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Sample records for external distraction system

  1. Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients with Rigid External Distraction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, Shadi; Waite, Peter D; Davis, Matthew B; Lamani, Ejvis; Kau, Chung How

    2017-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a treatment option for patients with maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate (CLP). The aim of this study is to present a technique for maxillary DO using Le Fort I osteotomy with rigid external distraction (RED) system. The patient presented in this paper was an Asian female with CLP aged 13 years and 6 months. She presented with severe midfacial deficiency with a Class III dental malocclusion with a negative overjet and concave facial profile. Cone-beam computed tomography images were recorded preoperatively and the operation performed involved a high Le Fort I osteotomy. The appliance fabricated was banded to upper first molars used for anchorage of the RED system. Distraction of the maxilla was initiated after 7-day latency period. Postoperative cephalometric analysis showed maxillary advancement anteriorly and superiorly, the total distraction treatment period was 10 days. The maxillary advancement was 10.5 mm and the SNA angle increased from 67.5° to 77.9°. Furthermore, the ANB angle changed from -9.8° to 1.6° and the occlusion changed from Class III to Class I. The profile of the face changed from concave to convex and a much better esthetic result was achieved. The study suggests RED system to be a reliable alternative procedure for the treatment of midfacial hypoplasia with or without cleft. Furthermore, it minimizes the risk of the surgical procedure and shortens the operating time.

  2. Rigid external maxillary distraction and rhinoplasty for pyknodysostosis.

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    Varol, Altan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Sencimen, Metin; Akcam, Timur; Olmez, Hüseyin; Basa, Selçuk

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the treatment of an 33-year-old female patient with pyknodysostosis by rigid external distraction II midface distraction system. The patient with pyknodysostosis described in this report had severe midfacial hypoplasia. Correction of this by use of routine orthognathic surgery would require osteosynthesis and bone grafting. Risk of infection and/or nonunion after such a surgical procedure was considered too great, and therefore the possibility of treatment by distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla was evaluated. The rigid external distraction II midface distraction system was used to relocate the hypoplastic maxilla at anterior-inferior projection. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as the primary reconstructive method for maxillofacial deformities in patients with sclerosing bone dysplasias, since this is the second reported case treated successfully with rigid external distraction.

  3. Maxillary distraction in patients with cleft deformity using a rigid external distraction device: a pilot study on the distraction ratio of the maxilla to the device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masaru; Omura, Ken

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ratio between actual maxillary distraction and the distraction of the rigid external distraction device (Rigid external distraction (RED) system) used for maxillary distraction in patients with a cleft deformity. Twelve patients were examined. The amount of maxillary advancement was measured on lateral cephalograms and divided by the activation amount on the RED system. The value obtained was represented as the distraction ratio of the maxilla to the system. The mean ratio in 10 patients with complete cleft lip, palate, and alveolus (complete cleft) was 0.24. However, the ratios in two patients with cleft lip and alveolus or soft cleft palate (incomplete cleft) were considerably higher than the mean ratios in patients with complete cleft. When the maxilla is distracted in patients with complete cleft using the RED system, the amount of activation on the system needs to be about four times the amount of planned maxillary distraction. However, the distraction ratio may be affected by the type of cleft.

  4. Measurement of Distraction Force in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients During Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement With Rigid External Distraction.

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    Sawada, Hiromi; Ogawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Keiichi; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a mainstream surgical technique for patients who have severe maxillary hypoplasia associated with craniofacial syndromes and cleft-related deformities. However, limited information about the biomechanical aspects of maxillary DO is available limiting broad utilization and improvements to the procedure. The objective of this study was to analyze force levels during the active distraction process and to investigate the relationship between distraction force and maxillary movement during Le Fort I maxillary DO using a rigid external distraction (RED) system. Microtension gauges were integrated into the distraction wires on each side of the RED system. Six patients with cleft lip and palate aged 12.8 to 23.5 years underwent strain gauge measurements during maxillary advancement with DO using an RED system. Lateral cephalograms were taken to measure maxillary horizontal, vertical, and linear movements after DO. The average linear maxillary movement was 11.2 mm (range 8.5-15.9 mm). The applied forces ranged from 13.4 to 26.8 N. The distance of maxillary movement was proportional to the distraction force. The measurement of distraction forces during DO provides important information with which to establish appropriate protocols. Patients requiring more advancement may require more distraction force. However, other factors such as scarring, patient anatomy, surgical freedom of the osteotomized maxilla, and the like, may affect the required force during DO with the RED system.

  5. Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures

  6. Rapid maxillary distraction protocol utilizing the halo distraction system and rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen B; Reid, Russell R; Burkey, Brooke; Bartlett, Scott P

    2007-09-01

    To shorten head frame wear time associated with external halo distraction (HD), we have adapted a protocol for maxillary distraction with the halo system that integrates plate fixation. All patients had a history of cleft lip and/or palate and maxillary retrusion > or = 8 mm. Five patients treated with this protocol and followed for at least 1 year were included in this study. The protocol included a 3-day latency period, variable maxillary distraction, and removal of the halo device with simultaneous rigid internal fixation. Two patients had a variable period of maxillomandibular fixation (MMF), which maintained the maxillary advancement and idealized intercuspal position while permitting further callus maturation. Cephalographs were obtained preoperatively, immediately following distractor removal, and 1 year after rigid internal fixation. The mean age at time of surgery was 18.7 years. The maxillary deficiency ranged from 8 to 15 mm (mean = 10.6 mm). All five patients demonstrated excellent occlusion. Cephalometric analysis 1-year post rigid internal fixation revealed minimal (maxillary distraction followed by MMF to maintain maxillary advancement may reduce halo device wear to 1 to 2 weeks. MMF optimizes occlusion by forcing the maxillary teeth into maximal intercuspal position. Rigid fixation is not only associated with less long-term relapse compared to nonrigid forms of fixation, but also minimizes the incidence of nonunion. This treatment protocol provides the advancement possible with distraction osteogenesis and the accuracy of orthognathic surgery, thereby minimizing external head frame wear.

  7. Le Fort III Distraction With Internal vs External Distractors: A Cephalometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin J; Mendez, Bernardino M; Bruce, William J; McDonnell, Brendan D; Chiodo, Michael V; Patel, Parit A

    2018-05-01

    This study compares the change in midface position following Le Fort III advancement using either rigid external distraction (group 1) or internal distraction (group 2). We hypothesized that, with reference to right-facing cephalometry, internal distraction would result in increased clockwise rotation and inferior displacement of the midface. Le Fort III osteotomies and standardized distraction protocols were performed on 10 cadaveric specimens per group. Right-facing lateral cephalograms were traced and compared across time points to determine change in position at points orbitale, anterior nasal spine (ANS), A-point, and angle ANB. Institutional. Twenty cadaveric head specimens. Standard subcranial Le Fort III osteotomies were performed from a coronal approach and adequately mobilized. The specified distraction mechanism was applied and advanced by 15 mm. Changes of position were calculated at various skeletal landmarks: orbitale, ANS, A-point, and ANB. Group 1 demonstrated relatively uniform x-axis advancement with minimal inferior repositioning at the A-point, ANS, and orbitale. Group 2 demonstrated marked variation in x-axis advancement among the 3 points, along with a significant inferior repositioning and clockwise rotation of the midface ( P External distraction resulted in more uniform advancement of the midface, whereas internal distraction resulted in greater clockwise rotation and inferior displacement. External distraction appears to provide increased vector control of the midface, which is important in creating a customized distraction plan based on the patient's individual occlusal and skeletal needs.

  8. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate cases with midface hypoplasia using rigid external distractor: an alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Gaurav; Navin Kumar, Andrews; Roy, Indranil Deb; Roy, Supriyo Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Patients with operated cleft lip and palate present with a problem of midface hypoplasia, and such patients have been traditionally treated with orthognathic surgery. Such a procedure has its own limitations of relapse and hence a newer modality of distraction osteogenesis with histiogenesis can be chosen to overcome such limitations for midfacial advancement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an alternative technique and its postoperative stability in maxillary distraction osteogenesis in patients of cleft lip and cleft palate using a rigid external device (RED). Nine patients with midface bone stock deficiency were selected for maxillary advancement. At the first surgery under general anesthesia, after Le Fort I osteotomy, RED system was used with the alternative technique. After distraction, evaluation was done for ease of the procedure, stability, and complications. Lateral cephalograms were evaluated at 3 stages: T1, pre-distraction; T2, post-distraction; and T3, 1 year post-distraction. A mean 13.4-mm midface advancement was shown with bone formation at the pterygomaxillary region without losing the vector and having a standby mode in case the wire broke during distraction The results were stable even at 1 year of follow-up. Maxillary position improved in relation to the cranial base. This study showed that the RED was versatile in midface advancement.

  9. A novel anchorage technique for transnasal traction in rigid external maxillary distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, A; Basa, S

    2013-12-01

    We describe an effective technique for anchorage of transnasal traction in the management of maxillary rotation during external distraction. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Skeletal and dental stability after maxillary distraction with a rigid external device in adult cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Muge; Saglam-Aydinatay, Banu; Akcan, Cenk Ahmet; El, Hakan; Taner, Tulin; Kocadereli, Ilken; Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Mavili, Mehmet Emin

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate skeletal and dental stability in adult cleft lip and palate patients treated with a rigid external distraction system at the end of distraction and during the postdistraction period. Lateral cephalograms of 7 patients were obtained before distraction, at the end of distraction, and during the postdistraction period. The mean age before distraction was 21.56 +/- 4.73 years. The mean follow-up was 37.3 +/- 12.4 months. The assessment of findings showed that skeletal maxillary sagittal movement was achieved in a superoanterior direction. The maxillary depth angle and effective maxillary length increased significantly (2 degrees and 9 mm, respectively) after distraction, whereas the palatal plane angle increased by 8 degrees , resulting in an anterior movement of the maxilla with a counterclockwise rotation. The lower facial height showed no significant changes after distraction. The sagittal movement of the upper incisors and the angulation of the upper first molars increased significantly (4.5 mm and 5.5 degrees , respectively). During the postdistraction period, the maxilla showed a slight relapse (22%). The effective maxillary length decreased by 2 mm. The palatal plane angle almost returned to its original position, showing 7 degrees of clockwise rotation. The lower facial height remained stable. The upper incisors moved anteriorly and the upper first molars showed a significant mesioangular change during follow-up. After distraction, significant maxillary advancement was achieved with a counterclockwise rotation. The upper incisors moved labially, and the upper first molars angulated mesially. After 3 years, a 22% relapse rate was seen in the maxilla. The counterclockwise rotation of the maxilla was returned to its original position. The upper incisors moved more anteriorly. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Profile Changes and Stability following Distraction Osteogenesis with Rigid External Distraction in Adult Cleft Lip and Palate Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painatt, Jaeson M.; Veeraraghavan, Ravi; Puthalath, Ushass; Peter, Sherry; Rao, Latha P.; Kuriakose, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the hard and soft-tissue profile changes as well as the upper airway changes after distraction osteogenesis (DO) using rigid external distraction device in adult cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The study also evaluates the stability of the surgical result. Materials and Methods: Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken: Predistraction (T1), postdistraction (T2), and 1 year after distractor removal (T3). The treatment changes (T1 vs. T2) and the stability (T2 vs. T3) were analyzed. The overall treatment changes after 1 year were also evaluated (T1 vs. T3). The lateral cephalograms were digitally analyzed with the help of software named Dolphin. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used, and the probability value (P value) of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. Results: Eleven adult patients with CLP were retrospectively analyzed. After distraction, there was a significant mean maxillary advancement of 14 mm (P maxillary relapse of 3.20 mm (P maxillary advancement for CLP patients with DO. There were significant improvements immediately after distraction, but during the 1-year follow-up, some relapse was seen. This stressed on the need for overcorrection of about 35%–40% for adult CLP patients. PMID:28839409

  12. Velopharyngeal changes after maxillary distraction in cleft patients using a rigid external distraction device: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahasen; Elsheikh, Yasser M

    2016-11-01

     To evaluate early and late velopharyngeal changes in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients after use of the Rigid External Distractor (RED) device and to correlate these changes to the amount of maxillary advancement.  Thirty Class III CLP patients were included in the study. Maxillary advancement was performed using the RED device in combination with titanium miniplates and screws for anchorage. Lateral cephalograms, nasometer, and nasopharyngoscope records were taken before distraction, immediately after distraction, and 1 year after distraction. A paired t-test was used to detect differences at P maxillary distraction (P  =  .0001). Statistically significant increases in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal depths, velar angle, and need ratio were also found (P  =  .0001). Nasalance scores showed a significant increase (P  =  .008 for nasal text and .044 for oral text). A significant positive correlation was observed between the amount of maxillary advancement and the increase in nasopharyngeal depth and hypernasality (P  =  .012 and .026, respectively).  Nasopharyngeal function was deteriorated after maxillary advancement in CLP patients. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of maxillary advancement and the increase in nasopharyngeal depth and hypernasality.

  13. External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmiel, Adi; Nseir, Saleh; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with congenital craniofacial malformations due to hypoplastic mandible and decreased pharyngeal airway. In this study, we will compare external and internal distraction devices for mandibular lengthening in terms of effectiveness, results, patient comfort, and complications. Thirty-seven patients were treated by bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis for obstructive sleep apnea: 20 with external and 17 with internal distraction devices. Lengthening of the mandible and increase of the pharyngeal airway were obtained in all patients. Using the external devices, the average mandibular elongation was 30 mm versus 22 mm with the internal devices; however, after 1 year, the results were more stable with internal devices. External devices carried greater risk for pin tract infection than the internal devices (27.5% vs 5.88%). In addition, pin loosening in 22.5% required pin replacement or led to reduced retention period. Internal devices had a precise and predictable vector of lengthening and left less visible scars at the submandibular area but carried the disadvantage of requiring a second operation for device removal. In very young children with severe micrognathia, it was impossible to place internal devices, and external devices were used. Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options.

  14. Profile changes and stability following distraction osteogenesis with rigid external distraction in adult cleft lip and palate deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeson M Painatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the hard and soft-tissue profile changes as well as the upper airway changes after distraction osteogenesis (DO using rigid external distraction device in adult cleft lip and palate (CLP patients. The study also evaluates the stability of the surgical result. Materials and Methods: Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken: Predistraction (T1, postdistraction (T2, and 1 year after distractor removal (T3. The treatment changes (T1 vs. T2 and the stability (T2 vs. T3 were analyzed. The overall treatment changes after 1 year were also evaluated (T1 vs. T3. The lateral cephalograms were digitally analyzed with the help of software named Dolphin. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used, and the probability value (P value of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. Results: Eleven adult patients with CLP were retrospectively analyzed. After distraction, there was a significant mean maxillary advancement of 14 mm (P < 0.01 from a T1 value of 73.54 ± 10.38 to a T2 value of 88.2 ± 10.49. The lower facial height and the incisor exposure were significantly increased. The nasolabial angle had a significant improvement of 24.5° (P < 0.01 from a T1 value of 56.6 ± 21.03 to a T2 value of 81.18 ± 14.4.The upper airway was significantly improved by 3.7 mm (P < 0.01 with a T1 value of 13.5 ± 3.8 to a T2 value of 17.2 ± 3.66. After 1-year follow-up, there was a significant maxillary relapse of 3.20 mm (P < 0.05 from a T2 value of 8.29 ± 6.84 to a T3 value of 5.09 ± 5.59. However, the soft-tissue profile and upper airway remained stable. Conclusion: The clinician should have an understanding of the related hard and soft tissues as well as airway changes which may assist him when planning for maxillary advancement for CLP patients with DO. There were significant improvements immediately after distraction, but during the 1-year follow-up, some relapse was

  15. Management of Late Onset Perthes: Evaluation of Distraction by External Fixator—5-Year Follow-Up

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    Ajai Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hip distraction in Perthes’ disease unloads the joint, which negates the harmful effect of the stresses on the articular surfaces, which may promote the sound healing of the area of necrosis. We have examined the effect of arthrodiastasis on the preservation of the femoral head in older children with Perthes’ disease. Methods and Materials. Twelve children with age more than 8 years with Perthes’ disease of less than one year were treated with hip distraction by a hinged monolateral external fixator. Observation and Results. Mean duration of distraction was 13.9 days. These children were evaluated by clinicoradiological parameters for a mean period of 32.4 months. There was a significant improvement in the range of movements and mean epiphyseal index, but the change in the percentage of uncovered head femur was insignificant. There was significant improvement in Harris Hip score. Conclusions. Hip distraction by hinged monolateral external fixator seems to be a valid treatment option in cases with Perthes’ disease in the selected group of patients, where poor results are expected from conventional treatment.

  16. DISTRACTION EXTERNAL FIXATIONS OF PELVIC FRACTURES CAUSED BY A LATERAL COMPRESSION.

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    Pavlin Apostolov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors represent a distraction external pelvic fixation technique, which they use in pelvic fractures caused by a lateral compression. They consider the indications and mounting techniques. The authors recommend the early movement activities (on the 3rd - 5th day after the external fixator placement. This method had been used in 8 patients and 3 cases are analyzed in details. The priority of this technique over open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF mainly are: (1 the implementation of good reduction of the fracture preventing the risk of ORIF; (2 the possibility for early movement activities for the patient.

  17. Removable splint with locking attachments for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the RED system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E Y; Suzuki, B

    2007-12-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used to control traction forces applied to the maxilla with the rigid external distraction system represent a major barrier to surgical procedures. The purpose of this article is to introduce a removable intraoral splint with locking attachments that can be placed post-surgically immediately before distraction, facilitating surgery and consequently reducing the operative time. Fifteen cleft lip and palate patients underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external distraction device in combination with the proposed removable splint that was fixed onto the maxillary teeth to provide anchorage. Initial records showed severe maxillary hypoplasia and negative overjet. The removable splint was fabricated using 1.5-mm diameter stainless-steel rigid orthodontic wires soldered to the locking attachments (Y&B Products LP, Chiang Mai, Thailand), making possible its placement post-surgically. Stable splint fixation was achieved prior to the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were reached. No complications inserting or removing the splint post-surgically, including pain or discomfort, were observed. The use of the removable splint with locking attachments has proved to be a highly effective fixation approach to manage the severely hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring, and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection.

  18. Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis Using a Rigid External Distractor: Which Clinical Factors Are Related With Relapse?

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    Kim, Jeenam; Uhm, Ki-Il; Shin, Donghyeok; Lee, Jina; Choi, Hyungon

    2015-06-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is a reliable treatment for cleft lip and palate with midfacial retrusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of long-term follow-up in patients with cleft lip and palate after maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to find clinical factors related to relapse. From February 2002 to June 2008, 21 patients with severe class III malocclusion were treated at our hospital. We performed distraction osteotomy with a rigid external distractor device. The distraction length was more than 15 mm in all patients. Preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalometric radiographs were used for analysis. The sella-nasion-subnasale, sella-nasion-supramentale, and point-A-point-B-nasion (sella-nasion-subnasale-sella-nasion-supramentale) angles were recorded. The timelines for follow-up were preoperatively, after distraction, after consolidation, at 3 years, and once fully grown (5- to 8-year follow-ups). A comparative analysis of clinical factors was performed for the relapsing and nonrelapsing groups. Of the 21 patients, 14 had relapsed. The mean age in the relapsing group was 9.1 years (7 boys and 7 girls) with 9 patients with unilateral cleft palate and 5 c bilateral cleft palate. The mean age in the nonrelapsing group was 11.7 years (4 boys and 3 girls) with 5 patients with unilateral cleft palate and 2 patients with bilateral cleft palate. Despite greater anterior overcorrection, relapse occurred owing to scar tissue retraction and mandibular compensatory hypertrophy. The results suggest that the younger the patient, the more likely relapse will occur.

  19. Nonunion of the external maxillary distraction in cleft lip and palate: analysis of possible reasons.

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    He, Dongmei; Genecov, David G; Barcelo, Raul

    2010-10-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an effective way to treat severe maxillary deficiency in patients with cleft lip and palate. It has been reported to have long-term stability and low relapse rate compared with conventional maxillary osteotomy in large maxillary movement. However, complications such as nonunion are seldom reported. While developing our external distraction techniques, we had 4 nonunion cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the possible reasons for these conditions by comparing them to patients successfully treated at 1 craniofacial institute. Fifty-six patients with CLP deformities treated with external maxillary distraction from 2000 to 2006 in 1 craniofacial center were reviewed. Among them, 17 had full records and follow-up time of more than 1 year. They had rigid external halo distraction with dental splint after a high Le Fort I osteotomy. Distraction was started at 5 days with a rate of 1 mm per day until the maxilla acquired the planned correction. Consolidation time ranged from 4 weeks to 3 months. Patients' general information, DO protocol, and cephalometric radiograph measurements before DO, immediately after DO, and follow-ups were evaluated. Thirteen of 17 patients successfully completed DO, whereas 4 others developed dental occlusion relapse 2 to 3 months after device removal. Later jaw surgery showed nonunion at the distraction sites. These were our first patients treated with external distraction. Their consolidation time was from 4 to 6 weeks with a mean of 5.2 weeks. After increasing the consolidation time up to 12 weeks, all of the other 13 patients had successful results without nonunion. Their mean consolidation time was 9.8 weeks. The nonunion group had significantly shorter consolidation time, older age, and larger distraction osteogenesis (DO) advancement than the successful group statistically. There was also a greater percentage of bilateral CLP patients in the nonunion group than in the

  20. Beneficial role of periosteum in distraction osteogenesis of mandible. Its preservation prevents the external bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Sawako; Matsuo, Akira; Chiba, Hiroshige

    2010-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical process of new bone generation through the gradual extension of two segments of existing bone. DO is applied for maxillofacial surgeries to manage defects in mandibular continuity. Vertical DO with an oral device is often employed to augment the alveolar bone height for better implant anchorage for esthetic purposes or functional prosthetic requirements. To determine how the periosteum affects the vertical DO in mandibular reconstruction, we extracted the teeth and resected the alveolar parts of the mandible on both sides of dogs, along with removal of the surrounding periosteum in the right, but not left side. Three months later, box-shaped bone segments (vectors) were prepared from the resected alveolar part, and the segments were vertically elongated using a distraction device on both sides at 0.9 mm/day for one week. The extent of bone formation after distraction was determined with micro-focused computed tomography and by measuring incorporation of tetracycline and calcein with confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the initial two months after distraction, new bone formation was observed more prominently in the left side than in the right side of mandible with the periosteum. However, this difference was less clear during the bone-remodeling period. One notable change was the reduced height of the alveolar part of the right-side mandible, a sign of external bone resorption, observed in two out of three dogs at 6-month post-consolidation. These findings suggest that preservation of periosteum prevents the external bone resorption during the vertical DO of mandible. (author)

  1. Maxillary protraction in adult cleft lip and palate by a rigid external distraction device with dentoskeletal anchorage

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    Akarsu, Bengisu; Taner, Tulin; Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Mavili, M. Emin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to evaluate the effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) in an adult patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) by using a rigid external distraction (RED) device with dentoskeletal anchorage. Method: 31-year-old male patient with UCLP with severe maxillary hypoplasia, dolichofacial growth pattern, negative overjet and 1.5 mm openbite. After pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, an intra-oral appliance was modified to prevent extrusion of the molars and clockwise rotation of the mandible. Stainless steel plates were soldered bilaterally to the intra oral appliance at the level of canines. During surgery, miniplates were inserted in the maxillary segment and fixed to the plates of the intra oral appliance with screws. Results: The mean distraction length was 12 mm immediately after DO. SNA increased from 73o to 82o after distraction. A significant advancement of the maxilla and correction of the sagittal Class III skeletal relationship was achieved. The vertical position of the mandible and the face was kept stable, and the soft tissue profile became more balanced. Conclusion: This intra oral appliance design achieved desired skeletal changes during maxillary protraction with RED device in dolichofacial CLP patient. Occlusion and facial profile changes was found to be stable in 1-year follow-up. PMID:22509125

  2. Maxillary protraction in adult cleft lip and palate by a rigid external distraction device with dentoskeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bengisu; Taner, Tulin; Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Mavili, M Emin

    2012-04-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) in an adult patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) by using a rigid external distraction (RED) device with dentoskeletal anchorage. 31-year-old male patient with UCLP with severe maxillary hypoplasia, dolichofacial growth pattern, negative overjet and 1.5 mm openbite. After pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, an intra-oral appliance was modified to prevent extrusion of the molars and clockwise rotation of the mandible. Stainless steel plates were soldered bilaterally to the intra oral appliance at the level of canines. During surgery, miniplates were inserted in the maxillary segment and fixed to the plates of the intra oral appliance with screws. The mean distraction length was 12 mm immediately after DO. SNA increased from 73o to 82o after distraction. A significant advancement of the maxilla and correction of the sagittal Class III skeletal relationship was achieved. The vertical position of the mandible and the face was kept stable, and the soft tissue profile became more balanced. This intra oral appliance design achieved desired skeletal changes during maxillary protraction with RED device in dolichofacial CLP patient. Occlusion and facial profile changes was found to be stable in 1-year follow-up.

  3. Management of Late Onset Perthes: Evaluation of Distraction by External Fixator?5-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajai; Srivastava, Rajeshwar N.; Shukla, Prashant; Pushkar, Amit; Ali, Sabir

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hip distraction in Perthes’ disease unloads the joint, which negates the harmful effect of the stresses on the articular surfaces, which may promote the sound healing of the area of necrosis. We have examined the effect of arthrodiastasis on the preservation of the femoral head in older children with Perthes’ disease. Methods and Materials. Twelve children with age more than 8 years with Perthes’ disease of less than one year were treated with hip distraction by a hinged monolater...

  4. Postdistraction stability of hypoplastic maxilla in unilateral cleft lip and palate treated using rigid external distraction device: An audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary hypoplasia resulting in skeletal class III malocclusion is common among patients with cleft lip and palate. Large anteroposterior discrepancies and surgical scaring often leads to unpredictable stability of maxillary advancement with Le Fort I osteotomy and is known for a high degree of relapse. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the postdisraction stability after 1-year of maxillary advancement done with rigid external distraction (RED device in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 cases treated with RED device used for distraction of maxilla in cleft lip and palate cases were assessed. Lateral cephalograms selected were taken at the end of presurgical (T1, immediate postdistraction (T2 and 1-year postdistraction (T3. Five angular measurements and nine linear measurements were used to assess the position of maxilla in all three planes. P values were obtained for repeated measurement by analysis of variance with Bonferroni′s correction for multiple comparisons. Normality was tested using Shapiro-Wilk′s test. Results: The average 1-year postdistraction measurements (T3 did not differ significantly compared to the corresponding average postdistraction measurements (T2 (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Midface distraction with RED device provides a significant structural improvement for patients with cleft lip and palate. There was marked an improvement in dentofacial structures and results were stable during the retention phase.

  5. Validation of a Perceptual Distraction Model in a Complex Personal Sound Zone System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Marsh, Steven; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates a previously proposed perceptual model predicting user’s perceived distraction caused by interfering audio programmes. The distraction model was originally trained using a simple sound reproduction system for music-on-music interference situations and it has not been formally...

  6. Long-term skeletal and dental changes in patients with cleft lip and palate after maxillary distraction: a report of three cases treated with a rigid external distraction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masaru; Omura, Ken

    2005-04-01

    We examined long-term skeletal and dental changes in three patients with cleft lip and palate who underwent maxillary distraction using a rigid external distraction device. Two were children, and one was an adult. Changes in the overjet (OJ), overbite (OB), and positions of the anterior nasal spine (ANS), upper incisors (U1), pogonion (Pog), and lower incisors (L1) were measured on preoperative to 36 months postoperative lateral-cephalograms. In the adult, the positions of all examination points were relatively stable from 6 to 36 months postoperatively, and the OJ and OB were maintained at over 2 mm at 36 months. In the children, the positions of ANS and U1 changed inferiorly, Pog and L1 changed anteroinferiorly, and OJ and OB tended to decrease from 6 to 36 months postoperatively. Long-term skeletal and dental stability following maxillary distraction was relatively well maintained in the adult patient. In the children, the maxillomandibular growth was observed after maxillary distraction, but the mandibular overgrowth might have been inhibited by the correction of class III dentoskeletal deformity resulting from the maxillary distraction.

  7. Validating a perceptual distraction model using a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user's perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music targets and interferers using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two...... sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. The results show that the model performance is equally good in both zones, i.e., with both speech- on-music and music-on-speech stimuli...

  8. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  9. External versus Internal Distraction Devices in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Craniofacial Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Rachmiel, DMD, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Internal devices should be the first choice because they are more comfortable to the patients, more predictable vector of lengthening, are less vulnerable to dislodgement, and leave reduced scarring, with the great disadvantage of second operation for removal. However, external devices still should be considered mainly in severely hypoplastic cases, and the surgeon should be prepared for both options.

  10. Recovering Faces from Memory: The Distracting Influence of External Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frowd, Charlie D.; Skelton, Faye; Atherton, Chris; Pitchford, Melanie; Hepton, Gemma; Holden, Laura; McIntyre, Alex H.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory for unfamiliar faces is facilitated when contextual cues (e.g., head pose, background environment, hair and clothing) are consistent between study and test. By contrast, inconsistencies in external features, especially hair, promote errors in unfamiliar face-matching tasks. For the construction of facial composites, as carried…

  11. Externally perturbed unstable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, H.A.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss computer solutions of Newton's equation of motion for unstable systems in a container with time-dependent walls. An expansion leads to the formation of a cluster and a significant increase of the temperature. The question of entropy increase for expansion and compression of the system and the related problem of the feasibility of a perpetuum mobile of the second kind are investigated. (Authors)

  12. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two loudspeakers, one for the target sound source and the other for the interfering sound source. Recently, the model was successfully validated in a complex personal sound-zone system with speech-on-music stimuli. Second round of validations were...... conducted by physically altering the sound-zone system and running a set of new listening experiments utilizing two sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. Preliminary results show...

  13. A osteogenesis distraction device enabling control of vertical direction for syndromic craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a hybrid facial osteogenesis distraction system that combines the advantages of external and internal distraction devices to enable control of both the distraction distance and vector. However, when the advanced maxilla has excessive clockwise rotation and shifts more downward vertically than planned, it might be impossible to pull it up to correct it. We invented devices attached to external distraction systems that can control the vertical vector of distraction to resolve this problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the result of utilizing the distraction system for syndromic craniosynostosis. In addition to a previously reported hybrid facial distraction system, the devices for controlling the vertical direction of the advanced maxilla were attached to the external distraction device. The vertical direction of the advanced maxilla can be controlled by adjustment of the spindle units. This system was used for 2 patients with Crouzon and Apert syndrome. The system enabled control of the vertical distance, with no complications during the procedures. As a result, the maxilla could be advanced into the planned position including overcorrection without excessive clockwise rotation of distraction. Our system can alter the cases and bring them into the planned position, by controlling the vertical vector of distraction. We believe that this system might be effective in infants with syndromic craniosynostosis as it involves 2 osteotomies and horizontal and vertical direction of elongation can be controlled.

  14. Clinical use of virtual reality distraction system to reduce anxiety and pain in dental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Mark D; Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been used by clinicians to manage pain in clinical populations. This study examines the use of VR as a form of distraction for dental patients using both subjective and objective measures to determine how a VR system affects patients' reported anxiety level, pain level, and physiological factors. As predicted, results of self-evaluation questionnaires showed that patients experienced less anxiety and pain after undergoing VR treatment. Physiological data reported similar trends in decreased anxiety. Overall, the favorable subjective and objective responses suggest that VR distraction systems can reduce discomfort and pain for patients with mild to moderate fear and anxiety.

  15. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  16. Introduction of a new removable adjustable intraoral maxillary distraction system for correction of maxillary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Alvaro A; Polley, John W; Figueroa, Alexander L

    2009-09-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has become a treatment alternative to treat severe craniofacial skeletal dysplasias. A rigid external distraction device has been successfully used to advance the maxilla as well as the maxillary, orbital, and forehead complex (monobloc) in children as young as 2 years, adolescents, and adults. For this severe group of patients, the technique has been found to be simpler and safer than traditional surgical methods. Maxillary and midfacial advancement through distraction has been found to be extremely stable in the patients in whom the technique was used.The authors introduce an intraoral distractor for those patients requiring a moderate maxillary advancement. The advantages of the device include ease of insertion, vector adjustability, reactivation capabilities, and no need for second procedure for its removal.The above approaches have provided predictable and stable results. A detailed description of the device, necessary orthodontic and surgical procedures, case reports, and cephalometric outcomes are presented. The techniques can be applied alone or as an adjunct to traditional orthognathic and craniofacial surgical procedures.

  17. Proximal femoral resection and articulated hip distraction with an external fixator for the treatment of painful spastic hip dislocations in pediatric patients with spastic quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropulos, Mario; Puigdevall, Miguel H; Zapozko, Daniel; Malvárez, Héctor R

    2008-01-01

    We describe the results obtained with an alternative method of treatment for spastic painful hip dislocations in nonambulatory patients, which consists of a proximal femoral resection with capsular interposition arthroplasty, and the addition of a hinged external fixator for postoperative articulated hip distraction to allow for an immediate upright position and the ability to sit in a wheelchair. We performed this technique in three patients (four hips) with a mean age at the time of surgery of 15 years. Postoperatively, clinical improvement was observed in all four hips, with respect to pain relief, sitting tolerance, perineal care and functional range of motion.

  18. Electronic Gaming as Pain Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Jameson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants’ experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system and passive (television distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants’ expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control.

  19. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  20. Identification of real-time diagnostic measures of visual distraction with an automatic eye-tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Harry; Smith, Matthew R H; Witt, Gerald J

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify eye glance measures that are diagnostic of visual distraction. Visual distraction degrades performance, but real-time diagnostic measures have not been identified. In a driving simulator, 14 participants responded to a lead vehicle braking at -2 or -2.7 m/s2 periodically while reading a varying number of words (6-15 words every 13 s) on peripheral displays (with diagonal eccentricities of 24 degrees, 43 degrees, and 75 degrees). As the number of words and display eccentricity increased, total glance duration and reaction time increased and driving performance suffered. Correlation coefficients between several glance measures and reaction time or performance variables were reliably high, indicating that these glance measures are diagnostic of visual distraction. It is predicted that for every 25% increase in total glance duration, reaction time is increased by 0.39 s and standard deviation of lane position is increased by 0.06 m. Potential applications of this research include assessing visual distraction in real time, delivering advisories to distracted drivers to reorient their attention to driving, and using distraction information to adapt forward collision and lane departure warning systems to enhance system effectiveness.

  1. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... that the model performance is equally good in both zones, i.e., with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli, and comparable to the previous validation round (RMSE approximately 10%). The results further confirm that the distraction model can be used as a valuable tool in evaluating and optimizing...

  2. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  3. Effect of maxillary distraction osteogenesis on velopharyngeal function: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Ishii, Yoshimasa; Ishii, Masatoshi; Imaizumi, Humiko; Mibu, Michiko; Omura, Ken

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preoperative and postoperative changes of velopharyngeal function in cleft patients who underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis using the Rigid External Distraction System. Six cleft patients followed for a minimum of 12 months after maxillary distraction were examined. Plain and contrast lateral-cephalograms were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, and speech evaluation was performed by the same authorized speech therapist at the same time points. The mean distraction amount at the anterior nasal spine was 11.7 mm (range, 7.4 mm - 15.0 mm). Both the nasopharyngeal depth and velar length increased after maxillary distraction, but the need ratio (nasopharyngeal depth/velar length) also increased after distraction. Although scores for velopharyngeal closure dropped a few points after maxillary distraction, the rating for hypernasality remained unchanged in all patients but the patient whose distraction amount was 15.0 mm. These results suggest that maxillary distraction of less than 15 mm may not markedly affect velopharyngeal function in cleft patients.

  4. Early results of a simple distraction dynamic external fixator in management of comminuted intra-articular fractures of base of middle phalanx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansha, Muhammad; Miranda, Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    Treatment for comminuted fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint (pilon injuries) remains a challenge. We present our short term results of twelve pilon fracture dislocations treated by closed reduction and application of a distraction dynamic external fixator. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical outcomes and compare them to the original description by Hynes and Giddins. A cohort of 12 consecutive patients with pilon fracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint (comminuted fracture of the base of middle phalanx, longitudinally unstable with joint subluxation), were treated with this method over the study period. Data was collected by an independent observer at last follow-up appointment in the clinic. The outcome measures recorded were; level of residual pain, arc of motion, X-ray appearance, return to work and satisfaction with the procedure. The study group comprises of 7 male and 5 female patients at a mean age of 38.1 years (range 21-70 years). The average range of movement achieved was 13-87° at a mean follow-up of 16.4 weeks (Range 12-42 weeks). Early return to work, good pain relief and high level of patient satisfaction were achieved. No serious complication was noted during this period. We used the construct with slight modification of the original description and we feel this modification may help to reduce the pin site infection. We found the results reproducible and based on our experience we recommend this technique to treat these complex intra-articular fractures of base of middle phalanx.

  5. New fixation method for maxillary distraction osteogenesis using locking attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Buranastidporn, Boonsiva; Ishii, Masatoshi

    2006-10-01

    The external traction hooks of the intraoral splint used in the rigid external distraction (RED) system for maxillary distraction osteogenesis interfere with the surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce an innovative splint fixation method for maxillary distraction osteogenesis with Locking Attachments and evaluate their advantages, such as reduction of operating time compared with the traditional intraoral splint method. Retrospective comparison of operative times of maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy procedures was carried out with the traditional protocol using the intraoral splint cemented to the maxillary dentition (n = 14), and a removable intraoral splint that is inserted postsurgically (n = 14). Operative procedure times were compared and analyzed statistically using the data extracted from the surgical records. There were no complications inserting the removable splint postsurgically, including pain, discomfort, or time-consuming procedure. Stable and secure splint fixation was obtained before the distraction procedure and the desired treatment goals were obtained in all patients. The total operative procedure times were significantly reduced in the Locking Attachments group by 24% to 41% (approximately 65 minutes) compared with earlier operations involving the conventional splints (P Maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the Locking Attachments is a highly effective fixation approach to manage severe hypoplastic maxilla, eliminating lip constraints resulting from scarring and allowing for easier, more deliberate and careful dissection. The use of the Locking Attachments is reliable in craniofacial surgery and has proved to be advantageous in the reduction of the operating time and surgical risks.

  6. Novel systems for the application of isolated tensile, compressive, and shearing stimulation of distraction callus tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholaus Meyers

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a procedure widely used for the correction of large bone defects. However, a high complication rate persists, likely due to insufficient stability during maturation. Numerical fracture healing models predict bone regeneration under different mechanical conditions allowing fixation stiffness optimization. However, most models apply a linear elastic material law inappropriate for the transient stresses/strains present during limb lengthening or segment transport. They are also often validated using in vivo osteotomy models lacking precise mechanical regulation due to the unavoidable stimulation of secondary interfragmentary motion during ambulation under finitely stiff fixation. Therefore, in order to create a robust numerical model of distraction osteogenesis, it is necessary to both characterize the new tissue's viscoelasticity during distraction and determine the influence of strictly isolated stimulation in each loading mode (tension, compression, and shear to account for potential differences in mechanical and histological response.Two electromechanical fixators with integrated load cells were designed to precisely perform and monitor in vivo lateral distraction and isolated stimulation in sheep tibiae using a mobile, hydroxyapatite-coated titanium plate. The novel surgical procedure circumvents osteotomy, eliminating the undesirable and unquantifiable mechanical stimulation during ambulation.After a 10-day post-surgery latency period, two 0.275 mm distraction steps were performed daily for 10 days. The load cell collected data before, during, and after each distraction step and was terminated after no less than one minute from the time of distraction. A 7-day consolidation period separated the distraction phase and 18-day stimulation phase. Stimulation was carried out in isolated tension, compression, or shear while recording force/time data. Each stimulation session consisted of 120 cycles with a magnitude of

  7. Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2010-06-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients need maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated in our surgery unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented with a bilateral CLP, two with a unilateral CLP, and one with a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years. All underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. An external distractor was used for the first two patients and an internal distractor for the six following patients. After a seven-day latency, activation was implemented at a rate of 1mm twice a day. The average period of consolidation was four months. Maxillary advancement ranged between 7 and 19mm, with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. Complications were noted in seven patients: one intra-operative hemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth anchored at the pterygoid process during osteotomy, three cases of device dysfunction, two cases of significant pain during activation, one loosening of the orthodontic arch in an external system, two cases of labial ulceration, and one maxillary sinusitis due to migration of a wisdom tooth. Complications of maxillary distraction in CLP patients were very frequent. Most were related to the device and did not interfere with the final result. This must be taken into account when indicating distraction and choosing the device. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the device. The complications related to the osteotomy are linked to the cicatricial ground of previous

  8. Brain systems underlying attentional control and emotional distraction during working memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Maryam; Peira, Nathalie; Persson, Jonas

    2014-02-15

    Goal-directed behavior requires that cognitive operations can be protected from emotional distraction induced by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli. The brain processes involved in attending to relevant information while filtering out irrelevant information are still largely unknown. To investigate the neural and behavioral underpinnings of attending to task-relevant emotional stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli, we used fMRI to assess brain responses during attentional instructed encoding within an emotional working memory (WM) paradigm. We showed that instructed attention to emotion during WM encoding resulted in enhanced performance, by means of increased memory performance and reduced reaction time, compared to passive viewing. A similar performance benefit was also demonstrated for recognition memory performance, although for positive pictures only. Functional MRI data revealed a network of regions involved in directed attention to emotional information for both positive and negative pictures that included medial and lateral prefrontal cortices, fusiform gyrus, insula, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the amygdala. Moreover, we demonstrate that regions in the striatum, and regions associated with the default-mode network were differentially activated for emotional distraction compared to neutral distraction. Activation in a sub-set of these regions was related to individual differences in WM and recognition memory performance, thus likely contributing to performing the task at an optimal level. The present results provide initial insights into the behavioral and neural consequences of instructed attention and emotional distraction during WM encoding. © 2013.

  9. Brake reactions of distracted drivers to pedestrian Forward Collision Warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbe, Nils

    2017-06-01

    Forward Collision Warning (FCW) can be effective in directing driver attention towards a conflict and thereby aid in preventing or mitigating collisions. FCW systems aiming at pedestrian protection have been introduced onto the market, yet an assessment of their safety benefits depends on the accurate modeling of driver reactions when the system is activated. This study contributes by quantifying brake reaction time and brake behavior (deceleration levels and jerk) to compare the effectiveness of an audio-visual warning only, an added haptic brake pulse warning, and an added Head-Up Display in reducing the frequency of collisions with pedestrians. Further, this study provides a detailed data set suited for the design of assessment methods for car-to-pedestrian FCW systems. Brake response characteristics were measured for heavily distracted drivers who were subjected to a single FCW event in a high-fidelity driving simulator. The drivers maintained a self-regulated speed of 30km/h in an urban area, with gaze direction diverted from the forward roadway by a secondary task. Collision rates and brake reaction times differed significantly across FCW settings. Brake pulse warnings resulted in the lowest number of collisions and the shortest brake reaction times (mean 0.8s, SD 0.29s). Brake jerk and deceleration were independent of warning type. Ninety percent of drivers exceeded a maximum deceleration of 3.6m/s 2 and a jerk of 5.3m/s 3 . Brake pulse warning was the most effective FCW interface for preventing collisions. In addition, this study presents the data required for driver modeling for car-to-pedestrian FCW similar to Euro NCAP's 2015 car-to-car FCW assessment. Practical applications: Vehicle manufacturers should consider the introduction of brake pulse warnings to their FCW systems. Euro NCAP could introduce an assessment that quantifies the safety benefits of pedestrian FCW systems and thereby aid the proliferation of effective systems. Copyright © 2017

  10. Bioresorbable distraction device for the treatment of airway problems for infants with Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugem, Corstiaan; Paes, Emma; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B; van der Molen, Aebele B Mink

    2012-08-01

    Pierre Robin sequence is a well known craniofacial entity. There are numerous ways to treat the respiratory insufficiency, but sometimes surgical intervention is needed. Tracheotomy could be associated with morbidity, and distraction osteogenesis has been established as a stable method to obtain a safe airway. Distraction osteogenesis has traditionally been performed with an external device. In this manuscript we describe the feasibility of an internal bioresorbable device. Retrospective descriptive study was performed in a tertiary academic children's hospital. After multidisciplinary team consultation, 12 consecutive patients with Robin sequence were treated with this internal distraction device. The mean age at surgery was 32 days, and the average amount of mandibular distraction was 18 mm. All patients were extubated after an average of 7.5 days after the surgery. The average length of stay in the hospital was 17 days after surgery. There were no major surgical complications. A tracheotomy was prevented in all our patients, and complications were limited. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the influence that internal distraction has on the growth of the mandible and teeth. The internal distraction system seems safe for infants with micrognathia and has certain benefits when compared to the external distractor.

  11. Technical feasibility of personalized articulating knee joint distraction for treatment of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, T; Jaspers, J E N; Besselink, N J; van Roermund, P M; Plomp, S; Rudert, M J; Lafeber, F P J G; Mastbergen, S C

    2017-11-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent degenerative joint disorder characterized by joint tissue damage and pain. Knee joint distraction has been introduced as a joint preserving surgical procedure to postpone knee arthroplasty. An often used standard externally fixation device for distraction poses a burden to patients due to the absence of joint flexion during the 6weeks treatment. Therefore, a personalized articulating distraction device was developed. The aim of this study was to test technical feasibility of this device. Based on an often applied rigid device, using equal bone pin positions and connectors, a hinge mechanism was developed consisting of a cam-following system for reproducing the complex joint-specific knee kinematics. In support, a device was developed for capturing the joint-specific sagittal plane articulation. The obtained kinematic data were translated into joint-specific cam shapes that were installed bilaterally in the hinge mechanism of the distraction device, as such providing personalized knee motion. Distraction of 5mm was performed within a range of motion of 30deg. joint flexion. Pre-clinical evaluation of the working principle was performed on human cadaveric legs and system stiffness characteristics were biomechanically evaluated. The desired range of motion was obtained and distraction was maintained under physiologically representative loading. Moreover, the joint-specific approach demonstrated tolerance of deviations from anatomical and alignment origin during initial placement of the developed distraction device. Articulation during knee distraction is considered technically feasible and has potential to decrease burden and improve acceptance of distraction therapy. Testing of clinical feasibility is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in nasorespiratory function in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in subjects with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kiyo; Ono, Takashi; Mochida, Masumi; Ohyama, Kimie

    2006-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine how nasorespiratory function changes in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO). Furthermore, with regard to impaired nasorespiratory function, the possibility of a relationship between the cleft side and laterality and any effect of maxillary distraction osteogenesis was investigated. In this descriptive, prospective clinical report, subjective and objective data regarding nasorespiratory function before and after maxillary distraction osteogenesis were compared. Data from 13 subjects with cleft lip and palate were used. Subjects had a severe maxillary deficiency and underwent distraction osteogenesis using a rigid external device system. The subjective measure was the score on a questionnaire regarding nasorespiratory function using a visual analog scale. The objective measure was nasal resistance. The visual analog scale score for two items significantly decreased just after distraction osteogenesis. Nasal resistance also significantly decreased 1 year after distraction osteogenesis. Moreover, nasal resistance on the cleft side was significantly greater than that on the noncleft side just before and 1 year after distraction osteogenesis. There was a significant positive correlation between changes in the visual analog scale score and nasal resistance. These results suggest that nasorespiratory function changes in association with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in subjects with cleft lip and palate. Moreover, it appears that nasal obstruction on the cleft side does not change in subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

  13. [Maxillary distraction complications in cleft patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeblaoui, Y; Morand, B; Brix, M; Lebeau, J; Bettega, G

    2008-09-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients often present with a class III malocclusion in connection with a three dimensional maxillary hypoplasia. Twenty-five to 60% of these patients require a maxillary advancement. Two solutions are possible: orthognathic surgery and maxillary distraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications of the maxillary distraction in CLP patients. Data was collected from the records of patients treated at our Surgery Unit between 2000 and 2007. Among the eight patients (four male and four female), five presented a bilateral CLP, two a unilateral CLP and one a unilateral cleft lip associated to a soft palate cleft. The average age at surgery was 17 years old. All had a Le Fort I osteotomy with a pterygomaxillary disjunction. The first two patients had external distractors and the six following internal ones. After a seven-day latency, activation was led to the rate of 1mm per day twice. The period of consolidation was four months on average. The maxillary advancement varied between 7 and 19 mm with an average of 12.6mm. The average follow-up was four years. We encountered difficulties and/or complications in seven patients: one intraoperatively haemorrhage, one avulsion of a tooth fixed at the pterygoid process during the osteotomy, three device failures, two cases of significant pains during activation, one dissociation of the dental anchorage of an external system, two labial ulcerations and one maxillary sinusitis by migration of the 18. Difficulties of maxillary distraction in CLP patients are very frequent. The majority is related to the distractors and did not interfere with the final result. But this frequency must be taken into account in the indication and in the choice of the material. Two types of complications can occur during distraction: those related to the osteotomy and those related to the material. The complications related to the osteotomy are in connection with the cicatricial ground of the CLP. They are

  14. Simultaneous maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a twin-track distraction device combined with alveolar bone grafting in cleft patients: preliminary report of a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Watanabe, Masayo; Buranastidporn, Boonsiva; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Ohyama, Kimie; Ishii, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    The simultaneous use of cleft reduction and maxillary advancement by distraction osteogenesis has not been applied routinely because of the difficulty in three-dimensional control and stabilization of the transported segments. This report describes a new approach of simultaneous bilateral alveolar cleft reduction and maxillary advancement by distraction osteogenesis combined with autogenous bone grafting. A custom-made Twin-Track device was used to allow bilateral alveolar cleft closure combined with simultaneous maxillary advancement, using distraction osteogenesis and a rigid external distraction system in a bilateral cleft lip and palate patient. After a maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy, autogenous iliac bone graft was placed in the cleft spaces before suturing. A latency period of six days was observed before activation. The rate of activation was one mm/d for the maxillary advancement and 0.5 mm/d for the segmental transport. Accordingly, the concave facial appearance was improved with acceptable occlusion, and complete bilateral cleft closure was attained. No adjustments were necessary to the vector of the transported segments during the activation and no complications were observed. The proposed Twin-Track device, based on the concept of track-guided bone transport, permitted three-dimensional control over the distraction processes allowing simultaneous cleft closure, maxillary distraction, and autogenous bone grafting. The combined simultaneous approach is extremely advantageous in correcting severe deformities, reducing the number of surgical interventions and, consequently, the total treatment time.

