation is examined experimentally and computationally using a simplified 1.5D model. It is shown that application of a positive voltage pulse to the external electrode reduces the velocity of propagation of the cathode-directed streamer and the application of a negative voltage pulse increases the velocity of propagation. Further to this, the application of high positive voltages to the external electrodes effectively inhibits propagation and results in a significant decrease in the emission intensity from excited states populated by energetic electrons. The results obtained experimentally are compared and contrasted with those from the computational model to uncover the underlying physical mechanisms at play. (paper)

  14. Economic estimation of the external effect on the security of energy and public acceptance for nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxes in Japan, i. e., three laws of electric power source, crude oil customs duties and oil taxes, as well as the fuel stock of the power plants have been investigated, and the economical estimation for the nuclear power generation has been carried out from standpoints of the security of energy and public acceptance. For the security, it has been clear that the nuclear power is advanced in internalization of fuel stock by external economy and diversification of electric power source by external diseconomy, but oil and LNG thermal power generation is not sufficiently internalized. None of the power source has paid for the compensation for the risk in public acceptance. The fuel stock for the thermal power is estimated to be for about one week to a month, whereas nuclear power plants have a potential stock that lasts for 3 years. The external effect could go up to 35 billion yen if it is converted to fuel. The predominance, therefore, of the nuclear power for the security of energy is confirmed. Also, it is presumable that the external cost for the fuel stock, so called, is larger than the one for risk and CO 2 reduction. (author)

  15. Cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans.

  16. The Interaction Between Child Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Behaviors: Effects on Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-20

    Both child temperament and parenting have been extensively researched as predictors of child outcomes. However, theoretical models suggest that specific combinations of temperament styles and parenting behaviors are better predictors of certain child outcomes such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms than either temperament or parenting alone. The current qualitative review examines the interaction between one childhood temperamental characteristic (child behavioral inhibition) and parenting behaviors, and their subsequent impact on child psychopathology. Specifically, the moderating role of parenting on the relationship between child behavioral inhibition and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is examined, and the methodological variations which may contribute to inconsistent findings are explored. Additionally, support for the bidirectional relations between behavioral inhibition and parenting behaviors, as well as for the moderating role of temperament on the relationships between parenting and child outcomes, is briefly discussed. Finally, the clinical applicability of this overall conceptual model, specifically in regard to future research directions and potential clinical interventions, is considered.

  17. Effects of external stresses on hot corrosion behavior of stainless steel TP347HFG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jiapeng; Zhou, Qulan; Li, Na; Liu, Zhuhan; Liu, Taisheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot corrosion tests of TP347HFG under different stresses were conducted. • The corrosion resistance was strengthened by the exertion of tensile stresses. • External stresses promoted faster formation of the protective Cr_2O_3 layer. • Specimens under critical stress 40 MPa condition present the best resistance. - Abstract: Hot corrosion experiments of alloy TP347HFG under different stresses were conducted. Corroded specimens were examined by means of corrosion products, morphology and compositional changes in corrosion scales. The corrosion behavior was strongly associated with the formation of oxides layers. The corrosion resistance was strengthened by the external stress. It seemed that the exertion of stresses caused many micro cracks and defects, which acted as faster and easier diffusion paths for Cr atoms to diffuse to the surface, and thus, promote faster formation of the protective Cr_2O_3 oxide layer. Critical stress 40 MPa was found, specimens under which present the best resistance.

  18. The effect of external dummy transmitters on oxygen consumption and performance of swimming Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, M.F.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Steffensen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased critical swimming speed and increased oxygen consumption (Mo-2) was found for externally tagged Atlantic cod Gadus morhua swimming at a high speed of 0 center dot 9 body length (total length, L-Gamma) s(-1). No difference was found in the standard metabolic rate, indicating...... that the higher Mo-2 for tagged cod was due to drag force rather than increased costs to keep buoyancy. (c) 2006 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  19. The Effects of Task Demand and External Stimuli on Learner's Stress Perception and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yee Mei; Ayesh, Aladdin, 1972-; Stacey, Martin; Tan, Li Peng

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, research in e-learning has begun to take emotions into account, which is also known as affective learning. It advocates an education system that is sentient of learner's cognitive and affective states, as learners' performance could be affected by emotional factors. This exploratory research examines the impacts of task demand and external stimuli on learner's stress perception and job performance. Experiments are conducted on 160 undergraduate students from a higher le...

  20. Effects of hypnagogic imagery on the event-related potential to external tone stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michida, Nanae; Hayashi, Mitsuo; Hori, Tadao

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of hypnagogic imagery on the information processes of external tone stimuli during the sleep onset period with the use of event-related potentials. Event-related potentials to tone stimuli were compared between conditions with and without the experience of hypnagogic imagery. To control the arousal level when the tone was presented, a certain criterion named the electroencephalogram stage was used. Stimuli were presented at electroencephalogram stage 4, which was characterized by the appearance of a vertex sharp wave. Data were collected in the sleep laboratory at Hiroshima University. Eleven healthy university and graduate school students participated in the study. N/A. Experiments were performed at night. Reaction times to tone stimuli were measured, and only trials with shorter reaction times than 5000 milliseconds were analyzed. Electroencephalograms were recorded from Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz, T5 and T6. There were no differences in reaction times and electroencephalogram spectra between the conditions of with and without hypnagogic imagery. These results indicated that the arousal levels were not different between the 2 conditions. On the other hand, the N550 amplitude of the event-related potentials in the imagery condition was lower than in the no-imagery condition. The decrease in the N550 amplitude in the imagery condition showed that experiences of hypnagogic imagery exert some influence on the information processes of external tone stimuli. It is possible that the processing of hypnagogic imagery interferes with the processing of external stimuli, lowering the sensitivity to external stimuli.

  1. Effects of counteracting external valgus moment on lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions and tibial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriram, Duraisamy; Parween, Rizuwana; Lee, Yee Han Dave; Subburaj, Karupppasamy

    2017-07-01

    Knee osteoarthritis that prevalently occurs at the medial compartment is a progressive chronic disorder affecting the articular cartilage of the knee joint, and lead to loss of joint functionality. Valgus braces have been used as a treatment procedure to unload the medial compartment for patients with medial osteoarthritis. Valgus braces through the application of counteracting external valgus moment shift the load from medial compartment towards the lateral compartment. Previous biomechanical studies focused only on the changes in varus moments before and after wearing the brace. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of opposing external valgus moment applied by knee braces on the lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions using a 3D finite element model of the knee joint. Finite element simulations were performed on the knee joint model without and with the application of opposing valgus moment to mimic the unbraced and braced conditions. Lateral tibial cartilage contact pressures and contact area, and tibial rotation (varus-valgus and internal-external) were estimated for the complete walking gait cycle. The opposing valgus moment increased the maximum contact pressure and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage compared to the normal gait moment. A peak contact pressure of 8.2 MPa and maximum cartilage loaded area of 28% (loaded cartilage nodes) on the lateral cartilage with the application of external valgus moment were induced at 50% of the gait cycle. The results show that the use of opposing valgus moment may significantly increase the maximum contact pressures and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage and increases the risk of articular cartilage damage on the lateral compartment.

  2. Stability analysis of a model equilibrium for a gravito-electrostatic sheath in a colloidal plasma under external gravity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkhowa, Kavita Rani; Bujarbarua, S.; Dwivedi, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The present contribution tries to find a scientific answer to the question of stability of an equilibrium plasma sheath in a colloidal plasma system under external gravity effect. A model equilibrium of hydrodynamical character has been discussed on the basis of quasi-hydrostatic approximation of levitational condition. It is found that such an equilibrium is highly unstable to a modified-ion acoustic wave with a conditional likelihood of linear driving of the so-called acoustic mode too. Thus, it is reported (within fluid treatment) that a plasma-sheath edge in a colloidal plasma under external gravity effect could be highly sensitive to the acoustic turbulence. Its consequential role on possible physical mechanism of Coulomb phase transition has been conjectured. However, more rigorous calculations as future course of work are required to corroborate our phenomenological suggestions. (author)

  3. Effects of soil water content on the external exposure of fauna to radioactive isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2016-01-01

    Within a recent model intercomparison about radiological risk assessment for contaminated wetlands, the influence of soil saturation conditions on external dose rates was evidenced. This issue joined concerns of assessors regarding the choice of the soil moisture value to input in radiological assessment tools such as the ERICA Tool. Does it really influence the assessment results and how? This question was investigated under IAEA's Modelling and Data for Radiological Impacts Assessments (MODARIA) programme via 42 scenarios for which the soil water content varied from 0 (dry soil) to 100% (saturated soil), in combination with other parameters that may influence the values of the external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) calculated for terrestrial organisms exposed in soil. A set of α, β, and γ emitters was selected in order to cover the range of possible emission energies. The values of their external DCCs varied generally within a factor 1 to 1.5 with the soil water content, excepted for β emitters that appeared more sensitive (DCCs within a factor of about 3). This may be of importance for some specific cases or for upper tiers of radiological assessments, when refinement is required. But for the general purpose of screening assessment of radiological impact on fauna and flora, current approaches regarding the soil water content are relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of a static external magnetic perturbation on resistive mode stability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1994-03-01

