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Sample records for external defibrillator aed

  1. [Automatic external defibrillator (AED) and public access defibrillation (PAD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Guy; Zalzstein, Eli; Ilia, Reuben; Katz, Amos

    2006-05-01

    Sudden death is a major public hazard and is usually caused by ventricular fibrillation (VF). Although in the majority of cases witnesses are to be found, resuscitation efforts are begun only in a minority of victims. The only treatment for VF is electrical shock and the time from collapse to resuscitation and defibrillation determine prognosis. Automated external defibrillator (AED) is a new device capable of effectively identifying and treating VF. It is unique in the sense that it can be operated by a non-medical operator following short training. Recent evidence of the survival benefit of AED utility is emerging. During the coming years, AEDs will be introduced to a growing number of hospitals and public places. This review summarizes the rationale for use, advantages, and disadvantages as well as the current status of AEDs and recommendations for placement of AEDs in Israel.

  2. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  3. Investigation of availability and accessibility of community automated external defibrillators in a territory in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C L; Lui, C T; Tsui, K L; Kam, C W

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the availability and accessibility of community automated external defibrillators in a territory in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional study. Two public hospitals in New Territories West Cluster in Hong Kong. Information about the locations of community automated external defibrillators was obtained from automated external defibrillator suppliers and through community search. Data on locations of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from August 2010 to September 2013 were obtained from the local cardiac arrest registry of the emergency departments of two hospitals. Sites of both automated external defibrillators and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were geographically coded and mapped. The number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests within 100 m of automated external defibrillators per year and the proportion of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests with accessible automated external defibrillators (100 m) were calculated. The number of community automated external defibrillators per 10,000 population and public access defibrillation rate were also calculated and compared with those in other countries. There were a total of 207 community automated external defibrillators in the territory. The number of automated external defibrillators per 10,000 population was 1.942. All facilities with automated external defibrillators in this territory had more than 0.2 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests per automated external defibrillator per year within 100 m. Among all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, 25.2% could have an automated external defibrillator reachable within 100 m. The public access defibrillation rate was 0.168%. The number and accessibility of community automated external defibrillators in this territory are comparable to those in other developed countries. The placement site of community automated external defibrillators is cost-effective. However, the public access defibrillation rate is low.

  4. Automatic external defibrillation in a 6 year old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, B; Benger, J; Goldsworthy, L

    2005-03-01

    A case is reported in which an automatic external defibrillator (AED) was used during the successful resuscitation of a 6 year old child in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, despite the fact that these devices are not recommended in children under 8 years. The interpretation of resuscitation protocols is discussed and new developments in this area reported.

  5. Automatic external defibrillators--time for a change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, J; Schmulian, C; Scott, A

    2005-02-26

    Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for cardiac arrest. Until relatively recently the use of defibrillators was restricted to medical staff and paramedics. The development of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) now means that this life-saving equipment may be used by anyone with a short period of training. This article will review the patho-physiology of cardiac arrest, the use of AEDs and their significance to the dental team. A medical emergency could happen at any time in the dental practice. Cardiac arrest is the most serious emergency that can occur. Whilst life-threatening incidents are very rare, the dental team requires to be trained in the management of a cardiac arrest.

  6. [Handling of automated external defibrillator (AED)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Kazuhiko

    2011-04-01

    It is medical equipment in "Advanced managed care equipment and specific maintenance medical equipment" for around and the life support though is thought that AED operates if it always turns on power like the television not used by the sense like home appliance as a result of spreading in general widely. It is management that it is important to always check the expiration date etc. of the indicator and the articles of consumption of AED to use it at any time when AED is set up, and requested by those who set it up.

  7. Optimizing a Drone Network to Deliver Automated External Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, Justin J; Brooks, Steven C; Janmohamed, Alyf; Byers, Adam; Buick, Jason E; Zhan, Cathy; Schoellig, Angela P; Cheskes, Sheldon; Morrison, Laurie J; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-06-20

    Public access defibrillation programs can improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are rarely available for bystander use at the scene. Drones are an emerging technology that can deliver an AED to the scene of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for bystander use. We hypothesize that a drone network designed with the aid of a mathematical model combining both optimization and queuing can reduce the time to AED arrival. We applied our model to 53 702 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred in the 8 regions of the Toronto Regional RescuNET between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014. Our primary analysis quantified the drone network size required to deliver an AED 1, 2, or 3 minutes faster than historical median 911 response times for each region independently. A secondary analysis quantified the reduction in drone resources required if RescuNET was treated as a large coordinated region. The region-specific analysis determined that 81 bases and 100 drones would be required to deliver an AED ahead of median 911 response times by 3 minutes. In the most urban region, the 90th percentile of the AED arrival time was reduced by 6 minutes and 43 seconds relative to historical 911 response times in the region. In the most rural region, the 90th percentile was reduced by 10 minutes and 34 seconds. A single coordinated drone network across all regions required 39.5% fewer bases and 30.0% fewer drones to achieve similar AED delivery times. An optimized drone network designed with the aid of a novel mathematical model can substantially reduce the AED delivery time to an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Double Sequential External Defibrillation and Survival from Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Martin; Cheskes, Sheldon; Ross, Garry; Verbeek, P Richard

    2016-01-01

    Patients who present in ventricular fibrillation are typically treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), epinephrine, antiarrhythmic medications, and defibrillation. Although these therapies have shown to be effective, some patients remain in a shockable rhythm. Double sequential external defibrillation has been described as a viable option for patients in refractory ventricular fibrillation. To describe the innovative use of two defibrillators used to deliver double sequential external defibrillation by paramedics in a case of refractory ventricular fibrillation resulting in prehospital return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge with good neurologic function. A 28-year-old female sustained a witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Bystander CPR was performed by her husband followed by paramedics providing high-quality CPR, antiarrhythmic medication, and 6 biphasic defibrillations using standard energy levels. Double sequential external defibrillation was applied and a return of spontaneous circulation was attained on scene and maintained through to arrival to the emergency department. Following admission to hospital the patient was diagnosed with long QT syndrome. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator was placed and the patient was discharged with a Cerebral Performance Category of 2 as well as a modified Rankin Scale of 2 after an 18-day hospital stay. The patient's functional status continued to improve post discharge. The addition of double sequential external defibrillation as part of a well-organized resuscitation effort may be a valid treatment option for OHCA patients who present in refractory ventricular fibrillation.

  9. Future shock: automatic external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Sharon; Weissman, Charles; Kark, Jeremy; Lotan, Chaim; Matot, Idit

    2005-04-01

    This review provides a practical overview of the performance capabilities of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), and of advances in technology and dissemination programmes for these devices. Arrhythmia analysis by AEDs is extremely reliable in most settings (sensitivity 81-100%, specificity 99.9-97.6%). Accurate detection of arrhythmias has also been demonstrated in children, leading the US Food and Drug Administration to approve the use of several AEDs in children aged 8 years or younger. Factors that potentially may reduce the quality of arrhythmia detection are the presence of wide complex supraventricular tachycardia and location of an arrythmic event near to high-power lines. AED use by professional basic life support providers resulted in increased survival in the prehospital setting. However, provision of AEDs to nonmedical rescue services did not result in universal improvement in patient outcome. Public access defibrillation programmes have led to higher rates of survival from cardiac arrest. The role of AEDs in hospitals has yet to be elucidated, although in-hospital mortality from ventricular arrhythmias has been shown to decrease following AED deployment. Given the correct setting, AEDs can ensure that defibrillation is not limited by lack of medical knowledge or difficulties in decision making. However, event-related variables and operator-related factors, that are yet to be determined, can significantly affect the efficacy of automatic external defibrillation.