  15. Percutaneous distraction lengthening in brachymetacarpia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Alexander D; Fragomen, Austin T

    2011-08-08

    Brachymetacarpia is a condition manifesting a shortened metacarpal that is caused by early closure of the epiphyseal plate and believed to arise idiopathically. The correction for brachymetacarpia is usually for cosmetic reasons as brachymetacarpia does not impair function. The literature indicates several different approaches to lengthening digits, including single-stage lengthening and rapid distraction lengthening with a bone graft. However, gradual distraction is the preferred method due to excellent cosmetic outcomes and few postoperative complications. This article reports a case of brachymetacarpia treated with distraction lengthening using a minimally invasive, percutaneous approach. A 16-year-old girl presented with a shortened left ring finger and underwent surgery to correct the deformity. The left ring finger measured 12 mm shorter than her right ring finger; however, there was normal mobility at the joints. In the operating room, an external fixator was attached using 4 self-drilling, self-tapping pins through several 3-mm skin incisions. The total fixation time was 14 weeks; however, the achieved length of 12 mm was achieved 6 weeks postoperatively. The healing index of the fixation period was 81 days/cm. The postoperative course and fixation period were uneventful, with no complications except for 2 pin infections that were treated with oral antibiotics. The method of gradual distraction lengthening in this case successfully achieved the desired length and yielded an excellent cosmetic result. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Soft-tissue volumetric changes following monobloc distraction procedure: analysis using digital three-dimensional photogrammetry system (3dMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fuan Chiang; Kawamoto, Henry K; Federico, Christina; Bradley, James P

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis resulted in decreased morbidity and greater advancement with less relapse compared with acute monobloc advancement with bone grafting. In this study, we examine the three-dimensional (3D) volumetric soft-tissue changes in monobloc distraction.Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis who underwent monobloc distraction from 2002 to 2010 at University of California-Los Angeles Craniofacial Center were studied (n = 12). We recorded diagnosis, indications for the surgery, and volumetric changes for skeletal and soft-tissue midface structures (preoperative/postoperative [6 weeks]/follow-up [>1 year]). Computed tomography scans and a digital 3D photogrammetry system were used for image analysis.Patients ranged from 6 to 14 years of age (mean, 10.1 years) at the time of the operation (follow-up 2-11 years); mean distraction advancement was 19.4 mm (range, 14-25 mm). There was a mean increase in the 3D volumetric soft-tissue changes: 99.5 ± 4.0 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 6 weeks and 94.9 ± 3.6 cm(3) (P < 0.05) at 1-year follow-up. When comparing soft-tissue changes at 6 weeks postoperative to 1-year follow-up, there were minimal relapse changes. The overall mean 3D skeletal change was 108.9 ± 4.2 cm. For every 1 cm of skeletal gain, there was 0.78 cm(3) of soft-tissue gain.Monobloc advancement by distraction osteogenesis using internal devices resulted in increased volumetric soft-tissue changes, which remained stable at 1 year. The positive linear correlation between soft-tissue increments and bony advancement can be incorporated during the planning of osteotomies to achieve optimum surgical outcomes with monobloc distraction.

  17. Distraction and mind-wandering under load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features, and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task-load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.

  18. Distraction and mind-wandering under load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eForster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.

  19. Prediction of cartilaginous tissue repair after knee joint distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, J A D; Welsing, P M; van Roermund, P M; Custers, R J H; Kuchuk, N O; Lafeber, F P J G G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For young patients (<65years), knee joint distraction (KJD) may be a joint-saving treatment option for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Distracting the femur from the tibia by five millimeters for six to eight weeks using an external fixation frame results in cartilaginous tissue repair,

  20. The increased risk of road crashes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD adult drivers: driven by distraction? Results from a responsibility case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal El Farouki

    Full Text Available Both distractions (external and internal and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility.A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD.A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI [1.06-2.05], distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50-3.77] and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22-3.88]. The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06-16.32]. Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%.Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also increasingly relevant for these drivers.

  1. The increased risk of road crashes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult drivers: driven by distraction? Results from a responsibility case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06-2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50-3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22-3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06-16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also increasingly relevant for these drivers.

  2. Driven to Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Cooper, Joel M

    2015-12-01

    We address several themes that emerged in the commentaries related to our target article. First, we consider the relationship between cognitive distraction and crash risk. Second, we discuss the development of our cognitive distraction scale. Third, we weigh issues of self-regulation, appropriate baselines, and satisficing. Finally, we identify several areas where additional research is needed to refine our understanding of driver distraction and crash risk. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Patterning in systems driven by nonlocal external forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneville, L; Mallick, K; Pontikis, V; Simeone, D

    2016-11-01

    This work focuses on systems displaying domain patterns resulting from competing external and internal dynamics. To this end, we introduce a Lyapunov functional capable of describing the steady states of systems subject to external forces, by adding nonlocal terms to the Landau Ginzburg free energy of the system. Thereby, we extend the existing methodology treating long-range order interactions, to the case of external nonlocal forces. By studying the quadratic term of this Lyapunov functional, we compute the phase diagram in the temperature versus external field and we determine all possible modulated phases (domain patterns) as a function of the external forces and the temperature. Finally, we investigate patterning in chemical reactive mixtures and binary mixtures under irradiation, and we show that the last case opens the path toward micro-structural engineering of materials.

  4. Conventional external beam radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Burger, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated external beam photon radiotherapy is an important component of the clinical management of malignant disease of the central nervous system. The practicing neurologist or neurosurgeon frequently relies on the consultative and treatment skills of a radiotherapist. This article provides a review for the nonradiotherapist of the place of conventional external beam radiotherapy in neuro-oncology. 23 references

  5. Coase, externalities, property rights and the legal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.C. (Carlie); Stauvermann, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possible consequences of different institutional settings (in casu the legal system) on externalities and their effect on the efficient allocation of externalities. We investigate whether the restriction of marginally low transaction costs can be relaxed if the legal

  6. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate patients with skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Katsuhiro; Mori, Yoshihide; Tae-Geon, Kwon; Shimizu, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Miyuki; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2007-03-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the rigid external distraction (RED) system has been used to treat cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia. We introduce maxillary distraction osteogenesis for CLP patients with skeletal anchorage adapted on a stereolithographic model. Six maxillary deficiency CLP patients treated according to our CLP treatment protocol had undergone maxillary distraction osteogenesis. In all patients, computed tomography (CT) images were recorded preoperatively, and the data were transferred to a workstation. Three-dimensional skeletal structures were reconstructed with CT data sets, and a stereolithographic model was produced. On the stereolithographic model, miniplates were adapted to the surface of maxilla beside aperture piriforms. The operation performed involved a high Le Fort I osteotomy with pterygomaxillary disjunction. Miniplates were fixed to the maxillary segment with three or four screws and used for anchorage of the RED system. Retraction of the maxillary segment was initiated after 1 week. The accuracy of the stereolithographic models was enough to adapt the miniplates so that there was no need to readjust the plates during surgery. Postoperative cephalometric analysis showed that the direction of the retraction was almost parallel to the palatal plane, and dental compensation did not occur. We performed maxillary distraction osteogenesis with skeletal anchorage adapted on the stereolithographic models. Excellent esthetic outcome and skeletal advancement were achieved without dentoalveolar compensations.

  7. External costs and taxes in heat supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Aasa; Gustavsson, Leif

    2003-01-01

    A systems approach was used to compare different heating systems from a consumer perspective. The whole energy system was considered from natural resources to the required energy services. District heating, electric heat pumps, electric boilers, natural-gas-, oil- or pellet-fired local boilers were considered when supplying heat to a detached house. The district heat production included wood-chip-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants. Electricity other than cogenerated electricity was produced in wood-chip- and natural-gas-fired stand-alone power plants. The analysis includes four tax scenarios, as well as the external cost of environmental and health damage arising from energy conversion emission based on the ExternE study of the European Commission. The most cost-efficient systems were the natural-gas and oil boiler systems, followed by the heat pump and district heating systems, when the external cost and taxes were excluded. When including the external costs of CO 2 emission, the wood-fuel-based systems were much more cost efficient than the fossil-fuel-based systems, also when CO 2 capture and storage were applied. The external costs are, however, highly uncertain. Taxes steer towards lowering energy use and lowering CO 2 emission if they are levied solely on all the fossil-fuel-related emission and fuel use in the systems. If consumer electricity and heat taxes are used, the taxes have an impact on the total cost, regardless of the fuel used, thereby benefiting fuel-based local heating systems. The heat pump systems were the least affected by taxes, due to their high energy efficiency. The electric boiler systems were the least cost-efficient systems, also when the external cost and taxes were included

  8. Estimating parameters of chaotic systems synchronized by external driving signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaogang; Wang Zuxi

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced synchronization (NIS) has evoked great research interests recently. Two uncoupled identical chaotic systems can achieve complete synchronization (CS) by feeding a common noise with appropriate intensity. Actually, NIS belongs to the category of external feedback control (EFC). The significance of applying EFC in secure communication lies in fact that the trajectory of chaotic systems is disturbed so strongly by external driving signal that phase space reconstruction attack fails. In this paper, however, we propose an approach that can accurately estimate the parameters of the chaotic systems synchronized by external driving signal through chaotic transmitted signal, driving signal and their derivatives. Numerical simulation indicates that this approach can estimate system parameters and external coupling strength under two driving modes in a very rapid manner, which implies that EFC is not superior to other methods in secure communication

  9. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  10. Taking Action on Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Insights → We identify a significant increase in digital distractions and the rise of what we call Do Not Disturb software designed to decrease, delimit, or discard these digital distractions. → Our basic typology and framework can help us understand how Do Not Disturb software is, ironically, de...

  11. A new external microbeam system in Fudan University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Shen, H.; Li, Y.Q.; Li, X.Y.; Yang, M.J.; Mi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A cost-effective and removable external beam system is set up based on the Oxford Microbeam system in Fudan University. In our external beam system, 7.5-μm-thick Kapton film is used as exit window with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The spatial resolution is about 18 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) on a copper grid. As an example, calcium distribution in otolith is present by the external micro-PIXE. In addition, little change can be done to the external system mentioned above for radiobiology experiments. The exit window can be changed from the focal plane to the observation window of vacuum chamber. By calculation, the beam spot size can reach less than 30 μm. Since the Oxford type octagonal target chamber is popular among the nuclear microprobe facilities, this method can be provided to easily replace the in-vacuum system with the external system, extending the in-vacuum analysis to external beam analysis

  12. A new external microbeam system in Fudan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.; Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn; Li, Y.Q.; Li, X.Y.; Yang, M.J.; Mi, Y.

    2013-07-01

    A cost-effective and removable external beam system is set up based on the Oxford Microbeam system in Fudan University. In our external beam system, 7.5-μm-thick Kapton film is used as exit window with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The spatial resolution is about 18 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) on a copper grid. As an example, calcium distribution in otolith is present by the external micro-PIXE. In addition, little change can be done to the external system mentioned above for radiobiology experiments. The exit window can be changed from the focal plane to the observation window of vacuum chamber. By calculation, the beam spot size can reach less than 30 μm. Since the Oxford type octagonal target chamber is popular among the nuclear microprobe facilities, this method can be provided to easily replace the in-vacuum system with the external system, extending the in-vacuum analysis to external beam analysis.

  13. A new external microbeam system in Fudan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Y.Q.; Li, X.Y.; Yang, M.J.; Mi, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-02-01

    A cost-effective and removable external beam system is set up based on the Oxford Microbeam system in Fudan University. In our external beam system, 7.5-μm-thick Kapton film is used as exit window with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The spatial resolution is about 18 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) on a copper grid. As an example, calcium distribution in otolith is present by the external micro-PIXE. In addition, little change can be done to the external system mentioned above for radiobiology experiments. The exit window can be changed from the focal plane to the observation window of vacuum chamber. By calculation, the beam spot size can reach less than 30 μm. Since the Oxford type octagonal target chamber is popular among the nuclear microprobe facilities, this method can be provided to easily replace the in-vacuum system with the external system, extending the in-vacuum analysis to external beam analysis.

  14. Synchronization of identical chaotic systems through external chaotic driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patidar, V.; Sud, K.K.

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, the study of synchronization of identical chaotic systems subjected to a common fluctuating random driving signal has drawn considerable interest. In this communication, we report that it is possible to achieve synchronization between two identical chaotic systems, which are not coupled directly but subjected to an external chaotic signal. The external chaotic signal may be obtained from any chaotic system identical or non-identical to both identical chaotic systems. Results of numerical simulations on well known Roessler and jerk dynamical systems have been presented. (author)

  15. Externalizing Behaviour for Analysing System Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2013-01-01

    System models have recently been introduced to model organisations and evaluate their vulnerability to threats and especially insider threats. Especially for the latter these models are very suitable, since insiders can be assumed to have more knowledge about the attacked organisation than outside...... attackers. Therefore, many attacks are considerably easier to be performed for insiders than for outsiders. However, current models do not support explicit specification of different behaviours. Instead, behaviour is deeply embedded in the analyses supported by the models, meaning that it is a complex......, if not impossible task to change behaviours. Especially when considering social engineering or the human factor in general, the ability to use different kinds of behaviours is essential. In this work we present an approach to make the behaviour a separate component in system models, and explore how to integrate...

  16. Distraction of the alveolar crest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RBS; Schoen, PJ; Vissink, A; Arnaud, E; Diner, PA

    2001-01-01

    The surgical procedure and clinical results of the Groningen Distraction Device (GDD) to augment the severely resorbed edentulous mandible are described. The GGD is non-voluminous, and consists of 2 distraction screws and I guide screw. Two months after the last day of distraction, both distraction

  17. External-stimuli responsive systems for cancer theranostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Yao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The upsurge of novel nanomaterials and nanotechnologies has inspired the researchers who are striving for designing safer and more efficient drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Stimuli responsive nanomaterial offered an alternative to design controllable drug delivery system on account of its spatiotemporally controllable properties. Additionally, external stimuli (light, magnetic field and ultrasound could develop into theranostic applications for personalized medicine use because of their unique characteristics. In this review, we give a brief overview about the significant progresses and challenges of certain external-stimuli responsive systems that have been extensively investigated in drug delivery and theranostics within the last few years.

  18. Development and evolution of distraction devices: Use of indigenous appliances for Distraction Osteogenesis-An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Neelam; Gandhewar, Trupti; Kalra, Rinku

    2011-01-01

    An attempt has been made to review various devices as well as the outstanding studies done in the past for understanding the methodology of distraction for regeneration of bone. Lengthening of underdeveloped bones inclusive of the maxillofacial complex has been obtained by distraction osteogenesis by many authors. This could be achieved by the use of various extraoral or intraoral devices. Devices used for distraction osteogenesis must have a minimum of 2 important characteristics – they should be able to transfer distraction forces directly to the bone and secondly, should offer adequate rigidity for osseous consolidation to occur. With advanced technology and biomechanical engineering, preformed intraoral distraction devices are now available worldwide. The introduction of these intraoral bone-bourne devices have eliminated the need for bulky, cumbersome extraoral distraction devices which had problems such as external scars, pin tract infections, nerve or tooth bud injuries and poor patient compliance. The design of completely internalized custom made appliance has opened new vistas in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Indigenous internal devices are also economical and locally available. PMID:23482829

  19. Impulsive Flocking of Dynamical Multiagent Systems with External Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flocking motion of multiagent systems is influenced by various external disturbances in complex environment. By applying disturbance observer, flocking of multiagent systems with exogenous disturbances is studied. Based on the robust features of impulsive control, a distributed impulsive control protocol is presented with disturbance observer, and flocking motion of multiagent systems is analyzed. Moreover, a sufficient condition is obtained to ensure the flocking motion of multiagent systems following a leader. Finally, simulation results show the validity of the theoretical conclusion.

  20. [Analysis of tension-distraction state in the shin bones fractures in conditions of external fixation with application of apparatuses with different spatially oriented supports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsuliak, V I

    2014-09-01

    In Autodesk Inventor 11 program, using method of end-capping elements, a three- dimensional computeric modelling of biomechanical systems of two models was conducted: I - "tibia - Ilizarov's apparatus with concentric location of supports"; II - "tibia - Ilizarov's apparatus with excentric location of supports". The loading, which was applied towards distal fragment in 6 standard degrees of freedom, was modelled for studying of the fixation rigidity of tibial fragments in these systems. Determination of the loading value in various directions, in which the fragment have had shifted by 1 mm, have constituted the main task of the investigation. In a model II a rigidity of the fragments fixation, in comparison with such in a model I, is bigger by 631.43% - while applying a compression loading, by 8.35 - 31.75% - the transversal one and by 19.72% - the rotation loading. While choosing the method of transosteal osteosynthesis of the shin bones the advantage, have the apparatuses with excentric location of supports, what secures the enhanced rigidity of the fragments fixation in comparison with such in apparatuses with concentric location of supports. Although, even in excentric location of supports in the apparatus the fixation rigidity is insufficient for early full loading of the traumatized extremity while walking. It is necessary to elaborate such apparatus, the form of which may be adopted toanatomic configuration of segment.

  1. Ligamentotaxis for complex calcaneal fractures using Joshi′s external stabilization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controversies exist in the literature regarding the management of complex fractures of the calcaneum. We evaluated a series of complex fractures of the calcaneum managed by ligamentotaxis using Joshi′s external stabilization system (JESS for its efficacy. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients having complex (comminuted, intra-articular fracture with compromised soft tissue condition fractures of the calcaneum, who were treated by external fixator (JESS based on the principle of ligamentotaxis. The gradual distraction was done to bring the articular margins together to maintain both alpha and beta angles to near normal range. Thirteen (28.9% patients underwent additional corticocancellous bone grafting with elevation of posterior facet. All patients were evaluated for their functional outcomes by American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle society (AOFAS Score for the ankle and hind foot. Mean duration of follow-up was 20.5 months. Results: Forty-two (93.4% of our patients did well with the ligamentotaxis. On evaluating final outcomes by AOFAS, approximately 71% of cases showed good results. Eleven patients (24.4% complained of persistent heel pain in the long-term follow-up. Out of these, eight (17.8% patients were those who had severe comminution with almost total loss of calcaneal height. The origin of heel pain was not the subtalar joint in all of these patients. On long-term follow-up none of these patients suffered from such severe pain so as to compel them to change the nature of their activity. Conclusion: We conclude that ligamentotaxis by JESS provides a viable and user-friendly alternative method of management of these complex calcaneal fractures.

  2. Minimum distraction gap: how much ankle joint space is enough in ankle distraction arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomen, Austin T; McCoy, Thomas H; Meyers, Kathleen N; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2014-02-01

    The success of ankle distraction arthroplasty relies on the separation of the tibiotalar articular surfaces. The purpose of this study was to find the minimum distraction gap needed to ensure that the tibiotalar joint surfaces would not contact each other with full weight-bearing while under distraction. Circular external fixators were mounted to nine cadaver ankle specimens. Each specimen was then placed into a custom-designed load chamber. Loads of 0, 350, and 700N were applied to the specimen. Radiographic joint space was measured and joint contact pressure was monitored under each load. The external fixator was then sequentially distracted, and the radiographic joint space was measured under the three different loads. The experiment was stopped when there was no joint contact under 700N of load. The radiographic joint space was measured and the initial (undistracted) radiographic joint space was subtracted from it yielding the distraction gap. The minimum distraction gap (mDG) that would provide total unloading was calculated. The average mDG was 2.4 mm (range, 1.6 to 4.0 mm) at 700N of load, 4.4 mm (range, 3.7 to 5.8 mm) at 350N of load, and 4.9 mm (range, 3.7 to 7.0 mm) at 0N of load. These results suggest that if the radiographic joint space of on a standing X-ray of an ankle undergoing distraction arthroplasty shows a minimum of 5.8 mm of DG, then there will be no contact between joint surfaces during full weight-bearing. Therefore, 5 mm of radiographic joint space, as recommended historically, may not be adequate to prevent contact of the articular surfaces during weight-bearing.

  3. Quality electricity lines of external power systems electric traction DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies that compare and analyze the numerical values of some key indicators quality electricity in the lines of the external power supply system the electric traction DC. As a supplement are additional and fundamental values of energy losses in them.

  4. [Stimulation and evaluation on maxillary distraction osteogenesis using CASSOS 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Qiu, Wei-liu; Tang, You-sheng; Li, Qing-yun

    2002-09-01

    To simulate maxillary distraction osteogenesis and evaluate the change of soft and hard tissue before and after treatment, using Computer-Assisted Simulation System for Orthognathic Surgery( CASSOS 2001). A fourteen-year-old boy with severe maxillary hypoplasia, due to unilateral cleft lip and palate, was analysed by cephalometric analysis. The simulations of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (Le Fort I osteotomy and Le Fort II osteotomy) were re-analysed. After the treatment, cephalometric analysis was preformed again. The data were compared. The maxillary hypoplasia was well treated using maxillary distraction osteogenesis; Compared with Le fort I osteotomy, more satisfactory results can be obtained by Le fort I distraction osteogenesis. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is a better way to treat severe maxillary hypoplasia with operated CLP than maxillary osteotomy. CASSOS 2001 can help surgeons and patients on simulation and evaluation of maxillary distraction osteogenesis, and on decision of treatment plan.

  5. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  6. Health Externalities and Heat savings in Energy System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    Energy consumption and production can cause air pollution with global impact, such as CO2, and local/regional air pollutants, such as SO2, NOx and PM2.5, as a result of fuel combustion. Use of fossil fuels leads to global CO2 emissions and causes global warming effects, regardless place or height......-related external costs can be internalised, for instance, in energy system modelling. External costs of global warming and human health damage can be of comparable magnitude.However, in contrast to global CO2 impacts, air pollution damage to human health depends on a number of factors, related to location...... and included in an energy system optimisation model. The performed analysis of the Danish heat and power sector concludes that accounting for spatial variation of health damage costs in heat and power system optimisation model has an effect on the optimal technology mix and distribution of energy plants among...

  7. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  8. Distracted shareholders and corporate actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth; Manconi, Alberto; Spalt, Oliver

    Investor attention matters for corporate actions. Our new identification approach constructs firm-level shareholder "distraction" measures, by exploiting exogenous shocks to unrelated parts of institutional shareholders' portfolios. Firms with "distracted" shareholders are more likely to announce

  9. A decay heat removal system requiring no external energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.; Fermandjian, J.

    1983-12-01

    A new Decay heat Removal System is described for PWR's with dry containment, i.e. a containment building which encloses no permanent reserve of cooling water. This new system is intended to provide a high level of safety since it uses no external energy, but only the thermodynamic energy of the air-steam-liquid water mixture generated in the containment after the failure of the primary circuit (''LOCA'') or of the secondary circuit. Thermodynamics of the system is evaluated first: after some design considerations, the use of the system for protecting actual PWR's is addressed

  10. A shield against distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Halin, N.; Marsh, J.E.; Hellman, A.; Hellstrom, I.; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the basic idea of a trade-off between the level of concentration and distractibility to test whether a manipulation of task difficulty can shield against distraction. Participants read, either in quiet or with a speech noise background, texts that were displayed either in an easy-to-read or a hard-to-read font. Background speech impaired prose recall, but only when the text was displayed in the easy-to-read font. Most importantly, recall was better in the background sp...

  11. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis in the adolescent cleft patient: three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of linear and volumetric changes over five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Por, Yong-Chen; Liou, Eric Jein-Wein; Chang, Frank Chun-Shin

    2011-07-01

    To assess the results of maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the Rigid External Distraction System using three-dimensional computed tomography scan volume-rendered images with respect to stability and facial growth at three time frames: preoperative (T0), 1-year postoperative (T1), and 5-years postoperative (T2). Retrospective analysis. Tertiary. A total of 12 patients with severe cleft maxillary hypoplasia were treated between June 30, 1997, and July 15, 1998. The mean age at surgery was 11 years 1 month. Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Distraction was started 2 to 5 days postsurgery at a rate of 1 mm per day. The consolidation period was 3 months. No face mask was used. A paired t test was used for statistical analysis. Overjet, ANB, and SNA and maxillary, pterygoid, and mandibular volumes. From T0 to T1, there were statistically significant increments of overjet, ANB, and SNA and maxillary, pterygoid, and mandibular volumes. The T1 to T2 period demonstrated a reduction of overjet (30.07%) and ANB (54.42%). The maxilla showed a stable SNA and a small but statistically significant advancement of the ANS point. There was a significant increase in the mandibular volume. However, there was no significant change in the maxillary and pterygoid volumes. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis demonstrated linear and volumetric maxillary growth during the distraction phase without clinically significant continued growth thereafter. Overcorrection is required to take into account recurrence of midface retrusion over the long term.

  12. Group Recommendation Systems Based on External Social-Trust Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks and online mobile communities, group recommendation systems support users’ interaction with similar interests or purposes with others. We often provide some advices to the close friends, such as listening to favorite music and sharing favorite dishes. However, users’ personalities have been ignored by the traditional group recommendation systems while the majority is satisfied. In this paper, a method of group recommendation based on external social-trust networks is proposed, which builds a group profile by analyzing not only users’ preferences, but also the social relationships between members inside and outside of the group. We employ the users’ degree of disagreement to adjust group preference rating by external information of social-trust network. Moreover, having a discussion about different social network utilization ratio, we proposed a method to work for smaller group size. The experimental results show that the proposed method has consistently higher precision and leads to satisfactory recommendations for groups.

  13. Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste management system relies on many internal characteristics such as pollution control systems and recovery efficiencies. It also relies on technical externalities supporting the waste management system in terms of capital goods and energy and material...... for the primary and secondary production of materials, 366 datasets were gathered. The materials in focus were: paper, newsprint, cardboard, corrugated board, glass, aluminium, steel and plastics (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PET, PS, PVC). Only one quarter of these data concerned secondary production, thus underlining...

  15. Distraction-related road traffic collisions | Eid | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nineteen (5.8%) drivers were distracted by using mobile phones, 12 (3.6%) were pre-occupied with deep thinking, six (1.8%) were talking with other passengers, four (1.2%) were picking things in the vehicle, and three (0.9%) were using entertainment systems. The maximum distraction occurred during the time of 6 am - 12 ...

  16. VISUAL DISTRACTION WHILE DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime ITO

    2001-01-01

    The article provides background information and summarizes worldwide trends in research on accident rates, the special characteristics of visual behavior and the effects of visual distraction on drivers and vehicle behavior. It also reports on the state of ISO standardization efforts and related technological trends. Finally, it defines a number of topics for future research in the field of human engineering.

  17. Reward-prospect interacts with trial-by-trial preparation for potential distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; van den Berg, Berry; Woldorff, Marty G

    2015-02-01

    When attending for impending visual stimuli, cognitive systems prepare to identify relevant information while ignoring irrelevant, potentially distracting input. Recent work (Marini et al., 2013) showed that a supramodal distracter-filtering mechanism is invoked in blocked designs involving expectation of possible distracter stimuli, although this entails a cost ( distraction-filtering cost ) on speeded performance when distracters are expected but not presented. Here we used an arrow-flanker task to study whether an analogous cost, potentially reflecting the recruitment of a specific distraction-filtering mechanism, occurs dynamically when potential distraction is cued trial-to-trial ( cued distracter-expectation cost ). In order to promote the maximal utilization of cue information by participants, in some experimental conditions the cue also signaled the possibility of earning a monetary reward for fast and accurate performance. This design also allowed us to investigate the interplay between anticipation for distracters and anticipation of reward, which is known to engender attentional preparation. Only in reward contexts did participants show a cued distracter-expectation cost, which was larger with higher reward prospect and when anticipation for both distracters and reward were manipulated trial-to-trial. Thus, these results indicate that reward prospect interacts with the distracter expectation during trial-by-trial preparatory processes for potential distraction. These findings highlight how reward guides cue-driven attentional preparation.

  18. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...... desiccant dew-point cooling system, for demonstrating its function and applicability. Simulations are carried out for varying outdoor conditions under constant supply conditions. The results show that the system is independent of external water supply for the majority of simulated conditions. In comparison...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases....

  19. Two interacting spins in external fields. Four-level systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Baldiotti, M.C.; Gitman, D.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Levin, A.D. [Dexter Research Center (United States)

    2007-04-15

    In the present article, we consider the so-called two-spin equation that describes four-level quantum systems. Recently, these systems attract attention due to their relation to the problem of quantum computation. We study general properties of the two-spin equation and show that the problem for certain external backgrounds can be identified with the problem of one spin in an appropriate background. This allows one to generate a number of exact solutions for two-spin equations on the basis of already known exact solutions of the one-spin equation. Besides, we present some exact solutions for the two-spin equation with an external background different for each spin but having the same direction. We study the eigenvalue problem for a time-independent spin interaction and a time-independent external background. A possible analogue of the Rabi problem for the two-spin equation is defined. We present its exact solution and demonstrate the existence of magnetic resonances in two specific frequencies, one of them coinciding with the Rabi frequency, and the other depending on the rotating field magnitude. The resonance that corresponds to the second frequency is suppressed with respect to the first one. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Complex dynamics in Josephson system with two external forcing terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianping; Feng Wei; Jing Zhujun

    2006-01-01

    Josephson system with two external forcing terms is investigated. By applying Melnikov method, we prove that criterion of existence of chaos under periodic perturbation. By second-order averaging method and Melnikov method, we obtain the criterion of existence of chaos in averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 =ω 1 +εν, and cannot prove the criterion of existence of chaos in averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 =nω 1 +εν (n>=2 and n-bar N), where ν is not rational to ω 1 . We also study the effects of the parameters of system on dynamical behaviors by using numerical simulation. The numerical simulations, including bifurcation diagram of fixed points, bifurcation diagram of system in three- and two-dimensional space, homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcation surface, Maximum Lyapunov exponent, phase portraits, Poincare map, are also plotted to illustrate theoretical analysis, and to expose the complex dynamical behaviors, including the period-n (n=1,2,5,7) orbits in different chaotic regions, cascades of period-doubling bifurcation from period-1, 2 and 5 orbits, reverse period-doubling bifurcation, onset of chaos which occurs more than once for two given external frequencies and chaos suddenly converting to periodic orbits, transient chaos with complex periodic windows and crisis, reverse period-5 bubble, non-attracting chaotic set and nice attracting chaotic set. In particular, we observe that the system can leave chaotic region to periodic motion by adjusting damping α, amplitude f 1 and frequency ω 2 of external forcing which can be considered as a control strategy

  1. External radiation exposure control system in accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    The external exposure control systems in KEK and CERN are discussed to find out good practices and unreasonableness of radiation control in accelerator facilities, which plays an important role in optimizing national and/or site specific radiological regulations, referring to relevant ICRP publications. Personal dose limits and radiation area classifications were analyzed and their reasonableness were explored. Good example of supervised areas, area classification based on realistic assumptions on working time etc are found. On the other hand, unreasonable systems, that are often attributed to the national regulation or ideas presented in the old publications are also found. (author)

  2. Novel Three-Dimensional Understanding of Maxillary Cleft Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Stephen Michael; Kau, Chung How; Waite, Peter Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To set forth a universal standard methodology for quantifying volumetric and linear changes in the craniofacial complex, utilizing three-dimensional data captured from a cleft-lip palate patient who underwent rigid external device (RED) distraction. Cone beam computed tomography images of a 14-year-old patient were captured using a Kodak 9500 (Atlanta, GA) Cone Beam system device and a stereophotogrammetric system (3dMDface(TM) Atlanta, GA). The subject was a nonsyndromic unilateral cleft-lip palate patient who received RED distraction as part of maxillary advancement in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Preop (T1) and postop (T2) images were superimposed using Invivo 5.2.3 (San Jose, CA) software. Volumetric rendering of the airway, bone, and soft tissues, as well as linear measurements were analyzed. Each measurement was captured 10 times to ensure reliability and reproducibility of methodology. Data from T1 to T2 revealed mean differences as follows: airway total volume +5250 mm, minimum cross-sectional area +67.84 mm; bone +1719 mm, soft tissue +44,432 mm. Mean of linear measurements: Pronasale 1.98 mm, Subnasale 3.35 mm, Labial superius 10.79 mm, Labial inferius 4.13 mm, Right alare 5.71 mm, Right cheilion 7.83 mm, Left alare 4.97 mm, Left cheilion 5.50 mm, Pogonion 3.01 mm, B-point 2.49 mm, U1-U1 9.77 mm, and L1-L1 0.00 mm. P values are distractions in a three-dimensional format. A universal standard analysis of the craniofacial complex can be implemented using the techniques and method outlined in this study.

  3. An evidence-based review: distracted driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Luis E; Aronow, Kathy V; Macleod, Jana; Bard, Michael; Salzman, Steven; Greene, Wendy; Haider, Adil; Schupper, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use and texting are prevalent within society and have thus pervaded the driving population. This technology is a growing concern within the confines of distracted driving, as all diversions from attention to the road have been shown to increase the risk of crashes. Adolescent, inexperienced drivers, who have the greatest prevalence of texting while driving, are at a particularly higher risk of crashes because of distraction. Members of the Injury Control Violence Prevention Committee of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma performed a PubMed search of articles related to distracted driving and cell phone use as a distractor of driving between 2000 and 2013. A total of 19 articles were found to merit inclusion as evidence in the evidence-based review. These articles provided evidence regarding the relationship between distracted driving and crashes, cell phone use contributing to automobile accidents, and/or the relationship between driver experience and automobile accidents. (Adjust methods/results sections to the number of articles that correctly corresponds to the number of references, as well as the methodology for reference inclusion.) Based on the evidence reviewed, we can recommend the following. All drivers should minimize all in-vehicle distractions while on the road. All drivers should not text or use any touch messaging system (including the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter) while driving. Younger, inexperienced drivers should especially not use cell phones, texting, or any touch messaging system while driving because they pose an increased risk for death and injury caused by distractions while driving.

  4. Inverse kinetics for subcritical systems with external neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Gonçalves, Wemerson de; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • It was developed formalism for reactivity calculation. • The importance function is related to the system subcriticality. • The importance function is also related with the value of the external source. • The equations were analyzed for seven different levels of sub criticality. • The results are physically consistent with others formalism discussed in the paper. - Abstract: Nuclear reactor reactivity is one of the most important properties since it is directly related to the reactor control during the power operation. This reactivity is influenced by the neutron behavior in the reactor core. The time-dependent neutrons behavior in response to any change in material composition is important for the reactor operation safety. Transient changes may occur during the reactor startup or shutdown and due to accidental disturbances of the reactor operation. Therefore, it is very important to predict the time-dependent neutron behavior population induced by changes in neutron multiplication. Reactivity determination in subcritical systems driven by an external neutron source can be obtained through the solution of the inverse kinetics equation for subcritical nuclear reactors. The main purpose of this paper is to find the solution of the inverse kinetics equation the main purpose of this paper is to device the inverse kinetics equations for subcritical systems based in a previous paper published by the authors (Gonçalves et al., 2015) and by (Gandini and Salvatores, 2002; Dulla et al., 2006). The solutions of those equations were also obtained. Formulations presented in this paper were tested for seven different values of k eff with external neutrons source constant in time and for a powers ratio varying exponentially over time.

  5. Modeling external constraints: Applying expert systems to nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.E.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in nuclear plants have received much attention over the past decade. Specific applications that have been addressed include development of models and knowledge-bases, plant maintenance, operations, procedural guidance, risk assessment, and design tools. This paper examines the issue of external constraints, with a focus on the use of Al and expert systems as design tools. It also provides several suggested methods for addressing these constraints within the Al framework. These methods include a State Matrix scheme, a layered structure for the knowledge base, and application of the dynamic parameter concept

  6. Mandibular distraction in neonates: indications, technique, results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesenna Enrico

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pierre Robin Sequence features were first described by Robin in 1923 and include micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress with an incidence estimated as 1:8,500 to 1:20,000 newborns. Upper airway obstruction and feeding difficulties are the main concerns related to the pathology. Mandibular distraction should be considered a treatment option (when other treatments result inadequate. Patiants and methods Ten patients between the ages of 1 month and 2 years with severe micrognathia and airway obstruction were treated with Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis (MDO. All patients underwent fibroscopic examination of the upper airway and a radiographic imaging and/or computed tomography scans to detect malformations and to confirm that the obstruction was caused by posterior tongue displacement. All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Indications for surgery included frequent apneic episodes with severe desaturation (70%. Gavage therapy was employed in all patients since oral feeding was not possible. The two tracheotomy patients were 5 months and 2 years old respectively, and the distraction procedure was performed to remove the tracheotomy tube. All patients were treated with bilateral mandibular distraction: two cases with an external multivector distraction device, six cases with an internal non-resorbable device and two cases with an internal resorbable device. In one case, the patient with Goldenhar's Syndrome, the procedure was repeated. Results The resolution of symptoms was obtained in all patients, and, when present, tracheotomy was removed without complications. Of the two patients with pre-existing tracheotomies, in the younger patient (5 months old the tracheotomy was removed 7 days postoperatively. In the Goldenhar's syndrome case (2 years old a Montgomery device was necessary for 6 months due to the presence of tracheotomy-inducted tracheomalacia. Patients were discharged when the

  7. Modeling dynamic behavior of superconducting maglev systems under external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Xue, Cun; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2017-08-01

    For a maglev system, vertical and lateral displacements of the levitation body may simultaneously occur under external disturbances, which often results in changes in the levitation and guidance forces and even causes some serious malfunctions. To fully understand the effect of external disturbances on the levitation performance, in this work, we build a two-dimensional numerical model on the basis of Newton's second law of motion and a mathematical formulation derived from magnetoquasistatic Maxwell's equations together with a nonlinear constitutive relation between the electric field and the current density. By using this model, we present an analysis of dynamic behavior for two typical maglev systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. The results show that during the vertical movement, the levitation force is closely associated with the flux motion and the moving velocity of the superconductor. After being disturbed at the working position, the superconductor has a disturbance-induced initial velocity and then starts to periodically vibrate in both lateral and vertical directions. Meanwhile, the lateral and vertical vibration centers gradually drift along their vibration directions. The larger the initial velocity, the faster their vibration centers drift. However, the vertical drift of the vertical vibration center seems to be independent of the direction of the initial velocity. In addition, due to the lateral and vertical drifts, the equilibrium position of the superconductor in the maglev systems is not a space point but a continuous range.

  8. Midfacial Changes Through Anterior Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Imai, Yoshimichi; Nakajo, Tetsu; Daimaruya, Takayoshi; Sato, Akimitsu; Tachi, Masahiro; Nunomura, Youhei; Itagaki, Yusuke; Nishimura, Kazuaki; Kochi, Shoko; Igarashi, Kaoru

    2017-06-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia is a major issue in cleft lip and palate patients, and predictable surgical maxillary advancement is required. In the present study, the changes and stability of the maxilla and soft tissue profile achieved after the application of anterior maxillary distraction osteogenesis (AMDO) using intraoral expander in unilateral cleft lip and palate and isolated cleft palate patients were investigated by comparing to the Le Fort I osteotomy (LFI) and maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) with rigid external distraction (RED) system.Ten patients who underwent orthognathic treatment with AMDO were examined (AMDO group). Changes in the positions of soft and hard tissue landmarks were calculated from the lateral cephalograms taken before the distraction, at the end of the distraction, and 1 year after the surgery. They were compared with the changes in 7 other unilateral cleft lip and palate patients who underwent LFI (LFI group) and 6 others who underwent DO with RED (RED group).The mean maxillary advancement of the AMDO group was similar to that of the RED group, judged by the change of point A. During DO, the AMDO group showed less clockwise rotation of mandible compared to the RED group. The soft tissue advancement of the upper lip and nose in the AMDO group was similar to that in the RED group, which was significantly larger than that in the LFI group.Our results indicate that AMDO can be surgical option to cleft lip and palate patients with less invasive but excellent improvement in both midfacial skeletal and soft tissue similar to DO-RED.

  9. External Beam Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ha Chung; Lee, Myung Za

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of patients of external beam radiotherapy of carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary system (EHBS) including gall bladder (GB) and extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBD) and to define the role of radiotherapy for these tumors. Methods and Materials : We retrospectively analyzed the records of 43 patients with carcinoma of the EHBS treated with external beam radiotherapy at our institution between April, 1986 and July, 1994. Twenty three patients had GB cancers and remaining 20 patients did EHBD cancers. Of those 23 GB cancers, 2 had Stage II, 12 did Stage III and 9 did Stage IV disease, respectively. Male to female ratio was 11 to 12. Fifteen patients underwent radical surgery with curative intent and 8 patients did biopsy and bypass surgery alone. Postoperatively 16 patients were irradiated with 4500 cGy or higher doses and 4 patients with 3180 to 4140 cGy. Follow up periods ranged from 8 to 34 months. Results : overall median survival time of patients with GB cancer was 11 months. Median survival time for patients with Stage III and IV disease were 14 months and 5 months, respectively. Corresponding two year survival rates were 36%(4/11) and 13%(1/8), respectively. Those who underwent surgery with curative intent showed significantly better survival at 12 months than those who underwent bypass surgery alone(67% vs 13%). None of the patients died of treatment related complications. Median survival time for entire group of 20 EHBD patients was 10 months. Median survivals of 10 Stage III and 7 Stage IV disease were 10 and 8 months, respectively. Two patients who underwent Whipple's procedure had 11 and 14 month survival and those treated with resection and drainage showed median survival of 10 month. Conclusion : Postoperative external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the extrahepatic billary system is well tolerated and might improve survival of patients. especially those with respectable lesions with microscopic or

  10. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...

  11. Technical Modifications of Tooth-borne Distraction Device for Anterior Maxillary Distraction in Cleft Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivakar Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tooth-borne distractor gained popularity for anterior maxillary distraction because of the effective treatment outcome, no need for external fixation, noninvasive, less chewing difficulty, social tolerance and economical. Tooth-borne distractor device needs modification in terms of maxillary deficiency, tooth position, retained deciduous tooth, and fistula. Hence, we recommend the following modifications in certain circumstances for the successful treatment outcome.

  12. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage. Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  13. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alberto; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Carús, Juan Luis; Casado, Rubén

    2016-10-28

    Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information) or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage). Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  14. Controlling the vector of distraction osteogenesis in the management of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Dekel; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror; Rachmiel, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in individuals with craniofacial anomalies can compromise airway and is a serious life-threatening condition. In many cases, tracheostomy is carried out as the treatment of choice. Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible as a treatment modality for OSA is very useful and may spare the need for tracheostomy or allow decannulation, yet controlling the vector of distraction is still a major challenge. We present a method for controlling the vector of distraction. Eight patients with severe respiratory distress secondary to a micrognathic mandible were treated by mandibular distraction osteogenesis using either external or internal devices. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) and orthodontic elastics were used to control the vector of distraction. Cephalometric X-rays, computed tomography, and polysomnographic sleep studies were used to analyze the results. A mean distraction of 22 mm using the internal devices and a mean of 30 mm using the external devices were achieved. Increase in the pharyngeal airway and hyoid bone advancement was also observed. Anterior-posterior advancement of the mandible was noted with no clockwise rotation. Most importantly, clinical improvement in symptoms of OSA, respiratory distress, and feeding was noted. We describe a method for controlling the vector of distraction used as a treatment for OSA. In these cases, TADs were used as an anchorage unit to control the vector of distraction. Our results show excellent clinical and radiographical results. TADs are a simple and nonexpensive method to control the vector of distraction.

  15. Charting Multidisciplinary Team External Dynamics Using a Systems Thinking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Waszak, Martin R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Using the formalism provided by the Systems Thinking approach, the dynamics present when operating multidisciplinary teams are examined in the context of the NASA Langley Research and Technology Group, an R&D organization organized along functional lines. The paper focuses on external dynamics and examines how an organization creates and nurtures the teams and how it disseminates and retains the lessons and expertise created by the multidisciplinary activities. Key variables are selected and the causal relationships between the variables are identified. Five "stories" are told, each of which touches on a different aspect of the dynamics. The Systems Thinking Approach provides recommendations as to interventions that will facilitate the introduction of multidisciplinary teams and that therefore will increase the likelihood of performing successful multidisciplinary developments. These interventions can be carried out either by individual researchers, line management or program management.

  16. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States. Boston, MA, has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade, which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at 4 high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for 2 types of distractions: auditory (earbuds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%), 95% CI [29, 33%], were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N = 349; 17.7%), 95% CI [16, 19], p = .0003, followed by visual/tactile distractions (N = 266; 13.5%), 95% CI [12, 15]. The highest proportion (40.7%), 95% CI [35, 46], of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30 and 15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost a third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured.

  17. [Factors affecting bone regeneration in Ilizarov callus distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Krieger, M; Schneider, T; Menkhaus, S; Fischer, J; Rüther, W

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the X-rays of 36 patients who underwent 50 callus distractions. With the aid of a computerized digitalisation system for analogue films, the relative X-ray density of the distraction area was calculated for each X-ray. These relative X-ray densities were figured graphically for the duration of treatment for each patient. In the consolidation phase, the graph of each patient had a logarithmic relationship. The gradients of the logarithmic density curves were considered an indicator of the quantity of new bone formation. These gradients were correlated to the following clinical parameters: age of the patient, beginning of distraction after corticotomy, average speed of distraction, average weight bearing during the distraction and consolidation phase, location of corticotomy (distal femur versus proximal tibia) and diclofenac medication. Except for the location of the corticotomy and diclofenac, all parameters had an influence on osteoneogenesis by callus distraction. The parameters affecting new bone formation the most were the age of the patient and weight bearing. Patients aged under 18 years (p = 0.005), beginning of distraction later than 8 days (p = 0.109), an average distraction speed below 1 mm/day (p = 0.079), and average weight bearing of more than 30 kg (p = 0.068 for the distraction phase and p = 0.089 for the consolidation phase) showed a quantitatively higher rate of new bone formation by callus distraction than the patients in the other groups. Patients with a shorter leg due to poliomyelitis and one patient with an amniotic leg tie showed a slower increase in X-ray density graphs than the other patients.