    The influence of a general static external magnetic perturbation on the stability of resistive modes in a tokamak plasma is examined. There are three main parts to this investigation. Firstly, the vacuum perturbation is expanded as a set of well-behaved toroidal ring functions and is, thereafter, specified by the coefficients of this expansion. Secondly, a dispersion relation is derived for resistive plasma instabilities in the presence of a general external perturbation and finally, this dispersion relation is solved for the amplitudes of the tearing and twisting modes driven in the plasma by a specific perturbation. It is found that the amplitudes of driven tearing and twisting modes are negligible until a certain critical perturbation strength is exceeded. Only tearing modes are driven in low-β plasmas with εβ p p ∼>1. For error-field perturbations made up of a large number of different poloidal and toroidal harmonics the critical strength to drive locked modes has a open-quote staircase close-quote variation with edge-q, characterized by strong discontinuities as coupled rational surfaces enter or leave the plasma. For single harmonic perturbations the variation with edge-q is far smoother. Both types of behaviour have been observed experimentally. The critical perturbation strength is found to decrease strongly close to an ideal external kink stability boundary. This is also in agreement with experimental observations

  5. Unicortical self-drilling external fixator pins reduce thermal effects during pin insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinwald, Markus; Varady, Patrick A; Augat, Peter

    2017-12-14

    External fixation is associated with the risk of pin loosening and pin infection potentially associated to thermal bone necrosis during pin insertion. This study aims to investigate if the use of external fixator systems with unicortical pins reduces the heat production during pin insertion compared to fixators with bicortical pins. Porcine bone specimens were employed to determine bone temperatures during insertion of fixator pins. Two thermographic cameras were used for a simultaneous temperature measurement on the bone surface (top view) and a bone cross-section (front view). Self-drilling unicortical and bicortical pins were inserted at different rotational speeds: (30-600) rpm. Maximum and mean temperatures of the emerging bone debris, bone surface and bone cross-section were analyzed. Maximum temperatures of up to 77 ± 26 °C were measured during pin insertion in the emerging debris and up to 42 ± 2 °C on the bone surface. Temperatures of the emerging debris increased with increasing rotational speeds. Bicortical pin insertion generated significantly higher temperatures at low insertion speed (30 rpm) CONCLUSION: The insertion of external fixator pins can generate a considerable amount of heat around the pins, primarily emerging from bone debris and at higher insertion speeds. Our findings suggest that unicortical, self-drilling fixator pins have a decreased risk for thermal damage, both to the surrounding tissue and to the bone itself.

  6. Solvent effects on ion-receptor interactions in the presence of an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek

    2016-11-09

    In this work we investigated the influence of an external electric field on the arrangement of the solvent shells around ions interacting with a carbon-based receptor. Our survey reveals that the mechanism of interaction between a monoatomic ion and a π-type ion receptor varies by the variation in the solvent polarity, the nature of the ion, and the strength of the external field. The characteristics of the ion-surface interaction in nonpolar solvents are similar to those observed in a vacuum. However, in water, we identified two mechanisms. Soft and polarizable ions preferentially interact with the π-receptor. In contrast, two bonded states were found for hard ions. A fully solvated ion, weakly interacting with the receptor at weak field, and a strong π-complex at the strong-field regime were identified. An abrupt variation in the potential energy surface (PES) associated with the rearrangement of the solvation shell on the surface of the receptor induced by an external field was observed both in implicit and explicit solvent environments. The electric field at which the solvation shell breaks is proportional to the hardness of the ion as has been suggested recently based on experimental observations.

  7. How effective is external pituitary irradiation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feek, C.M.; McLelland, J.; Seth, J.; Toft, A.D.; Irvine, W.J.; Padfield, P.L.; Edwards, C.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-six patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours were treated with external pituitary irradiation through two opposed fields to a total dose of 3750 cGy over 15 fractions. Thirty-patients received external radiotherapy as primary treatment; 16 received radiotherapy combined with pituitary surgery. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the former group was 74.3 +- 74.8 mU/l before treatment, falling by 28% per year over 0-5 years and by 16% per year over 0-20 years. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the latter group was 265.4 +- 209.3 mU/l before treatment, falling by 76% in the first year-a direct result of surgery-then by 30% per year over 1-5 years and 16% per year over 1-20 years. Progressive failure of normal anterior pituitary function developed by 10 years, with variable loss of gonadotrophin, corticotrophin and thyrotrophin function. The respective figures for patients treated with radiotherapy alone were 47.4, 29.6 and 16.0% and for the combined group 70.2, 53.9 and 38.1%. Whilst external pituitary irradiation appears to reduce serum GH concentrations in patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours the major disadvantages are the time taken to achieve a cure and the high incidence of hypopituitarism. (author)

  8. When the Cat Is Near, the Mice Won't Play: The Effect of External Examiners in Italian Schools. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1191

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio; Rocco, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    We use a natural experiment to show that the presence of an external examiner has both a direct and an indirect negative effect on the performance of monitored classes in standardized educational tests. The direct effect is the difference in the test performance between classes of the same school with and without external examiners. The indirect…

  9. Effect of a DC external electric field on the properties of a nonuniform microwave discharge in hydrogen at reduced pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Yu. A., E-mail: lebedev@ips.ac.ru; Krashevskaya, G. V.; Tatarinov, A. V.; Titov, A. Yu.; Epshtein, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The effect of a dc external electrical field on the properties of a highly nonuniform electrode microwave discharge in hydrogen at a pressure of 1 Torr was studied using optical emission spectroscopy and selfconsistent two-dimensional simulations. It is shown that the negative voltage applied to the antenna electrode with respect to the grounded chamber increases the discharge radiation intensity, while the positive voltage does not affect the discharge properties. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data.

  10. Effect of a DC external electric field on the properties of a nonuniform microwave discharge in hydrogen at reduced pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Yu. A.; Krashevskaya, G. V.; Tatarinov, A. V.; Titov, A. Yu.; Epshtein, I. L.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a dc external electrical field on the properties of a highly nonuniform electrode microwave discharge in hydrogen at a pressure of 1 Torr was studied using optical emission spectroscopy and selfconsistent two-dimensional simulations. It is shown that the negative voltage applied to the antenna electrode with respect to the grounded chamber increases the discharge radiation intensity, while the positive voltage does not affect the discharge properties. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data.

  11. Effects of Internal, External and Preference of Attentional Focus Feedback Instructions on Learning Soccer “Head Kick”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Okan Miçooğulları

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of feedback on learning soccer “head kick” of female adolescent. Novices performed head kick during two practice days [one week apart for two weeks using either internal or external preference attentional focusing instructions. There was also a preference group who choosen their feedback type themselves. Internal focus feedback related with body movements, whereas external focus feedback related with movement effects. The subjects (N=64 were randomly assigned to three groups internal focus feedback group (IFF (N=15, external focus feedback group (EFF (N=15 and preference group (PF (N=34. To promote learning two skill acquisition days for two weeks and one retention day was applied at initial day of third week. Technique of the skill was measured in acquisition days and targeting was measured in retention day. In technique measuring part, EFF group was significantly more accurate than IFF group, PF group was better than those two groups (PF>EFF>IFF. Similar to acquisition phase, EFF group was significantly more successfull than IFF group, PF group was better than those two groups (PF>EFF>IFF in retention phase. Acquisition and retention phase results indicated significance main effect for attentional focus feedback groups. This study results’ indicated that external focus feedback was more effective than internal focus feedback in terms of acquisition and retention of learning soccer head kick for students with limited amount of knowledge about this skill. This study also indicated that not only the source of attention but also control over to source of attention of preference was an important factor in the amount of retention.

  12. Effects of selected design variables on three ramp, external compression inlet performance. [boundary layer control bypasses, and mass flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, J. H.; Hall, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Two inlet performance tests and one inlet/airframe drag test were conducted in 1969 at the NASA-Ames Research Center. The basic inlet system was two-dimensional, three ramp (overhead), external compression, with variable capture area. The data from these tests were analyzed to show the effects of selected design variables on the performance of this type of inlet system. The inlet design variables investigated include inlet bleed, bypass, operating mass flow ratio, inlet geometry, and variable capture area.

  13. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  14. Effectiveness of external inspection of compliance with standards in improving healthcare organisation behaviour, healthcare professional behaviour or patient outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodgren, Gerd; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Taber, Sarah A; Eccles, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Inspection systems are used in health care to promote quality improvements, i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes. These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of health care. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational, provider and patient level outcomes are not clear. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of external inspection of compliance with standards in improving healthcare organisation behaviour, healthcare professional behaviour and patient outcomes. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases for studies: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Scopus, HMIC, Index to Theses and Intute from their inception dates up to May 2011. There was no language restriction and studies were included regardless of publication status. We searched the reference lists of included studies and contacted authors of relevant papers, accreditation bodies and the International Organization for Standardisation (ISO), regarding any further published or unpublished work. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), interrupted time-series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies (CBAs) evaluating the effect of external inspection against external standards on healthcare organisation change, healthcare professional behaviour or patient outcomes in hospitals, primary healthcare organisations and other community-based healthcare organisations. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently applied eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. Since meta-analysis was

  15. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rota...