  10. Use of automated external defibrillators in a Brazilian airline. A 1-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Magalhães Alves

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available After the incorporation of automated external defibrilators by other airlines and the support of the Brazilian Society of cardiology, Varig Airlines Began the onboard defibrilation program with the initial purpose of equiping wide-body aircrafts frequently used in international flights and that airplanes use in the Rio - São Paulo route. With all fight attendants trained, the automated. External defibrilation devides were incorporated to 34 airplanes of a total pleet of 80 aircrats. The devices were intalled in the bagage compartments secured with velero straps and 2 pairs of electrods, one or which pre-conected to the device to minimize application time. Later, a portable monitor was addres to the ressocitation kit in the long flights. The expansion of the knowledge of the basic life support fundamentors and the correted implantation of the survival chain and of the automated external defibrilators will increase the extense of recovery of cardiorespiratory arrest victins in aircrafts.

  11. Automatic external defibrillator, life vest defibrillator, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Conti, C

    2010-12-01

    The standard of practice for out-of-hospital defibrillation is the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. However, much has been written and discussed about the use of automated external defibrillators. Not as much has been written about life vest wearable defibrillators. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 21 CFR 870.5310 - Automated external defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated external defibrillator. 870.5310 Section 870.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... external defibrillator. (a) Identification. An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a low-energy...

  13. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  14. The Automatic External Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni Martínez-Rubio; Gonzalo Barón-Esquivias

    2004-01-01

    In-hospital cardiac arrest remains a major problem but new technologies allowing fully automatic external defibrillation are available. These technologies allow the concept of “external therapeutic monitoring” of lethal arrhythmias. Since early defibrillation improves outcome by decreasing morbidity and mortality, the use of this device should improve the outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest victims. Furthermore, the use of these devices could allow safe monitoring and treatment of patients ...

  15. Data management in automated external defibrillators: a call for a standardised solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Rasmussen, L S

    2011-01-01

    The ECG data stored in automated external defibrillators (AEDs) may be valuable for establishing a final diagnosis and deciding further diagnostics and treatment. Different data management systems are used and this may create significant problems for data storage and access for physicians treating...

  16. Teaching colleagues and the general public about automatic external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, E

    2001-01-01

    Every year 250,000 or more people with cardiovascular disease die within an hour of symptom onset and before they arrive at a hospital. With appropriate early defibrillation and follow-up treatment many people who might have died can now live. Nurses are key health care professionals for using automatic external defibrillators in hospitals and for teaching other first responders--inside and outside hospitals--how to use automatic external defibrillators. Features of automatic and semiautomatic external defibrillators are reviewed as well as ethical considerations for the use of automatic external defibrillators.

  17. A qualitative study to identify barriers to deployment and student training in the use of automated external defibrillators in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges...... such as delayed access have been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of defibrillator training of students and deployment of defibrillators in schools. METHODS: A qualitative study based on semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with a total of 25...... is suitable for defibrillator training. They were also ambiguous about deployment of defibrillators at schools. Those only accounting for the risk of students, considering their schools to be small, and that time for professional help was limited, found the relevance to be low. Due to safety concerns, some...

  18. [Automated external defibrillators, life vest defibrillator, or both?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, C Richard

    2012-03-01

    As most understand, survival of cardiac arrest victims falls significantly if cardioversion is not performed promptly. The standard of practice for out-of-hospital defibrillation is the implantable cardiac defibrillator; however, much has been written and discussed about the use of automated external defibrillators. Not as much has been written about life vest wearable defibrillators. How to use these devices will be reviewed in this article.

  19. [Problems with placement and using of automated external defibrillators in Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olos, Tomás; Bursa, Filip; Gregor, Roman; Holes, David

    2011-01-01

    The use of automated external defibrillators improves the survival of adults who suffer from cardiopulmonary arrest. Automated external defibrillators detect ventricular fibrillation with almost perfect sensitivity and specificity. Authors describe the use of automated external defibrillator during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a patient with sudden cardiac arrest during ice-hockey match. The article reports also the use of automated external defibrillators in children.

  20. Should ward nurses be using automatic external defibrillators as first responders to improve the outcome from cardiac arrest? A systematic review of the primary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenward, G; Castle, N; Hodgetts, T J

    2002-01-01

    The outcome from in-hospital cardiac arrest has improved little since the implementation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 40 years ago. Early defibrillation improves survival following ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The emergence of automatic external defibrillators and advisory defibrillators has been heralded as the answer to defibrillation delays in-hospital. To locate and evaluate the evidence supporting automatic external defibrillator use in-hospital on general wards. A systematic review of indexed and grey literature to identify primary research. Fifteen in-hospital automatic external defibrillator studies were located, five met the inclusion criteria. There is limited primary research evaluating automatic external defibrillators in-hospital. Manual defibrillators remain the most commonly used device for in-hospital defibrillation. Automated external defibrillators offer an alternative to manual defibrillation providing they have a screen and manual override capability, and the technology for pacing is close to hand. For in-hospital automatic external defibrillator programmes to be effective a change in nursing philosophy must occur, and defibrillation must become an expected rather than an extended nursing role.

  1. The Automatic External Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Martínez-Rubio

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In-hospital cardiac arrest remains a major problem but new technologies allowing fully automatic external defibrillation are available. These technologies allow the concept of “external therapeutic monitoring” of lethal arrhythmias. Since early defibrillation improves outcome by decreasing morbidity and mortality, the use of this device should improve the outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest victims. Furthermore, the use of these devices could allow safe monitoring and treatment of patients at risk of cardiac arrest who not necessarily must be in conventional monitoring units (Intensive or Coronary Care Units saving costs with a more meaningful use of resources. The capability to provide early defibrillation within any patient-care areas should be considered as an obligation (“standard of care” of the modern hospital.

  2. Automated external cardioversion defibrillation monitoring in cardiac arrest: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Bloom, Heather; Veledar, Emir; House, Dorothy; Norvel, Robert; Dudley, Samuel C; Zafari, A Maziar

    2008-06-11

    In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis despite active electrocardiography monitoring. The initial rhythm of approximately 25% of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events is pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). Early defibrillation is an independent predictor of survival in CPR events caused by VT/VF. The automated external cardioverter defibrillator (AECD) is a device attached by pads to the chest wall that monitors, detects, and within seconds, automatically delivers electric countershock to an appropriate tachyarrhythmia. To evaluate safety of AECD monitoring in hospitalized patients. To evaluate whether AECDs provide earlier defibrillation than hospital code teams. The study is a prospective trial randomizing patients admitted to the telemetry ward to standard CPR (code team) or standard CPR plus AECD monitoring (PowerHeart CRM). The AECD is programmed to deliver one 150 J biphasic shock to patients in sustained VT/VF. Data is collected using the Utstein criteria for cardiac arrest. The primary endpoint is time-to-defibrillation; secondary outcomes include neurological status and survival to discharge, with 3-year follow-up. To date, 192 patients have been recruited in the time period between 10/10/2006 to 7/20/2007. A total of 3,655 hours of telemetry data have been analyzed in the AECD arm. The AECD has monitored ambulatory telemetry patients in sinus rhythm, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter or fibrillation, with premature ventricular complexes and non-sustained VT without delivery of inappropriate shocks. One patient experienced sustained VT during AECD monitoring, who was successfully defibrillated (17 seconds after meeting programmed criteria). There are no events to report in the control arm. The patient survived the event without neurological complications. During the same time period, mean time to shock for VT/VF cardiac arrest occurring outside the telemetry ward was

  3. Can tablets be used as a simulator for automated external defibrillation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation courses?

    OpenAIRE

    Kovic, Ivor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A novel, tablet-based automated external defibrillator (AED) simulator has been developed to facilitate AED training. Objective. To evaluate if the tablet AED simulator (an AED simulator based on mobile technology (M-AED)) can be successfully used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) courses. To test medical and dental students’ CPR attitudes, knowledge and skills, and evaluate the impact of a one day CPR course. Methods. One hundred and twenty-four medical and denta...