  18. Description of Fracture Systems for External Criticality Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe probabilistically the main features of the geometry of the fracture system in the vicinity of the repository. They will be used to determine the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in the fractured rock underneath a waste package as it degrades. This AMR is to feed the geochemical calculations for external criticality reports. This AMR is done in accordance with the technical work plan (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001 b). The scope of this AMR is restricted to the relevant parameters of the fracture system. The main parameters of interest are fracture aperture and fracture spacing distribution parameters. The relative orientation of the different fracture sets is also important because of its impact on criticality, but they will be set deterministically. The maximum accumulation of material depends primarily on the fracture porosity, combination of the fracture aperture, and fracture intensity. However, the fracture porosity itself is not sufficient to characterize the potential for accumulation of a fracture system. The fracture aperture is also important because it controls both the flow through the fracture and the potential plugging of the system. Other features contributing to the void space such as lithophysae are also investigated. On the other hand, no analysis of the matrix porosity is done. The parameters will be used in sensitivity analyses of geochemical calculations providing actinide accumulations and in the subsequent Monte Carlo criticality analyses

  19. Pleasures of distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    Actor-network theory, post-ANT material semiotic approaches, and related philosophical perspectives provide a way of conceptualizing visitor experiences which highlights shifting engagements and where interruption, shift and distraction form the course and content of a visit. Interruption, shift...... each other. This insight about the museum visit, which is generated during ethnographic fieldwork and is inspired by ANT and post-ANT approaches, relates to Serres’ philosophy, which in central ways has been foundational to ANT and post-ANT. Conceptualizing the museum visits in terms of shift...

  20. Neural Basis of Visual Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeon; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to maintain focus and avoid distraction by goal-irrelevant stimuli is critical for performing many tasks and may be a key deficit in attention-related problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that irrelevant stimuli that are consciously perceived may be filtered out on a neural level and not cause the distraction triggered by…

  1. Can we infer external effects from a study of the Irish indirect tax system?

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David (David Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates implied external effects for the Irish indirect tax system for the year 1987. The study uses the inverse optimum technique of Christiansen and Jansen (1978) which estimates implied external effects, given the assumption that the economy is at an optimum with regard to the indirect tax system. External effects are estimated for three goods: tobacco, alcohol and petrol and in all cases the estimated external effects are of the expected sign. The paper also estimates the imp...

  2. Complex dynamics in Duffing system with two external forcings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Zhujun; Wang Ruiqi

    2005-01-01

    Duffing's equation with two external forcing terms have been discussed. The threshold values of chaotic motion under the periodic and quasi-periodic perturbations are obtained by using second-order averaging method and Melnikov's method. Numerical simulations not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also exhibit the interesting bifurcation diagrams and the more new complex dynamical behaviors, including period-n (n=2,3,6,8) orbits, cascades of period-doubling and reverse period doubling bifurcations, quasi-periodic orbit, period windows, bubble from period-one to period-two, onset of chaos, hopping behavior of chaos, transient chaos, chaotic attractors and strange non-chaotic attractor, crisis which depends on the frequencies, amplitudes and damping. In particular, the second frequency plays a very important role for dynamics of the system, and the system can leave chaotic region to periodic motions by adjusting some parameter which can be considered as an control strategy of chaos. The computation of Lyapunov exponents confirm the dynamical behaviors

  3. Implications for a Wireless, External Device System to Study Electrocorticography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rotermund

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Implantable neuronal interfaces to the brain are an important keystone for future medical applications. However, entering this field of research is difficult since such an implant requires components from many different areas of technology. Since the complete avoidance of wires is important due to the risk of infections and other long-term problems, means for wirelessly transmitting data and energy are a necessity which adds to the requirements. In recent literature, many high-tech components for such implants are presented with remarkable properties. However, these components are typically not freely available for such a system. Every group needs to re-develop their own solution. This raises the question if it is possible to create a reusable design for an implant and its external base-station, such that it allows other groups to use it as a starting point. In this article, we try to answer this question by presenting a design based exclusively on commercial off-the-shelf components and studying the properties of the resulting system. Following this idea, we present a fully wireless neuronal implant for simultaneously measuring electrocorticography signals at 128 locations from the surface of the brain. All design files are available as open source.

  4. The pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction spinal cord injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Xue, Jing; Huang, Rongrong; Wu, Di; Song, Yueming

    2017-11-01

    A reliable experimental rabbit model of distraction spinal cord injury (SCI) was established to successfully simulate gradable and replicable distraction SCI. However, further research is needed to elucidate the pathologic mechanisms underlying distraction SCI. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction SCI in rabbits. This is an animal laboratory study. Using a self-designed spine distractor, the experimental animals were divided into a control group and 10%, 20%, and 30% distraction groups. Pathologic changes to the spinal cord microvessels in the early stage of distraction SCI were identified by perfusion of the spinal cord vasculature with ink, production of transparent specimens, observation by light microscopy, and observation of corrosion casts of the spinal cord microvascular architecture by scanning electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in the injured spinal cord tissue were measured after 8 hours. With an increasing degree and duration of distraction, the spinal cord microvessels were only partially filled and had the appearance of spasm until rupture and hemorrhage were observed. The MDA concentration increased and the SOD concentration decreased in the spinal cord tissue. Changes to the internal and external spinal cord vessels led to spinal cord ischemia, which is a primary pathologic mechanism of distraction SCI. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals took part in secondary pathologic damage of distraction SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A simple mechanism for measuring and adjusting distraction forces during maxillary advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurement of distraction forces on the craniofacial skeleton has never been reported. The present report describes the development of a method of assessing and adjusting traction forces applied through maxillary distraction osteogenesis. A simple mechanism to measure and adjust tension force during maxillary distraction osteogenesis was developed and connected bilaterally to the traction screws of a rigid external distraction device. Measurements were carried out before and after activation using a Shimpo (Nidec-Shimpo America Corporation, Itasca, IL) force gauge in 4 patients (2 with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, 1 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 1 with noncleft) during the distraction process. Activation was performed twice a day at a rate of 1 mm/day. The average maximum force applied throughout the distraction period was 42.5 N (range 16.4 to 65.3 N), with increments, after activation, averaging 10.5 N (range 7.9 to 15.7 N). In patients with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, distraction forces on the larger segment were 65.1% higher than on the lesser segment. A differential pattern of forces was also observed in the patients with asymmetric noncleft. However, the differential forces between lateral segments were not observed in the patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. During the activation period, distraction forces progressively increased, whereas the amount of maxillary movement decreased. Pain and discomfort were reported with high forces. Through this mechanism, direct measurement and adjustment of distraction forces during maxillary advancement was possible. The unbalanced pattern of forces observed in patients with cleft suggests the necessity of individual adjustments for controlling pain and clinical symptoms. Accordingly, assessment of distraction forces during maxillary distraction osteogenesis is extremely helpful in understanding the biomechanics of the distraction process.

  6. Evaluating Robotic Surgical Skills Performance Under Distractive Environment Using Objective and Subjective Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; LaGrange, Chad A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Distractions are recognized as a significant factor affecting performance in safety critical domains. Although operating rooms are generally full of distractions, the effect of distractions on robot-assisted surgical (RAS) performance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of distractions on RAS performance using both objective and subjective measures. Fifteen participants performed a knot-tying task using the da Vinci Surgical System and were exposed to 3 distractions: (1) passive distraction entailed listening to noise with a constant heart rate, (2) active distraction included listening to noise and acknowledging a change of random heart rate from 60 to 120 bpm, and (3) interactive distraction consisted of answering math questions. The objective kinematics of the surgical instrument tips were used to evaluate performance. Electromyography (EMG) of the forearm and hand muscles of the participants were collected. The median EMG frequency (EMG(fmed)) and the EMG envelope (EMG(env)) were analyzed. NASA Task Load Index and Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery score were used to evaluate the subjective performance. One-way repeated analysis of variance was applied to examine the effects of distraction on skills performance. Spearman's correlations were conducted to compare objective and subjective measures. Significant distraction effect was found for all objective kinematics measures (P < .05). There were significant distraction effects for EMG measures (EMG(env), P < .004; EMG(fmed), P = .031). Significant distraction effects were also found for subjective measurements. Distraction impairs surgical skills performance and increases muscle work. Understanding how the surgeons cope with distractions is important in developing surgical education. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Overview of external reference pricing systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Mzoughi, Olfa; El Hammi, Emna; Belgaied, Wael; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    External reference pricing (ERP) is a price regulation tool widely used by policy makers in the European Union (EU) Member States (MS) to contain drug cost, although in theory, it may contribute to modulate prices up and down. The objective of this article was to summarise and discuss the main findings of part of a large project conducted for the European Commission ('External reference pricing of medicinal products: simulation-based considerations for cross-country coordination'; see www.ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/docs/erp_reimbursement_medicinal_products_en.pdf) that aimed to provide an overview of ERP systems, both on processes and potential issues in 31 European countries (28 EU MS, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland). A systematic structured literature review was conducted to identify and characterise the use of ERP in the selected countries, to describe its impact on the prices of pharmaceuticals, and to discuss the possible cross-country coordination issues in EU MS. This research was complemented with a consultation of competent authorities' and international organisations' representatives to address the main issues or uncertainties identified through the literature review. All selected countries applied ERP, except the United Kingdom and Sweden. Twenty-three countries used ERP as the main systematic criterion for pricing. In the majority of European countries, ERP was based on legislated pricing rules with different levels of accuracy. ERP was applied either for all marketed drugs or for specific categories of medicines; it was mainly used for publicly reimbursed medicines. The number of reference countries included in the basket varied from 1 to 31. There was a great variation in the calculation methods used to compute the price; 15 countries used the average price, 7 countries used the lowest price, and 7 countries used other calculation methods. Reported limitations of ERP application included the lack of reliable sources of price information, price

  8. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  9. Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Moore, Ginger A

    2009-01-01

    "Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS...

  10. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  11. Repair of large full-thickness articular cartilage defects in the rabbit: the effects of joint distraction and autologous bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T; Ishii, T; Chang, F; Ochiai, N

    2005-05-01

    We produced large full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 33 rabbits in order to evaluate the effect of joint distraction and autologous culture-expanded bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cell transplantation (ACBMT) at 12 weeks. After fixing the knee on a hinged external fixator, we resected the entire surface of the tibial plateau. We studied three groups: 1) with and without joint distraction; 2) with joint distraction and collagen gel, and 3) with joint distraction and ACBMT and collagen gel. The histological scores were significantly higher in the groups with ACBMT collagen gel (p distraction, collagen gel and ACBMT.

  12. External review systems for radiation oncology facilities - clinical audit versus other review systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusz-Czerniewicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Between 1996 and 1999 project team of ExPeRT, catalogued four external review systems of health care facilities in the European Union and countries associated with EU. Aim: The aim of this paper is a/ to identify and compare currently existing external review systems for radiation oncology facilities and b/ to distinguish main differences between clinical audit and other external evaluation models and c/ to identify where those models are currently used in European Union member states. Materials and Methods: Based on the literature review and the survey conducted between January and April 2007 among representatives of 67 national societies (for diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine) in European Union member states, the analysis of existing external review systems in radiation oncology was performed. Relevant information about purpose, scope and methodology of evaluation process for those systems were surveyed. Results: The response to the questionnaire was 72%. Only a few countries did not supply any reply in spite of repeated enquiries to several recipients. Six main categories of systems aiming at measuring the quality of service management and delivery were identified: professional peer review -based schemes, hospital accreditation, accreditation in terms of ISO standards, award seeking, certification by International Standards Organization, and clinical audit. Conclusions: Though the methodology and terminology of the five main external review systems differ, a constant movement towards collaboration and convergence of those models has been observed. Due to the social, political, and economical aspects of each European country, the different audit systems have been implemented either on voluntary or mandatory basis. (author)

  13. Comparative study of different osteotomy modalities in maxillary distraction osteogenesis for cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Wang, Xudong; Fang, Bing; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2012-11-01

    Conventional maxillary distraction osteogenesis and anterior maxillary segmental distraction were applied in the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft clip and palate. The aim of the present study was to compare the difference between these 2 osteotomy modalities used for rigid external distraction. Ten patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP were enrolled in our study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. Conventional maxillary distraction osteogenesis was performed in 5 patients and anterior maxillary segmental distraction in 5 patients. The preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalograms were compared, and cephalometric analysis was performed. The independent sample t test was used to evaluate the differences between the 2 groups. All patients healed uneventfully, and the maxillae moved forward satisfactorily. The sella-nasion-point A angles, nasion-point A-Frankfort horizontal plane angles, overjets, and 0-meridian to subnasale distances had increased significantly after distraction osteogenesis. Significant differences were found in the changes in palatal length between the 2 groups (P maxillary segmental distraction group. No significant difference in the changes in palatopharyngeal depth or soft palatal length was found. With the ability of increasing the palatal and arch length, avoiding changes in palatopharyngeal depth, and preserving palatopharyngeal closure function, anterior maxillary segmental distraction has great value in the treatment of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP. It is a promising and valuable technique in this potentially complicated procedure. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term follow-up after maxillary distraction osteogenesis in growing children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Shing; Harikrishnan, Pandurangan; Liao, Yu-Fang; Ko, Ellen W C; Liou, Eric J W; Chen, Philip K T

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the changes in maxillary position after maxillary distraction osteogenesis in six growing children with cleft lip and palate. Retrospective, longitudinal study on maxillary changes at A point, anterior nasal spine, posterior nasal spine, central incisor, and first molar. The University Hospital Craniofacial Center. Cephalometric radiographs were used to measure the maxillary position immediately after distraction, at 6 months, and more than 1 year after distraction. After maxillary distraction with a rigid external distraction device, the maxilla (A point) on average moved forward 9.7 mm and downward 3.5 mm immediately after distraction, moved backward 0.9 mm and upward 2.0 mm after 6 months postoperatively, and then moved further backward 2.3 mm and downward 6.8 mm after more than 1 year from the predistraction position. In most cases, maxilla moved forward at distraction and started to move backward until 1 year after distraction, but remained forward, as compared with predistraction position. Maxilla also moved downward during distraction and upward in 6 months, but started descending in 1 year. There also was no further forward growth of the maxilla after distraction in growing children with clefts.

  15. Muscle response to leg lengthening during distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorey, Fritz; Bruenger, Jens; Windhagen, Henning; Witte, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Continuous lengthening of intact muscles during distraction osteogenesis leads to an increase of sarcomeres and enhances the regeneration of tendons and blood vessels. A high distraction rate leads to an excessive leg and muscle lengthening and might cause damages of muscle fibers with fibrosis, necrosis, and muscle weakness. Complications like muscle contractures or atrophy after postoperative immobilization emphazize the importance of muscles and their function in the clinical outcome. In an animal model of distraction osteogenesis, 18 sheep were operated with an external fixator followed by 4 days latency, 21 days distraction (1.25 mm per day) and 51 days consolidation. The anatomical location (gastrocnemius, peroneus tertius, and first flexor digitorum longus muscle), dimension and occurrence of muscular defects were characterized histologically. The callus formation and leg axis was monitored by weekly X-rays. Additionally, serum creatine kinase was analyzed during a distraction and consolidation period. Significant signs of muscle lesions in all three observed muscles can be found postoperatively, whereas normal callus formation and regular leg axis was observed radiologically. The peroneus tertius and first flexor digitorum longus muscles were found to have significantly more signs of fibrosis, inflammatory, and necrosis. Creatine kinase showed two peaks: 4 and 39 days postoperative as an indication of muscle damage and regeneration. The study implicates that muscle damages should be considered when a long-distance distraction osteogenesis is planned. The surgeon should consider these muscle responses and individually discuss a two-stage treatment or additional muscle tendon releases to minimize the risk of muscle damages.

  16. The potential effect of technology and distractions on undergraduate students' concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Najya A; Baig, Lubna; Marzouk, Yousef I; Khan, Anwar

    2017-01-01

    In the present era, it is difficult to keep the concentration of college students at its maximum potential during the class time, as there are many distractions that negatively impact students' concentration and prevent optimal learning. Technologies such as laptops and cell phones have invaded the classroom, raising considerable concerns about their effects on college students' attention in the classroom. Despite these concerns, no research has been done in Saudi Arabia on the effects of technology and other types of classroom distractions on students' concentration. In the current study, we have attempted to identify students' perceptions of major distractions in the classroom based on seventeen internally (self-produced) and twenty-four externally produced classroom situations. The students participating in this study rated the degree to which each distraction interferes with their concentration on the class materials and their ability to learn. Data were collected through surveys of 265 students (66 and 199 students from medical and basic classes, respectively), including 97 females and 168 males 17-23 years of age from the academic years 2010 to 2014. A validated self-administered questionnaire was handed to the students in the classroom. The students were asked to report and rate the classroom distraction produced by 24 external internal distracters (Table-II), on a 5-point scale. The results revealed that ringing cell phones in the class were the most commonly reported electronic external distractor for 68% of students, and 21% of them reported being extremely distracted by this noise. Having an instructor who is difficult to understand was the most commonly reported external behavioral distractor for 75% of students, and 48% of them rated this as extremely distracting. Students talking in class were the most self-produced distractor for 72% of students; negatively impacting their concentration and ability to learn, and 42% of them rated it as an extreme

  17. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... distracted driving grants on August 24, 2012. In this notice, DOT is extending the application submission...

  18. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  19. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Amiri, Shahnaz

    2007-01-01

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU's ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument. Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST. The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods

  20. The role of alcohol use on recent trends in distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Tibbits, Melissa K

    2013-11-01

    Distracted driving is now an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. We provide evidence that intoxicated driving is increasingly responsible for recent increases in fatalities from distracted driving crashes. This study describes trends in deaths on U.S. public roads caused by alcohol-involved and distracted drivers using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)-a census of fatal crashes on U.S. public roads. Fatality rates per vehicle-miles traveled are calculated using data from the Federal Highway Administration. Alcohol-involved drivers who are simultaneously distracted were responsible for 1750 deaths in 2009, an increase of more than 63% from 2005 when there were 1072 deaths. Alcohol use while driving is increasingly responsible for a growing number of fatalities from distracted driving, accounting for 32% of deaths from distracted driving in 2009 versus 24% in 2005. The fatality rate from these crashes increased from 35.9 to 59.2 deaths per 100 billion vehicle-miles traveled after 2005. Alcohol use is quickly increasing as an important factor behind distracted driving fatalities. This has implications for policies combating distracted driving that do not address the role of alcohol use in distracted driving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term retention of pictures and words as a function of type of distraction and length of delay interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J W; Siegel, A W; Dhawan, M

    1976-01-01

    Picture and word triads were tested in a Brown-Peterson short-term retention task at varying delay intervals (3, 10, or 30 sec) and under acoustic and simultaneous acoustic and visual distraction. Pictures were superior to words at all delay intervals under single acoustic distraction. Dual distraction consistently reduced picture retention while simultaneously facilitating word retention. The results were interpreted in terms of the dual coding hypothesis with modality-specific interference effects in the visual and acoustic processing systems. The differential effects of dual distraction were related to the introduction of visual interference and differential levels of functional acoustic interference across dual and single distraction tasks. The latter was supported by a constant 2/1 ratio in the backward counting rates of the acoustic vs. dual distraction tasks. The results further suggest that retention may not depend on total processing load of the distraction task, per se, but rather that processing load operates within modalities.

  2. Vector alignment in maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckan, Sina; Arman, Ayca; Bayram, Burak; Celik, Erkan

    2006-09-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is an alternative treatment of cleft patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia. The aim of this paper is to present the combined surgical/orthodontic treatment of a cleft lip and palate patient and to evaluate the maxillary distraction procedure and the distraction vector in high Le Fort I osteotomy.

  3. [Research and Design of a System for Detecting Automated External Defbrillator Performance Parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kewu; Xiao, Shengxiang; Jiang, Lina; Hu, Jingkai

    2017-09-30

    In order to regularly detect the performance parameters of automated external defibrillator (AED), to make sure it is safe before using the instrument, research and design of a system for detecting automated external defibrillator performance parameters. According to the research of the characteristics of its performance parameters, combing the STM32's stability and high speed with PWM modulation control, the system produces a variety of ECG normal and abnormal signals through the digital sampling methods. Completed the design of the hardware and software, formed a prototype. This system can accurate detect automated external defibrillator discharge energy, synchronous defibrillation time, charging time and other key performance parameters.

  4. Free-space QKD system hacking by wavelength control using an external laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Jung, Jisung; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2017-05-15

    We develop a way to hack free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) systems by changing the wavelength of the quantum signal laser using an external laser. Most free-space QKD systems use four distinct lasers for each polarization, thereby making the characteristics of each laser indistinguishable. We also discover a side-channel that can distinguish the lasers by using an external laser. Our hacking scheme identifies the lasers by automatically applying the external laser to each signal laser at different intensities and detecting the wavelength variation according to the amount of incident external laser power. We conduct a proof-of-principle experiment to verify the proposed hacking structure and confirm that the wavelength varies by several gigahertzes to several nanometers, depending on the intensity of the external laser. The risk of hacking is successfully proven through the experimental results. Methods for prevention are also suggested.

  5. Corrected Cephalometric Analysis to Determine the Distance and Vector of Distraction Osteogenesis for Syndromic Craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kobayashi, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. Using the corrected cephalometric analysis, the distance and vector of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy could be determined in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. The distraction system brought the patients' facial bones to the planned position using controlling devices.

  6. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Implementation of three dimensional treatment planning system for external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Tibor; Kurup, P.G.G.; Stumpf, Janos

    1997-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) treatment planning system was installed at Apollo Cancer Hospital, Chennai, India in 1995. This paper gives a short description of the system including hardware components, calculation algorithm, measured data requirements and specific three dimensional features. The concept and the structure of the system are shortly described. The first impressions along with critical opinions and the experiences are gained during the data acquisition are mentioned. Some improvements in the user interface are suggested. It is emphasized that although a 3D system offers more detailed and accurate dose distributions compared to a 2D system, it also introduces a greatly increased workload for the planning staff. (author)

  8. A new distraction arthroplasty device using magnetic force; a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Goki; Ochi, Mitsuo; Okuhara, Atsushi; Fujimiya, Mineko; Deie, Masataka; Adachi, Nobuo; Nakamae, Atsuo; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Ohkawa, Shingo; Takazawa, Kobun; Eguchi, Akio; Katou, Tomohiro; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Usman, Muhammad Andry

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult for an articular cartilage injury to repair spontaneously. There are many procedures for treating cartilage injury, however there is no standard procedure for middle-aged patients who have diffuse knee osteoarthritis, especially of the lateral compartment. Therefore, Ochi developed a new distraction device that uses magnetic power to enlarge a joint space and promote cartilage regeneration with microfracture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this new distraction arthroplasty system by using the cadaveric knee. This study used ten knees from six cadavers that were embalmed by Thiel's methods. The medial and lateral joint space was measured by AP radiographic view before and after distraction, and after weight-bearing to evaluate the joint distraction. The contact pressure of the medial and lateral compartments at the knee extension position by using a prescale film system was measured before and after weight-bearing with a 15 or 30-kg weight-bearing load to evaluate the effectiveness of this device. The lateral joint space significantly increased from the pre-distraction to the post-distraction; however, it did not change significantly between post-distraction and post-weight-bearing. With a 15 or 30-kg weight-bearing load, the contact pressure of the lateral compartment significantly decreased from the pre-distraction to the post-distraction. The most important advantage of this device is that it maintains a continuous distraction tension and enables almost the full range of motion of the knee. We believe that joint distraction by using magnetic force can be a promising option for cartilage injury in middle-aged patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Analysis of the results of bone healing in femurs lengthened by the gradual distraction method in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochymek, J; Skvaril, J; Ondrus, S

    2009-10-01

    Treatment of leg length inequality via lengthening of the shorter extremity is an infrequent orthopedic procedure due to the requirement of special distraction devices and possible serious complications. Essential qualitative changes in operative technique development are associated with the name of G. A. Ilizarov, who paved the way for the autoregenerate gradual distraction method in the 1950s. In the years 1990 through 2007 a total of 67 patients underwent femur lengthening via gradual distraction using various types of external fixators at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Orthopedics, and Traumatology, Faculty Hospital in Brno. The quality of bone healing was monitored and a number of parameters followed and statistically evaluated using regularly scheduled X-ray examinations. In 13 cases we had to remove the external fixator following the distraction phase, perform an osteosynthesis via a splint and fill the distraction gap via spongioplasty. The bone healing was satisfactory in the remaining 54 patients and the lengthened bone required no other fixation method. The analysis showed statistically significant deceleration in bone healing following distraction in female patients over 12 years of age, and in boys over 14 years of age. Lack of periosteal callus five weeks after surgery always signified serious problems in further healing. Severe complications were recorded in 11 cases during the distraction phase, and in 12 cases after the removal of the distraction apparatus. Our results fully correspond with the data and experience of others cited authors. In addition our study showed deceleration in bone healing in girls over 12 years and in boys over 14 years of age and serious problem in healing when is lack of periostal callus five weeks after surgery. The aim of this report was to present the results of our study of distraction gap bone healing using the gradual lengthening approach. Key words: leg lengthening, gradual distraction, external fixation, leg

  10. Two-stream instability for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Tazawa, H.

    1992-12-01

    For inertial confinement fusion, a focused light ion beam (LIB) is required to propagate stably through a chamber to a target. We have pointed out that the applied external magnetic field is important for LIB propagation. To investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the LIB propagation, we analysed the electrostatic dispersion relation of magnetized light ion beam-plasma system. The particle in-cell (PIC) simulation results are presented for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field. (author)

  11. External cues challenging the internal appetite control system-Overview and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, Els; van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-09-02

    Inadequate regulation of food intake plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, and is under the influence of both the internal appetite control system and external environmental cues. Especially in environments where food is overly available, external cues seem to override and/or undermine internal signals, which put severe challenges on the accurate regulation of food intake. By structuring these external cues around five different phases in the food consumption process this paper aims to provide an overview of the wide range of external cues that potentially facilitate or hamper internal signals and with that influence food intake. For each of the five phases of the food consumption process, meal initiation, meal planning, consumption phase, end of eating episode and time till next meal, the most relevant internal signals are discussed and it is explained how specific external cues exert their influence.

  12. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Various externalities of energy systems and the integrated evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Keishiro

    2002-01-01

    The primacy of a nuclear fusion reactor in a competitive energy market remarkably depends on to what extent the reactor contributes to reduce the externalities of energy. The reduction effects are classified into two effects, which have quite dissimilar characteristics. One is an effect of environmental dimensions. The other is related to energy security. In this study I took up the results of EC's ExternE project studies as a representative example of the former effect. Concerning the latter effect, I clarified the fundamental characteristics of externalities related to energy security and the conceptual framework for the purpose of evaluation. In the socio-economical evaluation of research into and development investments in nuclear fusions reactors, the public will require the development of integrated evaluation systems to support the cost-effect analysis of how well the reduction effects of externalities have been integrated with the effects of technological innovation, learning, spillover, etc. (author)

  13. Location of external state financial control in national control system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vygovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates the theoretical basis of the external state financial control in Ukraine in the context of defining its place in the formation of the functional areas of internal and external controls in order to eliminate duplication of a single national control system. The authors have investigated the scientific approaches to the interpretation of the concept of «external state financial control», «internal financial control», «public audit» in order to eliminate terminological confusion. It were found the differences between the external and internal financial control on the basis of comparative characteristics of such features as the entity controlling entities, controlled objects, object methods, and direction control. The concept of internal and external controls are considered to expedient to communicate with the system in which this control is identified. «Internal» in this case is identical intra-control, that is located within the executive branch, while an external control is not included in it and is external to the executive bodies of the controlled institution, and is not related to them and, as a consequence, independent. The authors suggest to form a unified system of state financial control, a clear distinction between internal and external powers of species. The authors consider that appropriate in this context will be the adoption of a single legislative act «About State Financial Control», the proposed structure is introduced in the article. Implementation of this law will contribute to the clear division of functional areas of the state control (internal and external, the elimination of departmental conflicts, and promote the formation of a single integrated control system in Ukraine, able to counteract abuses and prevent the possible loss of budgetary funds.

  14. Corrected Cephalometric Analysis to Determine the Distance and Vector of Distraction Osteogenesis for Syndromic Craniosynostosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to confirm the utility of a corrected cephalometric analysis to facilitate the planning of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy for syndromic craniosynostosis. Methods: This prospective study involved 4 male and 2 female patients (mean patient age, 8 years 9 months; age range, 4 years 6 months to 13 years 2 months) with Crouzon syndrome who were treated with Le Fort III maxillary distraction using our previously described system of analysis of a corrected cephalogram and who underwent clinical follow-up. Lateral cephalograms were obtained immediately after device removal. Results: Distraction of orbitale moved the vector downward to the adult profile, but there was slightly less elongation than the adult profile for the distraction distance. The desired and real mean angles after distraction of point A were 29.2 ± 7.9° and 6.1 ± 8.5°, respectively, and the desired and the real mean distances after distraction of point A were 30.6 ± 12.7 mm and 29.4 ± 4.1 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using the corrected cephalometric analysis, the distance and vector of distraction osteogenesis with Le Fort III osteotomy could be determined in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. The distraction system brought the patients' facial bones to the planned position using controlling devices. PMID:29062650

  15. Neutronic calculations for a subcritical system with external source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintas, A; Lopasso, E.M; Marquez Damian, J. I

    2006-01-01

    We present a neutronic study on an A D S, systems capable of transmute minor actinides and fission products in order to reduce their radiotoxicity and mean-life.We compare neutronic parameters obtained with Scale/Tort and M C N P modelling a sub-critical system with source from a N E A Benchmark.Due to lack of nuclear data at the temperature of the system, we perform calculations at available temperature of libraries (300 K); to compensate the reactivity insertion due to the temperature change we reduce the size of the fuel zone in order to get a sub-critical system that allow u s to evaluate neutronic parameters of the system with source.We have found that the numerical results (neutron spectrum, neutron flux distributions and other neutronic parameters) are in agreement with the M C N P and with those of the benchmark participants even though the geometric models used are not exactly the same. We conclude that with the real temperature cross sections, the calculation scheme developed (Scale/Tort and M C N P) will give reliable results in A D S evaluations [es

  16. Stem cells rejuvenate radiation-impaired vasculogenesis in murine distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sagar S; Gallagher, Kathleen K; Donneys, Alexis; Nelson, Noah S; Guys, Nicholas P; Felice, Peter A; Page, Erin E; Sun, Hongli; Krebsbach, Paul H; Buchman, Steven R

    2015-03-01

    Radiotherapy is known to be detrimental to bone and soft-tissue repair. Bone marrow stromal cells have been shown to enhance bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis following radiation therapy. The authors posit that transplanted bone marrow stromal cells will significantly augment the mandibular vascularity devastated by radiation therapy. Nineteen male Lewis rats were split randomly into three groups: distraction osteogenesis only (n = 5), radiation therapy plus distraction osteogenesis (n = 7), and radiation therapy plus distraction osteogenesis with intraoperative placement of 2 million bone marrow stromal cells (n = 7). A mandibular osteotomy was performed, and an external fixator device was installed. From postoperative days 4 through 12, rats underwent a gradual 5.1-mm distraction followed by a 28-day consolidation period. On postoperative day 40, Microfil was perfused into the vasculature and imaging commenced. Vascular radiomorphometric values were calculated for regions of interest. An analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey or Games-Howell tests was used, dependent on data homogeneity. Stereologic analysis indicated significant remediation in vasculature in the bone marrow stromal cell group compared with the radiation therapy/distraction osteogenesis group. Each of five metrics idicated significant improvements from radiation therapy/distraction osteogenesis to the bone marrow stromal cell group, with no difference between the bone marrow stromal cell group and the distraction osteogenesis group. Bone marrow stromal cells used together with distraction osteogenesis can rejuvenate radiation-impaired vasculogenesis in the mandible, reversing radiation therapy-induced isotropy and creating a robust vascular network. Bone marrow stromal cells may offer clinicians an alternative reconstructive modality that could improve the lifestyle of patients with hypovascular bone.

  17. The effects of high dose and highly fractionated radiation on distraction osteogenesis in the murine mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, Laura A; Cavaliere, Christi M; Deshpande, Sagar S; Ayzengart, Alexander L; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    The ability of irradiated tissue to support bony growth remains poorly defined, although there are anecdotal cases reported showing mixed results for the use of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after radiation for head and neck cancer. Many of these reports lack objective measures that would allow adequate analysis of outcomes or efficacy. The purpose of this experiment was to utilize a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after high dose and highly fractionated radiation therapy and to evaluate and quantify distracted bone formation under these conditions. Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent 12 fractions of external beam radiation (48 Gray) of the left mandible. Following a two week recovery period, an external frame distractor was applied and gradual distraction of the mandible was performed. Tissue was harvested after a twenty-eight day consolidation period. Gross, radiologic and histological evaluations were undertaken. Those animals subjected to pre-operative radiation showed severe attenuation of bone formation including bone atrophy, incomplete bridging of the distraction gap, and gross bony defects or non-union. Although physical lengthening was achieved, the irradiated bone consistently demonstrated marked damaging effects on the normal process of distraction osteogenesis. This murine model has provided reliable evidence of the injurious effects of high dose radiation on bone repair and regeneration in distraction osteogenesis utilizing accurate and reproducible metrics. These results can now be used to assist in the development of therapies directed at mitigating the adverse consequences of radiation on the regeneration of bone and to optimize distraction osteogenesis so it can be successfully applied to post-oncologic reconstruction

  18. Central retinal and posterior ciliary artery occlusion after particle embolization of the external carotid artery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mames, R N; Snady-McCoy, L; Guy, J

    1991-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy underwent neuroradiologic embolization of the left internal maxillary artery with polyvinyl alcohol to stop traumatic epistaxis after failure of surgical clipping and nasal packing. Selective catheterization of the external carotid artery before embolization showed a faint choroidal blush. Although the procedure provided hemostasis, embolization to the central retinal artery and ciliary arteries resulted in loss of vision. The route of the emboli to the eye was via the anastomotic network of the lacrimal artery supplied by the external carotid artery system. Neuroradiologic embolization of the external carotid artery is an effective mode of therapy for dural-cavernous fistulas when fed by the external carotid artery system. Because the blood flow to the brain and eye is predominantly supplied by the internal carotid artery, embolization of the external carotid artery is considered relatively safe. The authors document the importance of recognition of the choroidal blush during selective external carotid artery angiography as a sign of collateral blood flow to the eye. Physicians and patients need to be aware of the risk of blindness as a complication of external carotid artery embolization when this sign is present.

  19. External management system, occupational dose: Design and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da silva, C.; Mauricio, C. L. P.; Silva, H. L. R.; Souza-Santos, D.; Bittencourt, R. v.

    2013-01-01

    The results obtained with the use of the system has made it possible to better assess the worker with respect to radiation safety received according to their professional activity. This assessment allows to improve supervision in institutions and the use of teams of Security. (Author)

  20. Anticipated chaos in a nonsymmetric coupled external-cavity-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Paul; Spencer, Paul S.; Pierce, Iestyn; Sivaprakasam, S.; Shore, K. Alan

    2003-01-01

    We explain how the anticipation of chaos in a coupled external cavity laser system described by Sivaprakasam, Shahverdiev, Spencer, and Shore [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 154101 (2001)] is obtained. We show that the external cavity induces the required symmetry breaking necessary for the existence of a time delay between the synchronized output of the two laser diodes. The inclusion of a detuning between the two lasers causes one laser to anticipate the chaotic dynamics of the other

  1. Orchestrating Proactive and Reactive Mechanisms for Filtering Distracting Information: Brain-Behavior Relationships Revealed by a Mixed-Design fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Demeter, Elise; Roberts, Kenneth C.; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Given the information overload often imparted to human cognitive-processing systems, suppression of irrelevant and distracting information is essential for successful behavior. Using a hybrid block/event-related fMRI design, we characterized proactive and reactive brain mechanisms for filtering distracting stimuli. Participants performed a flanker task, discriminating the direction of a target arrow in the presence versus absence of congruent or incongruent flanking distracting arrows during either Pure blocks (distracters always absent) or Mixed blocks (distracters on 80% of trials). Each Mixed block had either 20% or 60% incongruent trials. Activations in the dorsal frontoparietal attention network during Mixed versus Pure blocks evidenced proactive (blockwise) recruitment of a distraction-filtering mechanism. Sustained activations in right middle frontal gyrus during 60% Incongruent blocks correlated positively with behavioral indices of distraction-filtering (slowing when distracters might occur) and negatively with distraction-related behavioral costs (incongruent vs congruent trials), suggesting a role in coordinating proactive filtering of potential distracters. Event-related analyses showed that incongruent trials elicited greater reactive activations in 20% (vs 60%) Incongruent blocks for counteracting distraction and conflict, including in the insula and anterior cingulate. Context-related effects in occipitoparietal cortex consisted of greater target-evoked activations for distracter-absent trials (central-target-only) in Mixed versus Pure blocks, suggesting enhanced attentional engagement. Functional-localizer analyses in V1/V2/V3 revealed less distracter-processing activity in 60% (vs 20%) Incongruent blocks, presumably reflecting tonic suppression by proactive filtering mechanisms. These results delineate brain mechanisms underlying proactive and reactive filtering of distraction and conflict, and how they are orchestrated depending on distraction

  2. Constitutional guarantees generate negative externalities for the brazilian health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Campos Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in 27 Brazilian courts of law. We aimed to know the legal demands on health and the arguments made by the patient, the defense, and the judge in judicial hearings. For this, we used the method of case law research. The research unit was Brazilian judicial processes with the material object of health demands, decided between 2012 and 2013. The results showed reliance on constitutional arguments for both the request and the decision, while the defense was based on diverse and obsolete legal points. It was concluded that judges have decided questions about health using purely legal arguments and reproducing points made by the patient. The defense of the Brazilian health system is fragile due to the lack of an adequate legal rationale.

  3. Mathematical modelling of a human external respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A closed system of algebraic and common differential equations solved by computer is investigated. It includes equations which describe the activity pattern of the respiratory center, the phrenic nerve, the thrust produced by the diaphragm as a function of the lung volume and discharge frequency of the phrenic nerve, as well as certain relations of the lung stretch receptors and chemoreceptors on various lung and blood characteristics, equations for lung biomechanics, pulmonary blood flow, alveolar gas exchange and capillary blood composition equations to determine various air and blood flow and gas exchange parameters, and various gas mixing and arterial and venous blood composition equations, to determine other blood, air and gas mixing characteristics. Data are presented by means of graphs and tables, and some advantages of this model over others are demonstrated by test results.

  4. A review of privacy and usability issues in mobile health systems: Role of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusiime, Jane; Pinkwart, Niels

    2017-10-01

    The increased penetration of mobile devices has created opportunities in the health sector and led to emerging of mobile health systems. As much as the mobile health systems have registered tremendous progress, they have been faced with privacy and usability issues. Due to the sensitivity of health information, there is an ethical need to equip mobile health systems with adequate privacy measures. However, these systems should also be useable by the intended users. Even though many researchers are working on solutions, the issues still persist. External factors such as cultural differences have also contributed to the issues, yet they have been under researched. In this article, we conduct a systematic literature review of 22 articles, categorize and present privacy and usability issues and possible solutions. We then discuss the relevance and implications of external factors to the findings on privacy and usability. We end with recommendations to address these external factors.

  5. Dosimetry quality assurance in Martin Marietta Energy Systems' centralized external dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souleyrette, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    External dosimetry needs at the four Martin Marietta Energy Systems facilities are served by Energy Systems Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a four plant program with four dosimeter distribution centers and two dosimeter processing centers. Each plant has its own distribution center, while processing centers are located at ORNL and the Y-12 Plant. The program has been granted accreditation by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). The CEDS is a TLD based system which is responsible for whole-body beta-gamma, neutron, and extremity monitoring. Beta-gamma monitoring is performed using the Harshaw/Solon Technologies model 8805 dosimeter. Effective October 1, 1992 the standard silver mylar has been replaced with an Avery mylar foil blackened on the underside with ink. This was done in an effort to reduce the number of light induced suspect readings. At this time we have little operational experience with the new blackened mylars-The CEDS neutron dosimeter is the Harshaw model 8806B. This card/holder configuration contains two TLD-600/TLD-700 chip pairs; one pair is located beneath a cadmium filter and one pair is located beneath a plastic filter. In routine personnel monitoring the CEDS neutron dosimeter is always paired with a CEDS beta-gamma dosimeter.The CEDS extremity dosimeter is composed of a Harshaw thin TLD-700 dosiclip placed inside a Teledyne RB-4 finger sachet. The finger sachet provides approximately 7 mg/cm 2 filtration over the chip. A teflon ring surrounds the dosiclip to help prevent tearing of the vinyl sachet

  6. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...... system, which includes a desiccant wheel and a dew point cooler. The system is simulated during the summer period in the Mediterranean climate of Rome and it results completely independent of external water sources. The seasonal thermal COP drops 8% in comparison to the open regeneration circuit solution...

  7. Field Evaluation of the System Identification Approach for Tension Estimation of External Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of external tendons are considered to verify the applicability of tension estimation method based on the finite element model with system identification technique. The proposed method is applied to estimate the tension of benchmark numerical example, model structure, and field structure. The numerical and experimental results show that the existing methods such as taut string theory and linear regression method show large error in the estimated tension when the condition of external tendon is different with the basic assumption used during the derivation of relationship between tension and natural frequency. However, the proposed method gives reasonable results for all of the considered external tendons in this study. Furthermore, the proposed method can evaluate the accuracy of estimated tension indirectly by comparing the measured and calculated natural frequencies. Therefore, the proposed method can be effectively used for field application of various types of external tendons.

  8. Sprint: The first flight demonstration of the external work system robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles R.; Grimm, Keith

    1995-01-01

    The External Works Systems (EWS) 'X Program' is a new NASA initiative that will, in the next ten years, develop a new generation of space robots for active and participative support of zero g external operations. The robotic development will center on three areas: the assistant robot, the associate robot, and the surrogate robot that will support external vehicular activities (EVA) prior to and after, during, and instead of space-suited human external activities respectively. The EWS robotics program will be a combination of technology developments and flight demonstrations for operational proof of concept. The first EWS flight will be a flying camera called 'Sprint' that will seek to demonstrate operationally flexible, remote viewing capability for EVA operations, inspections, and contingencies for the space shuttle and space station. This paper describes the need for Sprint and its characteristics.

  9. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eReeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  10. Symmetries, conservation laws, and time reversibility for Hamiltonian systems with external forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    A system theoretic framework is given for the description of Hamiltonian systems with external forces and partial observations of the state. It is shown how symmetries and conservation laws can be defined within this framework. A generalization of Noether's theorem is obtained. Finally a precise

  11. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  12. Vertical distraction of the severely resorbed mandible - The Groningen Distraction Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Heydenrijk, K; Vissink, A

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, both the surgical procedure and the clinical results of a novel distraction device to augment a severely resorbed anterior edentulous mandible are described. The distraction device is non-voluminous, and consists of two distraction screws and one guide screw. Two months after the last

  13. Maxillary-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction for hemifacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tamada, Ikkei; Ogata, Hisao; Kishi, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Teruo

    2011-12-01

    We treat hemifacial microsomia with a combination of surgery and orthodontic treatment during the growth period, resulting in early improvement in facial asymmetry and the induction of normal growth. We previously used gradual distraction of the mandibular ramus for Pruzansky's type II classification (Pruzansky, 1969). In type II cases, the maxilla should also be treated actively as, using this technique, improvement of the occlusal plane is difficult to achieve, resulting in a cross bite and difficulties in post-operative orthodontic treatment-especially in older patients. Morphologically, the mandibular angle region of the operative side is flat, and the angle of the mouth remains elevated. We performed mandibular-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction while the occlusion was maintained using intermaxillary anchorage. However, mandibular-driven distraction tended to elongate the face because the mandible only elongated downwards and the mandibular ramus did not reach the glenoid. Furthermore, external distraction devices produce significant distress for patients until removal of the device and cause scars on the face. We developed a new internal distraction device with a variable angle and performed maxillary-driven simultaneous maxillo-mandibular distraction using this device. The result was morphologically satisfactory and solved the above problems. Because the patient was in the growth period, careful follow-up and induction to normal growth were important while the inferior growth of the affected side was monitored. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. External injection systems applied in modern cyclotrons designed and manufactured in NIIEFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, P.V.; Vasilchenko, I.N.; Veresov, O.L.; Gavrish, Yu.N.; Grigorenko, S.V.; Zuev, Yu.V.; Kozienko, M.T.; Mudrolyubov, V.G.; Strokach, A.P.; Tsygankov, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main parameters and design features of the external injection systems applied in modern cyclotrons designed and manufactured in NIIEFA and intended for production of radionuclides for medicine are presented. The use of these external injection systems instead of a traditional internal source allows the current of the accelerated beam to be significantly increased and the in-leakage of the working gas to the acceleration chamber to be reduced, which results in reduced beam losses in the process of acceleration and lower equipment activation.

  15. Arthroscopic Findings of the Joint Distraction for the Patient With Chondrolysis of the Ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuaki Kanbe; Atsushi Hasegawa; Kenji Takagishi; Hiroyuki Kaneko; Yasuyuki Nakajima

    1997-01-01

    This case report describes arthroscopic findings of the effect on articular distraction of ankle joint by means of external fixator for the patient with chondrolysis. Arthroscopy showed fibrocartilage tissue lying between the talus and tibia to protect damaged articular surfaces although apparent repair of surface cartilage failed to find.

  16. Distraction osteogenesis and orthognathic surgery for a patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Il Hong; Lee, Sang Min; Yang, Byoung Eun; Park, In Young

    2015-03-01

    Maxillary deficiency is a common feature in patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. Orthognathic surgery has been the conventional approach for the management of cleft-related maxillary hypoplasia. However, for patients with a severe maxillary deficiency, orthognathic surgery alone has many disadvantages, such as high relapse rates of 25% to 40%, instability, limited amount of advancement, and a highly invasive surgical technique. As an alternative treatment method, distraction osteogenesis has been used successfully in the distraction of the mandible, the maxilla, the entire midface, and the orbits as well as the cranial bones, with stable outcomes. The type of distraction device, either external or internal, can be chosen based on the surgical goals set for the patient. In this study, we report on the use of a rigid external distraction device for maxillary advancement in a 22-year-old woman with a repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate and severe maxillary hypoplasia. After the distraction osteogenesis, 2-jaw surgery was performed to correct the maxillary yaw deviation and the mandibular prognathism. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Google glass: a driver distraction cause or cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Ben D; Finomore, Victor S; Calvo, Andres A; Hancock, P A

    2014-11-01

    We assess the driving distraction potential of texting with Google Glass (Glass), a mobile wearable platform capable of receiving and sending short-message-service and other messaging formats. A known roadway danger, texting while driving has been targeted by legislation and widely banned. Supporters of Glass claim the head-mounted wearable computer is designed to deliver information without concurrent distraction. Existing literature supports the supposition that design decisions incorporated in Glass might facilitate messaging for drivers. We asked drivers in a simulator to drive and use either Glass or a smartphone-based messaging interface, then interrupted them with an emergency brake event. Both the response event and subsequent recovery were analyzed. Glass-delivered messages served to moderate but did not eliminate distracting cognitive demands. A potential passive cost to drivers merely wearing Glass was also observed. Messaging using either device impaired driving as compared to driving without multitasking. Glass in not a panacea as some supporters claim, but it does point the way to design interventions that effect reduced load in multitasking. Discussions of these identified benefits are framed within the potential of new in-vehicle systems that bring both novel forms of distraction and tools for mitigation into the driver's seat.

  18. External validation of a clinical scoring system for the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Opmeer, B. C.; Zweers, E. J. K.; van Ballegooie, E.; ter Brugge, H. G.; de Valk, H. W.; Visser, G. H. A.; Mol, B. W. J.

    Aim: A prediction rule for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could be helpful in early detection and increased efficiency of screening. A prediction rule by means of a clinical scoring system is available, but has never been validated externally. The aim of this study was to validate the scoring

  19. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  20. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  1. Callus molding in external and internal distraction of mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: CM plays a crucial role in those cases where proper vector orientation is hindered because of anatomical difficulty for osteotomy cuts and parallel fixation of the distractor to ramus resulting in cross-bite with deviation toward the undistracted side. Manipulation of the regenerates would provide a precise achievement of gonial angle, minimizing the need for secondary corrections, and diminishing treatment duration and costs.

  2. Investigating saccade programming in the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia using distracter interference paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the saccadic system in the mantis, I applied distracter interference paradigms. These involved presenting the mantis with a fixation target and one or several distracters supposed to affect saccades towards the target. When a single target was presented, a medium-sized target located in its lower visual field elicited higher rates of saccade response. This preference for target size and position was also observed when a target and a distracter were presented simultaneously. That is, the mantis chose and fixated the target rather than a distracter that was much smaller or larger than the target, or was located above the target. Furthermore, the mantis' preference was not affected by increasing the number of distracters. However, the presence of the distracter decreased the occurrence rate of saccade and increased the response time to saccade. I conclude that distracter interference paradigms are an effective way of investigating the visual processing underlying saccade generation in the mantis. Possible mechanisms of saccade generation in the mantis are discussed.