  16. On Effective Radiative Forcing of Partial Internally and Externally Mixed Aerosols and Their Effects on Global Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Shuyun; Li, Jiangnan

    2018-01-01

    The total effective radiative forcing (ERF) due to partial internally mixed (PIM) and externally mixed (EM) anthropogenic aerosols, as well as their climatic effects since the year of 1850, was evaluated and compared using the aerosol-climate online coupled model of BCC_AGCM2.0_CUACE/Aero. The influences of internal mixing (IM) on aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, optical properties, and concentration were considered. Generally, IM could markedly weaken the negative ERF and cooling effects of anthropogenic aerosols. The global annual mean ERF of EM anthropogenic aerosols from 1850 to 2010 was -1.87 W m-2, of which the aerosol-radiation interactive ERF (ERFari) and aerosol-cloud interactive ERF (ERFaci) were -0.49 and -1.38 W m-2, respectively. The global annual mean ERF due to PIM anthropogenic aerosols from 1850 to 2010 was -1.23 W m-2, with ERFari and ERFaci of -0.23 and -1.01 W m-2, respectively. The global annual mean surface temperature and water evaporation and precipitation were reduced by 1.74 K and 0.14 mm d-1 for EM scheme and 1.28 K and 0.11 mm d-1 for PIM scheme, respectively. However, the relative humidity near the surface was slightly increased for both mixing cases. The Intertropical Convergence Zone was southwardly shifted for both EM and PIM cases but was less southwardly shifted in PIM scheme due to the less reduction in atmospheric temperature in the midlatitude and low latitude of the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Bulashevich, Kirill [STR Group, Inc., Engels av. 27, P.O. Box 89, 194156, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryou, Jae-Hyun, E-mail: jryou@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  18. Effects of external magnetic field on harmonics generated in laser interaction with underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Nik, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.; Shokri, B.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Generation of harmonic radiation is an important subject of laser plasma interaction and attracts great attention due to a wide range of applications. It has been seen that intense electromagnetic and quasi-static transverse magnetic fields are generated in laser plasma interaction. An extremely intense magnetic field (up to hundreds of MG) has been observed by experimental measurements in interaction of short laser pulses with plasma. These self-generated or applied magnetic fields affect the propagation of the laser pulses. In most laser interactions with homogeneous plasma, odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated. In this paper, we point out the possibility of even harmonics generation when a linearly polarized laser beam propagates in homogeneous plasma in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. It is shown that applying external field induces a transverse current density oscillating twice of the laser field which leds to generation of second harmonic radiation. This current density is derived using the perturbation method, and the steady state amplitude of the second harmonic obtained by solution of the wave equation. By the same procedure the current density and then the steady state amplitude of higher order harmonics are calculated. The efficiency of harmonic generation (the ratio of harmonic power to incident power) is a drastically function of the strength of external magnetic field. It is found that the efficiency of even harmonics is zero in the absence of magnetic field and increases as the magnetic field is increased. For odd harmonics, applying the external magnetic field enhances the generated harmonics as well. The conversion efficiency also increases with increase in plasma density and intensity of the laser beam.

  19. Effect of external volume expansion on the survival of fat grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuveer Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: External volume expansion (EVE is one method, which has been utilised for increasing the survival of adipose tissue grafts. EVE releases positive pressure from the graft and also induces intense levels of edema that decreases diffusion of metabolites essential for graft survival initially. The ideal timing of external volume expansion in relation to the injection of the fat to facilitate survival is not yet clear. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the efficacy of external volume expansion applied at variable time points in relation to the injection of the fat. Materials and Methods: Athymic mouse was the animal model and human lipo-aspirate mixed with PRP was used as graft. An indigenous dome shaped silicone device was fabricated to deliver a negative pressure of -30 mm of Hg. The EVE was applied at variable time intervals. At the end of 4 weeks visual, histological and radiological features of the injected fat were compared. The adipose tissue was stained with human vimentin to ascertain the origin of the retained fat. Results: All the grafts, which had EVE, had significantly better volume retention and vascularity. The groups which underwent a delayed EVE or prior expansion followed by concomitant graft injection and expansion showed the most optimal vascularity and graft retention. Conclusions: A delayed EVE or prior expansion followed by concomitant graft injection and expansion may be the most ideal combinations to optimize graft take. However, on account of the relatively small sample size, there was a limitation in drawing statistically significant conclusions for certain variables.

  20. The Effect of External Magnetic Field on Dielectric Permeability of Multiphase Ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, O. A.; Pavlova, A. A.; Dotsenko, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, ferrofluids are applied in various fields of science and technology, namely space, medicine, geology, biology, automobile production, etc. In order to investigate the feasibility of applying ferrofluids in magnetic field sensors, the paper presents research into the influence of the external magnetic field on dielectric permeability of ferrofluids comprising magnetite nanopowder, multiwall carbon nanotubes, propanetriol and deionized water. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permeability change respectively by 3.7 and 0.5% when applying the magnetic field parallel to the electric. The findings suggest that the considered ferrofluid can be used as a magnetic level gauge or in design of variable capacitors.

  1. The effect of external magnetic field changing on the correlated quantum dot dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.; Arseyev, P. I.

    2018-06-01

    The non-stationary response of local magnetic moment to abrupt switching "on" and "off" of external magnetic field was studied for a single-level quantum dot (QD) coupled to a reservoir. We found that transient processes look different for the shallow and deep localized energy level. It was demonstrated that for deep energy level the relaxation rates of the local magnetic moment strongly differ in the case of magnetic field switching "on" or "off". Obtained results can be applied in the area of dynamic memory devices stabilization in the presence of magnetic field.

  2. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  3. Can Parenting Intervention Prevent Cascading Effects From Placement Instability to Insecure Attachment to Externalizing Problems in Maltreated Toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Fleming, Charles B; Oxford, Monica L; Zheng, Yao; Spieker, Susan J

    2016-08-01

    Multiple placement changes disrupt continuity in caregiving and undermine well-being in children in child welfare. This study conducted secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial to examine whether a relationship-based intervention, Promoting First Relationships(©) (PFR), reduced risk for a maladaptive cascade from placement instability to less secure attachment to elevated externalizing problems. Participants included caregivers (birth or foster/kin) of toddlers (10-24 months) recently transitioned to their care because of child welfare placement decisions. Although main effects of PFR on security and externalizing problems were not previously observed, this study's results revealed that PFR attenuated the association between multiple placement changes (baseline) and less security (postintervention) and that the indirect effect of placement instability on greater externalizing problems (6-month follow-up) via less security was evident only in toddlers in the comparison condition. These findings shed light on how a history of multiple caregiver changes may influence toddlers' risk for poor adjustment in subsequent placements, and the promise of supporting caregivers through a parenting intervention to prevent such risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Cook, Emily C.; Connell, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = 0.98; 68% girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors. PMID:26961703

  5. The effect of mastication on reaction latency to unanticipated external disturbances in the standing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Keisuke; Katoh, Munenori; Isozaki, Koji; Aizawa, Junya; Masuda, Tadashi; Morita, Sadao

    2012-12-03

    Previous research has shown that mastication reduces shifts in the center of gravity of persons standing still. The present research was conducted to determine whether mastication improves reactive balance in the standing position in response to unanticipated external disturbances. The subjects were 32 healthy male adults (mean age 21.1 years, standard deviation (SD) 0.7 years). Latency data determined with the Motor Control Test of Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) were compared for the three conditions of mastication status, the direction of translation, and the magnitude of translation, using three-way repeated measures ANOVA and lower-order ANOVA with the three conditions separated. Latency was significantly shorter with mastication than with the lower jaw relaxed (P Mastication alone, however, cannot be considered significant because of the complex interactions involved among the three conditions. Mastication increases not only static balance but also reactive balance in response to unanticipated external disturbances. Gum chewing may therefore reduce falls among elderly persons with impaired balance.

  6. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D Myers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials’ decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer some confirmation of the validity of laboratory experimental studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  7. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  8. Effects of external radiation fields on line emission—application to star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzikos, Marios; Ferland, G. J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Williams, R. J. R. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Porter, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Van Hoof, P. A. M., E-mail: mchatzikos@gmail.com [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Uccle (Belgium)

    2013-12-20

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background, as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus. These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field and show that about 60% of its emission lines are sensitive to background subtraction. We argue that this geometric approach could provide an additional tool toward understanding the complex radiation fields of starburst galaxies.

  9. Magnetocaloric effect in La(FexSi1-x)13 doped with hydrogen and under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, L.G. de; Oliveira, N.A. de

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the magnetocaloric effect in the compounds La(Fe x Si 1-x ) 13 doped with hydrogen and subjected to external pressure. We use a microscopical model where the Coulomb interaction between itinerant electrons is treated in the mean field approach. The effect of hydrogen atoms is considered as a chemical pressure. We also include phenomenologically the magnetoelastic coupling via the renormalization of the electron dispersion relation and the Debye temperature. The calculated isothermal entropy changes upon magnetic field variations for the compound La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 H y are in good agreement with the available experimental data

  10. Effects of fluoride and other halogen ions on the external stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whorlow, K.M.; Hutto, F.B. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    The drip procedure from the Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Influence of Thermal Insulation on External Stress Corrosion Cracking Tendency of Austenitic Stainless Steel (ASTM C 692-95a) was used to research the effect of halogens and inhibitors on the External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) of Type 304 stainless steel as it applies to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.36, Nonmetallic Thermal Insulation for Austenitic Stainless Steel. The solutions used in this research were prepared using pure chemical reagents to simulate the halogens and inhibitors found in insulation extraction solutions. The results indicated that sodium silicate compounds that were higher in sodium were more effective for preventing chloride-induced ESCC in Type 304 austenitic stainless steel. Potassium silicate (all-silicate inhibitor) was not as effective as sodium silicate. Limited testing with sodium hydroxide (all-sodium inhibitor) indicated that it may be effective as an inhibitor. Fluoride, bromide, and iodide caused minimal ESCC which could be effectively inhibited by sodium silicate. The addition of fluoride to the chloride/sodium silicate systems at the threshold of ESCC appeared to have no synergistic effect on ESCC. The mass ratio of sodium + silicate (mg/kg) to chloride (mg/kg) at the lower end of the NRC RG 1.36 Acceptability Curve was not sufficient to prevent ESCC using the methods of this research

  11. In-situ volatile organic compounds measurements with GC-MSD during the DOMINO campaign in Spain, December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Yassaa, N.; Williams, J.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents a new volatile organic compounds (VOC) dataset measured during the DOMINO field campaign in December 2008. The measurements were made from a 10m tower located in a nature reserve on the south west coast of Spain. For the analysis, the VOCs were collected and concentrated on a thermal desorber unit, separated on a gas chromotagraph equipped with an enantiomerically selective column, and detected by mass spectrometry. This experimental set-up allowed the measurement of anthropogenic VOCs such as ethyl benzene, and all xylene isomers, and biogenic species such as isoprene and monoterpenes. Here we examine the VOC mixing ratio variations as a function of air mass origin to characterize the measurement site in terms of biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Mixing ratios of biogenic species were generally low, consistent with the low winter season growth rates. The ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene to (+)-alpha-pinene was variable but showed a clear dominance of the (-)-enantiomer, similar to previous results obtained with the same system in the Tropical rainforest. High mixing ratios of benzene and toluene were related to transport events from Seville (to the northeast) and Huelva (to the west). The ratio of two short lived anthropogenic species ethylbenzene and meta-xylene was found to peak at midday and indicative of the levels of oxidant levels.