  4. The Role of Automated External Defibrillators in Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmier, Justin D.; Drezner, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Sudden cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death in young athletes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of automated external defibrillators and emergency planning for sudden cardiac arrest in the athletic setting. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies on automated external defibrillators, early defibrillation, and public-access defibrillation programs were reviewed. Recommendations from consensus guidelines and position statements applicable to automated external defibrillators in athletics were also considered. Results: Early defibrillation programs involving access to automated external defibrillators by targeted local responders have demonstrated a survival benefit for sudden cardiac arrest in many public and athletic settings. Conclusion: Schools and organizations sponsoring athletic programs should implement automated external defibrillators as part of a comprehensive emergency action plan for sudden cardiac arrest. In a collapsed and unresponsive athlete, sudden cardiac arrest should be suspected and an automated external defibrillator applied as soon as possible, as decreasing the time interval to defibrillation is the most important priority to improve survival in sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:23015850

  5. Preliminary in-hospital experience with a fully automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, André Moreira; Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Timerman, Sérgio; Moretti, Miguel Antonio; Peres, Eduardo Dante Bariani; de Paiva, Edison Ferreira; Ramires, José Antonio Franchini; Kern, Karl B

    2004-10-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) are frequently present as initial rhythms during in-hospital cardiac arrest. Although ample evidence exists to support the need for rapid defibrillation, the response to in-hospital cardiac arrest remains without major advances in recent years. The delay between the arrhythmic event and intervention is still a challenge for clinical practice. To analyze the performance and safety of in-hospital use of a programmable, fully automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator (AECD). We conducted a prospective study at the Emergency Department of a university hospital. A total of 55 patients considered to be at risk of sustained VT/VF were included. Patients underwent monitoring of their cardiac rhythm by the AECD. Upon detection of a ventricular tachyarrhythmia, the AECD was programmed to automatically deliver shock therapy. We recorded 19 episodes of VT/VF in 3 patients. The median time between the beginning of the arrhythmia and the first defibrillation was 33.4 s (21-65 s). One episode of spontaneous reversion of VT was documented 20 s after its origin and shock therapy was aborted. The defibrillation success was 94.4% (17/18) for the first shock and 100% (1/1) for the second shock. No case of inappropriate shock discharge was registered during the study period. The AECD has the feasibility to combine long-term monitoring with automatic defibrillation safely and effectively. It presents the possibility of providing rapid identification of, and response to, in-hospital ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  6. A qualitative study to identify barriers to deployment and student training in the use of automated external defibrillators in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Folke, Fredrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-19

    Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges such as delayed access have been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of defibrillator training of students and deployment of defibrillators in schools. A qualitative study based on semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with a total of 25 participants, nine school leaders, and 16 teachers at eight different secondary schools in Denmark (2012-2013). Thematic analysis was used to identify regular patterns of meaning using the technology acceptance model and focusing on the concepts of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. School leaders and teachers are concerned that automated external defibrillators are potentially dangerous, overly technical, and difficult to use, which was related to their limited familiarity with them. They were ambiguous about whether or not students are the right target group or which grade is suitable for defibrillator training. They were also ambiguous about deployment of defibrillators at schools. Those only accounting for the risk of students, considering their schools to be small, and that time for professional help was limited, found the relevance to be low. Due to safety concerns, some recommended that defibrillators at schools should be inaccessible to students. They lacked knowledge about how they work and are operated, and about the defibrillators already placed at their campuses (e.g., how to access them). Prior training and even a little knowledge about defibrillators were crucial to their perception of student training but not for their considerations on the relevance of their placement at schools. It is crucial for implementation of automated external defibrillators in schools to

  7. A qualitative study to identify barriers to deployment and student training in the use of automated external defibrillators in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    participants, nine school leaders, and 16 teachers at eight different secondary schools in Denmark (2012-2013). Thematic analysis was used to identify regular patterns of meaning using the technology acceptance model and focusing on the concepts of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Results......Background: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges...... such as delayed access have been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of defibrillator training of students and deployment of defibrillators in schools. Methods: A qualitative study based on semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with a total of 25...

  8. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If the person has a lot of chest hair, you may have to trim it. (AEDs usually come with a kit that includes scissors and/or a razor.) If the person is wearing a medication patch that's in the way, remove it and clean the medicine from the skin before applying the ...

  9. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants & ... bras. The metal may conduct electricity and cause burns. You can cut the center of the bra ...

  10. 75 FR 70015 - External Defibrillators; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration External Defibrillators; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the following public workshop: FDA Public Workshop on External Defibrillators. The purpose of the...

  11. Automated external defibrillators and simulated in-hospital cardiac arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Joseph W; Jefferson, Larry S; Smith, E O'Brian; Ward, Mark A; Mott, Antonio R

    2009-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that pediatric residents would have shorter time to attempted defibrillation using automated external defibrillators (AEDs) compared with manual defibrillators (MDs). A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of AEDs versus MDs was performed. Pediatric residents responded to a simulated in-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest and were randomized to using either an AED or MD. The primary end point was time to attempted defibrillation. Sixty residents, 21 (35%) interns, were randomized to 2 groups (AED = 30, MD = 30). Residents randomized to the AED group had a significantly shorter time to attempted defibrillation [median, 60 seconds (interquartile range, 53 to 71 seconds)] compared with those randomized to the MD group [median, 103 seconds (interquartile range, 68 to 288 seconds)] (P attempted defibrillation at attempted defibrillation by pediatric residents in simulated cardiac arrests. Further studies are needed to help determine the role of AEDs in pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests.

  12. Hidden in plain sight: a crowdsourced public art contest to make automated external defibrillators more visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Griffis, Heather M; Ha, Yoonhee P; Kilaru, Austin S; Sellers, Allison M; Hershey, John C; Hill, Shawndra S; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily; Nadkarni, Lindsay; Debski, Margaret M; Padrez, Kevin A; Becker, Lance B; Asch, David A

    2014-12-01

    We sought to explore the feasibility of using a crowdsourcing study to promote awareness about automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and their locations. The Defibrillator Design Challenge was an online initiative that asked the public to create educational designs that would enhance AED visibility, which took place over 8 weeks, from February 6, 2014, to April 6, 2014. Participants were encouraged to vote for AED designs and share designs on social media for points. Using a mixed-methods study design, we measured participant demographics and motivations, design characteristics, dissemination, and Web site engagement. Over 8 weeks, there were 13 992 unique Web site visitors; 119 submitted designs and 2140 voted. The designs were shared 48 254 times on Facebook and Twitter. Most designers-voters reported that they participated to contribute to an important cause (44%) rather than to win money (0.8%). Design themes included: empowerment, location awareness, objects (e.g., wings, lightning, batteries, lifebuoys), and others. The Defibrillator Design Challenge engaged a broad audience to generate AED designs and foster awareness. This project provides a framework for using design and contest architecture to promote health messages.