  3. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE IN THE EU’S INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN VATAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European External Action Service (EEAS is a new institution of the European Union, whose foundation was laid by the Treaty of Lisbon with the role to support the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in fulfilling his mandate and, also to assist the President of the European Council, European Commission, President and other Commissioners to exercise their powers in international relations. Since the establishment of the European External Action Service (EEAS is relatively recent, this article tries to highlight the crucial role of the European External Action Service (EEAS in the European Union's institutional system and its contribution to strengthening the coherence and increasing impact and visibility of European Union action at international level and thus the one of the Member States.

  4. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A; Steinke, G

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  5. Implementation of a system for external audits beam radiation therapy in terms of reference no

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, Jose Luis; Dominguez, Lourdes; Alert Silva, Jose; Alfonso Laguardia, Rodolfo; Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Rodriguez Machado, Jorge; Morales Lopez, Jorge Luis; Silvestre Patallo, Ileana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents our experience in implementing a external audit system for radiotherapy beam in no reference conditions with the use of CIRS and a summary of the measurements with him made.This paper presents our experience in implementing a external audit system for radiotherapy beam in no reference conditions with the use of CIRS and a summary of the measurements with him made. Centers were audited with external beam high-energy Co-60, 6 MV and 15 MV and were considered 4 treatment planning systems (TPS): AMEPLAN, Theraplan Plus, Precise Plan and MIRS to calculate doses prescribed in each test case. All measurements were acquired by the audit team using the anthropomorphic phantom CIRS, Semiflex chamber PTW 31010 and PTW electrometer STATES. The implementation and development of the external audits of beams radiotherapy in terms of 'no reference' has brought an improvement in both clinical aspects of treatment and the radiation safety and the quality control, has given us greater confidence and for this reason we believe has become essential. (Author)

  6. External Periodic Force Control of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Vibroimpact System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyue Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-degree-of-freedom mechanical model of vibro-impact system is established. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are revealed with the time history diagram, phase trajectory map, and Poincaré map. According to the bifurcation and chaos of the actual vibro-impact system, the paper puts forward external periodic force control strategy. The method of controlling chaos by external periodic force feedback controller is developed to guide chaotic motions towards regular motions. The stability of the control system is also analyzed especially by theory. By selecting appropriate feedback coefficients, the unstable periodic orbits of the original chaotic orbit can be stabilized to the stable periodic orbits. The effectiveness of this control method is verified by numerical simulation.

  7. PID Based on Attractive Ellipsoid Method for Dynamic Uncertain and External Disturbances Rejection in Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Patricio Ordaz Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stability analysis for LNDS (Lagrangian nonlinear dynamical systems with dynamic uncertain using a PID controller with external disturbances rejection based on attractive ellipsoid methods, since the PID-CT (proportional integral derivative computed torque compensator has been used for the nonlinear trajectory tracking of an LNDS, when there are external perturbations and system uncertainties. The global system convergence of the trivial solution has not been proved. In this sense, we propose an approach to find the gains of the nonlinear PID-CT controller to guarantee the boundedness of the trivial solution by means of the concept of the UUB (uniform-ultimately bounded stability. In order to show the effectiveness of the methodology proposed, we applied it in a real 2-DoF robot system.

  8. Selective modulation of nociceptive processing due to noise distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Yvonne; El-Deredy, Wael; Martínez Montes, Eduardo; Bentley, Deborah E; Jones, Anthony K P

    2008-09-15

    This study investigates the effects of noise distraction on the different components and sources of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) whilst attending to either the spatial component (localisation performance task) or the affective component (unpleasantness rating task) of pain. LEPs elicited by CO2 laser stimulation of the right forearm were recorded from 64 electrodes in 18 consenting healthy volunteers. Subjects reported either pain location or unpleasantness, in the presence and absence of distraction by continuous 85 dBa white noise. Distributed sources of the LEP peaks were identified using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Pain unpleasantness ratings and P2 (430 ms) peak amplitude were significantly reduced by distraction during the unpleasantness task, whereas the localisation ability and the corresponding N1/N2 (310 ms) peak amplitude remained unchanged. Noise distraction (at 310 ms) reduced activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus during attention to localisation and unpleasantness, respectively. This suggests a complimentary role for these two areas in the control of attention to pain. In contrast, activation of the occipital pole and SII were enhanced by noise during the localisation and unpleasantness task, respectively, suggesting that the presence of noise was associated with increased spatial attentional load. This study has shown selective modulation of affective pain processing by noise distraction, indicated by a reduction in the unpleasantness ratings and P2 peak amplitude and associated activity within the medial pain system. These results show that processing of the affective component of pain can be differentially modulated by top-down processes, providing a potential mechanism for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Basic requirements of dosemeter systems for individual monitoring of external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Ambrosi, P.

    1985-01-01

    A plea is made for detailed detector independent requirements for dosemeter systems for individual monitoring of external radiation. These requirements should have their origin in the fundamental aspects and concepts of radiation protection for workers, and should be something like a translation of the general principles of individual monitoring into a language easily understandable by producers and users. This work comprises a summary of the general objectives of individual monitoring and discussion of some relevant requirements for dosemeter systems. (orig.) [de

  10. Integral of notion for a quantum Sutherland-Calogero system in the external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcheryakov, D.V.; Tverskoj, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Sutherland-Calogero three-particle system in the external field is considered. The formula for ordering non-commutating variables in the motion integrals is proposed. The motion integrals are obtained in an obvious form. The problem on analytical evidence of the system complete integration by arbitrary N remains open. The formula, proposed in this paper for ordering non-commutating variables in the I n , may be applied by conducting the total evidence [ru

  11. Examining drivers' eye glance patterns during distracted driving: Insights from scanning randomness and glance transition matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Shan; Du, Wenjun; Ye, Zhirui; Sayer, James R

    2017-12-01

    Visual attention to the driving environment is of great importance for road safety. Eye glance behavior has been used as an indicator of distracted driving. This study examined and quantified drivers' glance patterns and features during distracted driving. Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Entropy rate was calculated and used to assess the randomness associated with drivers' scanning patterns. A glance-transition proportion matrix was defined to quantity visual search patterns transitioning among four main eye glance locations while driving (i.e., forward on-road, phone, mirrors and others). All measurements were calculated within a 5s time window under both cell phone and non-cell phone use conditions. Results of the glance data analyses showed different patterns between distracted and non-distracted driving, featured by a higher entropy rate value and highly biased attention transferring between forward and phone locations during distracted driving. Drivers in general had higher number of glance transitions, and their on-road glance duration was significantly shorter during distracted driving when compared to non-distracted driving. Results suggest that drivers have a higher scanning randomness/disorder level and shift their main attention from surrounding areas towards phone area when engaging in visual-manual tasks. Drivers' visual search patterns during visual-manual distraction with a high scanning randomness and a high proportion of eye glance transitions towards the location of the phone provide insight into driver distraction detection. This will help to inform the design of in-vehicle human-machine interface/systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory: no evidence for a finite cognitive resource theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jayne Louise Rae

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glenberg, Schroeder and Robertson (1998 reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N=37 replicated their study, and found no overall effect of distraction on recall for the entire lists. However it did replicate the impairment for mid-list recall. Experiment 2 (N=64 explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N=36 also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2 and interference (Experiments 2 and 3. Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists, contrary to the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding.

  14. Computer simulation model of reflex e-beam systems coupled to an external circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungwirth, K.; Stavinoha, P.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of ions and relativistic electrons in various high-voltage reflexing systems (reflex diodes and triodes) was investigated numerically by means of 1 1/2-dimensional PIC simulation model OREBIA. Its perfected version OREBIA-REX also accounts for system coupling to an external power source circuit, thus yielding the currents and applied voltage self-consistently. Various modes of operation of reflex diode and triode were studied using both models. It is shown that neglecting the influence of the external circuit can lead to seve--re overestimation of both ion currents and electron accumulation rates. In coupled systems with ions repeated collapses of impedance due to electron-ion relaxation processes are observed. The current and voltage pulses calculated for several reflex diodes and triodes with and without ions are presented. (J.U.)

  15. A proposed approach for the derivation of a system transfer function by the use of an external network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guppy, C B [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1961-10-15

    This report outlines a method which might have some application for Transfer Function analysis of a given system. It consists of using the system itself in a general external feed-back, feed-forward circuit. The coefficients of the external circuit are set up one at a time to produce recognisable steady states at the output terminals of the external circuit. In effect step by step neutralisation of the system under test is achieved in the external circuit by setting up the inverse transfer function. (author)

  16. A proposed approach for the derivation of a system transfer function by the use of an external network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, C.B.

    1961-10-01

    This report outlines a method which might have some application for Transfer Function analysis of a given system. It consists of using the system itself in a general external feed-back, feed-forward circuit. The coefficients of the external circuit are set up one at a time to produce recognisable steady states at the output terminals of the external circuit. In effect step by step neutralisation of the system under test is achieved in the external circuit by setting up the inverse transfer function. (author)

  17. System of common usage on the base of external memory devices and the SM-3 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluka, G.; Vasin, A.Yu.; Ermakov, V.A.; Zhukov, G.P.; Zimin, G.N.; Namsraj, Yu.; Ostrovnoj, A.I.; Savvateev, A.S.; Salamatin, I.M.; Yanovskij, G.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    An easily modified system of common usage on the base of external memories and a SM-3 minicomputer replacing some pulse analysers is described. The system has merits of PA and is more advantageous with regard to effectiveness of equipment using, the possibility of changing configuration and functions, the data protection against losses due to user errors and some failures, price of one registration channel, place occupied. The system of common usage is intended for the IBR-2 pulse reactor computing centre. It is designed using the SANPO system means for SM-3 computer [ru

  18. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  19. Bone Regeneration Is Promoted by Orally Administered Bovine Lactoferrin in a Rabbit Tibial Distraction Osteogenesis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyang; Zhu, Songsong; Hu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    -PCR and immunohistochemical analyses suggested that bovine lactoferrin treatment induced a lower receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) ratio in the distracted callus. The results of our study suggest that bovine lactoferrin treatment could promote bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit. The results indicate that the OPG/RANKL/RANK system might be a major mechanism for increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption in distraction osteogenesis with bovine lactoferrin treatment. Oral administration of bovine lactoferrin may provide a feasible approach for promoting osteogenesis during distraction osteogenesis.

  20. Distraction or cognitive overload? Using modulations of the autonomic nervous system to discriminate the possible negative effects of advanced assistance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, D; Bos, A J; Ciceri, M R

    2017-06-01

    The interaction with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has several positive implications for road safety, but also some potential downsides such as mental workload and automation complacency. Malleable attentional resources allocation theory describes two possible processes that can generate workload in interaction with advanced assisting devices. The purpose of the present study is to determine if specific analysis of the different modalities of autonomic control of nervous system can be used to discriminate different potential workload processes generated during assisted-driving tasks and automation complacency situations. Thirty-five drivers were tested in a virtual scenario while using head-up advanced warning assistance system. Repeated MANOVA were used to examine changes in autonomic activity across a combination of different user interactions generated by the advanced assistance system: (1) expected take-over request without anticipatory warning; (2) expected take-over request with two-second anticipatory warning; (3) unexpected take-over request with misleading warning; (4) unexpected take-over request without warning. Results shows that analysis of autonomic modulations can discriminate two different resources allocation processes, related to different behavioral performances. The user's interaction that required divided attention under expected situations produced performance enhancement and reciprocally-coupled parasympathetic inhibition with sympathetic activity. At the same time, supervising interactions that generated automation complacency were described specifically by uncoupled sympathetic activation. Safety implications for automated assistance systems developments are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Driver head displacement during (automatic) vehicle braking tests with varying levels of distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, L. van; Pauwelussen, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Janssen, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle occupant behavior in emergency driving conditions has a large effect on traffic safety. Distraction is estimated to be the cause of 15-20% of all crashes. Additionally, the posture of the occupants prior to the possibly unavoidable crash is known to have a large effect on the injury reducing performance of the restraint system. In this study it is investigated whether braking settings as well as driver distraction influence the kinematic response of an occupant during braking events, ...

  2. Sound localization in the presence of one or two distracters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, E.H.A.; Kistler, D.J.; Wightman, F.L

    2001-01-01

    Localizing a target sound can be a challenge when one or more distracter sounds are present at the same time. This study measured the effect of distracter position on target localization for one distracter (17 positions) and two distracters (21 combinations of 17 positions). Listeners were

  3. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Peter A J; Golanó, Pau; Clavero, Joan A; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-05-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, whereas in ankle distraction the anterior neurovascular bundle is pulled tight towards the joint, thereby decreasing the safe anterior working area. Six fresh frozen ankle specimens, amputated above the knee, were scanned with computed tomography. Prior to scanning the anterior tibial artery was injected with contrast fluid and subsequently each ankle was scanned both in ankle dorsiflexion and in distraction. A special device was developed to reproducibly obtain ankle dorsiflexion and distraction in the computed tomography scanner. The distance between the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet and the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery was measured. The median distance from the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet to the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery in ankle dorsiflexion and distraction was 0.9 cm (range 0.7-1.5) and 0.7 cm (range 0.5-0.8), respectively. The distance in ankle dorsiflexion significantly exceeded the distance in ankle distraction (P = 0.03). The current study shows a significantly increased distance between the anterior distal tibia and the overlying anterior neurovascular bundle with the ankle in a slightly dorsiflexed position as compared to the distracted ankle position. We thereby conclude that the distracted ankle position puts the neurovascular structures more at risk for iatrogenic damage when performing anterior ankle arthroscopy.

  4. Investigation of external and internal shock in the stability of Indonesia’s financial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulina Vinus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop a financial system stability index and analyze the internal and external factors that we expect to affect the stability of the Indonesian financial system. We measured the single model of financial system stability index (FSSI from year 2004M03 to2014M09 in Indonesia, and compiled a single quantitative measure based on aggregate internal factors and external factors to capture and predict the shocks of the financial system stability. Stability parameters were composed of composite indicators on different bases. In addition, we developed a comprehensive index component associated with the relevant market conditions, including banking soundness index, financial vulnerability index, and regional economic climate index. Results stated that US economic growth and economic growth of ASEAN countries positively affected financial stability. In addition, current account, exchange rate, inflation, interest rate were shown to negatively affect financial stability. The results of this study imply that internal factors have a strong influence on the financial stability. Therefore, the central bank should give a fast and correct response to the changes of external and internal financial environment, especially for internal factors through monetary policy.

  5. Stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Xiangrong

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to deal with the stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation. First, the original stochastic viscoelastic system is converted to an equivalent stochastic system without viscoelastic terms by approximately adding the equivalent stiffness and damping. Relying on the means of non-smooth transformation of state variables, the above system is replaced by a new system without an impact term. Then, the stationary probability density functions of the system are observed analytically through stochastic averaging method. By considering the effects of the biquadratic nonlinear damping coefficient and the noise intensity on the system responses, the effectiveness of the theoretical method is tested by comparing the analytical results with those generated from Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, it does deserve attention that some system parameters can induce the occurrence of stochastic P-bifurcation.

  6. The effect of multiple external representations (MERs) worksheets toward complex system reasoning achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Ibrahim, M.; Supardi, Z. A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The application of a systems approach to assessing biological systems provides hope for a coherent understanding of cell dynamics patterns and their relationship to plant life. This action required the reasoning about complex systems. In other sides, there were a lot of researchers who provided the proof about the instructional successions. They involved the multiple external representations which improved the biological learning. The researcher conducted an investigation using one shoot case study design which involved 30 students in proving that the MERs worksheets could affect the student's achievement of reasoning about complex system. The data had been collected based on test of reasoning about complex system and student's identification result who worked through MERs. The result showed that only partially students could achieve reasoning about system complex, but their MERs skill could support their reasoning ability of complex system. This study could bring a new hope to develop the MERs worksheet as a tool to facilitate the reasoning about complex system.

  7. Reduction of external noise of mobile energy facilities by using active noise control system in muffler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivaev, O. I.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Larionov, A. N.; Beliansky, R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a method for the reducing emission of low-frequency noise of modern automotive vehicles into the environment. The importance of reducing the external noise of modern mobile energy facilities made in Russia is substantiated. Standard methods for controlling external noise in technology are of low efficiency when low-frequency sound waves are reduced. In this case, it is in the low-frequency zone of the sound range that the main power of the noise emitted by the machinery lies. The most effective way to reduce such sound waves is to use active noise control systems. A design of a muffler using a similar system is presented. This muffler allowed one to reduce the emission of increased noise levels into the environment by 7-11 dB and to increase acoustic comfort at the operator's workplace by 3-5 dB.

  8. Human health-related externalities in energy system modelling the case of the Danish heat and power sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    2011-01-01

    and power sector verifies that it is cheaper for the society to include externalities in the planning of an energy system than to pay for the resulting damages later. Total health costs decrease by around 18% and total system costs decrease by nearly 4% when health externalities are included...

  9. Accounting for External Turbulence of Logistics Organizations via Performance Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of upper management in designing performance measurement systems (PMS) that account for external turbulence of the organization and to show how this PMS design for turbulence impacts organizational resilience and distribution service performance....... Design/methodology/approach: Hypotheses are developed by integrating management accounting and strategic management perspectives into supply chain management and subsequently tested based on data from 431 logistics organizations (i.e. both logistics companies and internal logistics departments...

  10. Equivalent to Represent Inertial and Primary Frequency Control Effects of an External System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel equivalent, which is suitable for simulation of inertial and primary frequency control effects. In the model reduction procedure, dynamic power injectors are used to replace the external system and to mimic its dynamic behavior. The parameters of the equivalents...... are tuned with a simple approach presented in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a modified version of the ENTSO-E Dynamic Study Model. The results show that the system frequency response of the unreduced system is retained and a speedup of the simulations of around 4...

  11. Aspects of two-level systems under external time-dependent fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Wreszinski, W.F. [Tomsk State University and Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics (Russian Federation); Barata, J.C.A.; Gitman D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil)]. E-mails: jbarata@fma.if.usp.br; gitman@fma.if.usp.br

    2001-12-14

    The dynamics of two-level systems in time-dependent backgrounds is under consideration. We present some new exact solutions in special backgrounds decaying in time. On the other hand, following ideas of Feynman et al, we discuss in detail the possibility of reducing the quantum dynamics to a classical Hamiltonian system. This, in particular, opens the possibility of directly applying powerful methods of classical mechanics (e.g. KAM methods) to study the quantum system. Following such an approach, we draw conclusions of relevance for 'quantum chaos' when the external background is periodic or quasi-periodic in time. (author)

  12. Impulsive synchronization of Roessler systems with parameter driven by an external signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong; Hu Manfeng; Xu Zhenyuan

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, an impulsive control scheme is presented to control two uncoupled identical Roessler systems. By driving the parameter of Roessler systems using external chaotic signal or periodic signal, chaotic synchronization and periodic synchronization can be implemented. This is a special impulsive control, but by using the existing results of impulsive control theory, a less conservative estimation of the upper bound of the impulse interval is given, which can guarantee the global asymptotical stability for the impulsive synchronization of Roessler systems. Numerical results are in accord with our estimation

  13. Health, environmental risks and externalities of nuclear and other energy systems of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A.P.; Demin, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    Due to different reasons the structure of electricity production systems of Russia should be reconsidered and changed. In this reconsideration the results of comparative risk assessment (CRA) and external cost assessment (ECA) are needed. CRA and ECA study has been carried out in the frame of the research program of International Center of Environmental Safety of Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russia. Main directions of this study are: 1) developing CRA and ECA methodology and data base ; 2) performing CRA and ECA for nuclear and other energy systems. Some tendencies in development of electricity production systems in Russia and preliminary results of CRA and ECA are described. (author)

  14. Safety philosophy and design principles for systems and components of nuclear power plant: external event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.P.G.

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, some systems and components are designed to withstand external impacts. Such systems and components are those which have to perform their functions even during and after the occurrences of an earthquake, for example, fulfilling the safety objectives and avoiding the release of radioactive material to the environment. The aim of this report is to introduce the safety philosophy and design principles for systems/components to perform their functions during and after the occurrence of an earthquake, as applied by NUCLEN for Angra 2 and 3. (Author) [pt

  15. A digital frequency stabilization system of external cavity diode laser based on LabVIEW FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuohuan; Hu, Zhaohui; Qi, Lu; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Frequency stabilization for external cavity diode laser has played an important role in physics research. Many laser frequency locking solutions have been proposed by researchers. Traditionally, the locking process was accomplished by analog system, which has fast feedback control response speed. However, analog system is susceptible to the effects of environment. In order to improve the automation level and reliability of the frequency stabilization system, we take a grating-feedback external cavity diode laser as the laser source and set up a digital frequency stabilization system based on National Instrument's FPGA (NI FPGA). The system consists of a saturated absorption frequency stabilization of beam path, a differential photoelectric detector, a NI FPGA board and a host computer. Many functions, such as piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sweeping, atomic saturation absorption signal acquisition, signal peak identification, error signal obtaining and laser PZT voltage feedback controlling, are totally completed by LabVIEW FPGA program. Compared with the analog system, the system built by the logic gate circuits, performs stable and reliable. User interface programmed by LabVIEW is friendly. Besides, benefited from the characteristics of reconfiguration, the LabVIEW program is good at transplanting in other NI FPGA boards. Most of all, the system periodically checks the error signal. Once the abnormal error signal is detected, FPGA will restart frequency stabilization process without manual control. Through detecting the fluctuation of error signal of the atomic saturation absorption spectrum line in the frequency locking state, we can infer that the laser frequency stability can reach 1MHz.

  16. Characterization of hospitalizations due to external causes in the public health system, Brazil, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the characteristics of hospital admissions owing to external causes in the public health system in Brazil in 2011. Data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) were analyzed to obtain the frequency, coefficient of hospitalization, and hospital morbidity indicators. Of the 973,015 admissions, falls (38.4%) predominated, followed by traffic accidents (15.8%). The estimated coefficient of hospitalization owing to external causes increased with the age, and it was higher in male patients and in the midwest region of the country. The average stay was higher in hospitalizations for traffic accidents (6.1 days) and assaults (6.0 days), while the hospital mortality rate reached higher values in hospitalizations for assaults (4.7%) and self-harms (4.0%). It is evident from the knowledge of the characteristics described the usefulness of hospital morbidity data for planning care actions and prevention of the external causes.

  17. Reflections of distraction in memory: transfer of previous distraction improves recall in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruthann C; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval.

  18. Assessment of distraction from erotic stimuli by nonerotic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alex B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Distraction from erotic cues during sexual encounters is a major contributor to sexual difficulties in men and women. Being able to assess distraction in studies of sexual arousal will help clarify underlying contributions to sexual problems. The current study aimed to identify the most accurate assessment of distraction from erotic cues in healthy men (n = 29) and women (n = 38). Participants were assigned to a no distraction, low distraction, or high distraction condition. Distraction was induced using an auditory distraction task presented during the viewing of an erotic video. Attention to erotic cues was assessed using three methods: a written quiz, a visual quiz, and a self-reported distraction measure. Genital and psychological sexual responses were also measured. Self-reported distraction and written quiz scores most accurately represented the level of distraction present, while self-reported distraction also corresponded with a decrease in genital arousal. Findings support the usefulness of self-report measures in conjunction with a brief quiz on the erotic material as the most accurate and sensitive ways to simply measure experimentally-induced distraction. Insight into distraction assessment techniques will enable evaluation of naturally occurring distraction in patients suffering from sexual problems.

  19. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  20. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  1. Distraction: heroic attitude before the metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Zacca Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering distraction as the heroic ethos of  modernity, I intend to analyze the perceptive changes brought about by the advance of the productive forces under capitalism; and the subsequent apprehension  of this change by four contemporary poets, namely Liv Lagerblad, Heyk Pimenta, Alberto Pucheu and Eucanaã Ferraz. Each of these poets brings distraction as what Walter Benjamin classified as inner form. In all cases, distraction appears as a poetic force before the danger of annihilation in big cities. This reflection is the basis for another, another, yet concerning the relations between poetry and politics, thinking with Jacques Rancière its position on the "distribution of the sensible". Finally, a resumption of Baudelaire, a master of distraction, seems to be inevitable.

  2. Comminuted distal femur closed fractures: a new application of the Ilizarov concept of compression-distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Ahmad; Atef, Ashraf

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of intra-articular distal femur fractures with severe metaphyseal comminution is challenging. It is important to choose a technique that provides secure fixation, minimum tissue handling, and early ambulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the outcomes of application of Ilizarov concept as an early definitive treatment of comminuted distal femur closed fractures. A total of 17 male patients (mean age 28.53±6.33 years) presented with comminuted distal femur fractures (with 10 type C2 and 7 type C3-2 fractures according to AO/ASIF system) were included in this prospective study. Initial fixation of the articular fragments was done by inter-fragmentary screws, percutaneously through a limited open approach, and stabilization was completed by Ilizarov fixator. The procedure included acute shortening, through the comminution, followed by gradual re-distraction to compensate the created shortening. Radiological and functional results were assessed according to ASAMI evaluation system. The mean amount of intra-operative shortening was 3.68±0.53 cm. The mean external fixation index was 37.24±2.53 days/cm. The mean follow-up period was 18.18±1.91 months. All fractures united primarily in an average 137.65±4.12 days, with no evident angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy. None of the cases required a second major procedure or bone graft. The functional results were excellent in three cases, good in 12, and fair in two patients. The Ilizarov concept of acute compression-distraction is a valuable alternative for the treatment of distal femur fractures with severe metaphyseal comminution.

  3. External field-induced chaos in classical and quantum Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Classical nonlinear nonintegrable systems exhibit dense sets of resonance zones in phase space. Global chaotic motion appears when neighboring resonance zones overlap. The chaotic motion signifies the destruction of a quasi constant of motion. The motion of a particle, trapped in one of the wells of a sinusoidal, potential driven by a monochromatic external field was studied. Global chaotic behavior sets in when the amplitude of the external field reaches a critical value. The particle then escapes the well. The critical values are found to be in good agreement with a resonance overlap criterion rather than a renormalization-group scheme. A similar system was then studied, but with the particle being confined in an infinite square well potential instead. A stochastic layer is found in the low-energy part of the phase space. The resonance zone structure is found to be in excellent agreement with predictions. The critical values for the onset of global chaotic behavior are found to be in excellent agreement with the renormalization group scheme. The quantum version of the second model above was then considered. In a similar fashion, the external field induces quantum resonance zones. The spectral statistics were computed, and a transition of statistics from Poissonian to Wigner-like was found as overlap of quantum resonances occurs. This also signifies the destruction of a quasi-constant of motion

  4. Climate change in the framework of external costs of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayerhofer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the continuing controversies concerning external costs of energy systems, the Commission of the European Union and the US-Department of Energy initiated a common project, External Costs of Fuel Cycles. The purpose of this project is to develop methodologies for the assessment of site-specific external costs on a marginal basis using a damage-function approach. For the assessment of climate change itself physical models are available. Here, the PC-model IMAGE developed by RIVM has been used for the time period up to 2100. Beyond this year, the carbon cycle is modeled with a response function. For the derivation of damage costs, a linear relationship between the global temperature change and the damage costs has been assumed. Thus, damage costs in the range of 0.10 to 0.53 US-cents/kWh for a discount rate of 3% are assessed for typical German fossil energy systems. The highest uncertainties are attached to the discount rate, the range for the climate sensitivity, and the forms of the global warming damage function. These points also have the strongest influence on the results. Hence, future research should be directed to the further analysis of these points. 30 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Archwise distraction appliance: A novel approach for developing facial and dental esthetics in cleft lip and palate patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CLP is defined as a congenital deformity caused by failed fusion of medial and lateral palatine processes during 4-12 th weeks of embryogenesis, resulting in an open communication between oral and nasal cavities. In CLP patients, maxillary hypoplasia, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and alveolar clefts are the major issues that have to be taken care of after labiopalatal reconstruction. Rather than several consecutive operations, such as bone-grafting and orthognathic surgery, alveolar distraction can be a better treatment option in many cases. Archwise Distraction Appliance (AWDA is a rigid, tooth-borne, custom-made appliance that is developed to control the distraction vector with double archwire system. Our experiences show that the AWDA is a successful appliance in cases of distraction osteogenesis. Moreover, alveolar distraction has significant advantages over conventional treatment modalities for CLP patients.

  6. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, where...

  7. Parents' attachment histories and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors: exploring family systems models of linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, P A; Cowan, C P; Cohn, D A; Pearson, J L

    1996-02-01

    Twenty-seven mothers and 27 fathers were given the Adult Attachment Interview (M. Main & R. Goldwyn, in press) when their children were 3.5 years old. Continuous ratings of narrative coherence, probable experience quality (parents perceived as loving), and state of mind (current anger at parents) were entered as latent variables in partial least squares structural equation models that included observational measures of marital quality and parenting style. Models that include fathers' attachment histories predicted more variance in kindergarten teachers' descriptions of children's externalizing behavior, whereas models that include mothers' attachment histories predicted more variance in children's internalizing behavior. Marital data added predictive power to the equations. Discussion is focused on the importance of integrating attachment and family systems approaches, and of parents' gender and marital quality, in understanding specific links between parents' attachment histories and their young children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

  8. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The development of sustainable solid waste management (SWM) systems requires consideration of both economic and environmental impacts. Societal life-cycle costing (S-LCC) provides a quantitative framework to estimate both economic and environmental impacts, by including "budget costs...... suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy...... development encourages the use of a mixed waste material recovery facility with residues going to incineration, and separated organics to anaerobic digestion. Results are sensitive to waste composition, energy mix and recycling rates. Most of the externality costs stem from SO2, NOx, PM2.5, CH4, fossil CO2...

  9. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple method for reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in multi-generation system optimization models. The method, called the Characteristic Operating Pattern (CHOP) method, is a visually-based aggregation method that clusters reference data based...... on parameter values rather than time of occurrence, thereby preserving important information on short-term relations between the relevant operating parameters. This is opposed to commonly used methods where data are averaged over chronological periods (months or years), and extreme conditions are hidden...... in the averaged values. The CHOP method is tested in a case study where the operation of a fictive Danish combined heat and power plant is optimized over a historical 5-year period. The optimization model is solved using the full external operating condition dataset, a reduced dataset obtained using the CHOP...

  10. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  11. Noise-spectroscopy of multiqubit systems: Determining all their parameters by applying an external classical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savel' ev, S., E-mail: S.Saveliev@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Zagoskin, A.M. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Omelyanchouk, A.N. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2010-10-05

    Imagine that you have several sets of two coupled qubits, but you do not know the parameters of their Hamitonians. How to determine these without resorting to the usual spectroscopy approach to the problem? Based on numerical modeling, we show that all the parameters of a system of two coupled qubits can be determined by applying to it an external classical noise and analyzing the Fourier spectrum of the elements of the system's density matrix. In particular, the interlevel spacings as well as the strength and sign of the qubit-qubit coupling can be determined this way.

  12. Changes in speech following maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, T W; Polley, J W; Figueroa, A; Smith, B E

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in articulation and velopharyngeal function following maxillary distraction osteogenesis. This is a descriptive, post hoc clinical report comparing the performance of patients before and after maxillary distraction. The independent variable was maxillary distraction while the dependent variables were resonance, articulation errors, and velopharyngeal function. The data were collected at a tertiary health care center in Chicago. The data from pre- and postoperative evaluations of 18 maxillary distraction patients were used. The outcome measures were severity of hypernasality and hyponasality, velopharyngeal orifice size as estimated using the pressure-flow technique, and number and type of articulation errors. At the long-term follow-up, 16.7% exhibited a significant increase in hypernasality. Seventy-five percent of patients with preoperative hyponasality experienced improved nasal resonance. Articulation improved in 67% of patients by the 1-year follow-up. In a predominately cleft palate population, the risk for velopharyngeal insufficiency following maxillary distraction is similar to the risk observed in Le Fort I maxillary advancement. Patients being considered for maxillary distraction surgery should receive pre- and postoperative speech evaluations and be counseled about risks for changes in their speech.

  13. Designing feedback to mitigate teen distracted driving: A social norms approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikhpour, Maryam; Donmez, Birsen

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate teens' perceived social norms and whether providing normative information can reduce distracted driving behaviors among them. Parents are among the most important social referents for teens; they have significant influences on teens' driving behaviors, including distracted driving which significantly contributes to teens' crash risks. Social norms interventions have been successfully applied in various domains including driving; however, this approach is yet to be explored for mitigating driver distraction among teens. Forty teens completed a driving simulator experiment while performing a self-paced visual-manual secondary task in four between-subject conditions: a) social norms feedback that provided a report at the end of each drive on teens' distracted driving behavior, comparing their distraction engagement to their parent's, b) post-drive feedback that provided just the report on teens' distracted driving behavior without information on their parents, c) real-time feedback in the form of auditory warnings based on eyes of road-time, and d) no feedback as control. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on these teens' and their parents' self-reported engagement in driver distractions and the associated social norms. Social norms and real-time feedback conditions resulted in significantly smaller average off-road glance duration, rate of long (>2s) off-road glances, and standard deviation of lane position compared to no feedback. Further, social norms feedback decreased brake response time and percentage of time not looking at the road compared to no feedback. No major effect was observed for post-drive feedback. Questionnaire results suggest that teens appeared to overestimate parental norms, but no effect of feedback was found on their perceptions. Feedback systems that leverage social norms can help mitigate driver distraction among teens. Overall, both social norms and real-time feedback induced

  14. Useful field of view predicts driving in the presence of distracters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Chaparro, Alex; Lacherez, Philippe; Hickson, Louise

    2012-04-01

    The Useful Field of View (UFOV) test has been shown to be highly effective in predicting crash risk among older adults. An important question which we examined in this study is whether this association is due to the ability of the UFOV to predict difficulties in attention-demanding driving situations that involve either visual or auditory distracters. Participants included 92 community-living adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.4 years; range 65-88 years) who completed all three subtests of the UFOV involving assessment of visual processing speed (subtest 1), divided attention (subtest 2), and selective attention (subtest 3); driving safety risk was also classified using the UFOV scoring system. Driving performance was assessed separately on a closed-road circuit while driving under three conditions: no distracters, visual distracters, and auditory distracters. Driving outcome measures included road sign recognition, hazard detection, gap perception, time to complete the course, and performance on the distracter tasks. Those rated as safe on the UFOV (safety rating categories 1 and 2), as well as those responding faster than the recommended cut-off on the selective attention subtest (350 msec), performed significantly better in terms of overall driving performance and also experienced less interference from distracters. Of the three UFOV subtests, the selective attention subtest best predicted overall driving performance in the presence of distracters. Older adults who were rated as higher risk on the UFOV, particularly on the selective attention subtest, demonstrated poorest driving performance in the presence of distracters. This finding suggests that the selective attention subtest of the UFOV may be differentially more effective in predicting driving difficulties in situations of divided attention which are commonly associated with crashes.

  15. Comprehensive Review of Adipose Stem Cells and Their Implication in Distraction Osteogenesis and Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina W. Morcos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is one of the most dynamic tissues in the human body that can heal following injury without leaving a scar. However, in instances of extensive bone loss, this intrinsic capacity of bone to heal may not be sufficient and external intervention becomes necessary. Several techniques are available to address this problem, including autogenous bone grafts and allografts. However, all these techniques have their own limitations. An alternative method is the technique of distraction osteogenesis, where gradual and controlled distraction of two bony segments after osteotomy leads to induction of new bone formation. Although distraction osteogenesis usually gives satisfactory results, its major limitation is the prolonged duration of time required before the external fixator is removed, which may lead to numerous complications. Numerous methods to accelerate bone formation in the context of distraction osteogenesis have been reported. A viable alternative to autogenous bone grafts for a source of osteogenic cells is mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow. However, there are certain problems with bone marrow aspirate. Hence, scientists have investigated other sources for mesenchymal stem cells, specifically adipose tissue, which has been shown to be an excellent source of mesenchymal stem cells. In this paper, the potential use of adipose stem cells to stimulate bone formation is discussed.

  16. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hailong; Zhang Ning; Wang Enrong; Min Fuhong

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc–Wen force–velocity (F–v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. (paper)

  17. Entangled plasmon generation in nonlinear spaser system under the action of external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubin, M. Yu.; Shesterikov, A. V.; Karpov, S. N.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    The present paper theoretically investigates features of quantum dynamics for localized plasmons in three-particle or four-particle spaser systems consisting of metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots. In the framework of the mean field approximation, the conditions for the observation of stable stationary regimes for single-particle plasmons in spaser systems are revealed, and realization of these regimes is discussed. The strong dipole-dipole interaction between adjacent nanoparticles for the four-particle spaser system is investigated. We show that this interaction can lead to the decreasing of the autocorrelation function values for plasmons. The generation of entangled plasmons in a three-particle spaser system with nonlinear plasmon-exciton interaction is predicted. The use of an external magnetic field is proposed for control of the cross correlations between plasmons in the three-particle spaser system.

  18. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories concepts are contextually-situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and non-emotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e. focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e. focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources. PMID:25748274

  19. 3D FE Analysis of RC Beams Externally Strengthened with SRG/SRP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bencardino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate, through a nonlinear Finite Element (FE analysis, the structural behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams externally strengthened by using Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG and Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP systems. The parameters taken into account were the external strengthening configuration, with or without U-wrap end anchorages, as well as the strengthening materials. The numerical simulations were carried out by using a three-dimensional (3D FE model. The linear and nonlinear behavior of all materials was modeled by appropriate constitutive laws and the connection between concrete substrate and external reinforcing layer was simulated by means of cohesive surfaces with appropriate bond-slip laws. In order to overcome convergence difficulties, to simulate the quasi-static response of the strengthened RC beams, a dynamic approach was adopted. The numerical results in terms of load-displacement curves, failure modes, and load and strain values at critical stages were validated against some experimental data. As a result, the proposed 3D FE model can be used to predict the structural behavior up to ultimate stage of similar strengthened beams without carrying out experimental tests.

  20. Complex dynamics in three-well duffing system with two external forcings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Zhujun; Huang Jicai; Deng Jin

    2007-01-01

    Three-well duffing system with two external forcing terms is investigated. The criterion of existence of chaos under the periodic perturbation is given by using Melnikov's method. By using second-order averaging method and Melnikov's method we proved the criterion of existence of chaos in averaged systems under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 = nω 1 + εν, n = 1, 3, 5, and cannot prove the criterion of existence of chaos in second-order averaged system under quasi-periodic perturbation for ω 2 = nω 1 + εν, n = 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, where ν is not rational to ω 1 , but can show the occurrence of chaos in original system by numerical simulation. Numerical simulations including heteroclinic and homoclinic bifurcation surfaces, bifurcation diagrams, maximum Lyapunov exponents and Poincare map are given to illustrate the theoretical analysis, and to expose the more new complex dynamical behaviors. We show that cascades of period-doubling bifurcations from period-one to four orbits, cascades of interlocking period-doubling bifurcations from period-two orbits of two sets, from quasi-periodicity leading to chaos, onset of chaos which occurs more than one, interleaving occurrences of chaotic behavior and invariant torus, transient chaos with complex period windows and interior crisis, chaos converting to torus, different kind of chaotic attractors. Our results shows that the dynamical behaviors are different from the dynamics of duffing equation with two-well and two external forcings

  1. Bifurcation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Externally Pressurized Double Air Films Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the chaotic and nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a rigid rotor supported by externally pressurized double air films (EPDAF bearing system. A hybrid numerical method combining the differential transformation method and the finite difference method is used to calculate pressure distribution of EPDAF bearing system and bifurcation phenomenon of rotor center orbits. The results obtained for the orbits of the rotor center are in good agreement with those obtained using the traditional finite difference approach. The results presented summarize the changes which take place in the dynamic behavior of the EPDAF bearing system as the rotor mass and bearing number are increased and therefore provide a useful guideline for the bearing system.

  2. Multi-modal distraction: insights from children's limited attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusz, Pawel J; Broadbent, Hannah; Ferrari, Jessica; Forrest, Benjamin; Merkley, Rebecca; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-03-01

    How does the multi-sensory nature of stimuli influence information processing? Cognitive systems with limited selective attention can elucidate these processes. Six-year-olds, 11-year-olds and 20-year-olds engaged in a visual search task that required them to detect a pre-defined coloured shape under conditions of low or high visual perceptual load. On each trial, a peripheral distractor that could be either compatible or incompatible with the current target colour was presented either visually, auditorily or audiovisually. Unlike unimodal distractors, audiovisual distractors elicited reliable compatibility effects across the two levels of load in adults and in the older children, but high visual load significantly reduced distraction for all children, especially the youngest participants. This study provides the first demonstration that multi-sensory distraction has powerful effects on selective attention: Adults and older children alike allocate attention to potentially relevant information across multiple senses. However, poorer attentional resources can, paradoxically, shield the youngest children from the deleterious effects of multi-sensory distraction. Furthermore, we highlight how developmental research can enrich the understanding of distinct mechanisms controlling adult selective attention in multi-sensory environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced reactor passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grelle, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general) for the postulated transient event

  4. Advanced Reactor Passive System Reliability Demonstration Analysis for an External Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bucknor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general for the postulated transient event.

  5. External post-operational checks for the LHC beam dumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, N.; Baggiolini, V.; Carlier, E.; Goddard, B.; Gorbonosov, R.; Khasbulatov, D.; Uythoven, J.; Zerlauth, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) is a critical part of the LHC machine protection system. After every LHC beam dump action the various signals and transient data recordings of the beam dumping control systems and beam instrumentation measurements are automatically analysed by the external Post-Operational Checks (XPOC) system to verify the correct execution of the dump action and the integrity of the related equipment. This software system complements the LHC machine protection hardware, and has to ascertain that the beam dumping system is 'as good as new' before the start of the next operational cycle. This is the only way by which the stringent reliability requirements can be met. The XPOC system has been developed within the framework of the LHC 'Post-Mortem' system, allowing highly dependable data acquisition, data archiving, live analysis of acquired data and replay of previously recorded events. It is composed of various analysis modules, each one dedicated to the analysis of measurements coming from specific equipment. This paper describes the global architecture of the XPOC system and gives examples of the analyses performed by some of the most important analysis modules. It explains the integration of the XPOC into the LHC control infrastructure along with its integration into the decision chain to allow proceeding with beam operation. Finally, it discusses the operational experience with the XPOC system acquired during the first years of LHC operation, and illustrates examples of internal system faults or abnormal beam dump executions which it has detected. (authors)

  6. Advanced reactor passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grelle, Austin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general) for the postulated transient event.

  7. A minipig model of maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria E; Troulis, Maria J; Glowacki, Julie; Kaban, Leonard B

    2010-11-01

    To establish a porcine model for maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to document the sequence of bone formation in the zone of advancement. Female Yucatan minipigs (n = 9) in the mixed dentition stage underwent modified Le Fort I osteotomy through a vestibular incision under general anesthesia. A unidirectional, semiburied Le Fort I distraction device was fixed across the osteotomy. The distraction protocol was 0-day latency, 1-mm/d rate for 12 days, and 24 days of fixation. Maxillary specimens (n = 9) were harvested and divided in half at the end of distraction (n = 6 sides), midfixation (n = 6), and the end of fixation (n = 6). Clinical stability, volume, and radiographic density across the zone of advancement were graded on semiquantitative scales. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscopy. Animals tolerated the operation, the distraction and fixation periods. There were no infections and no devices failed. At the end of the distraction period, bone trabeculae were present at the periphery and fibrous tissues, and vessels, preosteoblasts, and osteoblasts were present in the center of the zone of advancement. Islands of chondrocyte-like cells appeared in 1 specimen each at midfixation and the end of fixation. At the end of fixation, clinical stability and radiographic density were graded 3/3 and bone formation was complete across the advancement zone in all specimens. A model for Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis was established. Intramembranous bone formation was the predominant mechanism of healing in the zone of advancement. Latency was not necessary for bone formation in this minipig model. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Mortar Simulator with Shell-In-Shell System – Problem of External Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedaravicius

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The shell-in-shell system used in the mortar simulator raises a number of non-standard technical and computational problems starting from the requirement to distribute the propelling blast energy between the warhead and the ballistic barrel, finishing with the requirement that the length of warhead's flight path must be scaled to combat shell firing tables. The design problem of the simulator is split into two parts – the problem of external ballistics where the initial velocities of the warhead must be determined, and the problem of internal ballistics – where the design of the cartridge and the ballistic barrel must be performed.

  9. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

  10. Modeling of beams in a treatment planning system for external radiation with the help of external tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt a statistical analysis as directed Protocol Control Systems Quality Planning Radiation Therapy published by the Spanish Society of Medical Physics. Also performed an analysis with the parameter gamma (Low et al.), Which is represented on the graph, allowing an overview of the goodness of fit intuitively.

  11. Effect of distraction arthroplasty on osteoarthritic goat models of the articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky N.H. Putro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common knee degenerative disease, the number of OA patients increases along with the increase of life expectancy. Distraction arthroplasty is a less invasive alternatif for OA management by releaving mechanical stress while maintaining intermitten joint fluid pressure changes, thus halting the OA destructive cycle and inducing repair. This study aims to evaluate the anatomical and histopathological changes after distraction arthroplasty on osteoarthritic animal models.Methods: The study was performed on 32 goat stiffle joint (16 goats with mechanically induced OA by lateral meniscectomy. During the study 6 goats were decreased. Distraction arthroplasty was performed using external fixation on 10 knees for 4 weeks, and the contralateral knees left untreated. The knees were anatomically and histopathologically examined using International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS staging and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI scoring. The differences of the anatomical and histopathological changes are tested for significance using the Wilcoxon test.Results: There was anatomical and histopathological worsening of the OA on treated knees. The anatomical difference assessed using ICRS stage gave median values of 1.5 and 2.5 respectively (p < 0.002. The histopathological difference assessed using OARSI scoring was significant (6 vs 10; p < 0.002.Conclusion: Distraction arthroplasty in OA goat models in this study, worsens the OA instead of inducing repair. Further studies are required to find out a convincing biological basis of distraction arthroplasty as an alternative treatment for OA. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:64-9Keywords: Animal model, distraction arthroplasty, osteoarthritis

  12. The cell phone : a dangerous driving distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutlay, J. [Alberta Motor Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Ure, D. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Shell Canada demands that workers do not operate telecommunication systems while operating a motor vehicle for company business, with the exception of short acknowledgment conversations. This power point presentation advised of the dangers of using cell phones while driving. Cell phone use while driving is considered to be mentally demanding as well as contributing to slower reaction times to hazards and reducing driving field of view. Research has indicated that drivers visualize an image of the person being spoken to, in addition to thinking about issues being discussed. Statistics from the United Kingdom reveal that drivers engaged in cell phone conversations are 4 times more likely to crash than other drivers, and take risks comparable to alcohol impaired driving, as well as showing significantly poorer driving performance. Various types of driver distractions were presented. A comparison between radio and cell phones was presented. It was suggested that drivers should not take a phone call while driving alone, and in an emergency, should pull off the road to receive or send phone calls. It was also suggested that callers should ask if a person is driving, and end a conversation if they suspect the person is driving. tabs, figs.

  13. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. [Three-dimensional modeling of mandibular distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgon, L A; Trunde, F; Coudert, J L; Disant, F

    2003-12-01

    Facial hemi-atrophy affects 1 in 4000 or 5000 children. We propose treating this deformation of the 1st branchial arch with the "bone distraction" lengthening technique first described by Ilizarov in the 1950s, which has already been employed with the mandible. We have modelled mandibular distraction in facial hemi-atrophy patients and discuss the benefits of such pre-surgical planning encompassing the assistance of pre- and post-operative as well as surgically coordinated orthodontic therapy. Using X scanner views of a 5 year-old girl patient, we have developed a distraction-simulation software, which makes the pathological side harmonious with the healthy side along the medial sagittal plane. In order to obtain facial symmetry, put bones in balance, and orient the occlusal plane horizontally, essential requisites of occlusal stability, it is necessary: to employ a 2 or 3-dimensional distractor, to pre-plan the distraction and screw positioning, to set up a fixed orthodontic treatment plan prior to beginning distraction therapy.