  12. OMS-2-Supported Cu Hydroxide-Catalyzed Benzoxazoles Synthesis from Catechols and Amines via Domino Oxidation Process at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xu; Wang, Yanmin; Wang, Yuanguang; Chen, Baohua; Jing, Zhenqiang; Chen, Gexin; Zhao, Peiqing

    2017-07-07

    In the presence of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) supported copper hydroxide Cu(OH) x /OMS-2, aerobic synthesis of benzoxazoles from catechols and amines via domino oxidation/cyclization at room temperature is achieved. This heterogeneous benzoxazoles synthesis initiated by the efficient oxidation of catechols over Cu(OH) x /OMS-2 tolerates a variety of substrates, especially amines containing sensitive groups (hydroxyl, cyano, amino, vinyl, ethynyl, ester, and even acetyl groups) and heterocycles, which affords functionalized benzoxazoles in good to excellent yields by employing low catalyst loading (2 mol % Cu). The characterization and plausible catalytic mechanism of Cu(OH) x /OMS-2 are described. The notable features of our catalytic protocol such as the use of air as the benign oxidant and EtOH as the solvent, mild conditions, ease of product separation, being scalable up to the gram level, and superior reusability of catalyst (up to 10 cycles) make it more practical and environmentally friendly for organic synthesis.

  13. Experimental Evidence for Differential Susceptibility: Dopamine D4 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) Moderates Intervention Effects on Toddlers' Externalizing Behavior in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pijlman, Femke T. A.; Mesman, Judi; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial we tested the role of genetic differences in explaining variability in intervention effects on child externalizing behavior. One hundred fifty-seven families with 1- to 3-year-old children screened for their relatively high levels of externalizing behavior participated in a study implementing Video-feedback…

  14. Do Executive and Reactive Disinhibition Mediate the Effects of Familial Substance Use Disorders on Adolescent Externalizing Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie; Haller, Moira M.; Bountress, Kaitlin E.; Dandreaux, Danielle; Beltran, Iris

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the potential mediating roles of executive and reactive disinhibition in predicting conduct problems, ADHD symptoms, and substance use among adolescents with and without a family history of substance use disorders. Using data from 247 high-risk adolescents, parents, and grandparents, structural equation modeling indicated that reactive disinhibition, as measured by sensation seeking, mediated the effect of familial drug use disorders on all facets of the adolescent externalizing spectrum. Executive disinhibition, as measured by response disinhibition, spatial short term memory, and “trait” impulsivity, was associated with ADHD symptoms. Moreover, although executive functioning weakness were unrelated to familial substance use disorders, adolescents with familial alcohol use disorders were at risk for “trait” impulsivity marked by a lack of planning. These results illustrate the importance of “unpacking” the broad temperament style of disinhibition and of studying the processes that underlie the commonality among facets of the externalizing spectrum and processes that that predict specific externalizing outcomes. PMID:21668077

  15. The effect of natural resources on a sustainable development policy: The approach of non-sustainable externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Markus; Chiang Lichun

    2011-01-01

    The debate about the importance of non-renewable resources for economic development between optimists and pessimists shows that the extensive depletion of non-renewable resources, particularly oil, along with a higher level of consumption could have a significant impact on the economic development of future generations. Based on this debate, this paper proposes criteria under which the depletion of non-renewable resources would create excess costs for future generations. Therefore, this paper aims to answer the question 'What will be the impact of the depletion of non-renewable resources on sustainable economic development?' Accordingly, a sustainable development policy appears feasible by minimizing non-sustainable externalities which derive from future externalities that weigh the benefits from a previous employment of natural resources. The research based on qualitative analysis clarifies the reasons for and the extents of taking sustainability into account as well as points to difficulties of implementing policies to time the transition towards a sustainable economic development. Finally, the research shows the implications of this approach for environmental degradation, the depletion of non-renewable resources and energy production. - Research Highlights: →Economic development will more or less smoothly switch to the use of renewable substitutes. →The transition towards a sustainable use of resources may inherit costs for future generations. →Non-sustainable externalities show the future costs of excessive resource depletion. →The approach aims to take the long-term global effects of resource substitution into account.

  16. Adsorption and diffusion of lithium in a graphene/blue-phosphorus heterostructure and the effect of an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kaimin; Tang, Jing; Wu, Shiyun; Yang, Chengfu; Hao, Jiabo

    2016-12-21

    The adsorption and diffusion behaviors of lithium (Li) in a graphene/blue-phosphorus (G/BP) heterostructure have been investigated using a first principles method based on density functional theory (DFT). The effect of an external electric field on the adsorption and diffusion behaviors has also been investigated. The results show that the adsorption energy of Li on the graphene side of the G/BP heterostructure is higher than that on monolayer graphene, and Li adsorption on the BP side of the G/BP/Li system is slightly stronger than that on monolayer BP (BP/Li). The adsorption energy of Li reaches 2.47 eV, however, the energy barriers of Li diffusion decrease in the interlayer of the G/BP heterostructure. The results mentioned above suggest that the rate performance of the G/BP heterostructure is better than that of monolayer graphene. Furthermore, the adsorption energies of Li atoms in the three different most stable sites, i.e., H G , T P and H 1 sites, increase by about 0.49 eV, 0.26 eV, and 0.13 eV, respectively, as the electric field intensity reaches 0.6 V Å -1 . The diffusion energy barrier is significantly decreased by an external electric field. It is demonstrated that the external electric field can not only enhance the adsorption but can also modulate the diffusion barriers of Li atoms in the G/BP heterostructure.

  17. The effect of external factors on medical librarians' attitudes toward their position in the future of profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazimirsaeed SJ.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The utilization of information and communication technologies in medical librarianship would put librarians in new created conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of external factors on medical librarians' attitudes toward their future professional situation.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All libraries and affiliated with ministry of health, and medical education were included in the study. The research consisted of all medical librarians working in the mentioned centers. Data was collected through questionnaires including two major parts and an additional section pertaining to personal information. From total of 1368 cases, 1001 answered to the questions. Statistical measurements consisted of frequency distribution, mean, percentage, measures of dispersion, correlation coefficient, and two tailed tests analyzed by SPSS software. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance.Results: The results  showed that the mean score of external factors and attitude, were 3.25 and 4.18 respectively, at the scale of 5. There was a positive and significant relationship between external factors and attitude. Medical librarians did not consider the presence informaticians as a threat to their job security, and they have been able to adapt themselves to modern situations. Also, they were aware of the fact that if they can not succeed to match themselves with technological revolution, they will loose their jobs.Conclusion: Structural changes in staff and educational establishments are necessary to satisfy future needs and is a priority to improve the influence of external factors on medical librarians' attitude toward the future of their profession.

  18. Coming out ahead: the cost effectiveness of external cephalic version using spinal anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Breech presentation is encountered in 3 to 4% of term pregnancies and has been a significant driver of the increased rate of cesarean deliveries over the last 4 decades. External cephalic version (ECV) is recommended at term by most professional organizations in an effort to reduce the prospect of cesarean deliveries. The authors propose the use of regional anesthesia to increase efficacy and reduce cost in the care of patients who undergo ECV in an effort to convert a breech presentation to a vertex counterpart. Despite emerging evidence of the advantages, obstacles to more comprehensive implementation of this approach continue to exist, which include patient acceptance, provider experience, and safety concerns. The addition of tocolytics and use of regional anesthesia for secondary ECV efforts have also been considered as options to increase success and reduce cost. This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/3/1/5. PMID:24565024

  19. Self irradiation effects on the thorium phosphate diphosphate dissolution (TPD): simulation by external irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, C.; Ozgumus, A.; Dacheux, N.; Garrido, F.; Thome, L.; Corbel, C.; Genet, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate (TPD), proposed as a ceramic for the long term immobilization of actinides, was externally irradiated with several ions and energies (but also with gamma rays) in order to simulate the self-irradiation. The influence of the electronic energy loss was first investigated. Thus, the XRD measurements have shown a complete amorphization of the material under 10 13 ions of Kr.cm -2 , while no significant structural change occurred after 5.10 13 S.cm -2 , 2.10 16 He.cm -2 or 320 kGy of dose of gamma rays. The dissolution of the raw and irradiated pellets was studied versus several parameters such as amorphized fraction, energy loss of incident ions, radiolytic species produced in situ in the leachate during irradiation (such as H 2 O 2 ), temperature and acidity. The results reveal an important increase of the dissolution kinetics for amorphized pellets compared to raw ceramic. (authors)

  20. The effect of axial external magnetic field on tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The influences of axial external magnetic field on the microstructure and mechanical property of the AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloy joints were studied. The microstructure of Mg alloy joint consisted of the weld seam, heat affected zone and base metal zone. The average grain size of weld seam welded with magnetic field is 39 μm, which is 38% smaller than that of the joint welded with absence of magnetic field. And the microhardness of weld seam increases with the help of magnetic field treatment, owing to the coarse grain refinement. With coil current of 2.0A, the maximum mechanical property of joint increases 6.7% to 255 MPa over the specimen without magnetic field treatment. Furthermore, fracture location is near heat affected area and the fracture surface is characterized with ductile fracture.