  13. Automated external cardioversion defibrillation monitoring in cardiac arrest: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norvel Robert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis despite active electrocardiography monitoring. The initial rhythm of approximately 25% of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR events is pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF. Early defibrillation is an independent predictor of survival in CPR events caused by VT/VF. The automated external cardioverter defibrillator (AECD is a device attached by pads to the chest wall that monitors, detects, and within seconds, automatically delivers electric countershock to an appropriate tachyarrhythmia. Study Objectives • To evaluate safety of AECD monitoring in hospitalized patients. • To evaluate whether AECDs provide earlier defibrillation than hospital code teams. Methods The study is a prospective trial randomizing patients admitted to the telemetry ward to standard CPR (code team or standard CPR plus AECD monitoring (PowerHeart CRM. The AECD is programmed to deliver one 150 J biphasic shock to patients in sustained VT/VF. Data is collected using the Utstein criteria for cardiac arrest. The primary endpoint is time-to-defibrillation; secondary outcomes include neurological status and survival to discharge, with 3-year follow-up. Results To date, 192 patients have been recruited in the time period between 10/10/2006 to 7/20/2007. A total of 3,655 hours of telemetry data have been analyzed in the AECD arm. The AECD has monitored ambulatory telemetry patients in sinus rhythm, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter or fibrillation, with premature ventricular complexes and non-sustained VT without delivery of inappropriate shocks. One patient experienced sustained VT during AECD monitoring, who was successfully defibrillated (17 seconds after meeting programmed criteria. There are no events to report in the control arm. The patient survived the event without neurological complications. During the same time period, mean time to

  14. Automated external cardioversion defibrillation monitoring in cardiac arrest: a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Bloom, Heather; Veledar, Emir; House, Dorothy; Norvel, Robert; Dudley, Samuel C; Zafari, A Maziar

    2008-01-01

    Background In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis despite active electrocardiography monitoring. The initial rhythm of approximately 25% of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events is pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). Early defibrillation is an independent predictor of survival in CPR events caused by VT/VF. The automated external cardioverter defibrillator (AECD) is a device attached by pads to the chest wall that monitors, detects, and within seconds, automatically delivers electric countershock to an appropriate tachyarrhythmia. Study Objectives • To evaluate safety of AECD monitoring in hospitalized patients. • To evaluate whether AECDs provide earlier defibrillation than hospital code teams. Methods The study is a prospective trial randomizing patients admitted to the telemetry ward to standard CPR (code team) or standard CPR plus AECD monitoring (PowerHeart CRM). The AECD is programmed to deliver one 150 J biphasic shock to patients in sustained VT/VF. Data is collected using the Utstein criteria for cardiac arrest. The primary endpoint is time-to-defibrillation; secondary outcomes include neurological status and survival to discharge, with 3-year follow-up. Results To date, 192 patients have been recruited in the time period between 10/10/2006 to 7/20/2007. A total of 3,655 hours of telemetry data have been analyzed in the AECD arm. The AECD has monitored ambulatory telemetry patients in sinus rhythm, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter or fibrillation, with premature ventricular complexes and non-sustained VT without delivery of inappropriate shocks. One patient experienced sustained VT during AECD monitoring, who was successfully defibrillated (17 seconds after meeting programmed criteria). There are no events to report in the control arm. The patient survived the event without neurological complications. During the same time period, mean time to shock for VT

  15. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people to respond to a medical emergency where defibrillation is required. Because AEDs are portable, they can ... rhythm through adhesive electrodes. The computer calculates whether defibrillation is needed. If it is, a recorded voice ...

  16. Fluoroscopic and electrical assessment of a series of defibrillation leads: prevalence of externalized conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodoth, Vivek N; Hodkinson, Emily C; Noad, Rebecca L; Ashfield, Kyle P; Cromie, Nicholas A; McEneaney, David J; Wilson, Carol M; Roberts, Michael J D

    2012-12-01

    Insulation defects with externalized conductors have been reported in the St. Jude Riata(®)  family of defibrillation leads (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA). The objective of the Northern Ireland Riata(®)  lead screening program was to identify insulation defects and externalized conductors by systematic fluoroscopic and electrical assessment in a prospectively defined cohort of patients. We sought to estimate the prevalence, identify risk factors, and determine the natural history of this abnormality. All patients with a Riata(®)  lead under follow-up at the Royal Victoria Hospital were invited for fluoroscopic imaging and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead parameter checks. Fluoroscopic images were read independently by two cardiologists and the presence of externalized conductors was classified as positive, negative, or borderline. One hundred and sixty-five of 212 patients with a Riata lead were evaluated by fluoroscopy and lead parameter measurements. The mean duration after implantation was 3.98+/-1.43 years. After screening 25 (15%) patients were classified as positive, 137 (83%) negative, and three (1.8%) borderline. Time since implantation (P = 0.001), presence of a single coil lead (P = 0.042), and patient age (P = 0.034) were significantly associated with externalized conductors. The observed rate of externalized conductors was 26.9% for 8-French and 4.7% for 7-French leads. No leads that were identified prospectively with externalized conductors had electrical abnormalities. Seven of 25 (28%) patients had a defective lead extracted by the end of this screening period. A significant proportion (15%) of patients with a Riata lead had an insulation breach 4 years after implantation. High-resolution fluoroscopic imaging in at least two orthogonal views is required to identify this abnormality. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Automated External Defibrillators: Do You Need an AED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually covered by insurance. Your overall health and philosophy. If you have numerous medical problems, a terminal ... to use your home AED in a community education class, such as classes offered by the American ...

  18. AED (Automated External Defibrillator) Programs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ...

  19. Automated external defibrillation skills by naive schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Soto, Cristina; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Garrido-Viñas, Anxela; Navarro-Patón, Rubén; Muiño-Piñeiro, María; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Early defibrillation should achieve the highest survival rates when applied within the first minutes after the collapse. Public access defibrillation programs have increased the population awareness of the importance of defibrillation. Schoolchildren should be trained in basic life support (BLS) skills and some countries have included BLS in their school syllabus. However, little is known of the current knowledge and ability of schoolchildren to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). A multicentric descriptive study, 1295 children from 6 to 16 years of age without previous BLS or AED training. Subjects performed a simulation with an AED and a manikin with no training or feedback and were evaluated by means of a checklist. A total of 258 participants (19.9%) were able to simulate an effective and safe defibrillation in less than 3min and 52 (20.1% of this group) performed it successfully. A significant correlation between objective and age group was observed (G=0.172) (p<0.001). The average time to deliver a shock was 83.3±26.4s; that time decreased significantly with age [6 YO (108.3±40.4) vs. 16 YO (64.7±18.6)s] (p<0.001). Around 20% of schoolchildren without prior training are able to use an AED correctly in less than 3min following the device's acoustic and visual instructions. However, only one-fifth of those who showed success managed to complete the procedure satisfactorily. These facts should be considered in order to provide a more accurate definition and effective implementation of BLS/AED teaching and training at schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. External defibrillation failure due to antimicrobial incise drape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, David W; Dietz, Niki M; White, Roger D; Pochettino, Alberto; Nuttall, Gregory A

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial incise drapes adhere to a patient's skin during surgery in an attempt to reduce surgical infections. We describe a patient undergoing repeated aortic valve replacement who experienced sudden ventricular fibrillation before median sternotomy. External defibrillation was unsuccessful on multiple attempts using several defibrillators. On removal of the incise drape from the patient's chest, external defibrillation was immediately successful. Increased transthoracic impedance can be caused by multiple factors and may prevent defibrillation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an antimicrobial incise drape preventing defibrillation. If external defibrillation, cardioversion, or pacing is indicated intraoperatively, we recommend prompt removal of the antimicrobial incise drapes before electrode placement if the drapes overlay the intended pad position. Since this case, our institutional practice has now changed to placement of 2 external adhesive defibrillator electrodes onto the patient's skin lateral to the surgical field before incise drape application to allow for defibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a new semiautomated external defibrillator technology: a live cases video recording study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Frédéric; Marchandise, Sébastien; Boileau, Laurianne; Le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoît; Scavée, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    To determine the effect of a new automated external defibrillator (AED) system connected by General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) to an external call centre in assisting novices in a sudden cardiac arrest situation. Prospective, interventional study. Layperson volunteers were first asked to complete a survey about their knowledge and ability to give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use an AED. A simulated cardiac arrest scenario using a CPR manikin was then presented to volunteers. A telephone and semi-AED were available in the same room. The AED was linked to a call centre, which provided real-time information to 'bystanders' and emergency services via GPRS/GPS technology. The scene was videotaped to avoid any interaction with examiners. A standardised check list was used to record correct actions. 85 volunteers completed questionnaires and were recorded. Mean age was 44±16, and 49% were male; 38 (45%) had prior CPR training or felt comfortable intervening in a sudden cardiac arrest victim; 40% felt they could deliver a shock using an AED. During the scenarios, 56 (66%) of the participants used the AED and 53 (62%) successfully delivered an electrical shock. Mean time to defibrillation was 2 min 29 s. Only 24 (28%) participants dialled the correct emergency response number (112); the live-assisted GPRS AED allowed alerted emergency services in 38 other cases. CPR was initiated in 63 (74%) cases, 26 (31%) times without prompting and 37 (44%) times after prompting by the AED. Although knowledge of the general population appears to be inadequate with regard to AED locations and recognition, live-assisted devices with GPS-location may improve emergency care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Externalized conductors and insulation failure in Biotronik defibrillator leads: History repeating or a false alarm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Elia; Borghi, Ambra; Bonetti, Lorenzo; Fontana, Pier Luigi; Cappelli, Stefano