  15. Distraction rate and latency: factors in the outcome of paediatric maxillary distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, Stephen; Cole, Patrick; Stephenson, J B; Hollier, Larry

    2009-12-01

    Over 50 years ago, current tenets of distraction osteogenesis were developed through work on the lower extremity; however, the application of these tenets in the paediatric craniofacial skeleton remains questionable. Prompted by recent concern that traditional aspects of distraction may be either outdated or wholly inapplicable to the paediatric maxilla, we retrospectively evaluated maxillary distraction protocol using a 24-h latency period in conjunction with a distraction rate of 2mm/day. Following maxillary advancement via a distraction protocol consisting of a 24-h latency period and a distraction rate of 2mm/day, seven consecutive paediatric cases were evaluated. Standard profile photos and cephalometric films taken preoperatively, at device removal and at 1-year follow-up were compared. With the sella as the point of registration, pre- and post-distraction films were superimposed on the sella-nasion plane. Sella-nasion-subspinale, the angle of convexity, the distance from incisal edges to the y-axis, and angulation of the upper incisor to the sella-nasion plane were analysed to evaluate hard-tissue changes. Patient age ranged from 3 to 14 years (mean=7.43 years). Maxillary distraction length averaged 11 mm (range=10-12 mm). Interval from device application to removal averaged 98 days (range=75-180 days). The interval of the active distraction ranged from 11 to 65 days (mean=24 days). From distraction completion to device removal averaged 85 days (range=60-150). Follow-up intervals ranged from 52 to 24 months (mean=34 months). All patients demonstrated substantial clinical advancement of the maxilla with correction of midfacial deficiencies. A single patient developed mild cellulitis at one skin-device interface; no other complications were noted. Cephalometric and clinical evaluations at 1 year post-distraction demonstrated stable results, and parental satisfaction was qualitatively high. The surgical dogma of lower-extremity distraction osteogenesis is not

  16. Experimental proof of a load resilient external matching solution for the ITER ICRH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervier, M.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.; Lamalle, P.

    2005-01-01

    A reliable load resilient external matching scheme for the ITER ICRH system has been successfully tested on the mock-up of the external matching system with variable plasma load simulation. To avoid the deleterious mutual coupling effects the power has been passively distributed among the upper half and the bottom half of the 24 radiating straps of the antenna plug. In this plug the straps are grouped in 8 triplets by 4-ports junctions. The 4 top and 4 bottom triplets are respectively put in parallel outside the antenna plug near a voltage anti-node by means of T junctions. The load resilient matching is then obtained by a 4 parameters single 'conjugate T' (CT) configuration. For an antenna loading variation of about 1 to 8 Ω/m the VSWR at the power source remains below 1.3. The maximum voltage along the line remains equal to the one in the antenna plug and there is a fair power share between the straps. A π0π0 toroidal phasing is easily obtained. The poloidal phasing between the top and bottom triplets is determined by the loading. A straightforward matching procedure is described. Good load resilience is also obtained by replacing the CT by one hybrid

  17. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems: Critical Parameters for Surface Hygrothermal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Barreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS are often used in Europe. Despite its thermal advantages, low cost, and ease of application, this system has serious problems of biological growth causing the cladding defacement. Recent studies pointed that biological growth is due to high values of surface moisture content, which mostly results from the combined effect of exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. Based on numerical simulation, this paper points the most critical parameters involved in hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS, considering the influence of thermal and hygric properties of the external rendering, the effect of the characteristics of the façade, and the consequences of the exterior and interior climate on exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. The model used was previously validated by comparison with the results of an “in situ” campaign. The results of the sensitivity analyses show that relative humidity and temperature of the exterior air, atmospheric radiation, and emissivity of the exterior rendering are the parameters that most influence exterior surface condensation. Wind-driven rain depends mostly on horizontal rain, building’s height, wind velocity, and orientation. The drying capacity is influenced by short-wave absorbance, incident solar radiation, and orientation.

  18. RESTOP: Retaining External Peripheral State in Intermittently-Powered Sensor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Arreola, Alberto; Balsamo, Domenico; Merrett, Geoff V; Weddell, Alex S

    2018-01-10

    Energy harvesting sensor systems typically incorporate energy buffers (e.g., rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors) to accommodate fluctuations in supply. However, the presence of these elements limits the miniaturization of devices. In recent years, researchers have proposed a new paradigm, transient computing, where systems operate directly from the energy harvesting source and allow computation to span across power cycles, without adding energy buffers. Various transient computing approaches have addressed the challenge of power intermittency by retaining the processor's state using non-volatile memory. However, no generic approach has yet been proposed to retain the state of peripherals external to the processing element. This paper proposes RESTOP, flexible middleware which retains the state of multiple external peripherals that are connected to a computing element (i.e., a microcontroller) through protocols such as SPI or I 2 C. RESTOP acts as an interface between the main application and the peripheral, which keeps a record, at run-time, of the transmitted data in order to restore peripheral configuration after a power interruption. RESTOP is practically implemented and validated using three digitally interfaced peripherals, successfully restoring their configuration after power interruptions, imposing a maximum time overhead of 15% when configuring a peripheral. However, this represents an overhead of only 0.82% during complete execution of our typical sensing application, which is substantially lower than existing approaches.

  19. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailong, Zhang; Enrong, Wang; Fuhong, Min; Ning, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51475246, 51277098, and 51075215), the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province China (Grant No. KYLX15 0725), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20131402).

  20. Subtalar distraction osteogenesis for posttraumatic arthritis following intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei-Li; Sun, Hong-Zhen; Wu, Si-Yu; Wang, Ai-Min

    2013-03-01

    The most common treatment for old calcaneal fractures accompanied by subtalar joint injury is the use of subtalar in situ arthrodesis and subtalar distraction bone-block arthrodesis or osteotomy. This article describes the introduction of a novel surgical treatment, gradual subtalar distraction with external fixation and restoration of the calcaneal height, and presents an assessment of its efficacy. The protruding lateral calcaneus and the articular surfaces and subchondral bone of the posterior facet of the subtalar joint were surgically removed. An external fixator, attached with 2 pins in the subcutaneous tibia and 2 pins in the posterolateral calcaneus, was used to fix the subtalar joint for 7 to 10 days followed by gradual subtalar distraction at 1 mm/d. The lengthening procedure was stopped when the calcaneal height was restored according to radiography. The external fixator was removed after bone fusion. Seven cases of old calcaneal fractures accompanied by severe subtalar joint injury (8 feet) were treated using this method. Average follow-up was 14.3 months (range, 7-36 months). In all 7 cases (1 case of both feet), the postoperative wound healed primarily. The calcaneal heights of all 8 feet were partially restored. Subtalar joint bone fusion was completed within 4 to 6 months after the operation. The average preoperative American Orthopedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was 25.3, and the average postoperative AOFAS score was 76.3. Subtalar distraction osteogenesis with external fixation was a novel and effective method for the treatment of old calcaneal fractures accompanied by severe subtalar joint injury in this small group of patients. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  1. Use of Radiographic Densitometry to Predict the Bone Healing Index in Distraction Osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    A Saw; S Manimaran; S Faizal; AM Bulgiba

    2008-01-01

    Bone lengthening with distraction osteogenesis involves prolonged application of an external fixator frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of callus has been described using various imaging modalities but there is no simple reliable and readily available method. This study aims to investigate the use of a densitometer to analyze plain radiographic images and correlate them with the rate of new bone formation as represented by the bone healing index. A total of 34 bone lengthening pro...

  2. National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of telephone surveys on distracted driving providing data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the developm...

  3. Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus I. M Craik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by domain-general suppression of distracting information and the domain-specific competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman’s (1964 model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance.

  4. Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Fergus I M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by "domain-general" suppression of distracting information and the "domain-specific" competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman's (1964) model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance.

  5. Characterization of systems for external insulation and retrofitting with emphasis on the thermal performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus; Rose, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade retrofitting of buildings has received increased attention not only in northern Europe but throughout the world. Retrofitting of buildings is usually performed to solve one or more of the following problems: poor indoor climate, excessive heat losses, insufficient durability...... a building designer with such a choice, key parameters for insulation systems are described in a uniform manner stating their performance with regards to aesthetics, heat transfer, moisture, durability, fire and economy. Parameters given for the total insulation capability enable the building designer...... to include the effect of thermal bridges by performing simple calculations, a task which normally requires the use of numerical models. The results show that thermal bridges in external insulation systems may decrease their thermal resistance by more than 25%.Key parameters was calculated by the use...

  6. Influence of external fields and environment on the dynamics of a phase-qubit-resonator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Chumak, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a qubit-resonator system coupled with a thermal bath and external electromagnetic fields. Using the evolution equations for the set of Heisenberg operators that describe the whole system, we derive an expression for the resonator field, accounting for the resonator-drive, -bath, and -qubit interaction. The renormalization of the resonator frequency caused by the qubit-resonator interaction is accounted for. Using solutions for the resonator field, we derive the equation describing qubit dynamics. The influence of the qubit evolution during measurement time on the fidelity of a single-shot measurement is studied. The relation between fidelity and measurement time is shown explicitly. Also, an expression describing relaxation of the superposition qubit state toward its stationary value is derived. The possibility of controlling this state by varying the amplitude and frequency of drive is shown.

  7. A digital fluoroscopic imaging system for verification during external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Michikatsu

    1990-01-01

    A digital fluoroscopic (DF) imaging system has been constructed to obtain portal images for verification during external beam radiotherapy. The imaging device consists of a fluorescent screen viewed by a highly sensitive video camera through a mirror. The video signal is digitized and processed by an image processor which is linked on-line with a host microcomputer. The image quality of the DF system was compared with that of film for portal images of the Burger phantom and the Alderson anthropomorphic phantom using 10 MV X-rays. Contrast resolution of the DF image integrated for 8.5 sec. was superior to the film resolution, while spatial resolution was slightly inferior. The DF image of the Alderson phantom processed by the adaptive histogram equalization was better in showing anatomical landmarks than the film portal image. The DF image integrated for 1 sec. which is used for movie mode can show patient movement during treatment. (author)

  8. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  9. Specifics of system of external influences on the life cycle of a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksanin Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very important issue today which includes the harmonious and effective development of the system ‘man –environment’. Construction is a branch of material production, which has a significant negative impact on the world around us. It is necessary to plan and operate processes of construction at all stages of the life cycle of a building without exception, to prevent of ecological threats. The article describes the concept of ‘life cycle’ as applied to various fields of knowledge, analyzes existing in the scientific literature division of the life cycle of buildings in the periods, proposes own approach to the division of periods of the life cycle on the basis of resource-saving. The article proposes the creation of a unified organizational system for the effective management of all periods with the constituent phases and formulates the main external influences on the building life cycle.

  10. Specifics of system of external influences on the life cycle of a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksanin Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very important issue today which includes the harmonious and effective development of the system ‘man–environment’. Construction is a branch of material production, which has a significant negative impact on the world around us. It is necessary to plan and operate processes of construction at all stages of the life cycle of a building without exception, to prevent of ecological threats. The article describes the concept of ‘life cycle’ as applied to various fields of knowledge, analyzes existing in the scientific literature division of the life cycle of buildings in the periods, proposes own approach to the division of periods of the life cycle on the basis of resource-saving. The article proposes the creation of a unified organizational system for the effective management of all periods with the constituent phases and formulates the main external influences on the building life cycle.

  11. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  12. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers.

  13. Hybrid external fixation in high-energy elbow fractures: a modular system with a promising future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, A; Stahl, S; Stein, H

    2000-12-01

    Severe, high-energy, periarticular elbow injuries producing a "floating joint" are a major surgical challenge. Their reconstruction and rehabilitation are not well documented. Therefore, the following reports our experience with treating such injuries caused by war wounds. Seven adults with compound open peri- and intra-articular elbow fractures were treated in hybrid ring tubular fixation frames. After debridement, bone stabilization, and neurovascular reconstructions, early controlled daily movements were started in the affected joint. These seven patients had together seven humeral, five radial, and six ulnar fractures. All fractures united at a median time of 180 days. No deep infection developed. The functional end results assessed by the Khalfayan functional score were excellent in two, good in one, and fair in four of these severely mangled upper extremities. None was amputated. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score has been shown to be unable to provide a reliable assessment for severe high-energy limb injuries surgically managed with the modular hybrid thin wire tubular external fixation system. This hybrid system is a very useful addition to the surgical armamentarium of orthopedic trauma surgeons. It both allows complex surgical reconstructions and reduces the incidence of deep infections in these heavily contaminated injuries. The hybrid circular (thin wire) external fixation system is very modular and may provide secure skeletal stabilization even in cases of severely comminuted juxta-articular fractures on both sides of the elbow joint (floating elbow) with severe damage to soft tissues. This fixation system allows individual fixation of forearm bone fractures, thus allowing the preservation of pronation-supination movements.

  14. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  15. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Distraction arthroplasty with arthroscopic microfracture in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis of the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Adachi, Nobuo; Kato, Tomohiro; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    We treated a 39-year-old female who had experienced destruction of her ankle joint owing to rheumatoid arthritis. This relatively young patient wished to avoid ankle fusion and joint replacement. Therefore, distraction arthroplasty with arthroscopic microfracture was performed to improve her symptoms and preserve motion. A microfracture procedure specifically for cartilage defects of the tibial plafond and talar dome was performed with the arthroscope, after which a hinged external fixator was applied to distract the ankle joint. The ankle joint space was enlarged by the external device and joint movement allowed. After 3 months, removal of the external device and repeat arthroscopy revealed newly formed fibrocartilage on the surfaces of both the tibia and the talus. At 2 years after the surgery, a radiograph showed that the joint space enlargement of the ankle had been maintained. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 37 points preoperatively to 82 points at 2 years postoperatively. Our findings suggest that good clinical results can be achieved with distraction arthroplasty and arthroscopic microfracture in a relatively young patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient simulation of intrinsic, extrinsic and external noise in biochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischel, Dennis; Sundmacher, Kai; Flassig, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation: Biological cells operate in a noisy regime influenced by intrinsic, extrinsic and external noise, which leads to large differences of individual cell states. Stochastic effects must be taken into account to characterize biochemical kinetics accurately. Since the exact solution of the chemical master equation, which governs the underlying stochastic process, cannot be derived for most biochemical systems, approximate methods are used to obtain a solution. Results: In this study, a method to efficiently simulate the various sources of noise simultaneously is proposed and benchmarked on several examples. The method relies on the combination of the sigma point approach to describe extrinsic and external variability and the τ-leaping algorithm to account for the stochasticity due to probabilistic reactions. The comparison of our method to extensive Monte Carlo calculations demonstrates an immense computational advantage while losing an acceptable amount of accuracy. Additionally, the application to parameter optimization problems in stochastic biochemical reaction networks is shown, which is rarely applied due to its huge computational burden. To give further insight, a MATLAB script is provided including the proposed method applied to a simple toy example of gene expression. Availability and implementation: MATLAB code is available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: flassig@mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28881987

  18. An interacting instanton and anti-instanton system under external color magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakano, M.

    1980-01-01

    The equilibrium configurations for the instanton and anti-instanton system of the SU(2) gauge field under constant external color magnetic fields are studied by applying the statistical mechanics method. The vacuum has a stabel equilibrium state in the case where the interaction between pseudoparticles is partly considered through the local gauge field in determining the mean dipole moment of instantons. It is shown, however, that there exists no equilibrium state, either stable or unstable, when the dipolar interaction with a particular instanton-size-dependent cutoff is taken into account directly by the second virial coefficient. To analyze this discrepancy a more general cutoff is introduced and the density of instantons is determined for equilibrium states with vanishing external fields, when the cutoff parameter is varied. Above a certain cutoff length there exist two branches of equilibrium configurations with high or low instanton densities, while below it no equilibrium state is obtained. It is shown that we have a critical cutoff length near but slightly larger than the above value and that the equilibrium states on the lower density branch corresponding to cutoff lengths larger than this critical value are stable, while all remaining equilibrium states are unstable. (orig.)

  19. Efficacy of Distraction Methods on Procedural Pain and Anxiety by Applying Distraction Cards and Kaleidoscope in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla Canbulat, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The distraction cards were the most effective method for pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. Also the distraction method with kaleidoscope was an effective method for pain and anxiety relief during phlebotomy in children.

  20. A Source of Distractions in the Classroom: The Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lily Y. S.

    This paper identifies distracting factors which take away pupils' attention from the lesson and focus it on the teacher. Distracting factors include teachers' irritating habits, improper attire, and mannerisms. Examples of distracting features of both males and females are listed in eight categories: (1) attire; (2) hair; (3) make-up; (4) personal…

  1. The Effects of Distraction on Cognitive Task Performance during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Nancy M.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Haden, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of distraction on attention and task performance during toddlerhood. Thirty toddlers (24- to 26-month-olds) completed different tasks (2 of each: categorization, problem solving, memory, free play) in one of two conditions: No Distraction or Distraction. The results revealed that the distractor had varying effects on…

  2. Using Virtual Reality to Distract Overweight Children from Bodily Sensations During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Escobar, Patricia; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Alvarez Pitti, Julio; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Botella, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes the potential of virtual reality (VR) to enhance attentional distraction in overweight children as they experience bodily sensations during exercise. It has been suggested that one reason why obese children stop exercising is the perception of bodily sensations. In a counterbalanced design, a total of 109 children (33 overweight, 10-15 years old) were asked to walk twice for 6 minutes on a treadmill under one of two conditions: (a) traditional condition (TC)-focusing their attention on their physical feelings and sensations or (b) distraction condition (DC)-focusing their attention on a virtual environment. Attentional focus during exercise, bad-good feeling states (pre- and postexperimental), perceived exertion (3 minutes and post), heart rate, and enjoyment were assessed. Results indicated that overweight children focused on internal information under the TC, but they significantly shifted their attention to regard the external environment in the DC. This attentional distraction effect of VR was more intense in overweight than in normal-weight children. No differences between groups were found when examining changes in feeling states and perceived exertion. VR increased enjoyment during exercise, and children preferred exercise using virtual environments. VR is useful to promote distraction and may help overweight and obese children to enjoy exercise.

  3. Technical Aspects of Interfacing MUMPS to an External SQL Relational Database Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Walters, Richard F.; Penrod, Gail

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an interface connecting InterSystems MUMPS (M/VX) to an external relational DBMS, the SYBASE Database Management System. The interface enables MUMPS to operate in a relational environment and gives the MUMPS language full access to a complete set of SQL commands. MUMPS generates SQL statements as ASCII text and sends them to the RDBMS. The RDBMS executes the statements and returns ASCII results to MUMPS. The interface suggests that the language features of MUMPS make it an attractive tool for use in the relational database environment. The approach described in this paper separates MUMPS from the relational database. Positioning the relational database outside of MUMPS promotes data sharing and permits a number of different options to be used for working with the data. Other languages like C, FORTRAN, and COBOL can access the RDBMS database. Advanced tools provided by the relational database vendor can also be used. SYBASE is an advanced high-performance transaction-oriented relational database management system for the VAX/VMS and UNIX operating systems. SYBASE is designed using a distributed open-systems architecture, and is relatively easy to interface with MUMPS.

  4. Development of polyisocyanurate pour foam formulation for space shuttle external tank thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1988-01-01

    Four commercially available polyisocyanurate polyurethane spray-foam insulation formulations are used to coat the external tank of the space shuttle. There are several problems associated with these formulations. For example, some do not perform well as pourable closeout/repair systems. Some do not perform well at cryogenic temperatures (poor adhesion to aluminum at liquid nitrogen temperatures). Their thermal stability at elevated temperatures is not adequate. A major defect in all the systems is the lack of detailed chemical information. The formulations are simply supplied to NASA and Martin Marietta, the primary contractor, as components; Part A (isocyanate) and Part B (poly(s) and additives). Because of the lack of chemical information the performance behavior data for the current system, NASA sought the development of a non-proprietary room temperature curable foam insulation. Requirements for the developed system were that it should exhibit equal or better thermal stability both at elevated and cryogenic temperatures with better adhesion to aluminum as compared to the current system. Several formulations were developed that met these requirements, i.e., thermal stability, good pourability, and good bonding to aluminum.

  5. Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xinyu; Yin, Longfei; Zhuang, Wei; Luo, Bin; Dang, Anhong; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate an external-cavity laser system using an anti-reflection coated laser diode as gain medium with about 60 nm fluorescence spectrum, and a Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as frequency-selecting element with a transmission bandwidth of 1.3 GHz. With 6.4% optical feedback, a single stable longitudinal mode is obtained with a linewidth of 69 kHz. The wavelength of this laser is operating within the center of the highest transmission peak of FADOF over a diode current range from 55 mA to 142 mA and a diode temperature range from 15 °C to 35 °C, thus it is immune to the fluctuations of current and temperature.

  6. External factors in hospital information system (HIS) adoption model: a case on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heng Wei; Ramayah, Thurasamy; Zakaria, Nasriah

    2012-08-01

    Studies related to healthcare ICT integration in Malaysia are relatively little, thus this paper provide a literature review of the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the healthcare sector in Malaysia through the hospital information system (HIS). Our study emphasized on secondary data to investigate the factors related to ICT integration in healthcare through HIS. Therefore this paper aimed to gather an in depth understanding of issues related to HIS adoption, and contributing in fostering HIS adoption in Malaysia and other countries. This paper provides a direction for future research to study the correlation of factors affecting HIS adoption. Finally a research model is proposed using current adoption theories and external factors from human, technology, and organization perspectives.

  7. Accounting for External Turbulence of Logistics Organizations via Performance Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of upper management in designing performance measurement systems (PMS) that account for external turbulence of the organization and to show how this PMS design for turbulence impacts organizational resilience and distribution service performance....... Design/methodology/approach: Hypotheses are developed by integrating management accounting and strategic management perspectives into supply chain management and subsequently tested based on data from 431 logistics organizations (i.e. both logistics companies and internal logistics departments...... distribution service performance. Originality/value: This paper is the first to introduce the concept of PMS design for turbulence to the literature and to show that it is relevant for supply chain risk management by fostering the capabilities and the performance of logistics organizations. Further...

  8. The Czech External Quality Control system in medical microbiology and parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Kríz, B

    2000-11-01

    The External Quality Control (EQC) system in activities of laboratories engaged in medical microbiology and parasitology was established in the Czech Republic in 1993 when to the first laboratories which applied coded serum samples were sent for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification. In the course of years the number of control areas increased and in 2000 there were 31 and the number of those interested in participation in EQC increased from 79 in 1993 to 434 in 2000. This year a total of 13,239 samples will be sent to laboratories. Gradually thus almost all microbiological and parasitological laboratories concerned with examination of clinical material became involved. Seven-year experience with EQC in the Czech Republic revealed that gradually the results of various examinations became more accurate, that methods became standardized and the most suitable examination sets are used.

  9. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  10. The Evolution of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

    2006-01-01

    Three nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Shearography is being developed to identify shallow delaminations, shallow voids and crush damage in the foam while terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography are being developed to identify voids and cracks in thick foam regions. The basic theory of operation along with factors affecting the results of these methods will be described. Also, the evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed. Results from both test panels and flight tank inspections will be provided to show the range in defect sizes and types that can be readily detected.

  11. External quality assurance system (EQAS) for identification of mastitis pathogens in Denmark from 2006 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.; Rundsten, Carsten Friis

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess...... the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled...... the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying...

  12. External tandem target system for efficient production of short-lived positron emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, K.; Dwyer, J.; Finn, R.; Sheh, Y.; Sinnreich, J.; Wooten, T.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in radiopharmaceutical chemistry allow the incorporation of short-lived, positron-emitting radionuclides into a variety of compounds which when used with a positron emission tomograph provide a means of monitoring physiological disorders by a standard technique. To effectively meet the increased ''in-house'' clinical demands while maintaining a production schedule, a tandem target was designed and has been installed for the simultaneous ''on-line'' preparation of oxygen-15 labelled compounds such as CO 2 15 , H 2 O 15 ; and nitrogen-13 labelled compounds such as 13 NH 3 , 13 N 2 O, and 13 N 2 . The processing time required for the synthesis of the nitrogen-13 products as compared to the essentially instantaneous formation of oxygen-15 labelled compounds has provided the necessary time delay for clinical utilization. The characterisitcs of this external tandem target system as well as the automation for the dual processing are presented

  13. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Pathway: FY 2016 External Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce Perry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes an External Review conducted by the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway to solicit feedback on the topics and results of the ongoing II&C research program. This review was held in conjunction with the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Digital I&C Working Group meeting that was held at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on August 9-10, 2016. Given the opportunity to visit INL and see the pathway research projects, NEI agreed that the Working Group would serve as the External Review panel for the purpose of obtaining expert input on the value and timing of the research projects. This consisted of demonstrations in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory followed by presentations on the II&C research program in general as well as the five technology development areas. Following the meeting, the presentations were sent to each of the attendees so they could review them in more detail and refer to them in completing the feedback form. Follow-up activities were conducted with the attendees following the meeting to obtain the completed feedback forms. A total of 13 forms were returned. The feedback forms were reviewed by the pathway to compile the data and comments received, which are documented in the report. In all, the feedback provided by the External Review participants is taken to be a strong endorsement of the types of projects being conducted by the pathway, the value they hold for the nuclear plants, and the general timing of need. The feedback aligns well with the priorities, levels of efforts allocated for the research projects, and project schedules. The feedback also represents realistic observations on the practicality of some aspects of implementing these technologies. In some cases, the participants provided thoughtful challenges to certain assumptions in the formulation of the technologies or in deployment plans. These deserve further review and revision of plans if warranted

  14. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Pathway: FY 2016 External Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Kenneth David; Hallbert, Bruce Perry

    2016-01-01

    This report describes an External Review conducted by the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway to solicit feedback on the topics and results of the ongoing II&C research program. This review was held in conjunction with the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Digital I&C Working Group meeting that was held at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on August 9-10, 2016. Given the opportunity to visit INL and see the pathway research projects, NEI agreed that the Working Group would serve as the External Review panel for the purpose of obtaining expert input on the value and timing of the research projects. This consisted of demonstrations in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory followed by presentations on the II&C research program in general as well as the five technology development areas. Following the meeting, the presentations were sent to each of the attendees so they could review them in more detail and refer to them in completing the feedback form. Follow-up activities were conducted with the attendees following the meeting to obtain the completed feedback forms. A total of 13 forms were returned. The feedback forms were reviewed by the pathway to compile the data and comments received, which are documented in the report. In all, the feedback provided by the External Review participants is taken to be a strong endorsement of the types of projects being conducted by the pathway, the value they hold for the nuclear plants, and the general timing of need. The feedback aligns well with the priorities, levels of efforts allocated for the research projects, and project schedules. The feedback also represents realistic observations on the practicality of some aspects of implementing these technologies. In some cases, the participants provided thoughtful challenges to certain assumptions in the formulation of the technologies or in deployment plans. These deserve further review and revision of plans if warranted

  15. Reconstruction with distraction osteogenesis for juxta-articular nonunions with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Tamon; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Yamashiro, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Koji; Tomita, Kasuro

    2005-06-01

    Nonunions of a juxta-articular lesion with bone loss, which represent a challenging therapeutic problem, were treated using external fixation and distraction osteogenesis. Seven juxta-articular nonunions (five septic and two aseptic) were treated. The location of the nonunion was the distal femur in four patients, the proximal tibia in one patient, and the distal tibia in two patients. All of them were located within 5 cm from the affected joints. Preoperative limb shortening was present in six cases, averaging 2.9 cm (range, 1-7 cm). The reconstructive procedure consisted of refreshment of the nonunion site, deformity correction, stabilization by external fixation, and lengthening to eliminate leg length discrepancy or to fill the defect. Shortening-distraction was applied to six patients and bone transport to one patient for reconstruction. Intramedullary nailing to reduce the duration of external fixation was simultaneously performed in two cases. All the patients had at least 1 year of follow-up evaluation. Osseous union without angular deformity or leg length discrepancy greater than 1 cm was achieved in all patients. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.8 cm (range, 2.2-10.0 cm). The mean external fixation period was 219 days (range, 98-317 days), and the mean external fixation index was 34.4 days/cm (range, 24.5-47.6 days/cm). All patients reported excellent pain reduction. There were no recurrences of infection in five patients with prior history of osteomyelitis. The functional results were categorized as excellent in two, good in three, and fair in two. Despite the length of postoperative external fixation, distraction osteogenesis can be a valuable alternative for the treatment of juxta-articular nonunions.

  16. An external irradiation treatment planning system installed on a personal computer. 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Etso; Ogawa, Koichi; Mita, Kazumasa; Sekiguchi, Kozo; Wada, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Shyozo

    1987-01-01

    A compact and practical treatment planning system for external photon therapy has been developed for use on a desk-top personal computer. The system calculates the dose distributions of inhomogeneous density fields by using the CT-value of each pixel and displays isodose curves on the CRT superimposed on the gray scale CT image or on a hard-copy. Inhomogeneity correction is based on the TAR method where the path length from the calculation point to the surface is determined by summing up electron density derived from the CT-values of pixels on the path. Wedge filter correction is also available by using stored geometric data. The contour of patients is acquired by tracting the CT image on the light panel of the digitizer, or directly from the digital CT data. Though some critical parts of the programs are written in machine language, the system is mostly in BASIC and C languages. The minimum required hardware consists of a MS-DOS based personal computer, a color CRT display, an 8 inch floppy disk drive and a digitizer. They are generally available in Japan at reasonable cost. Tests were carried out in homogeneous and inhomogeneous density phantoms to evaluate the accuracy of the acquired dosage, and showed reasonable results compared with other commercially available treatment planning systems. The overall calculation time is satisfactory for multiple beam calculations. 5 refs.; 3 figs

  17. In-vivo (entrance) dose measurements in external beam radiotherapy with aqueous FBX dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, M.K.; Thakur, P.K.; Bansal, A.K.; Vidyasagar, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    FBX aqueous chemical dosimetry system has been found useful in radiotherapy owing to its low dose measuring capability. In the present work, entrance dose measurements in external beam radiotherapy on a telecobalt machine were carried out with the system on 100 patients. Treatments involving simple beam arrangement of open parallel-opposed beams in cranial and pelvic irradiations were selected for this study. In place of a spectrophotometer, a simple and inexpensive colorimeter was used for absorbance measurements. The purpose was to assess the efficacy of the FBX system for in-vivo dose measurements. The results obtained show that the average discrepancy between the measured and expected dose for both categories of patients was 0.2% (standard deviation 3.2%) with a maximum of +1 0.3%. There were 5.5% cases showing more than ± 5% discrepancy. Comparison of the results obtained with published work on entrance dose measurements, with diode detectors, shows that the inexpensive FBX system can be used for in-vivo (entrance) dose measurements for simple beam arrangements in radiotherapy and can thus serve as a useful QA tool. (author)

  18. Creating the environment for driver distraction: A thematic framework of sociotechnical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Katie J; Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L

    2018-04-01

    As modern society becomes more reliant on technology, its use within the vehicle is becoming a concern for road safety due to both portable and built-in devices offering sources of distraction. While the effects of distracting technologies are well documented, little is known about the causal factors that lead to the drivers' engagement with technological devices. The relevance of the sociotechnical system within which the behaviour occurs requires further research. This paper presents two experiments, the first aims to assess the drivers self-reported decision to engage with technological tasks while driving and their reasoning for doing so with respect to the wider sociotechnical system. This utilised a semi-structured interview method, conducted with 30 drivers to initiate a discussion on their likelihood of engaging with 22 different tasks across 7 different road types. Inductive thematic analysis provided a hierarchical thematic framework that detailed the self-reported causal factors that influence the drivers' use of technology whilst driving. The second experiment assessed the relevance of the hierarchical framework to a model of distraction that was established from within the literature on the drivers use of distracting technologies while driving. The findings provide validation for some relationships studied in the literature, as well as providing insights into relationships that require further study. The role of the sociotechnical system in the engagement of distractions while driving is highlighted, with the causal factors reported by drivers suggesting the importance of considering the wider system within which the behaviour is occurring and how it may be creating the conditions for distraction to occur. This supports previous claims made within the literature based model. Recommendations are proposed that encourage a movement away from individual focused countermeasures towards systemic actors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maxillary Tuberosity Reconstruction with Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ugurlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe bone loss due to pathology in the maxillary tuberosity region is a challenging problem both surgically and prosthetically. Large bone grafts have a poor survival rate due to the delicate bony architecture in this area and presence of the maxillary sinus. Our case presentation describes a new technique for reconstructing severe bony defect in the maxillary tuberosity with horizontal distraction osteogenesis in a 45-year-old man. A 4×6×3cm cyst was discovered in the left maxillary molar region and enucleated. Three months postoperatively, the area had a severe bone defect extending to the zygomatic buttress superiorly and hamular notch posteriorly. Three months later, a bone segment including the right upper second premolar was osteotomised and distracted horizontally. The bone segment was distracted 15 mm distally. After consolidation, implants were placed when the distractor was removed. A fixed denture was loaded over the implants after 3 months. Complete alveolar bone loss extending to the cranial base can be reconstructed with transport distraction osteogenesis. Distalisation of the alveolar bone segment adjacent to the bony defect is an easy method for reconstructing such severe defects.

  20. Experiences in Performing Posterior Calvarial Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kevin; Lloyd, Mark; Evans, Martin; White, Nicholas; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Rodrigues, Desiderio; Sharp, Melanie; Noons, Pete; Solanki, Guirish; Dover, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    The use of posterior calvarial distraction (PCD) for the management of craniosynostosis is well recognized. The advantages of using this technique include increased cranial volume, decreased intracranial pressure, relief of posterior fossa crowding, improved cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation at the cranio-cervical junction with cessation, and possible resolution of syrinx.The authors retrospectively review their first 50 patients who have undergone PCD under the senior author's care in our unit.The demographics, diagnoses, intraoperative approach with techniques in distractor placement and outcomes of each patient were obtained through an electronic craniofacial database and written patient records. Analysis of complication rates (bleeding, distraction problems, CSF leaks, and infection) was included.A total of 31 boys and 19 girls underwent the procedure between October 2006 and September 2015 with a median age was 17.7 months (range 4 months to 19 years). Of those 50 children, 34 of the cohort were proven to be syndromic by genetic testing.The median length of inpatient stay was 9.4 days (range 3-43 days). Average distraction distance was 24 mm.Complications including CSF leaks, bleeding, distractor problems, and severe complications (recorded in 3 patients) are discussed. Our overall complication rate was 50%.Favorable outcomes included resolution of Chiari, syrinx, and raised intracranial pressure in the majority of patients where distraction was successful.The authors recommend that PCD should be considered the primary treatment for increasing calvarial volume. The authors discuss our experiences and technical innovations over the past decade.

  1. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... (2) Prohibition on youth cell phone use while driving. The State statute must-- (a) Prohibit a driver... of texting or using a cell phone while driving; (2) for traffic signs that notify drivers about the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving...

  2. Mandibular Deformity Correction by Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Asaduzzaman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a biological process of new bone formation. It could be used as an alternative treatment method for the correction of mandibular hypoplastic deformity. Modern distraction osteogenesis evolved primarily from the work of Gavriel llizarov. DO has been first applied to craniofacial region since McCarthy et al. In this case report, the patient was 17 years old male with bird face deformity due to hypoplasia of mandible resulted from bilateral TMJ ankylosis due to the fracture of both condyle at the age of 4 years. Patient’s intraincisal opening was absent 1 year back. He underwent condylectomy in both sides to release the ankylosis and to increase intraincisal opening. His mandibular length was markedly short. To increase his mandibular antero-posterior length, mandibular body distraction was done in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department, BSMMU. Through this procedure length of the body of mandibule was increased by 10 mm, occlusion was edge to edge and his lower facial appearance increased markedly. Mandibular body distraction osteogenesis was considerably effective when performed in a hypoplastic mandible to facilitate post-operative functional and esthetic restoration. Long term follow-up is necessary to evaluate relapse and complications. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7061BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 103-106

  3. Rehabilitation of recurrent unicystic ameloblastoma using distraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method of providing additional bone and soft tissue for implant placement is becoming more common. This clinical report describes the use of distraction osteogenesis and fixed implant supported prosthesis to treat a postsurgical alveolar defect as a result of the resection of a unicystic ameloblastoma in the anterior ...

  4. Reward, Distraction, and the Overjustification Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Pittman, Thane S.

    1978-01-01

    This study tests two differing hypotheses: the competing response hypothesis, which states that both reward and non-reward distractions produce decreases in interest which weaken over repeated trials, and the attribution/overjustification hypothesis, which maintains that rewards produce a decrease in interest that does not weaken over trials.…

  5. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating Deviance Distraction and the Impact of the Modality of the To-Be-Ignored Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsja, Erik; Neely, Gregory; Ljungberg, Jessica K

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that deviance distraction is caused by unexpected sensory events in the to-be-ignored stimuli violating the cognitive system's predictions of incoming stimuli. The majority of research has used methods where the to-be-ignored expected (standards) and the unexpected (deviants) stimuli are presented within the same modality. Less is known about the behavioral impact of deviance distraction when the to-be-ignored stimuli are presented in different modalities (e.g., standard and deviants presented in different modalities). In three experiments using cross-modal oddball tasks with mixed-modality to-be-ignored stimuli, we examined the distractive role of unexpected auditory deviants presented in a continuous stream of expected standard vibrations. The results showed that deviance distraction seems to be dependent upon the to-be-ignored stimuli being presented within the same modality, and that the simplest omission of something expected; in this case, a standard vibration may be enough to capture attention and distract performance.

  7. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  8. The role of the external auditor in the regulation and supervision of the UK banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT The role of the external auditor in the supervisory process requires standards such as independence, objectivity and integrity to be achieved. Even though the regulator and external auditor perform similar functions, namely the verification of financial statements, they serve particular interests. The regulator works towards safeguarding financial stability and investor interests. On the other hand, the external auditor serves the private interests of the shareholders of a com...

  9. Internal-external stimulus competition in a system of interacting moving particles: Persuasion versus propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, N. C.; Revelli, J. A.; Sibona, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a general nonlinear analytical framework to study the effect of an external stimulus in the internal state of a population of moving particles. This novel scheme allows us to study a broad range of excitation transport phenomena. In particular, considering social systems, it gives insight of the spatial dynamics influence in the competition between propaganda (mass media) and convincement. By extending the framework presented by Terranova et al. [Europhys. Lett. 105, 30007 (2014), 10.1209/0295-5075/105/30007], we now allow changes in individual's opinions due to a reflection induced by mass media. The equations of the model could be solved numerically, and, for some special cases, it is possible to derive analytical solutions for the steady states. We implement computational simulations for different social and dynamical systems to check the accuracy of our scheme and to study a broader variety of scenarios. In particular, we compare the numerical outcome with the analytical results for two possible real cases, finding a good agreement. From the results, we observe that mass media dominates the opinion state in slow dynamics communities; whereas, for higher agent active speeds, the rate of interactions increases and the opinion state is determined by a competition between propaganda and persuasion. This difference suggests that kinetics can not be neglected in the study of transport of any excitation over a particle system.

  10. Adaptive tracking control of leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hanquan; Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Ma, Hongwen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the consensus problem for leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances is investigated. Brownian motions are used to describe exogenous disturbances. A distributed tracking controller based on Riccati inequalities with an adaptive law for adjusting coupling weights between neighbouring agents is designed for leader-following multi-agent systems under fixed and switching topologies. In traditional distributed static controllers, the coupling weights depend on the communication graph. However, coupling weights associated with the feedback gain matrix in our method are updated by state errors between neighbouring agents. We further present the stability analysis of leader-following multi-agent systems with stochastic disturbances under switching topology. Most traditional literature requires the graph to be connected all the time, while the communication graph is only assumed to be jointly connected in this paper. The design technique is based on Riccati inequalities and algebraic graph theory. Finally, simulations are given to show the validity of our method.

  11. Temperature increases on the external root surface during endodontic treatment using single file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkocak, I; Taşkan, M M; Gökt Rk, H; Aytac, F; Karaarslan, E Şirin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate increases in temperature on the external root surface during endodontic treatment with different rotary systems. Fifty human mandibular incisors with a single root canal were selected. All root canals were instrumented using a size 20 Hedstrom file, and the canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. The samples were randomly divided into the following three groups of 15 teeth: Group 1: The OneShape Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 2: The Reciproc Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 3: The WaveOne Endodontic File no.: 25. During the preparation, the temperature changes were measured in the middle third of the roots using a noncontact infrared thermometer. The temperature data were transferred from the thermometer to the computer and were observed graphically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance at a significance level of 0.05. The increases in temperature caused by the OneShape file system were lower than those of the other files (P file showed the highest temperature increases. However, there were no significant differences between the Reciproc and WaveOne files. The single file rotary systems used in this study may be recommended for clinical use.

  12. Patient choice and mobility in the UK health system: internal and external markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusheiko, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has been the body of the health care system in the United Kingdom (UK) for over 60 years and has sought to provide the population with a high quality service free of user charges for most services. The information age has seen the NHS rapidly transformed from a socialist, centrally planned and publicly provided system to a more market based system orientated towards patients as consumers. The forces of globalization have provided patients in the UK with greater choice in their health care provision, with NHS treatment now offered from any public or approved private provider and the possibility of treatment anywhere in the European Economic Area (EEA) or possibly further. The financial crisis, a large government deficit and austerity public spending policies have imposed a tight budget constraint on the NHS at a time of increasing demand for health care and population pressure. Hence, further rationing of care could imply that patients are incentivised to seek private treatment outside the constraints of the NHS, where the possibility of much greater choice exists in an increasingly globally competitive health care market. This chapter examines the evidence on the response of patients to the possibilities of increased choice and mobility within the internal NHS and external overseas health care markets. It also considers the relationships between patient mobility, health care provision and health policy. Patients are more mobile and willing to travel further to obtain better care outcomes and value for money, but are exposed to greater risk.

  13. Low-level multicounter {beta}/{gamma} systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsson, P [Iceland Univ. (Iceland). Science Inst.

    1997-03-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level {beta}/{gamma} multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  14. Low-level multicounter β/γ systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorsson, P.

    1997-01-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level β/γ multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  15. Gender differences in the content of cognitive distraction during sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, Marta; Nunnink, Sarah E

    2006-02-01

    This study compared 220 college men and 237 college women on two types of self-reported cognitive distraction during sex, performance- and appearance-based. Affect, psychological distress, sexual knowledge, attitudes, fantasies, experiences, body image, satisfaction, and sexual function were assessed with the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory and the Sexual History Form to determine associations with distraction. Between-gender analyses revealed that women reported higher levels of overall and appearance-based distraction than did men, but similar levels of performance-based distraction. Within-gender analyses revealed that women reported as much of one type of distraction as the other, while men reported more performance- than appearance-based distraction. In women, appearance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, psychological distress, and not being in a relationship, while performance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, psychological distress, and sexual dissatisfaction. In men, appearance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image, sexual dissatisfaction and not being in a relationship, while performance-based distraction was predicted by negative body image and sexual dissatisfaction. Investigating the content of cognitive distraction may be useful in understanding gender differences in sexual experience and in refining cognitive components of sex therapy.

  16. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  17. Development of a multi-detector and a systematic imaging system on the AGLAE external beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L.; Moignard, B.; Lemasson, Q.; Pacheco, C.; Walter, P.

    2014-01-01

    The New AGLAE external beamline provides analytical data for the understanding of the structure of archaeological and artistic objects, their composition, properties, and changes over time. One of the objectives of this project is to design and set up a new non-invasive acquisition system increasing the quality of the X-ray spectra and reducing the beam current on sensitive materials from work of art. To that end, the surface and the number of PIXE detectors have been increased to implement a cluster of SDD detectors. This can also provide the possibility to accomplish large and/or fast maps on artifacts with a scanning of the beam on the sample. During the mapping, a multi-parameter system saves each event from X-ray, gamma and particle detectors, simultaneously with the X and Y positions of the beam on the sample. To process the data, different softwares have been developed or updated. A first example on a decorated medieval shard highlights the perspectives of the technique

  18. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L.; Beck, L.; Walter, Ph.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 μm diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  19. Advantages of externally powered prosthesis with feedback system using pseudo-cineplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Seiji; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Taniguchi, Masashi; Park, Choong Sik; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Nakajima, Shigeyoshi; Koike, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Externally powered upper-limb prostheses are difficult to use because of the lack of sensory feedback. Neuroprostheses have recently been developed for people with upper-limb amputation but are complicated, expensive, and still developing. We therefore designed a simple system by combining pseudo-cineplasty with extended physiological proprioception to provide sensory feedback to the body. We penetrated the palmaris longus tendon percutaneously with a metal ring, similar to that used in body piercing, in a nondisabled subject as a pseudo-cineplasty. The tendon and ring were connected to the system, and a sensory feedback experiment was performed. We investigated the ability of the user to determine the size of an object grasped by the prosthetic hand without visual information. The subject could distinguish between large and small objects with 100% accuracy and between small, medium, and large objects with 80% accuracy. In pseudo-cineplasty, control and sensory feedback are natural because the prosthetic hand is controlled by muscle contraction. Tension transmitted from the prosthetic hand is sensed via muscle spindles and skin sensors. This technique allows only partial sensory feedback but appears to offer several advantages over other human-machine interfaces.

  20. Development of a multi-detector and a systematic imaging system on the AGLAE external beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, L., E-mail: laurent.pichon@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Moignard, B.; Lemasson, Q.; Pacheco, C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Walter, P. [Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS/Ministère de la Culture/UPMC, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS-UMR 8220, Laboratoire d’archéologie moléculaire et structurale, LAMS, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-01-01

    The New AGLAE external beamline provides analytical data for the understanding of the structure of archaeological and artistic objects, their composition, properties, and changes over time. One of the objectives of this project is to design and set up a new non-invasive acquisition system increasing the quality of the X-ray spectra and reducing the beam current on sensitive materials from work of art. To that end, the surface and the number of PIXE detectors have been increased to implement a cluster of SDD detectors. This can also provide the possibility to accomplish large and/or fast maps on artifacts with a scanning of the beam on the sample. During the mapping, a multi-parameter system saves each event from X-ray, gamma and particle detectors, simultaneously with the X and Y positions of the beam on the sample. To process the data, different softwares have been developed or updated. A first example on a decorated medieval shard highlights the perspectives of the technique.

  1. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction in the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Dai, Jiewen; Si, Jiawen; Zhang, Jianfei; Wang, Minjiao; Shen, Steve Guofang; Yu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) is an effective surgical procedure in the treatment of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate. Its unique advantage of preserving velopharyngeal function makes this procedure widely applied. In this study, the application of AMSD was described and its long-term stability was explored. Eight patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP were included in this study. They were treated with AMSD using rigid external distraction (RED) device. Cephalometric analysis was performed twice at three time points for evaluation: before surgery (T1), after distraction (T2), and 2 years after treatment (T3). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the differences statistically. All the distractions completed smoothly, and maxilla was distracted efficiently. The value of SNA, NA-FH, Ptm-A, U1-PP, overjet and PP (ANS-PNS) increased significantly after the AMSD procedure (P 0.05). Changes of palatopharyngeal depth and soft palatal length were insignificant. AMSD with RED device provided an effective way to correct maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP, extended the palatal and arch length, avoided damage on velopharyngeal closure function and reduced the relapse rate. It is a promising and valuable technique in this potentially complicated procedure.

  2. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction for correction of maxillary hypoplasia and dental crowding in cleft palate patients: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-X; Wang, X; Li, Z-L; Yi, B; Liang, C; Jia, Y-L; Zou, B-S

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) to correct maxillary hypoplasia and severe dental crowding in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients, 7 patients (average age 16.4 years) with maxillary hypoplasia, shortened maxillary dental arch length and severe anterior dental crowding secondary to CLP were selected for this study. After anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy, 3 patients were treated using bilateral internal distraction devices, and 4 patients were treated using rigid external distraction devices. Photographs and radiographs were taken to review the improvement in facial profile and occlusion after distraction. An average 10.25 mm anterior maxillary advancement was obtained in all patients after 10-23 days of distraction and 9-16 weeks of consolidation. The sella-nasion-point A (SNA) angle increased from 69.5 degrees to 79.6 degrees. Midface convexity was greatly improved and velopharyngeal competence was preserved. The maxillary dental arch length was greatly increased by 10.1 mm (P<0.01). Dental crowding and malocclusion were corrected by orthodontic treatment. These results show that AMSD can effectively correct the hypoplastic maxilla and severe dental crowding associated with CLP by increasing the midface convexity and dental arch length while preserving velopharyngeal function, and dental crowding can be corrected without requiring tooth extraction.