  1. The effect of multiple external representations (MERs) worksheets toward complex system reasoning achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Ibrahim, M.; Supardi, Z. A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The application of a systems approach to assessing biological systems provides hope for a coherent understanding of cell dynamics patterns and their relationship to plant life. This action required the reasoning about complex systems. In other sides, there were a lot of researchers who provided the proof about the instructional successions. They involved the multiple external representations which improved the biological learning. The researcher conducted an investigation using one shoot case study design which involved 30 students in proving that the MERs worksheets could affect the student's achievement of reasoning about complex system. The data had been collected based on test of reasoning about complex system and student's identification result who worked through MERs. The result showed that only partially students could achieve reasoning about system complex, but their MERs skill could support their reasoning ability of complex system. This study could bring a new hope to develop the MERs worksheet as a tool to facilitate the reasoning about complex system.

  2. Controlling Second Coordination Sphere Effects in Luminescent Ruthenium Complexes by Means of External Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannwitz, Andrea; Poirier, Stéphanie; Bélanger-Desmarais, Nicolas; Prescimone, Alessandro; Wenger, Oliver S; Reber, Christian

    2018-06-04

    Two luminescent heteroleptic Ru II complexes with a 2,2'-biimidazole (biimH 2 ) ligand form doubly hydrogen-bonded salt bridges to 4-sulfobenzoate anions in single crystals. The structure of one of these cation-anion adducts shows that the biimH 2 ligand is deprotonated. Its 3 MLCT luminescence band does not shift significantly under the influence of an external hydrostatic pressure, a behavior typical for these electronic transitions. In contrast, hydrostatic pressure on the other crystalline cation-anion adduct induces a shift of proton density from the peripheral N-H groups of biimH 2 towards benzoate, leading to a pronounced redshift of the 3 MLCT luminescence band. Such a significant and pressure-tunable influence from an interaction in the second coordination sphere is unprecedented in artificial small-molecule-based systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effects of Frequency Dependence of the External Quantum Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Sandheep; Aranda, Clara; Boix, Pablo P; Anta, Juan A; Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2018-06-07

    Perovskite solar cells are known to show very long response time scales, on the order of milliseconds to seconds. This generates considerable doubt over the validity of the measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) and consequently the estimation of the short-circuit current density. We observe a variation as high as 10% in the values of the EQE of perovskite solar cells for different optical chopper frequencies between 10 and 500 Hz, indicating a need to establish well-defined protocols of EQE measurement. We also corroborate these values and obtain new insights regarding the working mechanisms of perovskite solar cells from intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy measurements, identifying the evolution of the EQE over a range of frequencies, displaying a singular reduction at very low frequencies. This reduction in EQE is ascribed to additional resistive contributions hindering charge extraction in the perovskite solar cell at short-circuit conditions, which are delayed because of the concomitant large low-frequency capacitance.

  4. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  5. Morfologic anomalies in the spermatozoid heads caused by isolated and combined effects of external ionizing radiation and chemical factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopova, V.; Nechev, Khr.; Sylovski, P.

    1985-01-01

    The test for recording morphologic anomalies in the spermatozoid heads and the genotoxic effect of isolated and combined treatment with the preparation chloracetophone and external ionizing radiation was applied on of mice line C 57 Bl. Evaluation of the morphologic anomalies in the spermatozoa rested upon two staining method, one of which helped to distinguish the acrosome. It was demonstrated that chloracetophone given in a single high dose (1/2 and 1/4 LD 50 ) was genotoxic. Ionizing radiation induced the expected positive effect. After combined application of 5x1/5 LD 50 chloracetophone and 1 and 4 Gy irradiation dose, it was the effect of radiation that was recorded. Only in the group in which both noxious agents were combined in effective doses (1/2 LD 50 chloracetophone and 1 Gy) there was a tendency toward additive effect

  6. Effects of external and gap mean flows on sound transmission through a double-wall sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sebastian, Alexis

    2015-05-01

    This paper studies analytically the effects of an external mean flow and an internal gap mean flow on sound transmission through a double-wall sandwich panel lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials, and the transfer matrix method with three types of boundary conditions is applied to solve the system simultaneously. The random incidence transmission loss in a diffuse field is calculated numerically, and the limiting angle of incidence due to total internal reflection is discussed in detail. The numerical predictions suggest that the sound insulation performance of such a double-wall panel is enhanced considerably by both external and gap mean flows particularly in the high-frequency range. Similar effects on transmission loss are observed for the two mean flows. It is shown that the effect of the gap mean flow depends on flow velocity, flow direction, gap depth and fluid properties and also that the fluid properties within the gap appear to influence the transmission loss more effectively than the gap flow. Despite the implementation difficulty in practice, an internal gap flow provides more design space for tuning the sound insulation performance of a double-wall sandwich panel and has great potential for active/passive noise control.

  7. Effect of external magnetic field and variable dust electrical charge on the shape and propagation of solitons in the two nonthermal ions dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalambor Dezfuly, S.; Dorranian, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, the effect of dust electrical charge, nonthermal ions, and external magnetic field on the shape and propagation of solitons in dusty plasma with two nonthermal ions is studied theoretically. Using the reductive perturbation theory, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for propagation of dust acoustic waves is extracted. Results show that external magnetic field does not affect the amplitude of solitary wave but width of solitons are effectively depend on the magnitude of external magnetic field. With increasing the charge of dust particles the amplitude of solution will increase while their width will decrease. Increasing the nonthermal ions lead to opposite effect.

  8. A Proposal of a Method to Measure and Evaluate the Effect to Apply External Support Measures for Owners by Construction Management Method, etc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroshi; Miyatake, Ichiro; Mouri, Junji; Ajiki, Norihiko; Fueta, Toshiharu

    In Japan, various approaches have been taken to ensure the quality of public works or to support the procurement regime of the governmental agencies, as a means to utilize external resources, which include the procurement support service or the construction management (CM) method. Although discussions on these measures to utilize external resources (hereinafter referred to as external support measure) have been going on, as well as the follow-up surveys showing the positive effects of such measures have been conducted, the surveys only deal with the matters concerning the overall effects of the external support measure on the whole, meaning that the effect of each item of the tasks have not been addressed, and that the extent it dealt with the expectations of the client is unknown. However, the effective use of the external support measure in future cannot be achieved without knowing what was the purpose to introduce the external support measure, and what effect was expected on each task item, and what extent the expectation fulfilled. Furthermore, it is important to clarify not only the effect as compared to the client's expectation (performance), but also the public benefit of this measure (value improvement). From this point of view, there is not an established method to figure out the effect of the client's measure to utilize external resources. In view of this background, this study takes the CM method as an example of the external support measure, and proposes a method to measure and evaluate the effect by each task item, and suggests the future issues and possible responses, in the aim of contributing the promotion, improvement, and proper implementation of the external support measures in future.

  9. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle. [Results] Significantly higher shoulder external rotator peak torque and peak torque per body weight were found in the HHCT condition than in the no-taping condition. [Conclusion] HHCT may effectively increase the shoulder external rotator muscle strength in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

  10. [External cephalic version for breech presentation at term: an effective procedure to reduce the caesarean section rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojacono, A; Donarini, G; Valcamonico, A; Soregaroli, M; Frusca, T

    2003-12-01

    Although term breech presentation is a relatively rare condition (3-5% of all births), it continues to be an important indication for caesarean section and has contributed to its increased use. Risk of complications may be increased for both mother and foetus in such a situation. Vaginal delivery of a breech presenting foetus is complex and may involve many difficulties, so today there is a general consensus that planned caesarean section is better than planned vaginal birth for the foetus in breech presentation at term. External cephalic version is one of the most effective procedures in modern obstetrics. It involves the external manipulation of the foetus from the breech into the cephalic presentation. A successful manoeuvre can decrease costs by avoiding operative deliveries and decreasing maternal morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this obstetric manoeuvre to increase the proportion of vertex presentation among foetuses that were formerly in the breech position near term, so as to reduce the caesarean section rate. The safety of the version is also showed. From 1999 to 2002, 89 women with foetal breech presentation underwent external cephalic version at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Brescia University. The gestational age was 36.8+/-0.8 weeks. The following variables have been taken into consideration: breech variety, placental location, foetal back position, parity, amount of amniotic fluid and gestational age. Every attempt was performed with a prior use of an intravenous drip of Ritodrine, and foetal heart rate was monitored continuously with cardiotocogram. The success rate of the procedure was 42.7% (n=38). No maternal or foetal complication or side effects occurred, both during and after the manoeuvre, except a transient foetal bradycardia that resolved spontaneously. Only one spontaneous reversion of the foetus occurred before delivery. Of all the women that underwent a successful version

  11. Investigation of the effects of external current systems on the MAGSAT data utilizing grid cell modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of modeling magnetic fields due to certain electrical currents flowing in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere was investigated. A method was devised to carry out forward modeling of the magnetic perturbations that arise from space currents. The procedure utilizes a linear current element representation of the distributed electrical currents. The finite thickness elements are combined into loops which are in turn combined into cells having their base in the ionosphere. In addition to the extensive field modeling, additional software was developed for the reduction and analysis of the MAGSAT data in terms of the external current effects. Direct comparisons between the models and the MAGSAT data are possible.