    2017-02-16

    Conductor externalization and insulation failure are frequent complications with the recalled St. Jude Medical Riata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads. Conductor externalization is a "unique" failure mechanism: Cables externalize through the insulation ("inside-out" abrasion) and appear outside the lead body. Recently, single reports described a similar failure also for Biotronik leads. Moreover, some studies reported a high rate of electrical dysfunction (not only insulation failure) with Biotronik Linox leads and a reduced survival rate in comparison with the competitors. In this paper we describe the case of a patient with a Biotronik Kentrox ICD lead presenting with signs of insulation failure and conductor externalization at fluoroscopy. Due to the high risk of extraction we decided to implant a new lead, abandoning the damaged one; lead reimplant was uneventful. Subsequently, we review currently available literature about Biotronik Kentrox and Linox ICD lead failure and in particular externalized conductors. Some single-center studies and a non-prospective registry reported a survival rate between 88% and 91% at 5 years for Linox leads, significantly worse than that of other manufacturers. However, the preliminary results of two ongoing multicenter, prospective registries (GALAXY and CELESTIAL) showed 96% survival rate at 5 years after implant, well within industry standards. Ongoing data collection is needed to confirm longer-term performance of this family of ICD leads.

  3. Assessment of knowledge and skills in using an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) by university students. A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta Camiño, S; Navarro Patón, R; Freire Tellado, M; Barcala Furelos, R; Pavón Prieto, M P; Fernández López, M; Neira Pájaro, M A

    To evaluate layperson (university student) ability to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). A repeated measures quasi-experimental study with non-probabilistic sampling and a control group was carried out. Teacher training degree students at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). The sample consisted of 129 subjects (69% women and 31% men), between 19-47 years of age (mean 23.2±4.7 years). As inclusion criterion, the subjects were required to have no previous knowledge of AED. Times to apply defibrillation with an AED to a mannequin were recorded untrained (T0), after a theoretical and practice explanation lasting less than one minute (T1), and 6 months after the training process (T2). The primary endpoint was the time taken to deliver a defibrillation discharge. The "improvement effect" variable was defined by the absolute time difference between T1 and T0, while the "degree of forgetfulness effect" variable was defined as the absolute difference between T1 and T2. The mean times were T0=67.7s; T1=44.2s; T2=45.9s. The time to apply defibrillation was reduced after explanation training (T1AED was demonstrated, since untrained people were able to deliver a discharge. Defibrillation time was reduced after brief training. This time barely increased after 6 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Inappropriate Shocks and Power Delivery Using Adult Automatic External Defibrillator Pads in a Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejman-Yarden, Shai; Katz, Uriel; Rubinstein, Marina; Attias, Yehuda; Yahia, Reem; Mishali, David; Glikson, Michael

    2017-02-21

    The use of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) during pulseless resuscitations is considered safe and reliable, and was established as part of the guidelines in out-of-hospital events. Based on extensive studies, the use of the standard AED is now indicated in every age group with a preference of pediatric pad application for small children and babies. If unavailable, adult pads are recommended. We report a case of 2 inappropriate AED shocks that were delivered to a neonate during a pulseless resuscitation after application of adult pads. The 3.6-kg patient received 2 shocks, over 200 J each, for sinus bradycardia that was not detected by the device. Although treated inappropriately with high voltage, no cardiac or skin sequelae were detected, and the patient had normal cardiac and neurological development later on.

  5. Delaying a shock after takeover from the automated external defibrillator by paramedics is associated with decreased survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdowski, Jocelyn; Schulten, Ron J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; van Alem, Anouk P.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the takeover by Advanced Life Support [ALS] trained ambulance paramedics from rescuers using an automated external defibrillator [AED] delays shocks and if this delay is associated with decreased survival after out-of-hospital

  6. The fully automatic external cardioverter defibrillator: reality of a new meaningful scenario for in-hospital cardiac arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rubio, Antoni; Gusi, Gabriel; Guillaumet, Eva; Cazorla, Montse; Galán, Sonia; Bagà, Rosa; Guilera, Elena; Bonastre, Manel; Raimón Gumà, Joan; Anguera, Ignaci; Ibars, Sonia; Ochagavia, Ana; Mestre, Jaume; Font, Juli; Saura, Pilar; Dalmases, Martí; Blanch, Lluís; Artigas, Antoni

    2005-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is an unresolved problem which causes significant mortality and morbidity in both the community and in-hospital setting. Cardiac arrest is often caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmias which may be mostly interrupted by cardioversion or defibrillation. The single most critical factor for survival is the response time. Over the last 30 years, there have been virtually no procedural changes in the way hospitals address in-hospital resuscitation. A unique device has been developed that eliminates human intervention and assures defibrillation therapy is administered in seconds. This is accomplished with a fully automatic, external bedside monitor defibrillator designed to be prophylactically attached to hospitalized patients at risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The safety and efficacy of the device has been demonstrated in multicenter US and European trials. Thus, this device allows a new scenario which may increase survival and enables meaningful redistribution of health resources.

  7. Legal aspects of the application of the lay rescuer automatic external defibrillator (AED) program in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyuna

    2008-04-01

    The American Heart Association has stated that the automatic external defibrillator (AED) is a promising method for achieving rapid defibrillation, and emphasized that AED training and use should be available in every community. The demonstrated safety and effectiveness of the AED make it ideally suited for the delivery of early defibrillation by trained laypersons, and the placement of AEDs in selected locations for immediate use by trained laypersons may enable critical intervention that can significantly increase survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The American Heart Association recommends the installation of AEDs in public locations such as airports, thus allowing laypersons to conduct defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the occasion of adverse cardiopulmonary events. In Korea, the Ministry of Health and Welfare officially prohibits the installation of AEDs in public locations on the grounds that cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are understood as medical practices that can be conducted only by licensed medical practitioners. The purpose of this article is to discuss the necessity for AEDs and the appropriate process for their implementation in Korea, by examining the current pre-AED status of Korea and the relevant legal aspects.

  8. Public knowledge of automatic external defibrillators in a large U.S. urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Leary, Marion; Blewer, Audrey L; Cinousis, Marisa; Sheak, Kelsey; Ward, Michael; Merchant, Raina M; Becker, Lance B; Abella, Benjamin S

    2015-07-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) strikes over 40,000 people in the public environment annually in the U.S., but despite evidence-based interventions such as prompt CPR and defibrillation, less than 25% of patients survive public SCA events. Effective use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), especially by lay bystanders, represents an important strategy to improve survival rates. Previous investigations in Europe and Asia have demonstrated variable public awareness of AEDs; layperson knowledge of AEDs in the U.S. is poorly characterized. To measure understanding of AEDs among the general public, at multiple sites within a busy urban transportation system. Surveys were administered at two high-volume train stations in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania between April and June, 2013. A total of 514 surveys were completed. Two thirds (66%) of respondents were able to correctly identify an AED and its purpose, and just over half (58%) of respondents reported willingness to use an AED in an emergency situation. Less than 10% of respondents presented with a hypothetical SCA scenario spontaneously mentioned using an AED when asked what actions they would take. In this cross-sectional survey, public knowledge about AEDs and their use was high; however, a smaller number of respondents expressed thoughts of using the device in an emergency situation and demonstrated willingness to serve as a responder. Increased education and training efforts, as well as potential interventions such as 911 dispatcher-assisted AED use may help improve bystander response in SCA events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life-saving automated external defibrillation in a teenager: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Corsino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent sudden death during sport participation is commonly due to cardiac causes. Survival is more likely when an automated external defibrillator (AED is used soon after collapse. Case presentation We describe a case of sudden death in a 14 year old boy with two remarkable points, successful resuscitation at school using an AED and diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was immediately started by a witness and 5 minutes after the event the child was placed on an AED monitor that determined he was in a non shockable rhythm, therefore CPR was continued. Two minutes later, the AED monitor detected a shockable rhythm and recommended a shock, which was then administered. One minute after the shock, a palpable pulse was detected and the child began to breathe by himself. Four days after cardiac arrest, the boy was conversing and self-caring. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of ARVC. Conclusion Ventricular fibrillation secondary to ARVC may be a devastating event and places young patients and athletes at high risk of sudden death. Immediate CPR and AED have been demonstrated to be lifesaving in such events. Therefore, we suggest that schools should have teachers skilled in CPR and accessible AEDs.