  3. Mitigating the effects of in-vehicle distractions through use of the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Daryl L; Jamson, Samantha L; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2013-01-01

    Modern driving involves frequent and potentially detrimental interactions with distracting in-vehicle tasks. Distraction has been shown to slow brake reaction time and decrease lateral and longitudinal vehicle control. It is likely that these negative effects will become more prevalent in the future as advances are made in the functionality, availability, and number of in-vehicle systems. This paper addresses this problem by considering ways to manage in-vehicle task presentation to mitigate their distracting effects. A driving simulator experiment using 48 participants was performed to investigate the existence of the Psychological Refractory Period in the driving context and its effect on braking performance. Drivers were exposed to lead vehicle braking events in isolation (single-task) and with a preceding surrogate in-vehicle task (dual-task). In dual-task scenarios, the time interval between the in-vehicle and braking tasks was manipulated. Brake reaction time increased when drivers were distracted. The in-vehicle task interfered with the performance of the braking task in a manner that was dependent on the interval between the two tasks, with slower reactions following a shorter inter-task interval. This is the Psychological Refractory Period effect. These results have implications for driver safety during in-vehicle distraction. The findings are used to develop recommendations regarding the timing of in-vehicle task presentation so as to reduce their potentially damaging effects on braking performance. In future, these guidelines could be incorporated into a driver workload management system to minimise the opportunity for a driver to be distracted from the ongoing driving task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and non-GIS methods to assess the external validity of samples postcollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Esther; Good, Margaret; McGrath, Guy; More, Simon J

    2009-09-01

    External validity is fundamental to veterinary diagnostic investigation, reflecting the accuracy with which sample results can be extrapolated to a broader population of interest. Probability sampling methods are routinely used during the collection of samples from populations, specifically to maximize external validity. Nonprobability sampling (e.g., of blood samples collected as part of routine surveillance programs or laboratory submissions) may provide useful data for further posthoc epidemiological analysis, adding value to the collection and submission of samples. As the sample has already been submitted, the analyst or investigator does not have any control over the sampling methodology, and hence external validity as routine probability sampling methods may not have been employed. The current study describes several Geographic Information System (GIS) and non-GIS methods, applied posthoc, to assess the external validity of samples collected using both probability and nonprobability sampling methods. These methods could equally be employed for inspecting other datasets. Mapping was conducted using ArcView 9.1. Based on this posthoc assessment, results from the random field sample could provide an externally valid, albeit relatively imprecise, estimate of national disease prevalence, of disease prevalence in 3 of the 4 provinces (all but Ulster, in the north and northwest, where sample size was small), and in beef and dairy herds. This study provides practical methods for examining the external validity of samples postcollection.

  5. The internal and external customer focused process improvement and the performance analysis studies in healthcare systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piril Tekin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main contribution of this paper is to generate an optimum solution for capacity planning and appointment scheduling issues, which are frequently encountered in clinical flows with various route and treatment periods at dental hospitals. Design/methodology/approach: It is essential to define the system well in order to ensure that the working staff and patients use their time very efficiently and that the process flows continuously. By having examined a sample healthcare system through the help of a study addressed in such context, studies on process improvement in line with the dissatisfactions of the working staff and patients have been carried out. Within the scope of the study, the operation of 7 Departments in a dental hospital undergoing a treatment process have been reviewed and examined. The problems encountered as result of the observations made are discussed in detail, and formerly and recently designed system performance analyses are conducted by having performed the respective process improvement studies. The relevant samplings of this study are modeled via the Arena Simulation Program. The data of the previous four months is used in the parameters, which are used through the modellings. The system data are entered by taking into account seasonal characteristics of the data. Findings: The analyses are made as a consequence of such study that has been addressed, it is established that the efficiency of the internal customers of the hospital increases substantially, and that the waiting durations of the dental patients decrease and in turn, the external customer satisfaction increases drastically. Research limitations/implications: Under the scope of the present study, 7 different treatment processes are analysed in a dental hospital in Cukurova Region with a significant patient potential. The treatment clinics present in the hospital are radiology, periodontology, surgery, treatment, orthodontics and prosthesis. These

  6. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  7. Wavelet Packet Transform Based Driver Distraction Level Classification Using EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Kadhim Wali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We classify the driver distraction level (neutral, low, medium, and high based on different wavelets and classifiers using wireless electroencephalogram (EEG signals. 50 subjects were used for data collection using 14 electrodes. We considered for this research 4 distraction stimuli such as Global Position Systems (GPS, music player, short message service (SMS, and mental tasks. Deriving the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands theta, alpha, and beta of EEG signals was based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT and FFT. Comparing the results of three different classifiers (subtractive fuzzy clustering probabilistic neural network, -nearest neighbor was based on spectral centroid, and power spectral features extracted by different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5. The results of this study indicate that the best average accuracy achieved by subtractive fuzzy inference system classifier is 79.21% based on power spectral density feature extracted by sym8 wavelet which gave a good class discrimination under ANOVA test.

  8. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  9. Message survival and decision dynamics in a class of reactive complex systems subject to external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lucatero, C.; Schaum, A.; Alarcon Ramos, L.; Bernal-Jaquez, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the dynamics of decisions in complex networks subject to external fields are studied within a Markov process framework using nonlinear dynamical systems theory. A mathematical discrete-time model is derived using a set of basic assumptions regarding the convincement mechanisms associated with two competing opinions. The model is analyzed with respect to the multiplicity of critical points and the stability of extinction states. Sufficient conditions for extinction are derived in terms of the convincement probabilities and the maximum eigenvalues of the associated connectivity matrices. The influences of exogenous (e.g., mass media-based) effects on decision behavior are analyzed qualitatively. The current analysis predicts: (i) the presence of fixed-point multiplicity (with a maximum number of four different fixed points), multi-stability, and sensitivity with respect to the process parameters; and (ii) the bounded but significant impact of exogenous perturbations on the decision behavior. These predictions were verified using a set of numerical simulations based on a scale-free network topology.

  10. Experimental Study on Hygrothermal Deformation of External Thermal Insulation Cladding Systems with Glazed Hollow Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houren Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the thermal and strain behavior of external thermal insulation cladding systems (ETICS with Glazed Hollow Beads (GHB thermal insulation mortar under hygrothermal cycles weather test in order to measure its durability under extreme weather (i.e., sunlight and rain. Thermometers and strain gauges are placed into different wall layers to gather thermal and strain data and another instrument measures the crack dimensions after every 4 cycles. The results showed that the finishing coat shrank at early stage (elastic deformation and then the finishing coat tends to expand and become damaged at later stage (plastic deformation. The deformation of insulation layer is similar to that of the finishing coat but its variation amplitude is smaller. Deformation of substrate expanded with heat and contracted with cold due to the small temperature variation. The length and width of cracks on the finishing coat grew as the experiment progressed but with a decreasing growth rate and the cracks stopped growing around 70 cycles.

  11. Motion-Base Simulator Evaluation of an Aircraft Using an External Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, J. J.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.; Harrison, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Twelve air transport-rated pilots participated as subjects in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of eXternal Vision Systems (XVS) as enabling technologies for future supersonic aircraft without forward facing windows. Three head-up flight display concepts were evaluated -a monochromatic, collimated Head-up Display (HUD) and a color, non-collimated XVS display with a field-of-view (FOV) equal to and also, one significantly larger than the collimated HUD. Approach, landing, departure, and surface operations were conducted. Additionally, the apparent angle-of-attack (AOA) was varied (high/low) to investigate the vertical field-of-view display requirements and peripheral, side window visibility was experimentally varied. The data showed that lateral approach tracking performance and lateral landing position were excellent regardless of AOA, display FOV, display collimation or whether peripheral cues were present. However, the data showed glide slope approach tracking appears to be affected by display size (i.e., FOV) and collimation. The monochrome, collimated HUD and color, uncollimated XVS with Full FOV display had (statistically equivalent) glide path performance improvements over the XVS with HUD FOV display. Approach path performance results indicated that collimation may not be a requirement for an XVS display if the XVS display is large enough and employs color. Subjective assessments of mental workload and situation awareness also indicated that an uncollimated XVS display may be feasible. Motion cueing appears to have improved localizer tracking and touchdown sink rate across all displays.

  12. Insulin compatibility with polymer materials used in external pump infusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melberg, S G; Havelund, S; Villumsen, J; Brange, J

    1988-04-01

    In a study designed to mimic actual user conditions for external insulin pump infusion, the insulin quality after passage through the infusion set was assessed by various analytical methods, including high performance liquid chromatography. The two infusion sets tested consisted of, firstly, a polyvinylchloride/rubber syringe and a polyvinylchloride catheter sterilized by gamma irradiation and, secondly, a polyethylene/polypropylene syringe connected to a polyethylene catheter and sterilized by ethylene oxide. The insulin solution delivered through the PVC infusion set showed a reduction of preservative to less than 30% of the initial content and increased formation of chemical transformation products of insulin varying from twice the reference level during the first day to more than three times on the third day. By contrast, the polyethylene/polypropylene infusion system showed only a minor decrease in preservative content and no increase in chemical transformation. These effects were observed irrespective of the brand of insulin and were not affected by increase of the zinc content of the insulin solution. Investigation of the influence of the sterilization methods performed on polyvinylchloride and polyethylene catheters revealed that gamma irradiated polyvinylchloride catheters were markedly harmful to the insulin solution, whereas ethylene oxide sterilization did not influence the chemical stability of insulin.

  13. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: A report on 5 limbs in 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Daisuke; Suzue, Naoto; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Radioulnar length discrepancy causes pain and decreases function of the wrist, forearm, and elbow. Limb lengthening, which has been used in the treatment of various deformities of the forearm, is necessary to restore balance between the ulna and radius. We treated 5 limbs in 3 patients (2 boys, 1 girl; mean age 9.3 years old) with radioulnar length discrepancy by distraction osteogenesis of either the ulna or radius using external fixators. We dissected the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius in 3 limbs in 2 cases and did not do so in 2 limbs of 1 case. These cases include 2 cases with hereditary multiple exostoses, and 1 case with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. The results were investigated and evaluated in this study, using appropriate clinical and radiographic parameters, noting the state of the interosseous membrane, which has an important role in forearm stability. The mean fixation period was 113 days. The mean distraction distance was 22.8 mm. The mean follow-up period was 637.7 days. The mean ulnar shortening and radial articular angle respectively improved from 7.4 mm and 30.2° preoperatively to -0.1 mm and 34.8° postoperatively. Balance between the ulna and radius was restored, and the results showed significant improvements in range of motion of the joints. However, 2 unintended radial head subluxations occurred in 2 limbs without dissection of the interosseous membrane. In addition, a keloid remained in 1 limb due to pin site infection. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was useful in our cases. It is important to recognize the function of the interosseous membrane when lengthening is performed by osteotomy of the proximal ulna by gradual distraction with an external fixator.

  14. Accounting for external costs in a study of a Swedish district-heating system - An assessment of environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlen, E.; Ahlgren, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    Sweden has historically had strict emission control by implementation of economic policy instruments with the aim of internalising the external costs of air pollution. This study aims to evaluate how well current Swedish policy instruments reflect the environmental costs associated with heat generation in several district-heating (DH) plants in the DH system of Goeteborg. Furthermore, it aims to simulate and evaluate the operation of the DH system based on its social cost-effectiveness which takes into account the DH system's private and external costs (non-internalised environmental costs). The study shows that the economic policy instruments do not fully internalise all external costs whereas for certain technologies, the costs in terms of taxes, emission permits, environmental fees, etc. are higher than the environmental costs caused by the pollutants, given the environmental cost estimates used in the study. The simulation results show that the deviating internalisation of external costs affects the economic ranking of the different plants within the studied DH system. The estimated loss in social-cost effectiveness of the operation of the DH system of Goeteborg is noticable but relatively small if compared to the variable heat generation costs for most of the studied DH plants.

  15. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Distracting laying hens with a 'toy'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of a commercially available plastic device, intended to distract laying hens, was investigated and found not to have the claimed effect. ... table for the white birds, 15 week egg production. Source of variation df2. SS3. MS4. F ratio. SLs. East. Blocks. 35. 67627.61. 1932.22. Treatments. I. 1233.39. 1233.39. 0.7104. 0.4050.

  17. The neurobiology of focus and distraction: The case for incorporating mindfulness into leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapel, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Increasingly health leaders are experiencing greater demands and pressures, which require the need for better focus while limiting unwarranted distractions. This article offers a neurobiological explanation of how the brain focuses and becomes distracted, in order to help health leaders gain insight into their own effectiveness. Two main neural circuits are contrasted: the mind-wandering default mode circuit and the attentional central executive system. These two systems act in an antagonistic pairing, where the degree of toggling between systems is associated with the degree a person can sustain focus and filter out unwarranted distractions. Excessive multitasking appears to compromise the neural switch of these two systems, thereby diminishing our focus and concentration. In contrast, mindfulness practice is shown to have the opposite effect by enhancing the neural switch, thereby enhancing leadership focus that can lead to greater flexibility, foresight, regulation, and creativity. To conclude, leaders who are excessively distracted, such as with multitasking, may be compromising cognitive brain functioning, while engaging in mindfulness may replenish the brain and thereby enhance leaders' ability to sustain focus and tap into higher cognitive functioning.

  18. Incorporating driver distraction in car-following models : Applying the TCI to the IDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, R.G.; van Arem, B.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    ITS can play a significant role in the improvement of traffic flow, traffic safety and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems may lead to adaptation effects in longitudinal driving behavior following driver distraction. It was however not yet

  19. A Model of Distraction in an Audio-on-Audio Interference Situation with Music Program Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, J.; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.

    2015-01-01

    listener can be viewed as having a personal sound zone system. In order to evaluate and optimize such situations in a perceptually relevant manner, the authors created a predictive model using the features that contribute to the distraction from unwanted sounds. Feature extraction was motivated...

  20. Assisting Driver Sovereignty : A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gijssel, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the

  1. Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Film Coated Silver Nanorods: An Effective Carrier System for Externally Activated Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Gokul; Sharma, Varsha; Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticle anisotropy offers unique functions and features in comparison with spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and makes anisotropic nanoparticles (ANPs) promising candidates in applications like drug delivery, imaging, biosensing and theranostics. Presence of surface active groups (e.g. amine, and carboxylate groups) on their surface provides binding sites for ligands or other biomolecules, and hence, this could be targeted for specific part or cells in our body. In the quest of such surface modification, functionalization of ANPs along Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PE) reduces cellular toxicity and promotes easy encapsulation of drugs. In this work, we report the silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesis by adsorbate directed synthetic approach using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The formed ANPs is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy revealing the shaping of AgNRs of 3-16 nm aspect ratio with some presence of triangles. These NRs were further coated with bio polymers of chitosan (CH) and dextran sulphate (DS) through LbL approach and used for encapsulation of water soluble anti-bacterial drugs like ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CFH). The encapsulation of drugs and profiles of drug release were investigated and compared to that of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The added advantages of the proposed drug delivery system (DDS) can be externally activated to release the loaded drug and used as contrast agents for biological imaging under exposure to NIR light. Such system shows unique and attractive characteristics required for drug delivery and bioimaging thus offering the scope for further development as theranostic material.

  2. Evolution of star systems supplied by external stars: a model for Galaxy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuchaev, V.I.; Ozernoj, L.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1985-01-01

    Extended rarefied environments around the core of a non-isothermic galaxy nucleus can supply the core by both energies and masses of external stars due to relaxation mechanisms. These factors can influence considerably the secular evolution of the core when competing with usual star evaporation from it. Conditions are found under which external environments influence the core evolution much more than star evaporation. This results in expansion of the core instead of its collapse

  3. Long-term stability of intra-oral maxillary distraction in unilateral cleft lip and palate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzatoğlu, Sirin; Küçükkeleş, Nazan; Güzel, Zeki

    2013-11-01

    This case report presents short and long-term treatment results of a unilateral cleft lip and palate patient treated with a modified intra-oral tooth-bone borne distraction appliance. The chief complaints of a 16 year-old, unilateral cleft lip and palate patient were poor facial aesthetics, crowding and a fistula. Severe maxillary retrognathism was treated via distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla and performed using an intra-oral tooth-bone borne appliance. Treatment continued to completion with a multibracket system. At an eight-year review following the distraction procedure, the short and long-term results were determined cephalometrically. Following the distraction, A-point advanced 7 mm, 2 mm of which relapsed during fixed appliance treatment. At the end of the active treatment, the patient's skeletal and dental Class III relationship improved to Class I, which was preserved at the long-term review. The profile was markedly improved by the distraction osteogenesis. In cases of severe maxillary retrognathism as a result of a cleft lip and palate, maxillary distraction osteogenesis provides a viable alternative to orthognathic surgery.

  4. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Intervention to Relieve Pain and Distress During Medical Procedures: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indovina, Paola; Barone, Daniela; Gallo, Luigi; Chirico, Andrea; De Pietro, Giuseppe; Antonio, Giordano

    2018-02-26

    This review aims to provide a framework for evaluating the utility of virtual reality (VR) as a distraction intervention to alleviate pain and distress during medical procedures. We firstly describe the theoretical bases underlying the VR analgesic and anxiolytic effects and define the main factors contributing to its efficacy, which largely emerged from studies on healthy volunteers. Then, we provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical trials using VR distraction during different medical procedures, such as burn injury treatments, chemotherapy, surgery, dental treatment, and other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A broad literature search was performed using as main terms "virtual reality", "distraction" and "pain". No date limit was applied and all the retrieved studies on immersive VR distraction during medical procedures were selected. VR has proven to be effective in reducing procedural pain, as almost invariably observed even in patients subjected to extremely painful procedures, such as patients with burn injuries undergoing wound care and physical therapy. Moreover, VR seemed to decrease cancer-related symptoms in different settings, including during chemotherapy. Only mild and infrequent side effects were observed. Despite these promising results, future long-term randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and evaluating not only self-report measures but also physiological variables are needed. Further studies are also required both to establish predictive factors to select patients who can benefit from VR distraction and to design hardware/software systems tailored to the specific needs of different patients and able to provide the greatest distraction at the lowest cost.

  5. Policy Reforms, Trojan Horses, and Imaginary Friends: The Role of External Stakeholders in Internal Quality Assurance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria João; Teixeira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The governance of higher education has been changing across Europe, most notably in response to the reform agenda that has been pervading many higher education systems. This wave of reforms has given enhanced visibility to external stakeholders, which has been often received with contrasting views. Some regarded it as a factor that would undermine…

  6. External quality assurance system for antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin in Europe (ARBAO-II), 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fo Wong, Lo D.M.A.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Aarestrup, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Initiated in 2003 by the European Union, ARBAO-II aims to establish a monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among the veterinary laboratories in all European countries based on validated methodologies. This includes an external quality control system for the most important bacterial pathogens.

  7. Safety climate and the distracted driving experiences of truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    For truck drivers, distracted driving is a workplace behavior that increases occupational injury risk. We propose safety climate as an appropriate lens through which researchers can examine occupational distracted driving. Using a mixed methods study design, we surveyed truck drivers using the Safety Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) complemented by semi-structured interviews of experts on distracted driving and truck safety. Safety climate was assessed by using the entire SCQ as an overall climate score, followed by factor analysis that identified the following safety climate factors: Communications and Procedures; Management Commitment; and Work Pressure. In multivariate regression, the overall safety climate scale was associated with having ever experienced a crash and/or distraction-involved swerving. Interview participants described how these SCQ constructs could affect occupational distracted driving. To reduce distraction-related crashes in their organizations, management can adhere to safe policies and procedures, invest in engineering controls, and develop safer communication procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Visual Distraction: An Altered Aiming Spatial Response in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Healthy individuals demonstrate leftward bias on visuospatial tasks such as line bisection, which has been attributed to right brain dominance. We investigated whether this asymmetry occurred in patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer type (pAD which is associated with neurodegenerative changes affecting temporoparietal regions. Methods: Subjects with pAD and matched controls performed a line bisection task in near and far space under conditions of no distraction, left-sided visual distraction and right-sided visual distraction. Results: Participants with pAD manifested different motor-preparatory ‘aiming’ spatial bias than matched controls. There were significantly greater rightward ‘aiming’ motor-intentional errors both without distraction and with right-sided distraction. Conclusion: ‘Aiming’ motor-preparatory brain activity may be induced by distraction in pAD subjects as compared to typical visual-motor function in controls.

  9. BDD-based reliability evaluation of phased-mission systems with internal/external common-cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Liudong; Levitin, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Phased-mission systems (PMS) are systems in which multiple non-overlapping phases of operations (or tasks) are accomplished in sequence for a successful mission. Examples of PMS abound in applications such as aerospace, nuclear power, and airborne weapon systems. Reliability analysis of a PMS must consider statistical dependence across different phases as well as dynamics in system configuration, failure criteria, and component behavior. This paper proposes a binary decision diagrams (BDD) based method for the reliability evaluation of non-repairable binary-state PMS with common-cause failures (CCF). CCF are simultaneous failure of multiple system elements, which can be caused by some external factors (e.g., lightning strikes, sudden changes in environment) or by propagated failures originating from some elements within the system. Both the external and internal CCF is considered in this paper. The proposed method is combinatorial, exact, and is applicable to PMS with arbitrary system structures and component failure distributions. An example with different CCF scenarios is analyzed to illustrate the application and advantages of the proposed method. -- Highlights: ► Non-repairable phased-mission systems with common-cause failures are analyzed. ► Common-cause failures caused by internal or external factors are considered. ► A combinatorial algorithm based on binary decision diagrams is suggested

  10. Characteristics of a multisensor system for non invasive glucose monitoring with external validation and prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduff, Andreas; Mueller, Martin; Megej, Alexander; Dewarrat, Francois; Suri, Roland E; Klisic, Jelena; Donath, Marc; Zakharov, Pavel; Schaub, Dominik; Stahel, Werner A; Talary, Mark S

    2011-05-15

    The Multisensor Glucose Monitoring System (MGMS) features non invasive sensors for dielectric characterisation of the skin and underlying tissue in a wide frequency range (1 kHz-100 MHz, 1 and 2 GHz) as well as optical characterisation. In this paper we describe the results of using an MGMS in a miniaturised housing with fully integrated sensors and battery. Six patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus (age 44±16 y; BMI 24.1±1.3 kg/m(2), duration of diabetes 27±12 y; HbA1c 7.3±1.0%) wore a single Multisensor at the upper arm position and performed a total of 45 in-clinic study days with 7 study days per patient on average (min. 5 and max. 10). Glucose changes were induced either orally or by i.v. glucose administration and the blood glucose was measured routinely. Several prospective data evaluation routines were applied to evaluate the data. The results are shown using one of the restrictive data evaluation routines, where measurements from the first 22 study days were used to train a linear regression model. The global model was then prospectively applied to the data of the remaining 23 study days to allow for an external validation of glucose prediction. The model application yielded a Mean Absolute Relative Difference of 40.8%, a Mean Absolute Difference of 51.9 mg dL(-1), and a correlation of 0.84 on average per study day. The Clarke error grid analyses showed 89.0% in A+B, 4.5% in C, 4.6% in D and 1.9% in the E region. Prospective application of a global, purely statistical model, demonstrates that glucose variations can be tracked non invasively by the MGMS in most cases under these conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational external irradiation according to the control system data for the period 1984-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadzhov, A.; Velikov, V.

    1991-01-01

    The dose load to subjects working with radiation sources in Bulgaria was analysed on the basis of data obtained from the Centralized System for Individual Dosimetric Control. Personnel film- and thermoluminenscent dosimetry had been used for monitoring of about 8000 persons including 66% medical personnel (54% of them practicians, 12% - researchers), 28% industrial personnel, 6% - working in the science/education sphere. The external irradiation is prevailing. The average annual equivalent doses (AAED) by branches were: medicine 0.6 - 0.9 mSv/a, industry 1.3 - 3.1 mSCv/a, science/education 1.0 - 1.2 mSv/a. The most badly loaded contingent (≤ 5 mSv/a) were the gamma-defectoscopists, which represent one third of the group of industrial workers. The irradiation levels in X-ray and radioisotope diagnosis are low. Similar are also the conclusions derived from the comparison of the weighted average annual equivalent doses (WAAED): medicine 0.85 mSv/a; industry 2.3 mSv/a; science/education 1.1 mSv/a. Higher than the average one for respective areas is the irradiation in gamma-defectoscopy, radiotherapy and services for electromedical equipment. The WAAED for the contingent in this study was 1.3 mSv/a, and 95% of AAED received were lower than 5 mSv/a. The low probability of irradiation with doses higher than 50 mSv/a in medicine and industry was established. 2 tabs., 2 figs., 6 refs

  12. Optical eye tracking system for real-time noninvasive tumor localization in external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Riccardo; Fassi, Aurora; Fattori, Giovanni; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Tagaste, Barbara; Riboldi, Marco; Ciocca, Mario; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido

    2015-05-01

    External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by two calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring during ocular radiotherapy treatments. The

  13. Optical eye tracking system for real-time noninvasive tumor localization in external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Via, Riccardo; Fassi, Aurora; Fattori, Giovanni; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Tagaste, Barbara; Ciocca, Mario; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Methods: Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by two calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Results: Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. Conclusions: A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring

  14. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurov, B.P. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA - Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  15. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  16. Alcohol and distraction interact to impair driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol+divided attention; placebo; and placebo+divided attention. As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  18. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis using Le Fort I osteotomy without intraoperative down-fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, K; Mitsugi, M; Takahashi, T

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present a technique for maxillary distraction osteogenesis using Le Fort I osteotomy without down-fracture. Six cleft-related patients suffering from severe midfacial deficiency were treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. The RED II system was chosen as the extraoral device and the Leipzig retention plate system to anchor the maxillary segment. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis was successful in all cases. Cephalometric and clinical evaluation after an average follow-up period of 1 year showed stable results with respect to skeletal and dental relationships. The SNA angle increased from 72.3 degrees to 81.4 degrees and the ANB angle increased by 11.0 degrees immediately after removing the distraction device. After 1 year, the sagittal bone gain remained and the SNA angle had decreased by 0.8 degrees . This technique seems to minimize the risk of the surgical procedure and shorten the operation time. It may become an alternative method for the treatment of patients with severe midfacial hypoplasia.

  19. Dangerous intersections? A review of studies of fatigue and distraction in the automated vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gerald; Neubauer, Catherine; Saxby, Dyani J; Wohleber, Ryan W; Lin, Jinchao

    2018-04-10

    The impacts of fatigue on the vehicle driver may change with technological advancements including automation and the increasing prevalence of potentially distracting in-car systems. This article reviews the authors' simulation studies of how fatigue, automation, and distraction may intersect as threats to safety. Distinguishing between states of active and passive fatigue supports understanding of fatigue and the development of countermeasures. Active fatigue is a stress-like state driven by overload of cognitive capabilities. Passive fatigue is produced by underload and monotony, and is associated with loss of task engagement and alertness. Our studies show that automated driving reliably elicits subjective symptoms of passive fatigue and also loss of alertness that persists following manual takeover. Passive fatigue also impairs attention and automation use in operators of Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs). Use of in-vehicle media has been proposed as a countermeasure to fatigue, but such media may also be distracting. Studies tested whether various forms of phone-based media interacted with automation-induced fatigue, but effects were complex and dependent on task configuration. Selection of fatigue countermeasures should be guided by an understanding of the form of fatigue confronting the operator. System design, regulation of level of automation, managing distraction, and selection of fatigue-resilient personnel are all possible interventions for passive fatigue, but careful evaluation of interventions is necessary prior to deployment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. External validation of the NOBLADS score, a risk scoring system for severe acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Aoki

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the generalizability of NOBLADS, a severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB prediction model which we had previously derived when working at a different institution, using an external validation cohort. NOBLADS comprises the following factors: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, no diarrhea, no abdominal tenderness, blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg, antiplatelet drug use, albumin < 3.0 g/dL, disease score ≥ 2, and syncope.We retrospectively analyzed 511 patients emergently hospitalized for acute LGIB at the University of Tokyo Hospital, from January 2009 to August 2016. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs-AUCs for severe bleeding (continuous and/or recurrent bleeding were compared between the original derivation cohort and the external validation cohort.Severe LGIB occurred in 44% of patients. Several clinical factors were significantly different between the external and derivation cohorts (p < 0.05, including background, laboratory data, NOBLADS scores, and diagnosis. The NOBLADS score predicted the severity of LGIB with an AUC value of 0.74 in the external validation cohort and one of 0.77 in the derivation cohort. In the external validation cohort, the score predicted the risk for blood transfusion need (AUC, 0.71, but was not adequate for predicting intervention need (AUC, 0.54. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in patients with a score ≥ 5 than in those with a score < 5 (AUC, 0.83.Although the external validation cohort clinically differed from the derivation cohort in many ways, we confirmed the moderately high generalizability of NOBLADS, a clinical risk score for severe LGIB. Appropriate triage using this score may support early decision-making in various hospitals.

  1. Smartphones: From Distraction to Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchilon Ben-Av, Mercedes; Ben-Av, Radel

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is an explosive growth of smartphone availability. In this work, we studied how mobile and Internet-based Student Response System improves the learning process. We used a free software application (Socrative©) to create a set of questions that can be deployed during the class. It was used in four different courses in three…

  2. External validation of scoring systems in risk stratification of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchu, Anna Cherian; Mohsina, Subair; Sureshkumar, Sathasivam; Mahalakshmy, T; Kate, Vikram

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to externally validate the four commonly used scoring systems in the risk stratification of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB). Patients of UGIB who underwent endoscopy within 24 h of presentation were stratified prospectively using the pre-endoscopy Rockall score (PRS) >0, complete Rockall score (CRS) >2, Glasgow Blatchford bleeding scores (GBS) >3, and modified GBS (m-GBS) >3 scores. Patients were followed up to 30 days. Prognostic accuracy of the scores was done by comparing areas under curve (AUC) in terms of overall risk stratification, re-bleeding, mortality, need for intervention, and length of hospitalization. One hundred and seventy-five patients were studied. All four scores performed better in the overall risk stratification on AUC [PRS = 0.566 (CI: 0.481-0.651; p-0.043)/CRS = 0.712 (CI: 0.634-0.790); p0.001); m-GBS = 0.802 (CI: 0.734-0.871; pbleed [AUC-0.679 (CI: 0.579-0.780; p = 0.003)]. All the scoring systems except PRS were found to be significantly better in detecting 30-day mortality with a high AUC (CRS = 0.798; p-0.042)/GBS = 0.833; p-0.023); m-GBS = 0.816; p-0.031). All four scores demonstrated significant accuracy in the risk stratification of non-variceal patients; however, only GBS and m-GBS were significant in variceal etiology. Higher cutoff scores achieved better sensitivity/specificity [RS > 0 (50/60.8), CRS > 1 (87.5/50.6), GBS > 7 (88.5/63.3), m-GBS > 7(82.3/72.6)] in the risk stratification. GBS and m-GBS appear to be more valid in risk stratification of UGIB patients in this region. Higher cutoff values achieved better predictive accuracy.

  3. The Effect of Altering the Mechanical Loading Environment on the Expression of Bone Regenerating Molecules in Cases of Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M Alzahrani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a surgical technique where gradual and controlled separation of two bony fragments following an osteotomy leads to the induction of new bone formation in the distracted gap. DO is used for limb lengthening, correction of bony deformities and the replacement of bone loss secondary to infection, trauma and tumors. Although DO gives satisfactory results in most cases, one major drawback of this technique is the prolonged period of time the external fixator has to be kept on until the newly formed bone consolidates thus leading to numerous complications. Numerous attempts at accelerating bone formation during DO have been reported. One specific approach is manipulation of the mechanical environment during DO by applying changes in the standard protocol of distraction. Attempts at changing this mechanical environment led to mixed results. Increasing the rate or applying acute distraction, led to poor bone formation in the distracted zone. On the other hand, the addition of compressive forces (such as weight bearing, alternating distraction with compression or by over-lengthening and then shortening has been reported to increase bone formation. It still remains unclear why these alterations may lead to changes in bone formation. While the cellular and molecular changes occurring during the standard DO protocol, specifically increased expression of transforming growth factor-β1, platelet derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and bone morphogenic proteins have been extensively investigated, the literature is sparse on the changes occurring when this protocol is altered. It is the purpose of this article to review the pertinent literature on the changes in the expression of various proteins and molecules as a result of changes in the mechanical loading technique in DO and try to define potential future research directions.

  4. Scaling dynamic response and destructive metabolism in an immunosurveillant anti-tumor system modulated by different external periodic interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Shao

    Full Text Available On the basis of two universal power-law scaling laws, i.e. the scaling dynamic hysteresis in physics and the allometric scaling metabolism in biosystem, we studied the dynamic response and the evolution of an immunosurveillant anti-tumor system subjected to a periodic external intervention, which is equivalent to the scheme of a radiotherapy or chemotherapy, within the framework of the growth dynamics of tumor. Under the modulation of either an abrupt or a gradual change external intervention, the population density of tumors exhibits a dynamic hysteresis to the intervention. The area of dynamic hysteresis loop characterizes a sort of dissipative-therapeutic relationship of the dynamic responding of treated tumors with the dose consumption of accumulated external intervention per cycle of therapy. Scaling the area of dynamic hysteresis loops against the intensity of an external intervention, we deduced a characteristic quantity which was defined as the theoretical therapeutic effectiveness of treated tumor and related with the destructive metabolism of tumor under treatment. The calculated dose-effectiveness profiles, namely the dose cumulant per cycle of intervention versus the therapeutic effectiveness, could be well scaled into a universal quadratic formula regardless of either an abrupt or a gradual change intervention involved. We present a new concept, i.e., the therapy-effect matrix and the dose cumulant matrix, to expound the new finding observed in the growth and regression dynamics of a modulated anti-tumor system.

  5. Description and characterization of systems for external insulation and retrofitting for Denmark with emphasis on the thermal performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1998-01-01

    Lately there has been quite a large focus on retrofitting of the Danish buildings. The retrofitting of the building is done in order to solve one or more of the following problems: bad indoor climate, large use of energy for heating, insufficient durability or architectural unsatisfactory.In order...... to solve these problems insulation is often part of the retrofitting. As internal insulation has many disadvantages with regards to heat and moisture only systems for external insulation will be mentioned here.As there are several different systems for external insulation, each with different properties......, there is a need for a systematic approach when the building designer chooses which system should be used on the building which is to be retrofitted....

  6. Distraction 'on the buses': a novel framework of ergonomics methods for identifying sources and effects of bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Young, Kristie L; Regan, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through the application of a novel framework of ergonomics methods. The framework represents a novel approach for assessing distraction in a real world context. The findings suggest that there are a number of sources of distraction that could potentially distract bus drivers while driving, including those that derive from the driving task itself, and those that derive from the additional requirements associated with bus operation, such as passenger and ticketing-related distractions. A taxonomy of the sources of bus driver distraction identified is presented, along with a discussion of proposed countermeasures designed to remove the sources identified or mitigate their effects on driver performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Roadside advertising and the distraction of driver’s attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnowski Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction during driving is becoming a major problem in contemporary transport and traffic psychology. Concentration may deteriorate complex vehicle systems due to the provision of unnecessary information and use of mobile phones (the problem is not only talking but writing text messages and e-mails, browsing sites, etc.. A significant role is also played by advertisers who use aggressive ways to attract attention and communicate product information, especially because they compete with an already overloaded attention system. On the other hand, the need for stimulation is strong with people increasingly less tolerant to monotony. The RoAdvert project is aimed to develop evidence-based rules of placing roadside advertising with respect to safety and real possibilities of regulating the advertising market, including the optimal level of driver stimulation. The paper will present a preliminary analysis of the survey and experimental research.

  8. Comparison of genomic-enhanced EPD systems using an external phenotypic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Angus Association (AAA) is currently evaluating two methods to incorporate genomic information into their genetic evaluation program: 1) multi-trait incorporation of an externally produced molecular breeding value as an indicator trait (MT) and 2) single-step evaluation with an unweight...

  9. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  10. Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay А.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.

  11. Maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis with 2 different types of distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye-Young; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jin; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Cha, Jung-Yul

    2012-05-01

    Maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been the alternative treatment option for patients with midfacial retrusion. To investigate a potentially more effective maxillary anterior segmental DO, a newly designed intraoral alveolar distractor was applied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the skeletal and dental effects of maxillary anterior segmental DO and the relapse pattern. The study was carried out for 8 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (mean age, 16 years 7 months). Four patients were treated with an intraoral appliance (IA), and the remaining with a rigid external distractor (RED). Dental and skeletal measurements were obtained for both groups. These measurements were compared for different time points including pre-DO (T1), post-DO (T2), postconsolidation (T3), and 1-year follow-up (T4). Horizontal change of A point was significantly larger after distraction period (T2) in the RED group (mean, 11.0 mm; median, 10.1 mm) than in the IA group (mean, 6.6 mm; median, 7.4 mm) (P distraction, showing a significant difference between groups (P Maxillary anterior segmental DO is effective for the treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate. The alveolar space is regained, and the facial profile is improved without velopharyngeal problems. Superior results are obtained using the RED appliance for maxillary anterior segmental DO relative to the use of the intraoral distractor appliance.

  12. Distractibility during Retrieval of Long-Term Memory: Domain-General Interference, Neural Networks and Increased Susceptibility in Normal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Edward Wais

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mere presence of irrelevant external stimuli results in interference with the fidelity of details retrieved from long-term memory (LTM. Recent studies suggest that distractibility during LTM retrieval occurs when the focus of resource-limited, top-down mechanisms that guide the selection of relevant mnemonic details is disrupted by representations of external distractors. We review findings from four studies that reveal distractibility during episodic retrieval. The approach cued participants to recall previously studied visual details when their eyes were closed, or were open and irrelevant visual information was present. The results showed a negative impact of the distractors on the fidelity of details retrieved from LTM. An fMRI experiment using the same paradigm replicated the behavioral results and found that diminished episodic memory was associated with the disruption of functional connectivity in whole-brain networks. Specifically, network connectivity supported recollection of details based on visual imagery when eyes were closed, but connectivity declined in the presence of visual distractors. Another experiment using auditory distractors found equivalent effects for auditory and visual distraction during cued recall, suggesting that the negative impact of distractibility is a domain-general phenomenon in LTM. Comparisons between older and younger adults revealed an aging-related increase in the negative impact of distractibility on retrieval of LTM. Finally, a new study that compared categorization abilities between younger and older adults suggests a cause underlying age-related decline of visual details in LTM. The sum of our findings suggests that cognitive control resources, although limited, have the capability to resolve interference from distractors during tasks of moderate effort, but these resources are overwhelmed when additional processes associated with episodic retrieval, or categorization of complex prototypes, are

  13. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, D.; Jurado, F.; Mena, B. de; Schories, G.

    2011-01-01

    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kW e and about 60kW th . Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  14. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  15. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm 2 ), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported

  16. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for... a period of 3 months from the date of the event. Distracted driving is a serious safety risk on our...

  17. Neuronal Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention in the presence of distraction is a key aspect of healthy cognition. The underlying neurobiological processes, have not, however, been functionally well characterized. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine how ecologically relevant distracting noise affects cortical activity in 27…

  18. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy versus distraction osteogenesis for mandibular advancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to compare the treatment modality of distraction osteogenesis (DO) with the gold standard for mandibular advancement surgery. In fact we compare distraction osteogenesis with the standard of care, which is a conventional bilateral sagittal split osteotomy as described by

  19. Interference by Process, Not Content, Determines Semantic Auditory Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic…

  20. Response of ramus following vertical lengthening with distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S

    2011-09-01

    Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The system of personal monitoring and the evaluation of occupational exposure to external ionizing radiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Daniel; Castro, Ailza; Martinez, Ernesto; Pernas, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Personal monitoring of workers is recommended or required by the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. In our country the personal monitoring of external exposure to ionizing radiation is carried out by External Dosimetry Laboratory (LDE) of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR). We have implemented an individual monitoring service based on thermoluminescence dosimetry system. The service includes whole body and extremity dosimeters. We have two systems; one is base on a manual Toledo TLD reader and the other on an automatic RADOS TLD system. This service is recognized by the National Regulatory Authority in the field of radiation protection and safety. We have implemented a quality assurance (QA) programme designed according to the recommendations of the ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The papers deals with the presentation of these QA programme which includes administrative data and information, technical checking of the equipment, acceptance tests of new dosimeters and equipment, issuing and processing of the dosimeters, dose evaluation, record keeping and reporting, traceability, handling of complaints, internal reviews and external audits. The papers also describe the results of occupational exposure for the different practices during 2006-2007 period. (author)

  2. The κ parameter and κ-distribution in κ-deformed statistics for the systems in an external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lina; Du, Jiulin

    2007-01-01

    It is naturally important question for us to ask under what physical situation should the κ-deformed statistics be suitable for the statistical description of a system and what should the κ parameter stand for. In this Letter, a formula expression of κ parameter is derived on the basis of the κ-H theorem, the κ-velocity distribution and the generalized Boltzmann equation in the framework of κ-deformed statistics. We thus obtain a physical interpretation for the parameter κ 0 with regard to the temperature gradient and the external force field. We show, as the q-statistics based on Tsallis entropy, the κ-deformed statistics may also be the candidate one suitable for the statistical description of the systems in external fields when being in the nonequilibrium stationary state, but has different physical characteristics. Namely, the κ-distribution is found to describe the nonequilibrium stationary state of the system where the external force should be vertical to the temperature gradient

  3. Evaluation of personal dose equivalent 'HP(d)' in a external individual monitoring system for X and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, C.; Antonio Filho, J.; Santos, M.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The good of individual monitoring for external radiation is the assessment of occupational exposure from X and γ radiations in order to assure that the radiological conditions of the workplace are acceptable, safe and satisfactory. The evaluation of radiations doses for workers must not exceed dose limits specified for workers, according to national regulatory agencies. Nowadays, there are two external monitoring systems in use, both based on ICRU definitions. In the conventional system, the workers doses are evaluated in terms of Hx. The personal dosimeter is worn over chest surface and it is calibrated in function of air kerma. In the new system, the workers doses are evaluated in terms of HP(d) and the personal dosimeter is calibrated in function of phantom doses. The aim of this paper is to adapt an external dosimetry laboratory (based on photographic dosimetry) to evaluate the personal dosimeters in terms of HP(d). In this way, a simple methodology, based on linear programming, was utilized. In this adaptation, calibration curves were obtained for radiation qualities (W and N series) described by International Organization for Standardization (ISO 4037-1, 1995). These calibration curves offer a better accuracy on dose determinations and energy below 140 keV, improving the quality of service rendered the society. (author)

  4. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  5. Paracelsus to parascience: the environmental cancer distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B N; Gold, L S

    2000-01-17

    Entering a new millennium seems a good time to challenge some old ideas, which in our view are implausible, have little supportive evidence, and might best be left behind. In this essay, we summarize a decade of work, raising four issues that involve toxicology, nutrition, public health, and government regulatory policy. (a) Paracelsus or parascience: the dose (trace) makes the poison. Half of all chemicals, whether natural or synthetic, are positive in high-dose rodent cancer tests. These results are unlikely to be relevant at the low doses of human exposure. (b) Even Rachel Carson was made of chemicals: natural vs. synthetic chemicals. Human exposure to naturally occurring rodent carcinogens is ubiquitous, and dwarfs the general public's exposure to synthetic rodent carcinogens. (c) Errors of omission: micronutrient inadequacy is genotoxic. The major causes of cancer (other than smoking) do not involve exogenous carcinogenic chemicals: dietary imbalances, hormonal factors, infection and inflammation, and genetic factors. Insufficiency of many micronutrients, which appears to mimic radiation, is a preventable source of DNA damage. (d) Damage by distraction: regulating low hypothetical risks. Putting huge amounts of money into minuscule hypothetical risks damages public health by diverting resources and distracting the public from major risks.

  6. Memory as discrimination: what distraction reveals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Hodgetts, Helen M; Marsh, John E; Jones, Dylan M

    2013-11-01

    Recalling information involves the process of discriminating between relevant and irrelevant information stored in memory. Not infrequently, the relevant information needs to be selected from among a series of related possibilities. This is likely to be particularly problematic when the irrelevant possibilities not only are temporally or contextually appropriate, but also overlap semantically with the target or targets. Here, we investigate the extent to which purely perceptual features that discriminate between irrelevant and target material can be used to overcome the negative impact of contextual and semantic relatedness. Adopting a distraction paradigm, it is demonstrated that when distractors are interleaved with targets presented either visually (Experiment 1) or auditorily (Experiment 2), a within-modality semantic distraction effect occurs; semantically related distractors impact upon recall more than do unrelated distractors. In the semantically related condition, the number of intrusions in recall is reduced, while the number of correctly recalled targets is simultaneously increased by the presence of perceptual cues to relevance (color features in Experiment 1 or speaker's gender in Experiment 2). However, as is demonstrated in Experiment 3, even presenting semantically related distractors in a language and a sensory modality (spoken Welsh) distinct from that of the targets (visual English) is insufficient to eliminate false recalls completely or to restore correct recall to levels seen with unrelated distractors . Together, the study shows how semantic and nonsemantic discriminability shape patterns of both erroneous and correct recall.

  7. Predictors of Failure in Infant Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Fahradyan, Artur; Brady, Colin; Tsuha, Michaela; Azadgoli, Beina; Ward, Sally; Urata, Mark M

    2018-03-15

    Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) has been shown to be successful in treating upper airway obstruction caused by micrognathia in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the success rate of MDO and possible predictors of failure. The records of all neonates and infants who underwent MDO from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Procedural failure was defined as patient death or the need for tracheostomy postoperatively. Details of distraction, length of stay, and failures were captured and elucidated. Of the 82 patients, 47 (57.3%) were male; 46 (56.1%) had sporadic Pierre Robin sequence; 33 (40.3%) had syndromic Pierre Robin sequence; and 3 (3.7%) had micrognathia, not otherwise specified. The average distraction length was 27.5 mm (range, 15 to 30 mm; SD, 4.4 mm), the average age at operation was 63.3 days (range, 3 to 342 days; SD, 71.4 days), and the average length of post-MDO hospital stay was 43 days (range, 9 to 219 days; SD, 35 days) with an average follow-up period of 4.3 years (range, 1.1 to 9.6 years; SD, 2.6 years). There were 7 failures (8.5%) (5 tracheostomies and 2 deaths) resulting in a 91.5% success rate. Regression analysis showed that the predicted probability of the need for tracheostomy was 45% (P = .02) when the patient had a central nervous system (CNS) anomaly. The predicted probability of the need for tracheostomy and death combined was 99.6% when the patient had laryngomalacia and a CNS anomaly and was preoperatively intubated (P < .05). This review confirms that MDO is an effective method of treating the upper airway obstruction caused by micrognathia with a high success rate. In our sample the presence of CNS abnormalities, laryngomalacia, and preoperative intubation had a significant impact on the failure rate. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maintenance and Durability of the Concrete External Layer of Curtain Walls in Prefabricated Technological Poznan Large Panel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiczak, Józef; Girus, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The issue of usability and durability of large-panel building constructed several decades ago is a subject of an in-depth analysis of many domestic and foreign investments. When considering the durability of specific large-panel system, one should consider, among others, the process of making external walls. The long-term and direct impact of weather conditions on the external layer of curtain walls is significant for the durability of large-panel buildings. For the needs of the presented paper, in 2016, the survey of cracks and a series of other tests of large-panel façade, residential building constructed in 1986, in Poland, in the PLP process system - Rataje was executed. Several hundred large-size, triple-layer curtain-wall slab with a 6-cm, concrete exterior cladding layer anchored using pins and hangers with the load-bearing layer, a 9-cm insulation layer made of mineral wool, and a 21-cm structural layer were surveyed. Significant deviations in thicknesses of particular wall layers were proven. Other significant damages and defects of external layers were found. At the second stage, many tests, both nondestructive and destructive, were conducted. They involved determining mechanical properties of an external layer. The concrete thickness was measured using with a type N Schmidt sclerometer and core samples were taken from this layer in order to mark concrete’s compressive strength. The range of carbonation (by phenolphthalein method) and the actual location and condition of reinforcement were estimated using a ferromagnetic device to determine the condition of the external layer. The diagnosis conducted in such a manner was the verification of necessary repair of the walls and their thermal efficiency improvement while ensuring safe conditions of their operation and modern functional and utility requirements. It should be also emphasized that the method of diagnosing the external walls presented in this paper may be popularized when evaluating such

  9. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  10. Social dilemma in the external immune system of the red flour beetle? It is a matter of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Traulsen, Arne; Joop, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    Sociobiology has revolutionized our understanding of interactions between organisms. Interactions may present a social dilemma where the interests of individual actors do not align with those of the group as a whole. Viewed through a sociobiological lens, nearly all interactions can be described regarding their costs and benefits, and a number of them then resemble a social dilemma. Numerous experimental systems, from bacteria to mammals, have been proposed as models for studying such dilemmas. Here, we make use of the external immune system of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum , to investigate how the experimental duration can affect whether the external secretion comprises a social dilemma or not. Some beetles (secretors) produce a costly quinone-rich external secretion that inhibits microbial growth in the surrounding environment, providing the secretors with direct personal benefits. However, as the antimicrobial secretion acts in the environment of the beetle, it is potentially also advantageous to other beetles (nonsecretors), who avoid the cost of producing the secretion. We test experimentally if the secretion qualifies as a public good. We find that in the short term, costly quinone secretion can be interpreted as a public good presenting a social dilemma where the presence of secretors increases the fitness of the group. In the long run, the benefit to the group of having more secretors vanishes and becomes detrimental to the group. Therefore, in such seminatural environmental conditions, it turns out that qualifying a trait as social can be a matter of timing.