  12. Investigation of high frequency external perturbation effects on flow in a T-shape microchannel by μLIF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, A. Yu; Meshalkin, Yu E.; Bilsky, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Investigation of high frequency external perturbation effect on flow inside T-shape microchannel was examined. In-phase pulsations of different frequencies were added to both inlets of the T-shaped microchannel to study mixing by means of Micro Laser Induced Fluorescence (μLIF) technique. For all flow regimes studied, mixing enhancement was obtained. Significant enhancement can be achieved at the beginning of the outlet channel operating in steady asymmetric regime (Re=186) by forcing at certain frequency ranges (f = 500Hz, f = 800Hz). Mixing suppression was also observed for two flow regimes (Re = 400, f = 1000Hz) and (Re = 120, f = 700Hz).

  13. Determination of reactivity coefficients from measurable effects of small external perturbations using a bank of Kalman filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, A.

    1990-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a method for the determination of reactivity coefficients in a nuclear power reactor in operation. A method based on Kalman filtering technique and the Magill-Bogler test is proposed for the determination of reactivity coefficients from measured effects of small external perturbation introduced into a steady-state power reactor. Numerical experiments are presented to justify the procedure. A realistic problem is considered: the calculation of the control rod worth. Finally a possible way is given to check the goodness of the estimation. (author) 16 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Effects of external pressure loading on human skin blood flow measured by 133Xe clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, G.A. Jr.; Daly, C.H.; Kennedy, D.; Chimoskey, J.

    1976-01-01

    Forearm skin blood flow was measured during external pressure loading in normal human subjects using 133 Xe washout from intracutaneous injection sites. Pressures ranging between 5 and 150 mmHg were applied through a 3-cm-diameter disc placed over the site of flow determination. The pressure was maintained constant by a servo-controlled loading mechanism. Flow decreased with pressures from 5 to 10 and 30 to 150 mmHg, but remained constant with pressures from 10 to 30 mmHg. Reactive hyperemia occurred following removal of pressures of 90 mmHg or greater, but did not occur following removal of lower pressures. The pressure-flow curve for parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects closely paralleled the pressure-flow curve of normal skin at pressures tested: 5 to 15 mmHg. These data are interpreted to demonstrate autoregulation of skin blood flow. Autoregulation in parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects suggests a peripheral mechanism. The occurrence of hyperemia at pressures which exceed the ability of skin to autoregulate suggests that both autoregulation and post occlusion hyperemia may have the same mechanism

  15. Radionuclide mobility in soils and its effect on the external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Hillmann, U.; Jacob, P.; Kretner, R.; Schimmack, W.; Tikhomirov, F.; Scheglov, A.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Loschilov, N.; Ivanov, Y.; Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V.; Oreshich, L.

    1996-01-01

    In order to predict the gamma-dose rate of 137 Cs for a period of about 100 years after the Chernobyl accident, the present vertical distribution of radiocesium in several meadow soils in the Chernobyl area and in Germany was determined and the corresponding residence half-times of this radionuclide in the various soil layers were evaluated with a compartment model. The resulting residence half-times were subsequently used to calculate the vertical distribution of 137 Cs in the soil as a function of time and finally to predict the external gamma-dose rates in air for these sites at various times. The results show that the time dependence of the relative gamma-dose rate in air D/D t=0 at both sites can be described by a two-term exponential equation. At a given time, the relative gamma-dose rate at the Chernobyl sites is always higher as compared to the German sites. This difference is the result of the slower vertical migration of 137 Cs at the Chernobyl sites

  16. Effects of internal and external environment on health and well-being: from cell to society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenović, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Stem cell fate in cell culture depends on the composition of the culturing media. Every single cell in an organism is influenced by its microenvironment and surrounding cells. Biology, psychology, emotions, spirit, energy, lifestyle, culture, economic and political influences, social interactions in family, work, living area and the possibilities to expresses oneself and live full life with a sense of well-being have influence on people appearances. Disease is as much social as biological. It is a reaction of an organism to unbalancing changes in the internal environment caused by the changes in the external environment and/or by the structural and functional failures or unfortunate legacies. Health gradient in the society depends on the every day circumstances in which people live and work. The health of the population is an insight into the society. The problem facing medicine in the complex society of today cannot be resolved without the aid of social sciences, as cultural, social, ecological and mental processes affect physiological responses and health outcomes. Anthropology could be a bridge between biomedicine and social sciences and influence strategies in public health to prevent rather than cure and in education for fulfillment in life and improvement of society.

  17. Effect of an external electric field on the propagation velocity of premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez-Sanz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. There have been many experimental investigations into the ability of electric fields to enhance combustion by acting upon ion species present in flames [1]. In this work, we examine this phenomenon using a one-dimensional model of a lean premixed flame under the influence of a longitudinal electric field. We expand upon prior two-step chain-branching reaction laminar models with reactions to model the creation and consumption of both a positively-charged radical species and free electrons. Also included are the electromotive force in the conservation equation for ion species and the electrostatic form of the Maxwell equations in order to resolve ion transport by externally applied and internally induced electric fields. The numerical solution of these equations allows us to compute changes in flame speed due to electric fields. Further, the variation of key kinetic and transport parameters modifies the electrical sensitivity of the flame. From changes in flame speed and reactant profiles we are able to gain novel, valuable insight into how and why combustion can be controlled by electric fields.

  18. Effect of Intraoperative mitomycin-c application in outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, M.; Ali, Z.; Aftab, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients develop postoperative fibrosis at the site of operation after dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) which results in impairment of the osteum patency. This quasi-experimental study was undertaken to determine the role of intraoperative Mitomycin C (MMC) application in maintaining postoperative patency of the osteum. Methodology: The present study was conducted at the Eye department of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad on patients in whom routine DCR was indicated. Subjects were divided into mitomycin C (Test) and non mitomycin C (Control) groups. In test group, Mitomycin C was applied to the anastomosed flaps and osteotomy site for 30 minutes. Postoperative patients were followed for up to 6 months and outcome of patency was documented. Results: A.total of 73 patients were included, divided into test (30) and control (43) groups. An overall success rate of 86.3 percentage was obtained for patent ostia; this was based on 96.67 percentage success in test group compared to 79.1 percentage in the control group (p=0.031). Conclusion: Intraoperative application of Mitomycin-C significantly improves the success rate in external dacryocystorhinostomy. (author)

  19. Electrotonic potentials in Aloe vera L.: Effects of intercellular and external electrodes arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Scott, Jessenia M; Jackson, Mariah M Z; Greeman, Esther A; Greenidge, Ariane S; Cohen, Devin O; Volkova, Maia I; Shtessel, Yuri B

    2017-02-01

    Electrostimulation of plants can induce plant movements, activation of ion channels, ion transport, gene expression, enzymatic systems activation, electrical signaling, plant-cell damage, enhanced wound healing, and influence plant growth. Here we found that electrical networks in plant tissues have electrical differentiators. The amplitude of electrical responses decreases along a leaf and increases by decreasing the distance between polarizing Pt-electrodes. Intercellular Ag/AgCl electrodes inserted in a leaf and extracellular Ag/AgCl electrodes attached to the leaf surface were used to detect the electrotonic potential propagation along a leaf of Aloe vera. There is a difference in duration and amplitude of electrical potentials measured by electrodes inserted in a leaf and those attached to a leaf's surface. If the external reference electrode is located in the soil near the root, it changes the amplitude and duration of electrotonic potentials due to existence of additional resistance, capacitance, ion channels and ion pumps in the root. The information gained from this study can be used to elucidate extracellular and intercellular communication in the form of electrical signals within plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of externally supplied lithium on the suppression of ASR expansion in mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Mitsunori; Kodera, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Lithium salts are being externally supplied for mitigating the progress of deterioration of ASR-affected concrete structures. However, it is not clear whether the sodium or potassium in the ASR gel in concrete is replaced by the lithium supplied from the outside. In this article, we examine changes in the composition of the ASR gel, previously formed in mortar specimens, after they are immersed in LiOH solution, using backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, associated with length change measurement of the mortar prisms. The intrusion of lithium ions into mortar specimens containing a reactive aggregate could arrest their further expansion within a relatively short time after immersion in 0.50 N LiOH solution. The alkali ions incorporated in most ASR gels, located not far away from interfaces between the cement paste and reactive aggregate particles, appear to be replaced by the lithium ions supplied from the solution. However, the ASR gel within the reacted aggregate particles did not appear to have been affected by the lithium ions

  1. Different effects of silica added internal or external on in vitro dissolution of indomethacin hot-melt extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yulong; Yuan, Meng; Deng, Yueyang; Ke, Xue; Ci, Tianyuan

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect on the dissolution behavior when silica was added in different ways. The solid dispersion was prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) using indomethacin (IND) as a model drug and Kollidon VA64 as a carrier. In order to change the dissolution behavior, the silica was added during or after the HME respectively, to obtain the corresponding silica internal-added solid dispersion (InSD) and silica external-added solid dispersion (ExSD). According to the results, the internal-added silicon dioxide could reduce the dissolution rate from 66.91%/h to 24.12%/h and the water infiltration rate from 0.37mm/h to 0.16mm/h in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 6.8, so the formulation of InSD had a significant sustained release effect. But the infiltration rate of the ExSD was increased to 13.22mm/h when silica was added external, and the density of VA64 in the powder was decreased from 541.87mg/cm3 to 141.87mg/cm3, leading to a weak resistance to the external force, and the powder was easy to be dispersed after wetted by water so that the formulation of ExSD had a relatively higher dissolution rate. This phenomenon was more visible when the phosphate buffer solution was changed to pH 5.6 in which the API was more difficult to be dissolved. Accordingly, different addition ways of aerosil would change release behavior of the HME preparation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Recent Syntheses of 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinolines, 2,3-Dihydro-4(1H-quinolinones and 4(1H-Quinolinones using Domino Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskar Nammalwar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the recent literature is given focusing on synthetic approaches to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines, 2,3-dihydro-4(1H-quinolinones and 4(1H-quinolinones using domino reactions. These syntheses involve: (1 reduction or oxidation followed by cyclization; (2 SNAr-terminated sequences; (3 acid-catalyzed ring closures or rearrangements; (4 high temperature cyclizations and (5 metal-promoted processes as well as several less thoroughly studied reactions. Each domino method is presented with a brief discussion of mechanism, scope, yields, simplicity and potential utility.