  10. Automatic and Semiautomatic External Defibrillator/Pacers: Futuristic Emergency Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Fast, Thomas B.; Cavallaro, Daniel L.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic and semiautomatic defibrillator/pacers are new devices that combine many of the functions of an ECG unit, an external pacemaker, and a defibrillator into one unit with a built-in logic system. These devices are well researched and are gaining acceptance by the American Heart Association, emergency room physicians, and others concerned with emergency treatment of cardiac arrest, fibrillation, and potentially fatal dysrhythmias. These instruments are dependable, easy to use, and may i...

  11. [Training program on cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of automated external defibrillator in a university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Ana Paula; Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue

    2012-03-01

    Early defibrillation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) receives increasing emphasis on its priority and rapidity. This is an experience report about the implementation of a training program in CPR using a defibrillator in a private university. The training program in basic CPR maneuvers was based on global guidelines, including a theorical course with practical demonstration of CPR maneuvers with the defibrillator, individual practical training and theoretical and practical assessments. About the performance of students in the practical assessment the mean scores obtained by students in the first stage of the course was 26.4 points, while in the second stage the mean was 252.8 points, in the theoretical assessment the mean in the first stage was 3.06 points and in the second 9.0 points. The implementation of programs like this contribute to the effective acquisition of knowledge (theory) and skill (pratice) for the care of CPR victims.

  12. [Public access defibrillation: successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to automatic external defibrillator at traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, S; Reuter, H; Pfister, R; Michels, G

    2014-03-01

    A 65-year-old man collapsed after he stepped out of his car after a traffic accident. Fortunately, two police officers on a routine patrol in the area were quickly on the scene and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A passerby noticed that the patient was in distress and that an automatic defibrillator was nearby. He attached the electrodes of the defibrillator to the chest of the patient in accordance with instructions on the defibrillator and terminated the ventricular fibrillation (200 joule, biphasic). Emergency cardiac catheterization revealed a subtotal stenosis proximally in the right coronary artery, which was successfully treated with a stent. Based on the ideal basic life support, the immediate care by emergency mobile system and coronary angioplasty with successful revascularisation the patient could be released without any neurological deficit. This case illustrates that laypersons can use automatic external defibrillator in case of cardiac resuscitation sufficiently and quickly. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. A case of ventricular fibrillation not detected by an automated external defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigetoshi Sakabe, MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ventricular fibrillation (VF which an automated external defibrillator (AED could not detect. A 13-year-old girl collapsed just after playing basketball. Cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR was started immediately and 5 minutes later an AED was applied by a rescue team. The monitor of the AED displayed typical VF, but the AED did not detect it as VF. The VF was not detected during 2 more attempts. Detection occurred on the fourth attempt, and counter-shock was successfully delivered, but the process took an extra 9 minutes. After the event, the girl was diagnosed with a latent type of prolonged QT syndrome. We analyzed the reason why the VF was not detected by the AED and found that the ECG detected by the AED fell outside the device’s parameters for ventricular tachycardia (VT or VF. We emphasize that the AED is an excellent device, but we should also be aware of its limitations.

  14. A new way to analyze resuscitation quality by reviewing automatic external defibrillator data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Lo, Men-Tzung; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Lin, Chen; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Hsiung, Kuang-Hua; Lin, Jiunn-Lee; Chen, Wen-Jone; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2012-02-01

    High quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) plays an important role in survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). We have developed an algorithm to automatically identify the quality of chest compressions from data retrieved from automatic external defibrillators (AEDs). Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals retrieved from AEDs were analyzed by a newly developed algorithm to identify fluctuations in CPR. The algorithm contained three steps. First, it decomposed the AED signals into several intrinsic mode fluctuations (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Second, it identified the dominant IMFs that carried the chest compression signals and weighted the IMFs to both enhance the chest compression oscillations and filter the noise. Third, it calculated the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the reconstructed signals and tested their periodicity. Using this algorithm, several CPR quality indicators were automatically calculated minute-by-minute and compared with those derived by audio and visual review of AED data by experienced physicians. A total of 77 (29 women, 48 men) OHCA patients were enrolled, and 351 one-min segments were analyzed. The results showed that the CPR quality parameters calculated from the algorithm were highly correlated with those from the manual review (all Pautomatically determined by analyzing the ECG signals from AEDs using EMD and autocorrelograms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [In-hospital resuscitation. Concept of first-responder resuscitation using semi-automated external defibrillators (AED)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, C; Lichte, C; Laubenthal, H; Hanke, E; Mügge, A

    2006-09-29

    The prognosis after in-hospital resuscitation has not significantly improved in the last 40 years. This account presents the results over a three-year period of a hospital-wide emergency plan which implements the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) by the first responder to the emergency call. 15 "defibrillator points" were installed, which could be reached within 30 s from all wards, out-patient departments and other areas, thus making them accessible for immediate defibrillator application. The hospital personnel is trained periodically in the alarm sequence, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of the defibrillator. Data on 57 patients who had sustained a cardiac arrest were prospectively recorded and analysed. In 46 patients (81%) the "on-the-spot" personnel (first-responder) was able to apply AED before arrival of the hospital's resuscitation team. Mean period between arrest alarm and activation of the AED was 2.2 (0.7-4.7) min. Ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachyarrhythmia was recorded in 40 patients, making immediate shock delivery by AED possible. Restoration of the circulation was achieved in 23 (80%) of the patients and 20 (50%) were discharged home, 17 (43%) without neurological deficit. The high proportion of first-responder AED applications and evaluation of the personnel training indicate a wide acceptance of the emergency plan among the personnel. An immediate resuscitation plan consisting of an integrated programme of early defibrillation is feasible and seems to achieve an improved prognosis for patients who have sustained an in-hospital cardiac arrest.

  16. Multicenter study of principles-based waveforms for external defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, A C; Swerdlow, C D; Love, C J; Ellenbogen, K A; Deering, T F; Brewer, J E; Augostini, R S; Tchou, P J

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a shock waveform for external defibrillation depends on the waveform characteristics. Recently, design principles based on cardiac electrophysiology have been developed to determine optimal waveform characteristics. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of principles-based monophasic and biphasic waveforms for external defibrillation. A prospective, randomized, blinded, multicenter study of 118 patients undergoing electrophysiologic testing or receiving an implantable defibrillator was conducted. Ventricular fibrillation was induced, and defibrillation was attempted in each patient with a biphasic and a monophasic waveform. Patients were randomly placed into 2 groups: group 1 received shocks of escalating energy, and group 2 received only high-energy shocks. The biphasic waveform achieved a first-shock success rate of 100% in group 1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 95.1% to 100%) and group 2 (95% CI 94.6% to 100%), with average delivered energies of 201+/-17 J and 295+/-28 J, respectively. The monophasic waveform demonstrated a 96.7% (95% CI 89.1% to 100%) first-shock success rate and average delivered energy of 215+/-12 J for group 1 and a 98.2% (95% CI 91.7% to 100%) first-shock success rate and average delivered energy of 352+/-13 J for group 2. Using principles of electrophysiology, it is possible to design both biphasic and monophasic waveforms for external defibrillation that achieve a high first-shock efficacy.