  11. [Baroreflexes originated in vertebral artery zones upon peripheral vein tonus, systemic arterial blood pressure, and external respiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadzhanian, N A; Kupriianov, S V

    2008-06-01

    The investigation was intended to study the role ofbaroreceptors ofhemodynamically isolated zone of vertebral arteries in regulation of peripheral veins tonus, arterial pressure and external respiration. Pressure decrease in this vascular reflexogenic zone led to reflex responses of increase in femoral vein tonus, elevation of blood pressure level and stimulation of external respiration. The opposite reflex responses of cardio-respiratory functional system to initial pressure activation of vertebral arteries baroreceptors are observed. Basing on generalization of our own findings and similar physiological and morphological researches of other authors, it is established that afferentation from the vertebral artery zone is a reflexogenic factor of somatic muscles' veins tonus regulation. These reflexes of capacity vessels tonic activity changes are part of cardio-respiratory responses of maintaining the tissue gaseous exchange.

  12. Numerical study of two dimensional disordered systems in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Debnarayan

    2000-01-01

    We study here 2d tight-binding disordered model in an external magnetic field. By numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, we characterize the eigenstates by Generalized Inverse Participation Ratio (GIPR). The properties of the eigenstates have been studied in case of random flux model as well as with the strength of disorder. Simple theoretical arguments are given in support of the numerical observation. Finally, we have also studied the multifractality of the eigenstates. All these study may shed light on the eigenstates in the center of the band in case of Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE). (author)

  13. Effect of visual distraction and auditory feedback on patient effort during robot-assisted movement training after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secoli, Riccardo; Milot, Marie-Helene; Rosati, Giulio; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2011-04-23

    with controlling an affected arm make the motor system more prone to slack when distracted. Providing an alternate sensory channel for feedback, i.e., auditory feedback of tracking error, enabled the participants to simultaneously perform the tracking task and distracter task effectively. Thus, incorporating real-time auditory feedback of performance errors might improve clinical outcomes of robotic therapy systems.

  14. Effect of visual distraction and auditory feedback on patient effort during robot-assisted movement training after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinkensmeyer David J

    2011-04-01

    the hemiparetic arm, suggesting that the increased demands associated with controlling an affected arm make the motor system more prone to slack when distracted. Providing an alternate sensory channel for feedback, i.e., auditory feedback of tracking error, enabled the participants to simultaneously perform the tracking task and distracter task effectively. Thus, incorporating real-time auditory feedback of performance errors might improve clinical outcomes of robotic therapy systems.

  15. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  16. Pacemaker System Malfunction Resulting from External Electrical Cardioversion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Nishida, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 2005 a 68-year-old woman received a VDD pacemaker implantation in the right pectoral region at our hospital for the treatment of complete atrioventricular block. In July 2008, she was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy based on histological testing. In November 2008, she developed syncope due to ventricular tachycardia while at another hospital. She underwent external electrical cardioversion with an anterior-lateral paddle position using a single shock of 100 J. This shock led to severe bradycardia resulting in a transfer to our hospital. The physician who provided the shock could not have been aware that the patient had an implanted pacemaker. The skin above the pulse generator was burned. The electrocardiogram showed no pacing spikes or ventricular escape rhythm. Investigation of the pacemaker 3 hours after cardioversion revealed reprogramming of the device and a marked rise in the lead impedance (>3,000 ohm. Removal of the generator and implantation of a biventricular cardioverter defibrillator were required. The emergency situation, the small size of the generator, the small incision made using the buried suture method, and the patient's obesity all probably contributed to the physician's not noticing the implanted pacemaker. It is important to increase awareness of the severe consequences that may follow if the physician administering external defibrillation does not know about the patient's implanted pacemaker.

  17. Radiographic Outcomes of Dorsal Distraction Distal Radius Plating for Fractures With Dorsal Marginal Impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huish, Eric G; Coury, John G; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Trzeciak, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare radiographic outcomes of patients treated with dorsal spanning plates with previously reported normal values of radiographic distal radius anatomy and compare the results with prior publications for both external fixation and internal fixation with volar locked plates. Patients with complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction pattern necessitating dorsal distraction plating at the discretion of the senior authors (M.A.T. and M.A.I.) from May 30, 2013, to December 29, 2015, were identified and included in the study. Retrospective chart and radiograph review was performed on 19 patients, 11 male and 8 female, with mean age of 47.83 years (22-82). No patients were excluded from the study. All fractures united prior to plate removal. The average time the plate was in place was 80.5 days (49-129). Follow-up radiographs showed average radial inclination of 20.5° (13.2°-25.5°), radial height of 10.7 mm (7.5-14 mm), ulnar variance of -0.3 mm (-2.1 to 3.1 mm), and volar tilt of 7.9° (-3° to 15°). One patient had intra-articular step-off greater than 2 mm. Dorsal distraction plating of complex distal radius fractures yields good radiographic results with minimal complications. In cases of complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction where volar plating is not considered adequate, a dorsal distraction plate should be considered as an alternative to external fixation due to reduced risk for infection and better control of volar tilt.

  18. [An adjustable distractor for transverse maxillary distraction osteogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyder, P; Wycisk, G; Quilichini, J

    2013-06-01

    The posterior skeletal widening in conventional distractions (Surgical Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion) is often modest, in contrast with a predominant anterior expansion. Until recently, it was not possible to consider transverse palatal distraction osteogenesis and Le Fort I impaction or advancement in the same procedure, as the osteosynthesis plates impeded maxillary anterior opening. We developed new sliding osteosynthesis plates allowing to perform an advancement or impaction Le Fort I osteotomy associated with a low-resistance bipartite palatal distraction osteogenesis. We had for aim to describe the device and to determine its clinical applications. This new palatal distractor is made up of two independent stainless steel jacks allowing for an adjustable distraction in the anterior or posterior area as needed. Bone-borne and tooth-borne versions are available. This new distractor can be adjusted sagittally. The distraction can be angular or parallel, and the distraction mode can be modified during post-operative distraction. This device should be adapted to all clinical presentations. It can be used in combination with sliding osteosynthesis to perform a Le Fort 1 osteotomy and at the same time a complete correction of vertical, horizontal, and sagittal deficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory distraction and serial memory: The avoidable and the ineluctable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan M Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the serial order processing of the visually presented items and the serial order coding that is the by-product of the streaming of the sound. However, recently emerging work shows that the distraction from a single sound (one deviating from a prevailing sequence results in attentional capture and is qualitatively distinct from that of a sequence in being restricted in its action to encoding, not to rehearsal of list members. Capture is also sensitive to the sensory task load, suggesting that it is subject to top-down control and therefore avoidable. These two forms of distraction-conflict of process and attentional capture-may be two consequences of auditory perceptual organization processes that serve to strike the optimal balance between attentional selectivity and distractability.

  20. Two-stage distraction lengthening of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinia, Amir H; Al-Sheikh, Ayman A; Panossian, Andre E; Upton, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Single-stage lengthening of the forearm using callus distraction is well described; however, forearm lengthening using a 2-stage technique of distraction followed by bone grafting has received less attention. A 2-staged technique can be a better alternative in cases where the surgeon desires extensive lengthening. A retrospective review was undertaken of eleven 2-stage forearm lengthening procedures performed by 1 surgeon over a 15-year period. Indications were radial longitudinal deficiency (8 patients), neonatal ischemic contractures (2 patients), and septic growth arrest (1 patient). Average follow-up was 2.8 years. Distraction was performed on patients an average of 82 mm over an average duration of 24 weeks. Average time to union from the time of distractor removal and grafting was 87 days. Average healing index was 32.1 d/cm. Distraction problems were common and related to the length of time that the distractor was in place; they included pain, pin-related infections, and multiple mechanical device difficulties. Three patients had nonunion, and another had delayed union; however, additional procedures resulted in ultimate bony union in all patients. Demineralized bone matrix and autologous corticocancellous bone grafts yielded predictable healing and good functional results in short-distance distractions. For longer distractions, free vascularized fibula transfer produced the best outcomes. Intercalary cortical allografts did not heal well. Patients with neonatal Volkmann contractures had the most difficulty with distraction and healing, ultimately obtaining little to no lengthening and poor functional outcomes.

  1. Quantifying Third-Party Impacts and Environmental Externalities from a Cap-And-Trade System for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    Economic decision models, such as the cap-and-trade system, have been shown to be useful in the context of groundwater management. A uniformly applied cap-and-trade system can however result in significant spatially and temporally varying hydrogeologic impacts that reduce public welfare. Hydrological challenges associated with the cap-and-trade system for groundwater management include establishing appropriate system boundaries, setting system-wide sustainable yield and limiting third party impacts from extractions. Given these challenges, these economic models need to be supplemented with physically based hydrogeologic models that are able to represent the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in conditions across a region. This investigation assesses third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from a cap-and-trade system in a sub-basin of the Republican River Basin, overlying the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States. The economic model is coupled with a calibrated physically based groundwater model. The cap-and-trade system is developed using a multi-agent system model where individual benefits of each self-interested agent are maximized subject to bounds on irrigation requirements and water use permits. We then compare the performance of the cap-and-trade system with a smart groundwater market which, in addition to a cap on total groundwater extraction, also incorporates streamflow constraints. The results quantify third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from uncontrolled trading. This analysis demonstrates the value added by a well-designed cap-and-trade system able to account for basin-wide heterogeneity in hydrogeologic and ecological conditions by establishing trading limits, managing inter-area transfers and setting exchange rates for permit trading.

  2. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  3. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Koteswara Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction.

  4. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Hussain, Syed Altaf; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Murthy, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction. PMID:25991895

  5. The Influence of External and Internal Factors on Forming the System of Managers' Professional Development at Transnational Corporations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banit, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The author performs analysis of external and internal factors that influence organization of the system of Polish managers' professional development. These factors can be united into two groups. We will attribute the factors formed under the influence of external factors to the first group, to the second--the internal ones. So, due to the dynamic…

  6. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    effectively extracting the two common features, a double-window method was used and the optimized "Parent Window" and "Child Window" were found to be 55s and 6s, respectively. The study results can be used to develop a driving assistant system, which can warn drivers when any one of the four types of drowsy/distracted driving is detected. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Engineering challenges of BioNEMS: the integration of microfluidics, micro- and nanodevices, models and external control for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikswo, J P; Prokop, A; Baudenbacher, F; Cliffel, D; Csukas, B; Velkovsky, M

    2006-08-01

    Systems biology, i.e. quantitative, postgenomic, postproteomic, dynamic, multiscale physiology, addresses in an integrative, quantitative manner the shockwave of genetic and proteomic information using computer models that may eventually have 10(6) dynamic variables with non-linear interactions. Historically, single biological measurements are made over minutes, suggesting the challenge of specifying 10(6) model parameters. Except for fluorescence and micro-electrode recordings, most cellular measurements have inadequate bandwidth to discern the time course of critical intracellular biochemical events. Micro-array expression profiles of thousands of genes cannot determine quantitative dynamic cellular signalling and metabolic variables. Major gaps must be bridged between the computational vision and experimental reality. The analysis of cellular signalling dynamics and control requires, first, micro- and nano-instruments that measure simultaneously multiple extracellular and intracellular variables with sufficient bandwidth; secondly, the ability to open existing internal control and signalling loops; thirdly, external BioMEMS micro-actuators that provide high bandwidth feedback and externally addressable intracellular nano-actuators; and, fourthly, real-time, closed-loop, single-cell control algorithms. The unravelling of the nested and coupled nature of cellular control loops requires simultaneous recording of multiple single-cell signatures. Externally controlled nano-actuators, needed to effect changes in the biochemical, mechanical and electrical environment both outside and inside the cell, will provide a major impetus for nanoscience.

  8. Internal maxillary distraction with a new bimalar device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David M; Broujerdi, Joseph; Schendel, Stephen A

    2008-04-01

    Distraction osteogenesis of the Le Fort I segment is advocated for patients who require significant advancement of the maxilla or who have a soft tissue envelope compromised by scar tissue. We present a technique for maxillary distraction using an interconnecting intraoral device anchored to the malar prominences above the osteotomy and either the maxilla and/or the dentition below the level of the osteotomy. Ten patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate, mean age of 18, underwent Le Fort I maxillary distraction osteogenesis for management of maxillary hypoplasia. A Le Fort I osteotomy is performed and a Spectrum Intraoral Midface Multi-Vector Distractor (OsteoMed, Addison, TX) is placed leaving a 1 mm to 2 mm distraction gap. After a 2 to 4 day latency period, distraction begins at a rate of 1 mm a day. Once the desired occlusion is achieved the device is left in place for a minimum of 2 months for consolidation. Preoperative Sella-Nasion-A point measurements from lateral cephalograms averaged 74 degrees (range, 70-76 degrees). Postoperative Sella-Nasion-A point averaged 81 degrees (range, 75-89 degrees). Preoperative overjet averaged -7.4 mm (range, -3 to -13 mm). Postoperative overjet averaged 2.6 mm (range, 1-3 mm). Average distraction was 9 mm (range, 6-16 mm). The average vertical movement was 7.2 mm in an inferior direction (range, 0-15 mm). The results remained stable at a follow-up of 30 months. We report on distraction of the Le Fort I segment using an internal device. The device design allows the forces of distraction to be shared across a larger surface area delivering a uniform and reliable vector of distraction with increased stability.

  9. Effect of cell phone distraction on pediatric pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2009-02-01

    Early adolescents are using cell phones with increasing frequency. Cell phones are known to distract motor vehicle drivers to the point that their safety is jeopardized, but it is unclear if cell phones might also distract child pedestrians. This study was designed to examine the influence of talking on a cell phone for pediatric pedestrian injury risk. Seventy-seven children aged 10 to 11 years old completed simulated road crossings in an immersive, interactive virtual pedestrian environment. In a within-subjects design, children crossed the virtual street 6 times while undistracted and 6 times while distracted by a cell phone conversation with an unfamiliar research assistant. Participants also completed several other experimental tasks hypothesized to predict the impact of distraction while crossing the street and talking on a cell phone. Children's pedestrian safety was compromised when distracted by a cell phone conversation. While distracted, children were less attentive to traffic; left less safe time between their crossing and the next arriving vehicle; experienced more collisions and close calls with oncoming traffic; and waited longer before beginning to cross the street. Analyses testing experience using a cell phone and experience as a pedestrian yielded few significant results, suggesting that distraction on the cell phone might affect children's pedestrian safety no matter what their experience level. There was some indication that younger children and children who are less attentive and more oppositional may be slightly more susceptible to distraction while talking on the cell phone than older, more attentive, and less oppositional children. Our results suggest that cell phones distract preadolescent children while crossing streets.

  10. Distraction osteogenesis after irradiation in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Kenji; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Watanabe, Koji; Matsubara, Hidenori; Tomita, Katsuro

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of preoperative irradiation on distraction osteogenesis, as little is known about how preoperative irradiation delays distraction osteogenesis. A single dose of irradiation was applied to the right rear legs of rabbits. This was followed by tibial lengthening at a rate of 0.5 mm/day, which was continued for 4 weeks. Bone regeneration was examined radiographically and histologically. In the irradiation group, the radiographs showed little regeneration during the elongation phase. During the maturation phase, the callus appeared slowly, and its formation was spotty. Furthermore, regeneration was not completed until the fourth week of the maturation period. Histological examination at the end of distraction showed a gap in the distraction consisting of loose connective tissue, with part of the fibrous tissue oriented longitudinally. Four weeks after completion of distraction, the major part of the radiolucent region consisted of cartilage. The spotty osteogenesis was identified as enchondral ossification. Immunohistochemical examination of the regeneration area revealed that the blood vessels were extremely localized, and that the level of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the osteoblasts was high. Microangiography showed that vascularization at the distracted sites was poor. Distraction osteogenesis was decreased markedly by preoperative irradiation in terms of both rate and process. The results suggested that most of the osteoprogenitor cells were damaged immediately after irradiation. The high level of VEGF in the osteoblasts and the enchondral ossification also suggested a hypoxic state in the distracted region. Preoperative irradiation interferes with distraction osteogenesis by inducing a state of poor angiogenesis. (author)

  11. Distraction as a measure of presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Korsgaard, Dannie

    2010-01-01

    ) to determine presence as immersion (Lombard and Ditton in At the heart of it all: the concept of presence, Department of Broadcasting, Telecommunications and Mass Media, Temple University, 1997) at selectable events (approximated real-time). Two experiments were conducted to investigate its applicability......To assess and improve the user experience in entertainment products, developers need results of evaluation methods, which in detail measure the relationship between the mediated content and the resulting media experience. This paper proposes a method applying adjustable distraction (AD...... in computer games and movies with respectively visual and tactile AD. The first experiment examined whether the experienced intensity in a survival-shooter game, measured through questionnaires, was proportional to results from the AD method. The intrusiveness of the AD method was also addressed...

  12. What externally presented information do VRUs require when interacting with fully Automated Road Transport Systems in shared space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merat, Natasha; Louw, Tyron; Madigan, Ruth; Wilbrink, Marc; Schieben, Anna

    2018-03-31

    As the desire for deploying automated ("driverless") vehicles increases, there is a need to understand how they might communicate with other road users in a mixed traffic, urban, setting. In the absence of an active and responsible human controller in the driving seat, who might currently communicate with other road users in uncertain/conflicting situations, in the future, understanding a driverless car's behaviour and intentions will need to be relayed via easily comprehensible, intuitive and universally intelligible means, perhaps presented externally via new vehicle interfaces. This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire-based study, delivered to 664 participants, recruited during live demonstrations of an Automated Road Transport Systems (ARTS; SAE Level 4), in three European cities. The questionnaire sought the views of pedestrians and cyclists, focussing on whether respondents felt safe interacting with ARTS in shared space, and also what externally presented travel behaviour information from the ARTS was important to them. Results showed that most pedestrians felt safer when the ARTS were travelling in designated lanes, rather than in shared space, and the majority believed they had priority over the ARTS, in the absence of such infrastructure. Regardless of lane demarcations, all respondents highlighted the importance of receiving some communication information about the behaviour of the ARTS, with acknowledgement of their detection by the vehicle being the most important message. There were no clear patterns across the respondents, regarding preference of modality for these external messages, with cultural and infrastructural differences thought to govern responses. Generally, however, conventional signals (lights and beeps) were preferred to text-based messages and spoken words. The results suggest that until these driverless vehicles are able to provide universally comprehensible externally presented information or messages during interaction

  13. Secular Orbit Evolution in Systems with a Strong External Perturber—A Simple and Accurate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade-Ines, Eduardo [Institute de Mécanique Céleste et des Calcul des Éphémérides—Observatoire de Paris, 77 Avenue Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France); Eggl, Siegfried, E-mail: eandrade.ines@gmail.com, E-mail: siegfried.eggl@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, 91109 Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present a semi-analytical correction to the seminal solution for the secular motion of a planet’s orbit under gravitational influence of an external perturber derived by Heppenheimer. A comparison between analytical predictions and numerical simulations allows us to determine corrective factors for the secular frequency and forced eccentricity in the coplanar restricted three-body problem. The correction is given in the form of a polynomial function of the system’s parameters that can be applied to first-order forced eccentricity and secular frequency estimates. The resulting secular equations are simple, straight forward to use, and improve the fidelity of Heppenheimers solution well beyond higher-order models. The quality and convergence of the corrected secular equations are tested for a wide range of parameters and limits of its applicability are given.

  14. Controllable excitation of higher-order rogue waves in nonautonomous systems with both varying linear and harmonic external potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Heping; Yang, Rongcao; Tian, Jinping; Zhang, Wenmei

    2018-05-01

    The nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with both varying linear and harmonic external potentials is investigated and the semirational rogue wave (RW) solution is presented by similarity transformation. Based on the solution, the interactions between Peregrine soliton and breathers, and the controllability of the semirational RWs in periodic distribution and exponential decreasing nonautonomous systems with both linear and harmonic potentials are studied. It is found that the harmonic potential only influences the constraint condition of the semirational solution, the linear potential is related to the trajectory of the semirational RWs, while dispersion and nonlinearity determine the excitation position of the higher-order RWs. The higher-order RWs can be partly, completely and biperiodically excited in periodic distribution system and the diverse excited patterns can be generated for different parameter relations in exponential decreasing system. The results reveal that the excitation of the higher-order RWs can be controlled in the nonautonomous system by choosing dispersion, nonlinearity and external potentials.

  15. Neural Stem Cell-Preserving External-Beam Radiotherapy of Central Nervous System Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barani, Igor J.; Cuttino, Laurie W.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Todor, Dorin; Bump, Edward A.; Wu Yan; Chung, Theodore D.; Broaddus, William C.; Lin, Peck-Sun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Recent discoveries have implicated neural stem cells (NSC) as the source of plasticity and repair in the mature mammalian brain. Treatment-induced NSC dysfunction may lead to observed toxicity. This study evaluates the feasibility of NSC-preserving external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A single computed tomography (CT) dataset depicting a right periventricular lesion was used in this study as this location reflects the most problematic geometric arrangement with respect to NSC preservation. Conventional and NSC preserving radiotherapy (RT) plans were generated for the same lesion using two clinical scenarios: cerebral metastatic disease and primary high-grade glioma. Disease-specific target volumes were used. Metastatic disease was conventionally treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to 3,750 cGy (15 fractions) followed by a single stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) boost of 1,800 cGy to gross disease only. High-grade glioma was treated with conventional opposed lateral and anterior superior oblique beams to 4,600 cGy (23 fractions) followed by a 1,400 cGy (7 fractions) boost. NSC preservation was achieved in both scenarios with inverse-planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Results: Cumulative dose reductions of 65% (metastatic disease) and 25% (high-grade glioma) to the total volume of the intracranial NSC compartments were achieved with NSC-preserving IMRT plans. The reduction of entry and exit dose to NSC niches located contralateral to the target contributed most to NSC preservation. Conclusions: Neural stem cells preservation with current external beam radiotherapy techniques is achievable in context of both metastatic brain disease and high-grade glioma, even when the target is located adjacent to a stem cell compartment. Further investigation with clinical trials is warranted to evaluate whether NSC preservation will result in reduced toxicity

  16. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  17. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  18. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  19. Stability after Cleft Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis or Conventional Orthognathic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Svenstrup, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Klit

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare stability of maxillary advancements in patients with cleft lip and palate following distraction osteogenesis or orthognathic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1) cleft lip and palate, 2) advancement > 8 mm. Eleven patients comprised the distraction...... changed in CONVG. At follow-up (T3), VOB increased in CONVG compared with DOG, (P = 0.01). Vertical position of A point differed between the groups (P = 0.04). No significant intergroup differences between soft tissue parameters occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Distraction osteogenesis resulted in a stable position...

  20. Maxillary advancement using distraction osteogenesis with intraoral device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Yoko; Uematsu, Setsuko; Takada, Kenji

    2010-11-01

    This article describes the surgical orthodontic treatment of maxillary hypoplasia in a patient with cleft lip and palate using maxillary distraction osteogenesis with internal maxillary distractors. Maxillary advancement was performed to correct the retrusive maxillary facial profile and Class III malocclusion. Rotational movement of the distraction segment was made to correct the upper dental midline. Although maxillary advancement was insufficient because of unexpected breakage of the intraoral distractor after completion of the distraction, skeletal traction with a face mask compensated for the shortage. Successful esthetic improvement and posttreatment occlusal stability were achieved with no discernible relapse after 2 years of retention.

  1. Influences shaping nurses' use of distraction for children's procedural pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Deborah L; Scott, Shannon D; Mayan, Maria; Koop, Priscilla M; Reid, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    This study explored pediatric nurses' choices to use distraction for managing painful procedures. Using interpretive description approaches, interviews with pediatric nurses provided descriptions of choices to manage procedural pain. Nurses' distress influenced distraction use to mitigate the suffering of children and themselves. Newer nurses described task mastery as influencing distraction choices. Nurses' accounts of performing painful procedures on children mirrored children's descriptions of pain from the literature. Nurses' distress and competency performing painful procedures on children influenced practice. Future qualitative studies could extend understanding of pain management choices by pediatric nurses and the impact on undermanaged pain. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Long-term skeletal stability after maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in nongrowing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takahiro; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Hosoe, Michi; Sukegawa, Shintaro; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2008-09-01

    We assessed the long-term skeletal stability of the repositioned maxilla, midface in patients who underwent maxillary advancement using distraction osteogenesis (DO). The study included 19 nongrowing patients with maxillary hypoplasia with a Class III relationship, a normally developed mandible, and follow-up after DO exceeding 2 years. Eleven men and 8 women participated, with a mean age at treatment of 20.7 years (range 15.4-33.4 years). Twelve patients had midfacial hypoplasia associated with a cleft lip and palate (CLP), and 7 patients had developed noncleft-related hypoplasia. The surgical treatment included our modified Le Fort I osteotomy in combination with intraoral (5 cases) or extraoral (14 cases) distraction devices. Distraction was started after a latency period of 5 to 7 days and continued until the proper convexity was obtained. After active distraction, a 3- to 4-week period of retention was allowed, followed by rigid internal fixation (IF) with or without distractor removal. Lateral cephalometric films before midfacial distraction (T0), after IF with or without distractor removal (T1), 6 months after T1 (T2), and 2 or more years (mean 2.8 years) after T1 (T3) were analyzed. The maxillary A-point in the Frankfort horizontal reference plane was used to assess the skeletal changes in the maxillary position (x, y) at each time point (T1-T3). In addition, we analyzed the differences in the devices and techniques. Midfacial DO was successful in all cases, resulting in a mean change obtained at point A of 10.3 mm (8.4 mm horizontally, 4.7 mm inferiorly). Point A underwent a moderate amount of skeletal relapse at T2 [0.4 mm (5%) horizontally and 0.6 mm (13%) superiorly], with a mean of 8% (0.6 mm) horizontally and 19% (1.0 mm) superiorly over the mean 2.8-year (2.0-4.8 years) follow-up. After long-term follow-up, the maxillary advancement with DO was stable in both CLP and non-CLP patients with maxillary hypoplasia. In addition, our original technique

  3. Optical solver for a system of ordinary differential equations based on an external feedback assisted microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang

    2017-06-15

    Systems of ordinary differential equations (SODEs) are crucial for describing the dynamic behaviors in various systems such as modern control systems which require observability and controllability. In this Letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-optical SODE solver based on the silicon-on-insulator platform. We use an add/drop microring resonator to construct two different ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and then introduce two external feedback waveguides to realize the coupling between these ODEs, thus forming the SODE solver. A temporal coupled mode theory is used to deduce the expression of the SODE. A system experiment is carried out for further demonstration. For the input 10 GHz NRZ-like pulses, the measured output waveforms of the SODE solver agree well with the calculated results.

  4. Operations of the External Conjugate-T Matching System for the A2 ICRH Antennas at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, I.; Graham, M.; Blackman, T.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Nightingale, M.; Sheikh, H.; Whitehurst, A.

    2009-01-01

    The External Conjugate-T (ECT) matching system was successfully commissioned on two A2 ICRH antennas at JET in 2009. The system allows trip-free injection of RF power into ELMy H-mode plasmas in the 32-52 MHz band without antenna phasing restrictions. The ECT demonstrates robust and predictable performance and high load-tolerance during routine operations, injecting up to 4 MW average power into H-mode plasma with Type-I ELMs. The total power coupled to ELMy plasma by all the A2 antennas using the ECT and 3dB systems has been increased to 7 MW. Antenna arcing during ELMs has been identified as a new challenge to high-power ICRH operations in H-mode plasma. The implemented Advanced Wave Amplitude Comparison System (AWACS) has proven to be an efficient protection tool for the ECT scheme.

  5. Fixed-wavelength H2O absorption spectroscopy system enhanced by an on-board external-cavity diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittelle, Mack S; Simms, Jean M; Sanders, Scott T; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a system designed to perform fixed-wavelength absorption spectroscopy of H 2 O vapor in practical combustion devices. The system includes seven wavelength-stabilized distributed feedback (WSDFB) lasers, each with a spectral accuracy of  ±1 MHz. An on-board external cavity diode laser (ECDL) that tunes 1320–1365 nm extends the capabilities of the system. Five system operation modes are described. In one mode, a sweep of the ECDL is used to monitor each WSDFB laser wavelength with an accuracy of  ±30 MHz. Demonstrations of fixed-wavelength thermometry at 10 kHz bandwidth in near-room-temperature gases are presented; one test reveals a temperature measurement error of ∼0.43%. (paper)

  6. Anterior maxillary distraction using a tooth-borne device for hypoplastic cleft maxillas-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sunil; Agni, Nisheet A; Selvaraj, Dhivakar

    2011-12-01

    The management of maxillary retrusion in a patient with cleft lip and palate is performed using Le Fort I advancement or distraction osteogenesis using an external or an internal device. Distraction mostly involves movement of the entire maxilla at the Le Fort I level and is characterized by a higher relapse rate and a hampering of speech. Hence, distraction of the anterior maxilla was performed using a tooth-borne palatal distractor similar to the one proposed by Gunaseelan et al (J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65:1044, 2007). However, the technique was modified by placing the distractor preoperatively before performing the osteotomy cut. The main advantage of this modification is that more control over the vector can be achieved and chances of cement failure caused by contamination and an inability to achieve isolation is drastically decreased. This study investigated the efficacy and stability of anterior maxillary distraction in the management of cleft maxillary retrognathia and any resulting complications. Fourteen patients older than 12 years with cleft maxillary retrognathia were included in the study irrespective of gender, type of cleft lip and palate, and the amount of advancement needed. The patients were evaluated using Orthopantomogram and lateral cephalograms preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively (ie, before appliance removal) and at 6 months postoperatively. The distractor was fabricated extraorally on a cast and cemented into the patient's mouth the day before surgery. The initial deficiency, amount of advancement achieved, and relapses at 6 months, if any, were studied. The data were tabulated and analyzed. Only 1 of the 14 patients showed a relapse, of 2 mm, because this patient was lost to follow-up and thus delayed tooth replacement. Anterior maxillary distraction with a tooth-borne device is a feasible modality for the management of cleft maxillary retrognathia, with stable results. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and

  7. Incorporating driver distraction in car-following models: Applying the TCI to the IDM

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, R.G.; van Arem, B.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    ITS can play a significant role in the improvement of traffic flow, traffic safety and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems may lead to adaptation effects in longitudinal driving behavior following driver distraction. It was however not yet clear how to model these adaptation effects in driving behavior mathematically and on which theoretical framework this should be grounded. To this end in this contribution we introduce a theoretical fr...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESSES IN AN INDUCTOR SYSTEM WITH AN ATTRACTING SCREEN EXCITED BY THE EXTERNAL CIRCULAR SOLENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Chaplygin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Developments in the field of magnetic-pulse treatment of metals (MPTM are increasingly used in the modern technologies of production and repair of the aviation, automotive and other machinery, as they are environmentally friendly and energy-efficient in comparison with classical approaches. One of the main components of the device MPTM is a tool – inductor or the inductor system with an attractive screen (ISAS. The calculated dependences to calculate the inductor system with an attractive screen were taken from previous works. The ratios were obtained for the low-frequency mode of the excited fields, when is place their significant penetration through a thin-walled metal screen and a deformed workpiece. As it was shown earlier this mode is the most efficient from point of view of a force action on the object of a processing. Purpose. The theoretical analysis of the spatial-temporal distributions of the induced currents and forces of an attraction in the inductor system with an attractive screen excited by a flat circular solenoid located on the outside of the auxiliary screen. Methodology. The calculations are shown that the induced currents both in the screen and the workpiece are unidirectional and their interaction, in accordance with the law of Ampere determines the amplitudes of excited forces of attraction. Let’s note the effective validity of the considered inductor system excited by an external circular solenoid. With sufficient simplicity of the design take place rather high values of the developed forces of attraction and their averages. Results. Physically, a higher power efficiency of the system with an «external» coil in comparison with a system where coil is located in the internal cavity, can be accounted for lade of «failure» in the radial distribution of the excited forces. This «failure» in the design with a coil between the sheet metal is caused by its screening action against the forces of attraction

  9. Effectiveness of audiovisual distraction eyewear and computerized delivery of anesthesia during pulp therapy of primary molars in phobic child patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; El Batawi, Hisham; Gorduysus, Mehmet Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of audiovisual distraction technique with video eyewear and computerized delivery system-intrasulcular (CDS-IS) during the application of local anesthetic in phobic pediatric patients undergoing pulp therapy of primary molars. This randomized, crossover clinical study includes 60 children, aged between 4 and 7-year-old (31 boys and 29 girls). Children were randomly distributed equally into two groups as A and B. This study involved two treatment sessions of pulp therapy, 1-week apart. During treatment session I, group A had an audiovisual distraction with video eyewear, whereas group B had audiovisual distraction using projector display only without video eyewear. During treatment session II, group A had undergone pulp therapy without video eyewear distraction, whereas group B had the pulp treatment using video eyewear distraction. Each session involved the pulp therapy of equivalent teeth in the opposite sides of the mouth. At each visit scores on the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDAS) (f) were used to evaluate the level of anxiety before treatment. After the procedure, children were instructed to rate their pain during treatment on the Wong Bakers' faces pain scale. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded in every 10 min. From preoperative treatment session I (with video eyewear) to preoperative treatment session II (without video eyewear) for the MCDAS (f), a significant (P > 0.03) change in the mean anxiety score was observed for group A. Self-reported mean pain score decreases dramatically after treatment sessions' with video eyewear for both groups. The use of audiovisual distraction with video eyewear and the use of CDS-IS system for anesthetic delivery was demonstrated to be effective in improving children's cooperation, than routine psychological interventions and is, therefore, highly recommended as an effective behavior management technique for long invasive procedures of pulp

  10. Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomofumi; Ishii, Tomoo; Chang, Fei; Yanai, Takaji; Watanabe, Arata; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime; Nakai, Kenjiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of gradual weight bearing (GWB) on regenerating cartilage. We developed a novel external fixation device (EFD) with a controllable weight-bearing system and continuous passive motion (CPM). A full-thickness defect was created by resection of the entire articular surface of the tibial plateau after the EFD was fixed in the rabbit's left knee. In the GWB group (n=6), GWB was started 6 weeks after surgery. In the CPM group (n=6), CPM with EFD was applied in the same manner without GWB. The control group (n=5) received only joint distraction. All rabbits were sacrificed 9 weeks after surgery. The central one-third of the regenerated tissue was assessed and scored blindly using a grading scale modified from the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological assessment scale. The areas stained by Safranin-O and type II collagen antibody were measured, and the percentage of each area was calculated. There was no significant difference in the histological assessment scale among the groups. The percentage of the type II collagen-positive area was significantly larger in the GWB group than in the CPM group. The present study suggests that optimal mechanical stress, such as GWB, may affect regeneration of cartilage, in vivo. Copyright (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Didactic revision of the operative magnitudes system ICRU for the evaluation of the equivalent dose in radiation external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work is presented in a didactic way the operative magnitudes system ICRU, showing as these magnitudes carry out an appropriate estimate of the effective equivalent doses H E and the effective dose. The objective is to present the basic concepts of the dosimetry for radiation external fields with purposes of radiological protection, because the assimilation lack and technological development of this dosimetric magnitudes system has persisted for near 50 years, in terms of practice of the radiological protection in Mexico. Also, this system is an essential part of safety basic standards of the IAEA and ICRP recommendations 26, 60, 74 and 103, as well as of the ICRU 25, 39, 43, 51 and 57. (Author)

  12. Martensitic transformations in Ni-Mn-Ga system affected by external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernenko, V.; Babii, O.; L'vov, V.; McCormick, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial stress and magnetic field on the martensitic transformation temperatures for the ferromagnetic single crystalline Ni-Mn-Ga alloys is studied. It is shown that the experimental results are satisfactorily described by the Landau theory. Ni-Mn-Ga L2 1 -type ordered alloys exhibit a number of the first order and weak first order structural transformations in a ferromagnetic or paramagnetic parent phase depending on the alloy composition and being either thermally or stress activated. Most of these phase transformations are of the martensitic type, i.e., they are accompanied by the spontaneous elastic strains forming a multicomponent order parameter in the Landau expansion for the Gibbs potential. In this work we analyze the influence of the external fields (mechanical and magnetic) on the martensitic transformation (MT) from cubic parent phase (P) to five-layered martensitic one (5M-martensite) usually exhibited by the ferromagnetic ordered Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. In accordance with, we treat the 5M-martensite as a twinned tetragonal phase and, so, describe the experimental results in the framework of the theory of cubic-tetragonal MT. The original experimental data of high magnetic field influence on MT in near stoichiometric Ni 2 MnGa compound are presented to compare with the theoretical estimations. (orig.)

  13. External root resorption with the self-ligating Damon system-a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handem, Roberta Heiffig; Janson, Guilherme; Matias, Murilo; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; de Lima, Darwin Vaz; Garib, Daniela Gamba; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR) in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.

  14. External tank chill effect on the space transportation system launch pad environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R. A.; Boraas, S.

    1991-01-01

    The external tank (ET) of the STS contains liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as oxidizer and fuel for the SSMEs. Once the cryogen have been loaded into the ET, the temperature of the air surrounding the STS is chilled by the cold outer surface of the ET. This paper describes a two-dimensional flow and thermal analysis to determine this chill effect on the STS launch pad environment subsequent to the ET loading operation. The analysis was done assuming winter conditions and a northwest wind direction. An existing CFD code, PHOENICS '81, was used in the study. The results are presented as local and average values of the heat transfer coefficient, the Nusselt number, and the surface temperature around the redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRMs) and the ET. The temperature depression caused by the ET chilling of the air in the vicinity of the RSRMs was calculated to be 3 F below the ambient. This compares with the observed 1-2 F RSRM surface temperature depression based upon measurements made prior to the winter flight of STS-29. Since the surface temperature would be expected to be slightly higher than the local air temperature, the predicted temperature depression of the air appears to be substantiated.

  15. On the safe use of verify-and-record systems in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelantag, W.W.; Davis, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Verify-and-record (V and R) systems are being used increasingly, not only for verification, but also for computer aided setup and chart printing. The close intercorrelation between V and R system and treatment routine requires new ideas for quality assurance (QA): pure ''machine checking'' as with treatment units is not sufficient anymore. The level of QA obviously depends on the tasks of the V and R system: the most advanced case of the system being used for computer aided setup and for chart printing is discussed -both are indispensable for an efficient use of V and R systems. Seven propositions are defined to make this not only efficient but safe. (author)

  16. Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis in the Hypoplastic Cleft Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao (Janardhan), Sruthi; Kotrashetti, S. M.; Lingaraj, J. B.; Pinto, P. X.; Keluskar, K. M.; Jain, Siddharth; Sone, Piyush; Rao, Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis play a prime role in the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Advancement of the anterior maxilla alone without interfering with the velopharyngeal sphincter may be advantageous in cleft patients, who more commonly have speech deficits and dental crowding. We present a case series of anterior maxillary segmental distraction for maxillary hypoplasia in 5 CLP patients with a one-year follow-up. A custom-made tooth-borne distraction device with a hyrax screw positioned anteroposteriorly was used. The evaluation comprised of hard and soft tissue analysis and speech assessment. A stable occlusion with positive overjet and correction of dental-crowding without extraction was achieved at one year post-distraction. Facial profile and lip support improved. There was no deterioration in speech. PMID:23984033

  17. Distraction osteogenesis of radiation-induced orbitozygomatic hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Ramon; Murray, Dylan; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2008-05-01

    In the last decade, the application of distraction osteogenesis to the craniofacial skeleton has grown to include not only deformities of the mandible, but of the midface, palate, dentoalveolar region, and calvarium. A major advantage of distraction osteogenesis lies in the simultaneous soft tissue histogenesis that accompanies the bony distraction process, allowing for potentially lower relapse rates and improved cosmesis. Although this may seem appropriately suited to irradiation-induced deformities of both hard and soft tissues, there is little in the literature as to the efficacy of this technique in patients who have received radiotherapy. To introduce an effective application of this technology, and highlight some advantages and disadvantages of its application in the irradiated craniofacial skeleton, we present a case of distraction osteogenesis of the orbitozygomatic complex in a patient with radiation induced orbitozygomatic hypoplasia.

  18. Distracted driving due to visual working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In an attempt to understand the : specific mechanism by which distractions (such as cell : - : phone use) can interfere with : driving, this work tested the idea that driving performance depends on available space within visual short : - : term memor...

  19. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    OpenAIRE

    Edell, Aim?e R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cel...

  20. Vibrometry Assessment of the External Thermal Composite Insulation Systems Influence on the Façade Airborne Sound Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Urbán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper verifies the impact of the use of an external thermal composite system (ETICS on air-borne sound insulation. For optimum accuracy over a wide frequency range, classical microphone based transmission measurements are combined with accelerometer based vibrometry measurements. Consistency is found between structural resonance frequencies and bending wave velocity dispersion curves determined by vibrometry on the one hand and spectral features of the sound reduction index, the ETICS mass-spring-mass resonance induced dip in the acoustic insulation spectrum, and the coincidence induced dip on the other hand. Scanning vibrometry proves to be an effective tool for structural assessment in the design phase of ETICS systems. The measured spectra are obtained with high resolution in wide frequency range, and yield sound insulation values are not affected by the room acoustic features of the laboratory transmission rooms. The complementarity between the microphone and accelerometer based results allows assessing the effect of ETICS on the sound insulation spectrum in an extended frequency range from 20 Hz to 10 kHz. The modified engineering ΔR prediction model for frequency range up to coincidence frequency of external plaster layer is recommended. Values for the sound reduction index obtained by a modified prediction method are consistent with the measured data.

  1. Effects of neutron spectrum and external neutron source on neutron multiplication parameters in accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbunder, Hesham; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Lim, Jae-Yong; Shiroya, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The neutron multiplication parameters: neutron multiplication M, subcritical multiplication factor k s , external source efficiency φ*, play an important role for numerical assessment and reactor power evaluation of an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Those parameters can be evaluated by using the measured reaction rate distribution in the subcritical system. In this study, the experimental verification of this methodology is performed in various ADS cores; with high-energy (100 MeV) proton-tungsten source in hard and soft neutron spectra cores and 14 MeV D-T neutron source in soft spectrum core. The comparison between measured and calculated multiplication parameters reveals a maximum relative difference in the range of 6.6-13.7% that is attributed to the calculation nuclear libraries uncertainty and accuracy for energies higher than 20 MeV and also dependent on the reaction rate distribution position and count rates. The effects of different core neutron spectra and external neutron sources on the neutron multiplication parameters are discussed.

  2. Outcomes following femoral lengthening: An initial comparison of the Precice intramedullary lengthening nail and the LRS external fixator monorail system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubscher, M; Mitchell, C; Timms, A; Goodier, D; Calder, P

    2016-10-01

    Patients undergoing femoral lengthening by external fixation tolerate treatment less well when compared to tibial lengthening. Lengthening of the femur with an intramedullary device may have advantages. We reviewed all cases of simple femoral lengthening performed at our unit from 2009 to 2014. Cases of nonunions, concurrent deformities, congenital limb deficiencies and lengthening with an unstable hip were excluded, leaving 33 cases (in 22 patients; 11 patients had bilateral procedures) for review. Healing index, implant tolerance and complications were compared. In 20 cases (15 patients) the Precice lengthening nail was used and in 13 cases (seven patients) the LRS external fixator system. The desired length was achieved in all cases in the Precice group and in 12 of 13 cases in the LRS group. The mean healing index was 31.3 days/cm in the Precice and 47.1 days/cm in the LRS group (p < 0.001). This was associated with an earlier ability to bear full weight without aids in the Precice group. There were more complications with LRS lengthening, including pin site infections and regenerate deformity. Implant tolerance and the patients' perception of the cosmetic result were better with the Precice treatment. Femoral lengthening with the Precice femoral nail achieved excellent functional results with fewer complications and greater patient satisfaction when compared with the LRS system in our patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1382-8. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  3. Externally controlled anisotropy in pattern-forming reaction-diffusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Dario M; Guiu-Souto, Jacobo; Muñuzuri, Alberto P

    2015-06-01

    The effect of centrifugal forces is analyzed in a pattern-forming reaction-diffusion system. Numerical simulations conducted on the appropriate extension of the Oregonator model for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction show a great variety of dynamical behaviors in such a system. In general, the system exhibits an anisotropy that results in new types of patterns or in a global displacement of the previous one. We consider the effect of both constant and periodically modulated centrifugal forces on the different types of patterns that the system may exhibit. A detailed analysis of the patterns and behaviors observed for the different parameter values considered is presented here.

  4. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6-16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30 mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients.

  5. Treatment of maxillary cleft palate: Distraction osteogenesis vs. orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmiel, Adi; Even-Almos, Michal; Aizenbud, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the treatment of hypoplastic, retruded maxillary cleft palate using distraction osteogenesis vs. orthognathic surgery in terms of stability and relapse, growth after distraction and soft tissue profile changes. Materials and Methods: The cleft patients showed anteroposterior maxillary hypoplasia with class III malocclusion and negative overjet resulting in a concave profile according to preoperative cephalometric measurements, dental relationship, and soft tissue analysis. The patients were divided in two groups of treatment : S0 eventeen were treated by orthognathic Le Fort I osteotomy fixed with four mini plates and 2 mm screws, and 19 were treated by maxillary distraction osteogenesis with rigid extraoral devices (RED) connected after a Le Fort I osteotomy. The rate of distraction was 1 mm per day to achieve Class I occlusion with slight overcorrection and to create facial profile convexity. Following a 10 week latency period the distraction devices were removed. Results: In the RED group the maxilla was advanced an average of 15.80 mm. The occlusion changed from class III to class I. The profile of the face changed from concave to convex. At a 1-year follow up the results were stable. The mean orthognathic movement was 8.4 mm. Conclusion: In mild maxillary deficiency a one stage orthognathic surgery is preferable. However, in patients requiring moderate to large advancements with significant structural deficiencies of the maxilla or in growing patients the distraction technique is preferred. PMID:23483803

  6. Initial Experience With a New Intraoral Midface Distraction Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Fernando; Soldanska, Magdalena; Granger, Michael; Berhane, ChiChi; Schoemann, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maxillary hypoplasia that necessitates surgical advancement affects approximately 25% of patients born with cleft lip and palate. Syndromic conditions such as Crouzon may also be accompanied by significant maxillary hypoplasia. Severe maxillary hypoplasia can result in airway obstruction, malocclusion, proptosis, and facial disfigurement. For optimal stability, severe hypoplasia is best addressed with maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Twenty-two patients (15 boys, 7 girls, ages 6–16 years, mean age 10 years) with severe midface hypoplasia underwent midface distraction with new internal maxillary distraction (IMD) device at our institution. Total distraction distances ranged from 15 to 30 mm. There were no major complications, and all of them had improvement in functional and aesthetic parameters. There were 2 minor complications and 2 patients failed to distract the full distance because of converging vectors. Early maxillary distraction in patients with severe midface hypoplasia is a useful technique to provide interval correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia before skeletal maturity and definitive orthognathic surgery is contemplated, and it is a good tool to improve occlusion, aesthetics, and self-perception in younger patients. PMID:26080162

  7. Distraction by novel and pitch-deviant sounds in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wetzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of attention is an important part of our executive functions and enables us to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to shield against distraction by task-irrelevant sounds is suggested to mature during school age. The present study investigated the developmental time course of distraction in three groups of children aged 7 – 10 years. Two different types of distractor sounds that have been frequently used in auditory attention research – novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds – were presented within an oddball paradigm while children performed a visual categorization task. Reaction time measurements revealed decreasing distractor-related impairment with age. Novel environmental sounds impaired performance in the categorization task more than pitch-deviant sounds. The youngest children showed a pronounced decline of novel-related distraction effects throughout the experimental session. Such a significant decline as a result of practice was not observed in the pitch-deviant condition and not in older children. We observed no correlation between cross-modal distraction effects and performance in standardized tests of concentration and visual distraction. Results of the cross-modal distraction paradigm indicate that separate mechanisms underlying the processing of novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds develop with different time courses and that these mechanisms develop considerably within a few years in middle childhood.