  3. Multi-centric clinical study of the effect of intervention time on efficacy of gastroparesis external application prescription treatment of gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Gastroparesis external application prescription can effectively treat gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis and may be more efficacious in progressive disease compared placebo. Patients with gastrointestinal tumor postsurgical gastroparesis should therefore undergo intervention at an earlier stage.

  4. Magnetic isotope and external magnetic field effects upon the photo-Fries rearrangement of 1-naphthyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagaki, R.; Hiramatsu, M.; Watanabe, T.; Tanimoto, Y.; Nagakura, S.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of the photo-Fries rearrangement of 1-naphthyl acetate has been studied by means of steady-state photolysis and laser flash photolysis. A radical pair consisting of the 1-naphthoxyl and acetyl radicals is concluded to be a reaction intermediate. The yield of an in-cage product (2-acetyl-1-naphthol) exhibits a positive external magnetic field effect for the ester labeled by magnetically active 13 C, but no effect for the normal 12 C ester. The magnetic field effect observed for the labeled ester is quantitatively or semiquantitatively explained in terms of the radical-pair mechanism by considering hyperfine coupling between magnetically active nuclei ( 1 H and 13 C) and an unpaired electron in the acetyl radical. The in-cage product is formed through the singlet radical pair. 26 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  5. Rh(II-mediated domino [4 + 1]-annulation of α-cyanothioacetamides using diazoesters: A new entry for the synthesis of multisubstituted thiophenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jury J. Medvedev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach towards the synthesis of multisubstituted thiophenes is elaborated based on Rh(II-catalyzed domino reactions of acyclic diazoesters with α-cyanothioacetamides. It provides a way for the preparation of 5-amino-3-(alkoxycarbonylaminothiophene-2-carboxylates, 2-(5-amino-2-methoxycarbonylthiophene-3-ylaminomalonates and (2-cyano-5-aminothiophene-3-ylcarbamates with the preparative yields of up to 67%. It was also shown that α-cyanothioacetamides easily interact with dirhodium carboxylates to give rather stable 2:1 complexes, resulting in an evident decrease in the efficiency of the catalytic process at moderate temperatures (20–30 °C.

  6. An efficient synthesis of novel pyrano[2,3-d]- and furopyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines via indium-catalyzed multi-component domino reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohain Mukut

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various novel pyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 5 and furopyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 7 were synthesized in 80–99% yields via a multicomponent domino Knoevenagel/hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid with an aromatic aldehyde and ethyl vinyl ether/2,3-dihydrofuran in presence of 1 mol% of indium(III chloride. The reaction also proceeds in aqueous media without using any catalyst, but the yield is comparatively less (65–70%.

  7. Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrimidine Enantiomers via Domino Ring-Closure followed by Retro Diels-Alder Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Fekete

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2-aminonorbornene hydroxamic acids, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrimidine enantiomers is reported. The synthesis is based on domino ring-closure followed by microwave-induced retro Diels-Alder (RDA protocols, where the chirality of the desired products is transferred from norbornene derivatives. The stereochemistry of the synthesized compounds was proven by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of the product is determined by the configuration of the starting amino hydroxamic acid.

  8. Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrimidine Enantiomers via Domino Ring-Closure followed by Retro Diels-Alder Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Beáta; Palkó, Márta; Haukka, Matti; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2017-04-13

    From 2-aminonorbornene hydroxamic acids, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of pyrrolo[1,2- a ]pyrimidine enantiomers is reported. The synthesis is based on domino ring-closure followed by microwave-induced retro Diels-Alder (RDA) protocols, where the chirality of the desired products is transferred from norbornene derivatives. The stereochemistry of the synthesized compounds was proven by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of the product is determined by the configuration of the starting amino hydroxamic acid.

  9. Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, L.E.; Bary, M.R. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Gray, K.M. [Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA (United States); LaHaye, P.G. [Hague International, South Portland, ME (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional gas turbine combustor. A steam generator located downstream from the ceramic air heater and steam turbine cycle, along with an exhaust cleanup system, completes the combined cycle. A key element of the EFCC Development Program, the 25 MMBtu/h heat-input Kennebunk Test Facility (KTF), has recently begun operation. The KTF has been operating with natural gas and will begin operating with coal in early 1995. The US Department of Energy selected an EFCC repowering of the Pennsylvania Electric Company`s Warren Station for funding under the Clean Coal Technology Program Round V. The project focuses on repowering an existing 48 MW (gross) steam turbine with an EFCC power island incorporating a 30 MW gas turbine, for a gross power output of 78 MW and a net output of 72 MW. The net plant heat rate will be decreased by approximately 30% to below 9,700 Btu/kWh. Use of a dry scrubber and fabric filter will reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate emissions to levels under those required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions are controlled by the use of staged combustion. The demonstration project is currently in the engineering phase, with startup scheduled for 1997. This paper discusses the background of the EFCC, the KTF, the Warren Station EFCC Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, the commercial plant concept, and the market potential for the EFCC.

  10. Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Film Coated Silver Nanorods: An Effective Carrier System for Externally Activated Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Gokul; Sharma, Varsha; Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticle anisotropy offers unique functions and features in comparison with spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and makes anisotropic nanoparticles (ANPs) promising candidates in applications like drug delivery, imaging, biosensing and theranostics. Presence of surface active groups (e.g. amine, and carboxylate groups) on their surface provides binding sites for ligands or other biomolecules, and hence, this could be targeted for specific part or cells in our body. In the quest of such surface modification, functionalization of ANPs along Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PE) reduces cellular toxicity and promotes easy encapsulation of drugs. In this work, we report the silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesis by adsorbate directed synthetic approach using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The formed ANPs is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy revealing the shaping of AgNRs of 3-16 nm aspect ratio with some presence of triangles. These NRs were further coated with bio polymers of chitosan (CH) and dextran sulphate (DS) through LbL approach and used for encapsulation of water soluble anti-bacterial drugs like ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CFH). The encapsulation of drugs and profiles of drug release were investigated and compared to that of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The added advantages of the proposed drug delivery system (DDS) can be externally activated to release the loaded drug and used as contrast agents for biological imaging under exposure to NIR light. Such system shows unique and attractive characteristics required for drug delivery and bioimaging thus offering the scope for further development as theranostic material.

  11. Study of the External Neutron Source Effect on TRU Burning in a Sub-critical Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Zafar Iqbal; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    One of the drawback points of nuclear power is the production of highly radioactive and long lasting waste isotopes during power production. Therefore, most important design requirement of future nuclear option should have a potential to burn selectively long-lived fission products (LLFP) and long-lived minor actinides (LLMA). However, there is no way to burn them selectively in the reactor core. Practical method of waste transmutation should rely on selective separation of them from spent nuclear fuel of power plants. Under the proliferation concern, direct separation of trans-uranic isotopes (TRU) from pyro-reprocessing plant became a feasible option in our country. Even though social political agreement is not matured as well as technical feasibility, current study is done based on basic assumptions; TRU and LLFP is separated from spent fuel of nuclear power plants. The remaining neutrons (among the external 3%) very few in number (less than 1% in any case) being very energetic (above three MeV or so) do cause much more fissions per neutron than their counterparts but, because of their overall low population they do not have any significant and decisive influence in the overall reactor performance. Currently, entire study is limited to the source neutron energy of 20 MeV only. In future, it is expected to get reasonably plausible fixed source dependent difference in the TRU burning by using tabulated data for the neutrons of higher energy (up to 250 MeV at least). Secondly, a clearer picture is expected if the TRU loading was increased from the current value of 133 kg to few metric tons, as is the case in most of the existing reactors.

  12. Effect of External Quality Assurance Evaluation for Chest Radiography: 3-Year Follow-Up in the Medical Institution for Pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Soon Byung

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of external quality assurance (QA) evaluation for chest radiography in the medical institution for pneumoconiosis (MIP). The chest radiography of the MIPs were evaluated for a radiological technique (RT), image quality (IQ), and reading environment (RE), during a 3-year follow up according to the Korean guidelines. Same methods were implemented each year to ensure that the results are reliable. RT, IQ, and RE were compared between examination and medical care (EMP), and only medical care (MCP) for pneumoconiosis, film-screen (FSR) and digital (DR) radiography. Uneducated and educated for QA during a 3-year follow up referencing with 2008 were realized. RT and IQ of the MIPs showed a significantly higher score in 2009 and 2010 compared with 2008 (p < 0.01). However, RE was not significantly improved. The score of RT, IQ, and RE of the EMPs were higher than those of MCPs every year, and FSR showed a lower score in all evaluations, although, more improvement was seen than the DR. The chest radiography of the MIPs showed a significant effect as a result of a repeated external QA evaluation. However, the MIPs need to transfer from FSR to DR, and maintain a continuous QA evaluation for the MCPs.