  17. Modeling a novel hypothetical use of postal collection boxes as automated external defibrillator access points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sanjana; Salerno, Jessica; Hajari, Hadi; Weiss, Lenny S; Salcido, David D

    2017-11-01

    Optimizing placement of Automated External Defibrillators (AED) can increase survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Using postal collection boxes (PCB) as locations for AEDs could potentially enhance accessibility and streamline maintenance. In this study, we modeled the hypothetical effects of deploying AEDs at PCB locations. We hypothesized that PCB-AEDs would increase AED coverage overall and in residential areas, and reduce the distance from OHCA to an AED. AEDs in Pittsburgh, PA were identified by the University of Pittsburgh Resuscitation Logistics and Informatics Venture (n=747). PCB locations were obtained from the United States Postal Service (n=479). OHCA locations from 2009 to 2014 were obtained from the Pittsburgh site of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. AED coverage assuming a ¼ mile radius around each AED was estimated for known AEDs, PCB-AEDs (hypothetical AED locations), and known AEDs augmented by PCB-AEDs, both overall and for residential and non-residential zones. Linear distance from each OHCA to the nearest AED was calculated and compared between the sets. The set of known AEDs augmented with PCB-AEDs covered more of the city overall (55% vs 30%), as well as greater proportions of residential (62% vs 27%) and non-residential areas (45% vs 30%). The median distance from OHCA to AED was significantly shorter when known AEDs were augmented with PCB-AEDs (0.12mi vs 0.32mi; p=0.001). Augmenting existing publicly accessible AEDs with AEDs deployed at PCBs can increase AED spatial coverage in both residential and non-residential areas, and reduce the distance from AED to OHCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated external defibrillator training and skill retention at a ski patrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usatch, Ben R; Cone, David C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether members of a ski patrol, most of whom have no off-season medical responsibilities, can successfully complete an automated external defibrillator (AED) training program prior to the ski season, and retain AED skills at the end of the season and at the beginning of the following season. A prospective educational study was conducted with 61 ski patrol personnel: 51 (84%) had no other medical training, 44 (72%) had no off-season medical duties, and 57 (93%) had no prior exposure to AEDs. Prior to the ski season (December 1, 1998), all members were trained and tested using the standard American Heart Association (AHA) AED training package and a Life-Pak 500 AED and AED Trainer donated by the Medtronic Physio-Control Corporation. Both after the ski season (April 1, 1999) and prior to the following season (October 30, 1999), with no refresher training, participants were retested with the same written and practical exams. Cochrane's linear trend test was used to compare scores on the practical and written tests over time. For the three testing sessions, practical test pass rates were 95%, 92%, and 97%, and written test pass rates were 100%, 98%, and 98%. There was no change in individuals' scores on either the written test (p = 0.914) or the practical test (p = 0.413) over time. A heterogeneous group of ski patrollers can successfully complete an AED training course, with good skill retention both after the ski season and at the beginning of the following season.

  19. Safety of fully automatic external defibrillation by untrained lay rescuers in the presence of a bystander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmans, Tony Ph; Maquoi, Isabelle; Vogels, Catherine; Courtois, Anne-Catherine; Micheels, Jean; Lamy, Maurice; Monsieurs, Koenraad G

    2008-05-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are becoming increasingly available in public places to be used by citizens in case of cardiac arrest. Most AEDs are semi-automatic (SAEDs), but some are fully automatic (FAEDs) and there is ongoing debate and concern that they may lead to inadvertent shocks to rescuers or bystanders because the timing of the shock is not controlled by the rescuer. We therefore compared the behaviour of untrained citizens using an FAED or an SAED in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. One hundred and seventy-six laypeople were randomised to use an FAED or an SAED (Lifepak CR+, Medtronic, Redmond, USA) in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario on a manikin (Ambu, Denmark) where a bystander was touching the victim's upper arm. Each rescuer's performance was recorded on video and analysed afterwards using a modified Cardiff Score. The rescuer or the bystander was considered unsafe if either of them touched the victim during shock delivery. Eleven cases could not be analysed because of technical problems. Fifteen participants violated the protocol making further analysis impossible. Of the remaining 150 participants, 68 used the FAED and 82 used the SAED. The rescuers were safe in 97/150 (65%) cases, without a difference between FAED and SAED. The bystander was safe in 25/68 (37%) cases in the FAED group versus 19/82 (23%) in the SAED group (p=0.07). Combined safety of both rescuer and bystander was observed in 23/68 (34%) cases in the FAED group versus 15/82 (18%) in the SAED group (p=0.03). Safety was not compromised when untrained lay rescuers used an FAED compared with an SAED. The observation of overall safer behaviour by FAED users in the presence of bystanders may be related to the additional instructions provided by the FAED, and the reduced interaction of the rescuer with the bystander when using the SAED.

  20. [Research on automatic external defibrillator based on DSP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jun; Ding, Jingyan; Zhang, Wei; Hong, Wenxue

    2012-10-01

    Electrical defibrillation is the most effective way to treat the ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). An automatic external defibrillator based on DSP is introduced in this paper. The whole design consists of the signal collection module, the microprocessor controlingl module, the display module, the defibrillation module and the automatic recognition algorithm for VF and non VF, etc. This automatic external defibrillator has achieved goals such as ECG signal real-time acquisition, ECG wave synchronous display, data delivering to U disk and automatic defibrillate when shockable rhythm appears, etc.

  1. Minimal interruption of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for a single shock as mandated by automated external defibrillations does not compromise outcomes in a porcine model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Tang, Wanchun; Russell, James K; Jorgenson, Dawn; Wang, Hao; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry

    2008-11-01

    Current automated external defibrillations require interruptions in chest compressions to avoid artifacts during electrocardiographic analyses and to minimize the risk of accidental delivery of an electric shock to the rescuer. The earlier three-shock algorithm, with prolonged interruptions of chest compressions, compromised outcomes and increased severity of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effect of timing of minimal automated external defibrillation-mandated interruptions of chest compressions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcomes, using a single-shock algorithm. We hypothesized that an 8-sec interruption of chest compressions for a single shock, as mandated by automated external defibrillations, would not impair initial resuscitation and outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Randomized prospective animal study. University affiliated research laboratory. Domestic pigs. In 24 domestic male pigs weighing 41 +/- 2 kg, ventricular fibrillation was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and untreated for 7 min. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including chest compressions and ventilation with oxygen, was then performed for an interval of 2 min before attempted defibrillation. Animals were randomized into three groups: A) interruption immediately before defibrillation; B) interruption after 1 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation; or C) no interruption. Chest compressions were delivered with the aid of a mechanical chest compressor at a rate of 100 compressions/min and compression/ventilation ratio of 30:2. Defibrillation was attempted with a single biphasic 150-J shock. Each animal was successfully resuscitated and survived for >72 hr. No differences in the number of shocks before return of spontaneous circulation, frequency of recurrent ventricular fibrillation, duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and severity of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction were observed. In this

  2. Advisory External Defibrillator Availability in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T; Bury, G

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the availability of advisory external defibrillators (AEDs) in Irish General Practice. The study utilised a computer generated random sample of Irish general practitioners and involved a postal questionnaire, with telephone follow up of non-responders. The cohort of GPs already known to possess an AED (via participation in the Merit Project) was excluded. 115 valid paper survey responses were received representing a response rate of 59%. 5 of the responding GPs identified themselves as Merit project participants and were excluded from data analysis. 74/110 GPs (67%) reported having one or more AED(s) available for use at their practice. 41/77 GPs (53%) who had not responded to the paper survey but were contactable by telephone had an AED available. When AED availability was examined by practice setting a higher proportion of rural and mixed settings had AEDs available than in urban and city areas. Cost was reported as the most common reason for not having an AED.