  8. Motivation enhances control of positive and negative emotional distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Amy T; Carmel, David; Harper, David; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-01-03

    Using cognitive control to ignore distractions is essential for successfully achieving our goals. In emotionally-neutral contexts, motivation can reduce interference from irrelevant stimuli by enhancing cognitive control. However, attention is commonly biased towards emotional stimuli, making them potent distractors. Can motivation aid control of emotional distractions, and does it do so similarly for positive and negative stimuli? Here, we examined how task motivation influences control of distraction from positive, negative, and neutral scenes. Participants completed a simple perceptual task while attempting to ignore task-irrelevant images. One group received monetary reward for fast and accurate task performance; another (control) group did not. Overall, both negative (mutilation) and positive (erotic) images caused greater slowing of responses than neutral images of people, but emotional distraction was reduced with reward. Crucially, despite the different motivational directions associated with negative and positive stimuli, reward reduced negative and positive distraction equally. Our findings suggest that motivation may encourage the use of a sustained proactive control strategy that can effectively reduce the impact of emotional distraction.

  9. Memory load modulates graded changes in distracter filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to maintain small amounts of information in mind is critical for successful performance on a wide range of tasks. However, it remains unclear exactly how this maintenance is achieved. One possibility is that it is brought about using mechanisms that overlap with those used for attentional control. That is, the same mechanisms that we use to regulate and optimise our sensory processing may be recruited when we maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM. We aimed to test this hypothesis by exploring how distracter filtering is modified by concurrent VSTM load. We presented participants with sequences of target items, the order and location of which had to be maintained in VSTM. We also presented distracter items alongside the targets, and these distracters were graded such that they could be either very similar or dissimilar to the targets. We analysed scalp potentials using a novel multiple regression approach, which enabled us to explore the neural mechanisms by which the participants accommodated these variable distracters on a trial-to-trial basis. Critically, the effect of distracter filtering interacted with VSTM load; the same graded changes in perceptual similarity exerted effects of a different magnitude depending upon how many items participants were already maintaining in VSTM. These data provide compelling evidence that maintaining information in VSTM recruits an overlapping set of attentional control mechanisms that are otherwise used for distracter filtering.

  10. Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis with intra-articular distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyong Nyun; Jeon, June Young; Noh, Kyu Cheol; Kim, Hong Kyun; Dong, Quanyu; Park, Yong Wook

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has shown high rates of union comparable to those with open arthrodesis but with substantially less postoperative morbidity, shorter operative times, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays. To easily perform arthroscopic resection of the articular cartilage, sufficient distraction of the joint is necessary to insert the arthroscope and instruments. However, sometimes, standard noninvasive ankle distraction will not be sufficient in post-traumatic ankle arthritis, with the development of arthrofibrosis and joint contracture after severe ankle trauma. In the present report, we describe a technique to distract the ankle joint by inserting a 4.6-mm stainless steel cannula with a blunt trocar inside the joint. The cannula allowed sufficient intra-articular distraction, and, at the same time, a 4.0-mm arthroscope can be inserted through the cannula to view the joint. Screws can be inserted to fix the joint under fluoroscopic guidance without changing the patient's position or removing the noninvasive distraction device and leg holder, which are often necessary during standard arthroscopic arthrodesis with noninvasive distraction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distracted driving in elderly and middle-aged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Johnson, Amy M; Emerson, Jamie L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Boer, Erwin R; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean=72.5 years, SD=5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean=53.7 years, SD=9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to "freeze up", spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: Evidence from EEG and MEG data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eRuhnau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG, here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts towards complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation.

  13. Using event-triggered naturalistic data to examine the prevalence of teen driver distractions in rear-end crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Cher; Harland, Karisa K; McGehee, Daniel V

    2016-06-01

    While teen driver distraction is cited as a leading cause of crashes, especially rear-end crashes, little information is available regarding its true prevalence. The majority of distraction studies rely on data derived from police reports, which provide limited information regarding driver distraction. This study examined over 400 teen driver rear-end crashes captured by in-vehicle event recorders. A secondary data analysis was conducted, paying specific attention to driver behaviors, eyes-off-road time, and response times to lead-vehicle braking. Among teens in moderate to severe rear-end crashes, over 75% of drivers were observed engaging in a potentially distracting behavior. The most frequently seen driver behaviors were cell phone use, attending to a location outside the vehicle, and attending to passengers. Drivers using a cell phone had a significantly longer response time than drivers not engaged in any behaviors, while those attending to passengers did not. Additionally, in about 50% of the rear-end crashes where the driver was operating/looking at a phone (e.g., texting), the driver showed no driver response (i.e., braking or steering input) before impact, compared to 10% of crashes where the driver was attending to a passenger. The high frequency of attending to passengers and use of a cell phone leading up to a crash, compounded with the associated risks, underlines the importance of continued investigation in these areas. Parents and teens must be educated regarding the frequency of and the potential effects of distractions. Additional enforcement may be necessary if Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs are to be effective. Systems that alert distracted teens could also be especially helpful in reducing rear-end collisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  14. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  15. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  16. Distractibility in Attention/Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the virtual reality classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca; Finn, Paul; Moes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Kathleen; Rizzo, Albert Skip

    2009-03-01

    Nineteen boys aged 8 to 14 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 16 age-matched controls were compared in a virtual reality (VR) classroom version of a continuous performance task (CPT), with a second standard CPT presentation using the same projection display dome system. The Virtual Classroom included simulated "real-world" auditory and visual distracters. Parent ratings of attention, hyperactivity, internalizing problems, and adaptive skills on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Monitor for ADHD confirmed that the ADHD children had more problems in these areas than controls. The difference between the ADHD group (who performed worse) and the control group approached significance (p = .05; adjusted p = .02) in the Virtual Classroom presentation, and the classification rate of the Virtual Classroom was better than when the standard CPT was used (87.5% versus 68.8%). Children with ADHD were more affected by distractions in the VR classroom than those without ADHD. Results are discussed in relation to distractibility in ADHD.

  17. A new tool fixation for external 3D head tracking using the Polaris Vicra system with the HRRT PET scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Andersen, Flemming; Holm, Søren

    -water studies for up to 75 min (3-8 injections) were registered by the Polaris system in 4 volunteers. The tracking tool was fixed. Scans were divided into subframes based on the registered movements and reconstructed using the 3D-OSEM PSF method. The reconstructed subframes were repositioned to a reference......Objectives: The Polaris Vicra system (Northern Digital Inc.) is used for external 3D head registration with the Siemens HRRT brain PET. Our new tool fixation using a standard bandaid with a velcro-strap implies an improved frame repositioning. Methods: Head movements during serial PET 15O...... position and pairwise similarity of subframes was evaluated before and after the repositioning. Results: Registered movements during scans were less than 4.3mm with. Images were compared before/after motion correction. Conclusions: Our new velcro band-aid fixation is suitable for clinical use: easy to use...

  18. Valuing real estate externality-based option in development of transit system projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Capital-intensive transit projects rely on strong public support and availability of funds. While the general : public has become a strong advocate for transit systems, budget shortfalls and financial constraints are still : resulting in delays in pr...

  19. Secure Border Gateway Protocol and the External Routing Intrusion Detection System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kent, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    .... The Secure BGP projects designed a secure, scalable, deployable architecture (S-BGP) for an authorization and authentication system that addresses most of the security problems associated with BGP...

  20. Commissioning and quality assurances of the CMS XIO radiotherapy treatment planning system for external beam photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, K.R.; Anurupa; Soubhagya; Sudhakar; Shiva; Krishnam Raju, A.; Narayana Murthy, P.

    2008-01-01

    The commissioning of XIO treatment planning system (TPS) was carried out by Computerized Medical Devices, USA for Siemens and Elekta linear accelerators. The Commissioning and quality assurance of the CMS XIO radiotherapy treatment planning system involves many steps, beginning from beam data acquisition and entry into the computerized TPS, through patient data acquisition, to treatment plan generation and the final transfer of data to the treatment machine and quality assurance of TPS

  1. Audit in public administration’s information systems - External or internal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drljača, D.; Latinović, B.

    2017-05-01

    Audit of the information system, thanks to the increased use of ICT and related cyber-crime, becomes a very important process in modern companies and institutions. It is usual to engage or outsource a third party for independent financial audit. But what about auditing of the information system of public administration institutions? This paper gives an introduction to possible aspects of information system’s audit with the aim to discuss possible answer on the question in the title.

  2. Pharyngeal airway changes associated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in adult cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Muge; Taner, Tülin; Sahin-Veske, Pınar; Kocadereli, Ilken; Konas, Ersoy; Mavili, Mehmet Emin

    2012-02-01

    To investigate 1) the changes in pharyngeal airway sizes associated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis and 2) the correlations between maxillary skeletal variables and the pharyngeal airway in adult patients with cleft lip and palate. The study was carried out in 14 adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Predistraction records were taken at a mean age of 22.7 ± 4.6 years. All patients had placement of a rigid external distraction device (RED I; KLS Martin, Tuttlingen, Germany) after Le Fort I osteotomy. Lateral cephalograms were assessed before surgery and at short-term follow-up (8.0 ± 6.4 months). The cephalometric skeletal and pharyngeal airway variables were statistically evaluated by use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Spearman ρ correlation was performed to check the correlations between maxillary skeletal and pharyngeal variables. The maxillary movement was 8.7 mm (P maxillary depth angle (+7.9°) and effective maxillary length (9.4 mm) increased significantly (P distraction, whereas the palatal plane angle remained unchanged. Anterior nasal spine (8.2 mm) and Posterior nasal spine (6.9 mm) moved anteriorly. The overjet increased (9.5 mm) significantly (P maxillary movement. PNS changes showed the highest correlation with posterior airway changes. The significant anterior movement of the maxilla resulted in significant increases in posterior, superoposterior, and middle airway spaces. The posterior airway space showed the highest significant positive correlation with the movement of PNS. The posterior and superoposterior airway spaces also showed significant positive correlations with the maxillary skeletal variables. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of cleft maxillary distraction osteogenesis on the levator veli palatini and velopharyngeal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Por, Yong-Chen; Liou, Eric Jein-Wein; Chang, Frank Chun-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Le Fort I maxillary distraction with the rigid external distraction (RED) device is performed to correct severe midface retrusion in cleft patients, but it may adversely affect velopharyngeal function. This study aims to investigate the angular changes in the levator veli palatini (LVP) and its influence on velopharyngeal function after maxillary distraction using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) scan volume rendered images. This was a retrospective study of 12 patients. Group 1 had no velopharyngeal function deterioration and group 2 had velopharyngeal function deterioration. Preoperative and 1 year postoperative CT scans were analyzed with Mimics v10 software. Segmentation of the LVP and the nasopharyngeal airway was performed and volumetric images were obtained. Six measurements were made: (1) the angle between the levator plane and the Frankfort horizontal, (2) the angle between the levator plane and the soft palate plane, (3) the angle between the 2 LVP muscles, (4) the pharyngeal depth, and (5, 6) the movement of the inferior pharyngeal point with respect to the horizontal and vertical planes. The independent samples t test, Mann-Whitney test, and paired t tests were used for statistical analyses (P < 0.05). Group 2 had statistically significant reduction in the angle between the levator plane and Frankfort horizontal as well as the soft palate plane. Group 1 had a statistically significant increase in the pharyngeal depth and movement of the inferior pharyngeal point with respect to the horizontal plane. A decrease in the angle between the levator plane and the Frankfort horizontal or the soft palate plane was associated with velopharyngeal function deterioration.

  4. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Merrill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1 the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2 evaluation of various sources of power, (3 estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4 a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M, vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M, reduction of accidents ($544.6 M, and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M. These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  5. Investigating the effect of external trauma through a dynamic system modeling approach for clustering causality in diabetic foot ulcer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Parisa; Hamedi, Mohsen; Jamshidi, Nima; Vismeh, Milad

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes and its associated complications are realized as one of the most challenging medical conditions threatening more than 29 million people only in the USA. The forecasts suggest a suffering of more than half a billion worldwide by 2030. Amid all diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) has attracted much scientific investigations to lead to a better management of this disease. In this paper, a system thinking methodology is adopted to investigate the dynamic nature of the ulceration. The causal loop diagram as a tool is utilized to illustrate the well-researched relations and interrelations between causes of the DFU. The result of clustering causality evaluation suggests a vicious loop that relates external trauma to callus. Consequently a hypothesis is presented which localizes development of foot ulceration considering distribution of normal and shear stress. It specifies that normal and tangential forces, as the main representatives of external trauma, play the most important role in foot ulceration. The evaluation of this hypothesis suggests the significance of the information related to both normal and shear stress for managing DFU. The results also discusses how these two react on different locations on foot such as metatarsal head, heel and hallux. The findings of this study can facilitate tackling the complexity of DFU problem and looking for constructive mitigation measures. Moreover they lead to developing a more promising methodology for managing DFU including better prognosis, designing prosthesis and insoles for DFU and patient caring recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributed Time-Varying Formation Robust Tracking for General Linear Multiagent Systems With Parameter Uncertainties and External Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yongzhao; Dong, Xiwang; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang

    2017-05-18

    This paper investigates the time-varying formation robust tracking problems for high-order linear multiagent systems with a leader of unknown control input in the presence of heterogeneous parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The followers need to accomplish an expected time-varying formation in the state space and track the state trajectory produced by the leader simultaneously. First, a time-varying formation robust tracking protocol with a totally distributed form is proposed utilizing the neighborhood state information. With the adaptive updating mechanism, neither any global knowledge about the communication topology nor the upper bounds of the parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and leader's unknown input are required in the proposed protocol. Then, in order to determine the control parameters, an algorithm with four steps is presented, where feasible conditions for the followers to accomplish the expected time-varying formation tracking are provided. Furthermore, based on the Lyapunov-like analysis theory, it is proved that the formation tracking error can converge to zero asymptotically. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is verified by simulation examples.

  7. Reduced Distractibility in a Remote Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Caparos, Serge; Linnell, Karina J.; Davidoff, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Background In visual processing, there are marked cultural differences in the tendency to adopt either a global or local processing style. A remote culture (the Himba) has recently been reported to have a greater local bias in visual processing than Westerners. Here we give the first evidence that a greater, and remarkable, attentional selectivity provides the basis for this local bias. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, Eriksen-type flanker interference was measured in the Himba and in Western controls. In both groups, responses to the direction of a task-relevant target arrow were affected by the compatibility of task-irrelevant distractor arrows. However, the Himba showed a marked reduction in overall flanker interference compared to Westerners. The smaller interference effect in the Himba occurred despite their overall slower performance than Westerners, and was evident even at a low level of perceptual load of the displays. In Experiment 2, the attentional selectivity of the Himba was further demonstrated by showing that their attention was not even captured by a moving singleton distractor. Conclusions/Significance We argue that the reduced distractibility in the Himba is clearly consistent with their tendency to prioritize the analysis of local details in visual processing. PMID:22046275

  8. Quantitative assessment of mineralization in distraction osteogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, Sunit; Biswal, Sandeep; Jang, Ki-Mo; Modi, Hitesh N.; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Suk-Ha; Lee, Seok Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The most important decision in distraction osteogenesis is the timing of fixator removal. Various methods have been tried, such as radiographic appearance of callus and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment, but none has acquired gold standard status. The purpose of this study was to develop another objective method of assessment of callus stiffness to help clinicians in taking the most important decision of when to remove the fixator. We made a retrospective study of 70 patients to compare the BMD ratio and pixel value ratio. These ratios were calculated at the time of fixator removal, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to show the comparability. Inter- and intra-observer variability of the new method was also tested. Good correlation was found between BMD ratio and pixel value ratio, with a Pearson's coefficient of correlation of 0.79. The interobserver variability was also low, with high intra-observer reproducibility, suggesting that this test was simple to perform. Pixel value ratio is a good method for assessing callus stiffness, and it can be used to judge the timing of fixator removal. (orig.)

  9. Sample size calculation to externally validate scoring systems based on logistic regression models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palazón-Bru

    Full Text Available A sample size containing at least 100 events and 100 non-events has been suggested to validate a predictive model, regardless of the model being validated and that certain factors can influence calibration of the predictive model (discrimination, parameterization and incidence. Scoring systems based on binary logistic regression models are a specific type of predictive model.The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm to determine the sample size for validating a scoring system based on a binary logistic regression model and to apply it to a case study.The algorithm was based on bootstrap samples in which the area under the ROC curve, the observed event probabilities through smooth curves, and a measure to determine the lack of calibration (estimated calibration index were calculated. To illustrate its use for interested researchers, the algorithm was applied to a scoring system, based on a binary logistic regression model, to determine mortality in intensive care units.In the case study provided, the algorithm obtained a sample size with 69 events, which is lower than the value suggested in the literature.An algorithm is provided for finding the appropriate sample size to validate scoring systems based on binary logistic regression models. This could be applied to determine the sample size in other similar cases.

  10. External Quality Control Review of the Defense Information Systems Agency Audit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    We are providing this report for your information and use. We have reviewed the system of quality control for the audit organization of the Defense...audit organization encompasses the audit organization’s leadership, emphasis on performing high quality work, and policies and procedures established

  11. [Effect of External Irradiation and Immobilization Stress on the Reproductive System of Male Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereschako, G G; Tshueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Kozlov, I G; Naumov, A D

    2016-01-01

    We studied the state of the reproductive system of male rats after irradiation at a dose of 2.0 Gy, immobilization stress (6 hours/day for 7 days) and their combined effects. On the 30th day after the combined treatment (37 days after irradiation) a decrease in the testicular weight by almost 50% compared with the control and lesions connected with the process of spermatogenesis are observed. In the remote period--on the 60th day (67th after irradiation) the effect of irradiation and irradiation in combination with immobilization stress leads to a sharp drop in the number of epididymal sperm (up to 18% of the control), and a reduction of their viability. The reaction ofthe reproductive system to the immobilization stress is expressed in a certain increase in the mass of the testes and epididymis, moderate imbalances in the composition of spermatogenic cells in the testis tissue, and in the long term--in the increased number of epididymal sperm and the decrease in their viability. Changes of testosterone in the blood serum, especially significant for the combined effect, reflect impairments of the regulation of the reproductive system of males under these conditions. With regard to individual indicators of the reproductive system of male rats in some cases, the- combined effects of radiation and stress had a synergistic, or, on the contrary, antagonistic character.

  12. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  13. Distraction-like phenomena in maxillary bone due to application of orthodontic forces in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos I Tsolakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic forces may not only influence the dentoalveolar system, but also the adjacent and surrounding cortical bone. Aim: Since there is very limited information on this issue, we aimed to study the possible changes in maxillary cortical bone following the application of heavy orthodontic forces in mature normal and osteoporotic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four 6-month-old female rats were selected and divided into an ovariectomized group and a normal group. In both groups, the rats were subjected to a 60 grFNx01 orthodontic force on the upper right first molar for 14 days. Results: In both groups, histological sections showed that the application of this force caused hypertrophy and fatigue failure of the cortical maxillary bone. The osteogenic reaction to distraction is expressed by the formation of subperiosteal callus on the outer bony side, resembling that seen in distracted bones. Conclusion: From this study we concluded that heavy experimental orthodontic forces in rats affect the maxillary cortical bone. The osteogenic reaction to these forces, expressed histologically by subperiosteal callus formation, is similar to that seen in distraction osteogenesis models.

  14. Reconstruction of the thumb with external fixer of bony lengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriarte Locarno, Raymundo; Garcia Herrera, Alvaro; Bocanegra Navia, Sergio; Suarez Romero, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    The thumb amputation represents one of the most anti functional, unsightly and psychological disabilities of the hand. We describe the surgical technique, the bone distraction phases, additional surgeries and external fixation. We review prospectively our experience in the Military Hospital in Bogota, Colombia, from 1996 until 2003: 9 patients, men, amputation level: 1C to 4, we used a monolateral external fixator; Distraction speed: 0,75 mm/d, mean lengthening 3,9 cms, mean time with de fixation: 6 months. Bone consolidation: 100%, mild functional activity according to the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and arm score (DASH). We recommended this surgical technique, because it is easy, reproducible, and allows a functional recuperation of the thumb

  15. Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

    2013-12-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  16. Condylar cartilaginous changes after mandibular distraction osteogenesis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sin-Young; Kim, Su-Gwan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologic and immunohistochemical changes in the condylar articular surface in response to distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandibular body in rabbits. A unilateral osteotomy of the mandible at the premolar area was performed in 16 rabbits. The animals were divided into 4 groups based on different distraction parameters (rate and rhythm). After a 5-day latency, the mandible was lengthened by 0.5 mm daily for 6 days (group 1); 0.5 mm twice daily for 3 days (group 2); 0.5 mm once daily for 10 days (group 3); or 0.5 mm twice daily for 5 days (group 4). All 4 groups underwent a 14-day consolidation period. Four rabbits were included in the control group. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic examination. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of growth factors. None of the groups demonstrated any degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). On the distraction side in all groups, the histopathological examination revealed a hypertrophic thickening of the cartilage zone. Prominent endochondral ossification and high active osteoblasts were observed in groups 3 and 4. On the nondistraction side, no major changes were observed excluding the appearance of osteoclasts in groups 3 and 4. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed tenascin immunoreactivity in bone marrow mesenchymal cells on the distraction side in group 4. Connexin immunoreactivity did not display a marked change in any of the groups. Osteocalcin was observed on the distraction side in group 2, which suggested that bone formation is increased. Nitric oxide synthase 2 immunoreactivity was observed on the distraction side in group 2, which is associated with stress and inflammation. The results indicated that the hypertrophy of the cartilage zone and endochondral ossification became more pronounced as the extent and rate of distraction increased. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Audiovisual distraction reduces pain perception during shockwave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsdin, Emma; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2012-05-01

    Lithotripsy is an established method to fragment kidney stones that can be performed without general anesthesia in the outpatient setting. Discomfort and/or noise, however, may deter some patients. It has been demonstrated that audiovisual distraction (AV) can reduce sedoanalgesic requirements and improve patient satisfaction in nonurologic settings, but to our knowledge, this has not been investigated with lithotripsy. This randomized controlled trial was designed to test the hypothesis that AV distraction can reduce perceived pain during lithotripsy. All patients in the study received identical analgesia before a complete session of lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter. Patients were randomized to two groups: One group (n=61) received AV distraction via a wall-mounted 32″ (82 cm) television with wireless headphones; the other group (n=57) received no AV distraction. The mean intensity of treatment was comparable in both groups. Patients used a visual analogue scale (0-10) to record independent pain and distress scores and a nonverbal pain score was documented by the radiographer during the procedure (0-4). In the group that received AV distraction, all measures of pain perception were statistically lower. The patient-reported pain score was reduced from a mean of 6.1 to 2.4 (P<0.0001), and the distress score was reduced from a mean of 4.4 to 1.0 (P=0.0001). The mean nonverbal score recorded by the radiographer was reduced from 1.5 to 0.5 (<0.0001). AV distraction significantly lowered patients' reported pain and distress scores. This correlated with the nonverbal scores reported by the radiographer. We conclude that AV distraction is a simple method of improving acceptance of lithotripsy and optimizing treatment.

  18. DeviceGuard: External Device-Assisted System And Data Security

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yipan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses the threat that personal computer faced from malware when the personal computer is connected to the Internet. Traditional host-based security approaches, such as anti-virus scanning protect the host from virus, worms, Trojans and other malwares. One of the issues of the host-based security approaches is that when the operating system is compromised by the malware, the antivirus software also becomes vulnerable. In this thesis, we present a novel approach through usin...

  19. Analysis of hypothetical nuclear excursions in the external core retention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, R.; Kussmaul, G.; Schmuck, P.

    1976-01-01

    The core catcher system of the SNR 300 is outside the reactor tank. The probability of recriticality phenomena is reduced by its design, but the licensing procedures still call for the analysis of strong recriticality phenomena in the core catcher system outside the reactor tank in order to achieve a better understanding of the possible physical effects and to get to know the safety limits of the system. For their theoretical investigations, the authors used a two-partner model as presented in fig. 1. At the bottom of the core catcher - which consists of depleted UO 2 - there is a fuel cylinder. Another fuel cylinder (with the same axis) is dropped from a height of 250 cm. The two cylindrical masses are immersed in sodium, but a free fall is assumed since the possibility cannot be excluded that the reactor bottom may be empty or only partially filled with sodium. It was found that under these conditions the strongest excursions may be expected in those cases where prompt criticality does not occur until just before the two partners meet. (orig./AK) [de

  20. Development of a real-time internal and external marker tracking system for particle therapy: a phantom study using patient tumor trajectory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junsang; Cheon, Wonjoong; Ahn, Sanghee; Jung, Hyunuk; Sheen, Heesoon; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Youngyih

    2017-09-01

    Target motion-induced uncertainty in particle therapy is more complicated than that in X-ray therapy, requiring more accurate motion management. Therefore, a hybrid motion-tracking system that can track internal tumor motion and as well as an external surrogate of tumor motion was developed. Recently, many correlation tests between internal and external markers in X-ray therapy have been developed; however, the accuracy of such internal/external marker tracking systems, especially in particle therapy, has not yet been sufficiently tested. In this article, the process of installing an in-house hybrid internal/external motion-tracking system is described and the accuracy level of tracking system was acquired. Our results demonstrated that the developed in-house external/internal combined tracking system has submillimeter accuracy, and can be clinically used as a particle therapy system as well as a simulation system for moving tumor treatment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  1. Development the interface system of master-slave manipulator and external input device on the graphic simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The master-slave manipulator is the generally used as remote handling device in the hot cell, in which the high level radioactive materials such as spent fuels are handled. To analyze the motion of remote handling device and to simulate the remote handling operation task in the hot cell, the 3D graphic simulator which has been installed the master-slave manipulator is established. Also the interface program of external input device with 6 DOF(degree of Freedom) is developed and connected to graphic simulator with LLTI(Low Level Tele-operation Interface) which provides a uniquely optimized, high speed, bidirectional communication interface to one or more of system and processes

  2. External validation of the ITA.LI.CA prognostic system for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzio, Mauro; Dionigi, Elena; Rossini, Angelo; Marignani, Massimo; Sacco, Rodolfo; De Sio, Ilario; Bertolini, Emanuela; Francica, Giampiero; Giacomin, Anna; Parisi, Giancarlo; Vicari, Susanna; Toldi, Anna; Salmi, Andrea; Boccia, Sergio; Mitra, Mario; Fornari, Fabio

    2017-11-22

    Several staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been developed. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system is considered the best in predicting survival, although limitations have emerged. Recently, the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) prognostic system, integrating ITA.LI.CA tumor staging (stages 0, A, B1-3, C) with the Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and alpha-fetoprotein with a strong ability to predict survival, was proposed. The aim of our study was to provide an external validation of the ITA.LI.CA system in an independent real-life occidental cohort of HCCs. From September 2008 to April 2016, 1,508 patients with cirrhosis and incident HCC were consecutively enrolled in 27 Italian institutions. Clinical, tumor, and treatment-related variables were collected, and patients were stratified according to scores of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer system, ITA.LI.CA prognostic system, Hong Kong Liver Cancer system, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program, Japanese Integrated System, and model to estimate survival in ambulatory patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Harrell's C-index, Akaike information criterion, and likelihood-ratio test were used to compare the predictive ability of the different systems. A subgroup analysis for treatment category (curative versus palliative) was performed. Median follow-up was 44 months (interquartile range, 23-63 months), and median overall survival was 34 months (interquartile range, 13-82 months). Median age was 71 years, and patients were mainly male individuals and hepatitis C virus carriers. According to ITA.LI.CA tumor staging, 246 patients were in stage 0, 472 were in stage A, 657 were in stages B1/3, and 133 were in stage C. The ITA.LI.CA prognostic system showed the best discriminatory ability (C-index = 0.77) and monotonicity of gradients compared to other systems, and its superiority was also confirmed after stratification for treatment strategy

  3. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  4. Angular deformation of radius and ulna treated by dynamic percutaneus osteogenesis distraction. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, C.M.F.; Melo, E.G.; Lamas, M.C.S.; Silva, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The clinical exam of a male mongrel dog, 4-month-old, and 5.7kg of live weight, showed that the dog supported with the elbows and it was observed accentuated bilateral rotacional deformity of the radius and ulna. Radiographs of the radius and ulna revealed proximal fracture of the radius. After clinical and radiographic evaluation it was indicated the corrective osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis of the left foremember. The surgical procedure consisted in osteotomy in the diaphysis of the radius and ulna, and the utilization of external fixators composed by four Kirschner’s pins and two metallic thread bars, configuring a fixator type II, bilateral uniplanar dynamic. Before the fixation of the pins with acrylic, the fractured bony fragments were separated in approximately 0.5cm. Starting 10 days post surgery, the radial osteotomy site was distracted at a rate of 1.0mm every day for 30 days. The consolidation of the osteotomy site was observed radiographically 67 days after the intervention, when the fixator was removed. Similar procedure was accomplished in the right foremember at the age of 16 months. At this moment, it was necessary to remove a coins bony of approximately 1.0cm for correction of the limb angulation. At present, the dog shows normal function and support of the left foremember and light valgus deformity of the right foremember due to the broken implants [pt

  5. Study on principle and method of measuring system for external dimensions, geometric density and appearance quality of uranium dioxide pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Deng Hua; Wang Tao

    2010-01-01

    To adapt to the need of nuclear power development, and keep in step with the increasingly growing nuclear fuel element production, a special measuring system for integrated measuring, calculation, data processing method of External Dimensions, Tolerance of figure and place, Geometric Density and Appearance Quality of Uranium Dioxide Pellet is studied and discussed. This system is with important guiding significance for the improvement of technologic and frocking level.. The measuring system is primarily applied to sampling test during production and is the same with several types of products.The successful application of this measuring method ensures the accuracy and reliability of measured data, reduces the artificial error and makes the measuring be move convenient and fast, thus achieves high precision and high efficiency of measuring process. The measuring method is approach the advanced world level of measuring method at the same industry. So, based on the product inspection requirement, using special measuring instrument and computer data processing system is an important approach we use for nonce and future. (authors)

  6. Six weeks of continuous joint distraction appears sufficient for clinical benefit and cartilaginous tissue repair in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, J A D; van Heerwaarden, R J; Spruijt, S; Eckstein, F; Maschek, S; van Roermund, P M; Custers, R J H; van Spil, W E; Mastbergen, S C; Lafeber, F P J G

    2016-10-01

    Knee joint distraction (KJD) is a surgical joint-preserving treatment in which the knee joint is temporarily distracted by an external frame. It is associated with joint tissue repair and clinical improvement. Initially, patients were submitted to an eight-week distraction period, and currently patients are submitted to a six-week distraction period. This study evaluates whether a shorter distraction period influences the outcome. Both groups consisted of 20 patients. Clinical outcome was assessed by WOMAC questionnaires and VAS-pain. Cartilaginous tissue repair was assessed by radiographic joint space width (JSW) and MRI-observed cartilage thickness. Baseline data between both groups were comparable. Both groups showed an increase in total WOMAC score; 24±4 in the six-week group and 32±5 in the eight-week group (both p<0.001). Mean JSW increased 0.9±0.3mm in the six-week group and 1.1±0.3mm in the eight-week group (p=0.729 between groups). The increase in mean cartilage thickness on MRI was 0.6±0.2mm in the eight-week group and 0.4±0.1mm in the six-week group (p=0.277). A shorter distraction period does not influence short-term clinical and structural outcomes statistically significantly, although effect sizes tend to be smaller in six week KJD as compared to eight week KJD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. European protection principles against external hazards by means of Emergency Power Supply and Control Safety System Building in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Dipl Ing [Max Aicher Engineering GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    One of the most important nuclear power plant safety requirements is a redundant and independent power system. This requires such a design of emergency power systems that failure of one will not adversely impact the other. External hazards of natural origin or linked to human activity could potentially affect plant safety. The general objective of the design provisions is to ensure that the safety functions of the systems and components required to return the plant to a safe shutdown state and to prevent and limit radioactive release are not adversely affected. As external hazards are site dependent, Technical Guidelines specify that 'it is not necessary to take all of the hazards in a standardized design; such external hazards as external flooding, drought, ice formation and toxic, corrosive or combustible gases may be dealt with only for a specific plant, on a plant specific basis'. In accordance with the Technical Guidelines, external hazards are taken into consideration at the design stage consistently with internal events or hazards. The basic design principle is to protect against external hazards in accordance with the Technical Guidelines using a 'load case' procedure.

  8. Cost optimization of ADS design: Comparative study of externally driven heterogeneous and homogeneous two-zone subcritical reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization of two-zone homogeneous subcritical systems has been performed. • A Serpent model for two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been developed. • The optimization of two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been carried out. • Economically optimal core composition of two-zone subcritical system was found. • The neutron spectra of the heterogeneous subcritical systems have been obtained. - Abstract: Subcritical systems driven by external neutron sources, commonly known as Accelerator-Driven System (ADS), are one type of advanced nuclear reactor exhibiting attractive characteristics, distinguished from the traditional critical systems by their intrinsic safety features. In addition, an ADS can be used for the transmutation of the nuclear waste, accumulated during the operation of existing reactors. The optimization of a subcritical nuclear reactor in terms of materials (fuel content, coolant, etc.), geometrical, and economical parameters is a crucial step in the process of their design and construction. This article describes the optimization modeling performed for homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems in terms of geometry of the fuel zones. Economical assessment was also carried out for the costs of the fuel in the core of the system. Optimization modeling was performed with the Serpent-1.1.18 Monte Carlo code. The model of a two-zone subcritical system with a fast inner and a thermal gas-cooled graphite-moderated outer zone was developed, simulated, and analyzed. The optimal value for the pitch of fuel elements in the thermal outer zone was investigated from the viewpoint of the cost of subcritical system. As the main goal of ADS development is nuclear waste transmutation, neutron spectra for both fast and thermal zones were obtained for different system configurations. The results of optimization modeling of homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems show that an optimal

  9. Modelling of treatment couch top with prowess panther treatment planning system for external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu-Agyapong, Linus

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the attenuation effects of a treatment couch and to alternatively model the couch top material with a Prowess Panther treatment planning system which does not support couch top modelling. The Hounsfield Unit classification of the couch structure was determined using a PMMA phantom by comparing ion chamber measurements with the dose forecasted by the treatment planning system (TPS). The transmission factor (TF) of the couch top was determined and was used as a TF for a treatment accessory that represented the treatment couch in the TPS. A treatment plan was done for various angles with and without the interference of the couch top and a simulated treatment was done using the PMMA phantom. Ion chamber measurement were made and compared with dose predicted by the TPS to evaluate the accuracy of the couch top modelling in the treatment planning system TPS. These investigations were done for various field sizes. The ideal set of HU for the couch was established to be -674. The measured TF was 0.956042 and the TPS calculated Transmission factor was 0.951456. The percentage difference between the measured and calculated TFs was 0.48% and this agrees perfectly with the IAEA recommended tolerance of 2%. Relative attenuation measurements were as high as 54.16% and as low as 0.63% for the beams that exited the couch before interacting with the phantom. In comparing couch modelling by couch simulation and couch TF insert, it was observed that the normalized doses were the same for 5×5 square field but deviated approximately 1% for the other field sizes. The highest deviation was observed at 10×10 square field. This study demonstrates that the couch simulation method of couch modelling is the best method that can be used to account for the effect of the treatment couch top on intersecting posterior beam fields. Thus, the attenuation effects of the treatment couch was effectively evaluated and the couch top material accurately modelled in

  10. Optimal operating conditions for external cavity semiconductor laser optical chaos communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyadarshi, S; Pierce, I; Hong, Y; Shore, K A

    2012-01-01

    In optical chaos communications a message is masked in the noise-like broadband output of a chaotic transmitter laser, and message recovery is enabled through the synchronization of the transmitter and the (chaotic) receiver laser. Key issues are to identify the laser operating conditions which provide the highest quality synchronization conditions and those which provide optimized message extraction. In general such operating conditions are not coincident. In this paper numerical simulations are performed with the aim of identifying a regime of operation where the highest quality synchronization and optimizing message extraction efficiency are achieved simultaneously. Use of such an operating regime will facilitate practical deployment of optical chaos communications systems without the need for re-adjustment of laser operating conditions in the field. (paper)

  11. Effects of individual differences on the efficacy of different distracters during visual sexual stimulation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Verena M; Prause, Nicole

    2012-02-01

    Distractions from sexual cues have been shown to decrease the sexual response, but it is unclear how distracters decrease sexual response. Individual differences may modulate the efficacy of distracters. Forty women viewed three sexual films while their labial temperature and continuous self-reported sexual arousal were monitored. One sexual film had simultaneous verbal distracters concerning dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance (higher salience distracter), a second had distracters concerning daily chores (lower salience distracter), and the third sexual film had no distracters. Participant's reporting greater relationship satisfaction and more communication with their partner about their own physical appearance were expected to decrease the efficacy (increased sexual arousal) of the distracters concerning physical appearance. Contrary to expectations, women who received less feedback about their body from their partners reported less sexual arousal during a sexual film with body distracters than a sexual film with general distracters or a sexual film with no distracters. All women exhibited lower labial temperature in Minutes 2 and 3 of the sexual film with body image distracters as compared to the other two sexual films. Possible explanations explored include self-verification theory and individual differences in the indicators that women consider when rating their sexual arousal.

  12. Figurativeness in the Sense of Distraction (Studies by Lithuanian Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutė Monginaitė

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sense of distraction and the feature of figurativeness in it are analysed with the help of phenomenological description, the concept of sense of Juozas Mureika and the conception of imagination of Kristupas Sabolius. The position is followed that the acts of sense and the being of those existing found in them cannot be known in a purely rational way. Knowing is reached with intuitive insights. The experiencing of distraction is approached as one of the norms or intentions of consciousness. The sense of distraction is acknowledged to be a basic value becoming more and more important in a modern stressful life. The article indicates that the intentional beings of the sense of distraction are expressed in really various human activities and are distinguished with mono-subjectivity and unrepeatable feeling. Figurativeness is perceived as the result of imaginary, creative activity of the imagination and aesthetical quality. The peculiarities of the formation of figurativeness are revealed through the phenomenological description of imagination by Sabolius. Four features of the act of visualisation, determining the quality of figurativeness, are emphasized: intentionality, power of transformation, relation with emotions and the symbolism of the image. The conclusion is made that figurativeness, being the result of the creative act (visualisation of imagination, appears as aesthetical quality or the ensemble of qualities. Figurativeness sharpens the sense of distraction and calls the wave of new experiences.

  13. How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

    2013-12-01

    Intertidal coastal environments are prone to changes induced by sea level rise, increases in storminess, and anthropogenic disturbances. It is unclear how changes in external drivers may affect the dynamics of low energy coastal environments because their response is non-linear, and characterized by many thresholds and discontinuities. As such, process-based modeling of the ecogeomorphic processes underlying the dynamics of these ecosystems is useful, not only to predict their change through time, but also to generate new hypotheses and research questions. Here, a three-point dynamic model was developed to investigate how internal and external processes affect the behavior of coupled marsh mudflat systems. The model directly incorporates ecogeomorphological feedbacks between wind waves, salt marsh vegetation, allochthonous sediment loading, tidal flat vegetation and sea level rise. The model was applied to examine potential trajectories of salt marshes on the Eastern seaboard of the United States, including those in the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE), Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR) and Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) long term ecological research (LTER) sites. While these sites are undergoing similar rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR), they have distinct differences in site specific environmental drivers including tides, wind waves, allochthonous sediment supply and the presence or absence of seagrass. These differences lead to the emergence of altered behaviors in the coupled salt marsh-tidal flat system. For marsh systems without seagrass or significant riverine sediment supply, conditions similar to those at PIE, results indicated that horizontal and vertical marsh evolution respond in opposing ways to wave induced processes. Marsh horizontal retreat is triggered by large mudflats and strong winds, whereas small mudflats and weak winds reduce the sediment supply to the salt marsh, decreasing its capability to keep pace with sea level rise. Marsh expansion and

  14. The natural limb is best: joint preservation and reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis for high-grade juxta-articular osteosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Abdel-Wanis, Mohamed E; Kitano, Shinji; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Yamashiro, Teruhisa; Tomita, Katsuro

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative technique of highly conservative limb-saving surgery for juxta-articular osteosarcoma. This technique consists of marginal tumour excision, joint preservation and reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis. Ten patients, with a mean age of 19.5 years and high-grade osteosarcoma, underwent this procedure. The distal femur and proximal tibia were affected in five patients each. After effective pre-operative chemotherapy, the tumour was excised with preservation of the epiphysis, the articular surface and the maximun amount of healthy soft tissue. This was followed by application of an external fixator. Bone transport was performed for seven patients and shortening-distraction for three. The limb function was rated excellent in seven patients, good in one and fair in two. At the final follow-up, three patients were dead after a mean of 25.3 months while seven patients remained free of disease with a mean follow-up of 55.4 months. Joint preservation and biological reconstruction through distraction osteogenesis can produce excellent and long-lasting functional results.

  15. The distracted mind on the wheel: Overall propensity to mind wandering is associated with road crash responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Jardiné, Cédric; Née, Mélanie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Schooler, Jonathan; Contrand, Benjamin; Orriols, Ludivine; Galera, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    The role of distractions on attentional lapses that place road users in higher risk of crash remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess the respective impact of (i) mind wandering trait (propensity to mind wander in the everyday life as measured with a set of 4 questions on the proportion of time spent mind wandering in 4 different situations) and (ii) mind wandering state (disturbing thoughts just before the crash) on road crash risk using a comparison between responsible and non-responsible drivers. 954 drivers injured in a road crash were interviewed at the adult emergency department of the Bordeaux university hospital in France (2013-2015). Responsibility for the crash, mind wandering (trait/state), external distraction, alcohol use, psychotropic drug use, and sleep deprivation were evaluated. Based on questionnaire reports, 39% of respondents were classified with a mind wandering trait and 13% reported a disturbing thought just before the crash. While strongly correlated, mind wandering state and trait were independently associated with responsibility for a traffic crash (State: OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.64-3.83 and Trait: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.22-2.16 respectively). Self-report of distracting thoughts therefore did not capture the entire risk associated with the propensity of the mind to wander, either because of under-reported thoughts and/or other deleterious mechanisms to be further explored.

  16. The distracted mind on the wheel: Overall propensity to mind wandering is associated with road crash responsibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Gil-Jardiné

    Full Text Available The role of distractions on attentional lapses that place road users in higher risk of crash remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess the respective impact of (i mind wandering trait (propensity to mind wander in the everyday life as measured with a set of 4 questions on the proportion of time spent mind wandering in 4 different situations and (ii mind wandering state (disturbing thoughts just before the crash on road crash risk using a comparison between responsible and non-responsible drivers. 954 drivers injured in a road crash were interviewed at the adult emergency department of the Bordeaux university hospital in France (2013-2015. Responsibility for the crash, mind wandering (trait/state, external distraction, alcohol use, psychotropic drug use, and sleep deprivation were evaluated. Based on questionnaire reports, 39% of respondents were classified with a mind wandering trait and 13% reported a disturbing thought just before the crash. While strongly correlated, mind wandering state and trait were independently associated with responsibility for a traffic crash (State: OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.64-3.83 and Trait: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.22-2.16 respectively. Self-report of distracting thoughts therefore did not capture the entire risk associated with the propensity of the mind to wander, either because of under-reported thoughts and/or other deleterious mechanisms to be further explored.

  17. A framework for the system-of-systems analysis of the risk for a safety-critical plant exposed to external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.; Ferrario, E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a critical plant exposed to risk from external events. We propose an original framework of analysis, which extends the boundaries of the study to the interdependent infrastructures which support the plant. For the purpose of clearly illustrating the conceptual framework of system-of-systems analysis, we work out a case study of seismic risk for a nuclear power plant embedded in the connected power and water distribution, and transportation networks which support its operation. The technical details of the systems considered (including the nuclear power plant) are highly simplified, in order to preserve the purpose of illustrating the conceptual, methodological framework of analysis. Yet, as an example of the approaches that can be used to perform the analysis within the proposed framework, we consider the Muir Web as system analysis tool to build the system-of-systems model and Monte Carlo simulation for the quantitative evaluation of the model. The numerical exercise, albeit performed on a simplified case study, serves the purpose of showing the opportunity of accounting for the contribution of the interdependent infrastructure systems to the safety of a critical plant. This is relevant as it can lead to considerations with respect to the decision making related to safety critical-issues. -- Highlights: ► We consider a critical plant exposed to risk from external events. ► We consider also the interdependent infrastructures that support the plant. ► We use Muir Web as system analysis tool to build the system-of-systems model. ► We use Monte Carlo simulation for the quantitative evaluation of the model. ► We find that the interdependent infrastructures should be considered as they can be a support for the critical plant safety

  18. Space Transportation System (STS)-117 External Tank (ET)-124 Hail Damage Repair Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Barth, Timothy S.; Minute, Stephen A.; Flowers, Cody P.; Hamilton, David A.; Null, Cynthia H.; Schafer, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms with associated hail and high winds struck the STS-117 stack on February 26, 2007. Peak winds were recorded at 62 knots with hail sizes ranging from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch in diameter. As a result of the storm, the North Carolina Foam Institute (NCFI) type 24-124 Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam on the liquid oxygen (LO2) ogive acreage incurred significant impact damage. The NCFI on the ET intertank and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) acreage sustained hail damage. The Polymer Development Laboratory (PDL)-1034 foam of the LO2 ice frost ramps (IFRs) and the Super-Lightweight Ablator (SLA) of the LO2 cable tray also suffered minor damage. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to assess the technical feasibility of repairing the ET TPS, the reasonableness of conducting those repairs with the vehicle in a vertical, integrated configuration at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assemble Building (VAB), and to address attendant human factors considerations including worker fatigue and the potential for error. The outcome of the assessment is recorded in this document.

  19. Special distraction osteogenesis before bone grafting for alveolar cleft defects to correct maxillary deformities in patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates: distraction osteogenesis performed separately for each bone segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Morishita, Tadashi; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-07-01

    Patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates have premaxillary protrusion and characteristic jaw deformities involving three-dimensional malposition of the premaxilla and bilateral maxillary bone segments. This study examined patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates who had deviation and hypoplasia of the premaxillas and bilateral maxillary segments. Before bone grafting, the patients were treated with special distraction performed separately for each bone segment using a halo-type external device. This report describes this novel treatment method which produced good results. The subjects were five patients with severe jaw deformities due to bilateral cleft lip and palate. They were treated with maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy and subsequent distraction performed separately for each bone segment using a halo device. In three of five patients, premaxillary osteotomy was not performed, and osteotomy and distraction were performed only for the right and left lateral segments with severe hypoplasia. All patients achieved distraction close to the desired amount. The widths of the alveolar clefts were narrowed, and satisfactory occlusion and maxillary arch form were achieved. After the surgery, three of five patients underwent bone grafting for bilateral alveolar cleft defects and the bone graft survival was satisfactory. This method had many benefits, including narrowing of alveolar clefts, improvement of maxillary hypoplasia, and achievement of a good maxillary arch form. In addition, subsequent bone grafting for alveolar cleft defects was beneficial, dental prostheses were unnecessary, and frequency of surgery and surgical invasiveness were reduced. This method is a good surgical procedure that should be considered for patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates who have premaxillary protrusion and hypoplasia of the right and left lateral segments. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. On the rejection of internal and external disturbances in a wind energy conversion system with direct-driven PMSG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengquan; Zhang, Kezhao; Li, Juan; Liu, Chao

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the critical issue in a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG): the rejection of lumped disturbance, including the system uncertainties in the internal dynamics and unknown external forces. To simultaneously track the motor speed in real time and capture the maximum power, a maximum power point tracking strategy is proposed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) theory. In real application, system inertia, drive torque and some other parameters change in a wide range with the variations of disturbances and wind speeds, which substantially degrade the performance of WECS. The ADRC design must incorporate the available model information into an extended state observer (ESO) to compensate the lumped disturbance efficiently. Based on this principle, a model-compensation ADRC is proposed in this paper. Simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed control strategy. It is shown that the effect of lumped disturbance is compensated in a more effective way compared with the traditional ADRC approach. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.