  13. The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and Social Appearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Atik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to determine the effect of external apple vinegar application on the symptoms and social appearance anxiety of varicosity patients who were suggested conservative treatment. Method. The study was planned as an experimental, randomized, and controlled study. 120 patients were randomly selected and then were randomly allocated to either experimental or control group by simple blind random sampling method. In the collection of research data, a questionnaire questioning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain, and the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS were used. The patients in the study group were suggested to apply apple vinegar to the area of the leg with varicosity alongside the treatment suggested by the doctor. The patients in the control group received no intervention during the study. Results. The sociodemographic and clinic characteristics of both groups were found to be similar (p>0.05. The patients were evaluated with regard to cramps, pain, leg fatigue perception, edema, itching, pigmentation, and weight feelings in the leg, VAS, and SAAS averages in the second evaluation; the control group had a decrease in such symptoms (p>0.05 although the decrease in the application group was higher and statistically meaningful (p<0.05. Conclusion. We determined that the external application of apple vinegar on varicosity patients, which is a very easy application, increased the positive effects of conservative treatment.

  14. Peyton's 4-Steps-Approach in comparison: Medium-term effects on learning external chest compression – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münster, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The external chest compression is a very important skill required to maintain a minimum of circulation during cardiac arrest until further medical procedures can be taken. Peyton’s 4-Steps-Approach is one method of skill training, the four steps being:Based on CPR skill training, this method is widely, allegedly predominantly used, although there are insufficient studies on Peyton’s 4-Steps-Approach for skill training in CPR in comparison with other methods of skill training. In our study, we compared the medium- term effects on learning external chest compression with a CPR training device in three different groups: PEY (Peyton’s 4-Steps-Approach, PMOD (Peyton’s 4-Steps-Approach without Step 3 and STDM, the standard model, according to the widely spread method “see one, do one” (this is equal to Peyton’s step 1 and 3.Material and Methods: This prospective and randomised pilot study took place during the summer semester of 2009 at the SkillsLab and Simulation Centre of the University of Cologne (Kölner interprofessionelles Skills Lab und Simulationszentrum - KISS. The subjects were medical students (2 and 3 semester. They volunteered for the study and were randomised in three parallel groups, each receiving one of the teaching methods mentioned above. One week and 5/6 months after the intervention, an objective, structured single assessment was taken. Compression rate, compression depth, correct compressions, and the sum of correct checklist items were recorded. Additionally, we compared cumulative percentages between the groups based on the correct implementation of the resuscitation guidelines during that time.Results: The examined sample consisted of 134 subjects (68% female; age 22±4; PEY: n=62; PMOD: n=31; STDM: n=41. There was no difference between the groups concerning age, gender, pre-existing experience in CPR or time of last CPR course. The only significant difference between the groups was the mean

  15. Peyton's 4-Steps-Approach in comparison: Medium-term effects on learning external chest compression - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Tobias; Stosch, Christoph; Hindrichs, Nina; Franklin, Jeremy; Matthes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The external chest compression is a very important skill required to maintain a minimum of circulation during cardiac arrest until further medical procedures can be taken. Peyton's 4-Steps-Approach is one method of skill training, the four steps being: Demonstration, Deconstruction, Comprehension and Execution. Based on CPR skill training, this method is widely, allegedly predominantly used, although there are insufficient studies on Peyton's 4-Steps-Approach for skill training in CPR in comparison with other methods of skill training. In our study, we compared the medium- term effects on learning external chest compression with a CPR training device in three different groups: PEY (Peyton's 4-Steps-Approach), PMOD (Peyton's 4-Steps-Approach without Step 3) and STDM, the standard model, according to the widely spread method "see one, do one" (this is equal to Peyton's step 1 and 3). This prospective and randomised pilot study took place during the summer semester of 2009 at the SkillsLab and Simulation Centre of the University of Cologne (Kölner interprofessionelles Skills Lab und Simulationszentrum - KISS). The subjects were medical students (2(nd) and 3(rd) semester). They volunteered for the study and were randomised in three parallel groups, each receiving one of the teaching methods mentioned above. One week and 5/6 months after the intervention, an objective, structured single assessment was taken. Compression rate, compression depth, correct compressions, and the sum of correct checklist items were recorded. Additionally, we compared cumulative percentages between the groups based on the correct implementation of the resuscitation guidelines during that time. The examined sample consisted of 134 subjects (68% female; age 22±4; PEY: n=62; PMOD: n=31; STDM: n=41). There was no difference between the groups concerning age, gender, pre-existing experience in CPR or time of last CPR course. The only significant difference between the groups was the mean

  16. Constructing Preference from Experience: The Endowment Effect Reflected in External Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Scheibehenne, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    People often attach a higher value to an object when they own it (i.e., as seller) compared with when they do not own it (i.e., as buyer)--a phenomenon known as the "endowment effect". According to recent cognitive process accounts of the endowment effect, the effect is due to differences between sellers and buyers in information search.…

  17. The Effects of External Focus of Attention on Shoulder Muscle Activities during Forehand Drive in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hatami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the external focus of attention on the rotator cuff muscle activity for the timely hit forehand drive by table tennis players. Methods: Twelve professional table tennis players with mean age of 26.5 years voluntarily participated in this study. The electrical activities of the muscles of the shoulder girdle using M.A 300 machine and bipolar electrodes surface under two conditions .First with external focus of attention and then without such attention were recorded, first without any guidance blows forehand drive was carried out by subjects (without focus. Then such subject was asked to focus their attention on the area marked for the ball landing (external focus of attention.      Muscle activities in both preparation and tapping phases were analyzed the three –dimensional (200 Hz, Vicon, with four camera series T motion analysis system was used to obtain the data. Data was analyzed by running reported measures ANOVA at a significance level of p0.05 but the different between the intensity of muscle activity was meaningful. This suggests that there is a mutual influence between the two attention factors and muscles (p=0.03, that is, orientation can have a significant effect on the severity of muscle contraction. Intensities of muscle contraction in the preparation and tapping were different (p<0.05. Conclusion: On the forehand drive technique, the anterior deltoid muscle has the most activity. The type of focus and attention had a significant impact on the change of activity of muscles relative to each other, and the greatest impact is on the reduction of activity of the infraspinatus muscle. This type of focus delays fatigue and results in an increase in the efficiency of neuromuscular in the activities of skills.

  18. Effect of abutment screw length and cyclic loading on removal torque in external and internal hex implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hnd Hadi; Lee, Jin-Han; Bae, Ji-Myung; Cho, Hye-Won

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of abutment screw length and cyclic loading on the removal torque (RTV) in external hex (EH) and internal hex (IH) implants. Forty screw-retained single crowns were connected to external and internal hex implants. The prepared titanium abutment screws were classified into 8 groups based on the number of threads (n = 5 per group): EH 12.5, 6.5, 3.5, 2.5 and IH 6.5, 5, 3.5, 2.5 threads. The abutment screws were tightened with 20 Ncm torque twice with 10-minute intervals. After 5 minutes, the initial RTVs of the abutment screws were measured with a digital torque gauge (MGT12). A customized jig was constructed to apply a load along the implant long axis at the central fossa of the maxillary first molar. The post-loading RTVs were measured after 16,000 cycles of mechanical loading with 50 N at a 1-Hz frequency. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The post-loading RTVs were significantly lower than the initial RTVs in the EH 2.5 thread and IH 2.5 thread groups (P<.05). The initial RTVs exhibited no significant differences among the 8 groups, whereas the post-loading RTVs of the EH 6.5 and EH 3.5 thread groups were higher than those of the IH 3.5 thread group (P<.05). Within the limitations of this study, the external hex implants with short screw lengths were more advantageous than internal hex implants with short screw lengths in torque maintenance after cyclic loading.

  19. Effect of an external magnetic field on particle acceleration by a rotating black hole surrounded with quintessential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaymatov, Sanjar; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon

    We investigate particle motion and collisions in the vicinity of rotating black holes immersed in combined cosmological quintessential scalar field and external magnetic field. The quintessential dark-energy field governing the spacetime structure is characterized by the quintessential state parameter ωq ∈ (‑1; ‑1/3) characterizing its equation of state, and the quintessential field-intensity parameter c determining the static radius where the black hole attraction is just balanced by the quintessential repulsion. The magnetic field is assumed to be test field that is uniform close to the static radius, where the spacetime is nearly flat, being characterized by strength B there. Deformations of the test magnetic field in vicinity of the black hole, caused by the Ricci non-flat spacetime structure are determined. General expression of the center-of-mass energy of the colliding charged or uncharged particles near the black hole is given and discussed in several special cases. In the case of nonrotating black holes, we discuss collisions of two particles freely falling from vicinity of the static radius, or one such a particle colliding with charged particle revolving at the innermost stable circular orbit. In the case of rotating black holes, we discuss briefly particles falling in the equatorial plane and colliding in close vicinity of the black hole horizon, concentrating attention to the interplay of the effects of the quintessential field and the external magnetic field. We demonstrate that the ultra-high center-of-mass energy can be obtained for black holes placed in an external magnetic field for an infinitesimally small quintessential field-intensity parameter c; the center-of-mass energy decreases if the quintessential field-intensity parameter c increases.

  20. Rational Addiction, Peer Externalities and Long Run Effects of Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Kenkel; Robert R. Reed III; Ping Wang

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to understand the patterns of consumption of addictive goods, their economic and welfare consequences for society and the long-run effect of tax policy in a dynamic general equilibrium model of rational addiction. In contrast to prior research, we allow individuals to make their consumption decisions simultaneous with savings and labor supply. When addictive goods have a stronger habit formation effect (an addiction effect'), individuals choose to save les...