  3. Automatic external defibrillators in Belgian fitness centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Fabian; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoît; Marchandise, Sébastien; Scavée, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    The number of fitness centres has increased in Western countries, some proposing specific training programmes (cardiac patients, weight loss or seniors).There is a real risk of cardiovascular events for individuals without cardiovascular evaluation. Fitness centres could represent a place at particularly high risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). In this observational study, we evaluated the number of fitness centres with automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) throughout the French-speaking part of Belgium, their geographic localization, the number of attendees, and the number of SCA reported. Details of AED and SCA were obtained by telephone survey. RESUITS: A total of 51 centres were surveyed. Only 5 (9.8%) had an AED and 68.8% (35/51) of centres had > 1 staff members specifically trained in CPR. Since the opening of these facilities, 5 SCA were reported from 3 centres (5.9%). Only 2 fitness centres had an AED present at the time of the SCA.Two SCA were unwitnessed, and for another 2 victims AED was used without success. Well-conducted CPR (no AED available) resulted in the only survivor of SCA. The rate of SCA in fitness centres in French-speaking Belgium is comparable to that reported in other countries. AED were available in less than 10% of centres and no CPR trained staff was available in almost one third of the centres.

  4. Effectiveness of automated external defibrillators in high schools in greater Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Hannah; Hoffman, Caitlin; Hodgman, Thomas; Singh, Sushil; Homoud, Munther; Weinstock, Jonathan; Link, Mark; Estes, N A Mark

    2005-06-15

    A program using a strategy of donating a single automatic external defibrillator to 35 schools in the Boston area resulted in compliance with American Heart Association guidelines on automatic external defibrillator placement and training and 2 successful resuscitations from sudden cardiac arrest. Participating schools indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the program.

  5. Automated external defibrillator (AED) utilization rates and reasons fire and police first responders did not apply AEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, E Brooke; Billittier, Anthony J; Newman, Mary M; Groh, William J

    2002-01-01

    To determine the rate at which fire and police first responders (FRs) apply automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and to ascertain reasons for not applying them. Twenty-one emergency medical services (EMS) systems whose FRs had been supplied with AEDs by a philanthropic foundation provided data for all out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Data including the incidence of AED application and explanations for not applying AEDs were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 2,456 OHCAs were reported. AED application information was available for 2,439 patients and revealed that FRs had not applied AEDs to 1,025 patients (42%). Fire FRs were more likely than police FRs to have applied AEDs (relative risk 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.65-2.12). Reasons for not applying AEDs were listed for 664 (65%) of the OHCA patients to whom AEDs had not been applied. The predominant reason the FRs did not apply an AED was that the transporting ambulance defibrillator had already been applied (74%). However, when response times for FRs and the transporting ambulances were compared for these OHCA patients, it was found that the transporting ambulances arrived after the FRs 23% the time, simultaneously with the FRs 45% of the time, and before the FRs only 32% of the time. Fire and police FRs did not apply AEDs to a significant number of OHCA patients. Use of the transport ambulance defibrillator was the primary reason given for not applying the FR AED. Given low AED application rates by FRs, future studies are needed to determine the characteristics of communities in which equipping FRs with AEDs is the most beneficial deployment strategy, and how to increase AED application by FRs in communities with FR AED programs.

  6. Is external defibrillation an electric threat for bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Robert Sebastian; Heinroth, Konstantin; Trappe, Hans-Joachim; Werdan, Karl

    2009-04-01

    Safety precautions during defibrillation and cardioversion are generally taken very seriously. The actual hazard for bystanders and rescuers, however, has rarely been investigated. Recently, continuing chest compressions during defibrillation has been suggested to improve outcome from cardiac arrest. This article is to review reports on electric shocks to persons other than patients and to discuss the pertinent biomedical principles. Systematic search in medical literature databases and consecutive hand-search of reference lists. A total of 29 adverse events are reported in the medical literature; seven due to accidental or intentional defibrillator misuse, three due to device malfunction, four during training/maintenance procedures, and 15 during regular resuscitation efforts. Tingling sensations and minor burns are frequently reported consequences of inadvertent shocks. There are no accounts on immediate life-threatening conditions or long-term disability in rescuers/bystanders inflicted by defibrillation/cardioversion of a patient. Discharging a defibrillator directly to a healthy person's chest can be lethal. External electric therapy is likely to be safer than traditionally assumed, especially with self-adhesive thoracic electrodes. Sound clinical experiments are urgently needed before safety measures are revised.

  7. Value of an automatic external defibrillator printout as a diagnostic tool after successful AED use on a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sambeeck, S J; van Gent, R; Schroër, C; Halbertsma, F J J

    2013-04-22

    A 6-year-old girl without any medical history experienced a drowning incident for a duration of 2 min, according to witnesses. This was followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, during which the automatic external defibrillator (AED) detected a shockable rhythm and subsequently delivered a single electroshock. At the time of admission, her medical history was unclear, and as her chest had been wet, it was not clear if the AED had been capable of correctly analysing the rhythm. The AED printout, however, revealed ventricular fibrillation (VF), which proved to be a primary cardiac cause at the time of the incident. This case report confirms the assumption that the AED can adequately perform rhythm analysis on children and convert VF into sinus rhythm. Moreover, the AED printout can provide information about the rhythm that is necessary for the diagnosis of an underlying cardiac disease.

  8. Prescribing an automated external defibrillator for children at increased risk of sudden arrhythmic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Karen A; Fern, Eileen; Clements, Fiona; McGowan, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Automated external defibrillators can be life-saving in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our aim was to review our experience of prescribing automated external defibrillators for children at increased risk of sudden arrhythmic death. We reviewed all automated external defibrillators issued by the Scottish Paediatric Cardiac Electrophysiology Service from 2005 to 2015. All parents were given resuscitation training according to the Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines, including the use of the automated external defibrillator. A total of 36 automated external defibrillators were issued to 36 families for 44 children (27 male). The mean age at issue was 8.8 years. Diagnoses at issue included long QT syndrome (50%), broad complex tachycardia (14%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (11%), and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (9%). During the study period, the automated external defibrillator was used in four (9%) children, and in all four the automated external defibrillator correctly discriminated between a shockable rhythm - polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in three patients with one or more shocks delivered - and non-shockable rhythm - sinus rhythm in one patient. Of the three children, two of them who received one or more shocks for ventricular fibrillation/polymorphic ventricular tachycardia survived, but one died as a result of recurrent torsades de pointes. There were no other deaths. Parents can be taught to recognise cardiac arrest, apply resuscitation skills, and use an automated external defibrillator. Prescribing an automated external defibrillator should be considered for children at increased risk of sudden arrhythmic death, especially where the risk/benefit ratio of an implantable defibrillator is unclear or delay to defibrillator implantation is deemed necessary.

  9. Lay bystanders' perspectives on what facilitates cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of automated external defibrillators in real cardiac arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rosenkranz, Simone Mørk; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will fail to receive bystander intervention (cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] or defibrillation) despite widespread CPR training and the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We sought to investigate wh...

  10. Shock advisory system for heart rhythm analysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation using a single ECG input of automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Dotsinsky, Ivan; Didon, Jean-Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Minimum "hands-off" intervals during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are required to improve the success rate of defibrillation. In support of such life-saving practice, a shock advisory system (SAS) for automatic analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) contaminated by chest compression (CC) artefacts is presented. Ease of use for the automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is aimed and therefore only processing of ECG from usual defibrillation pads is required. The proposed SAS relies on assessment of outstanding components of ECG rhythms and CC artefacts in the time and frequency domain. For this purpose, three criteria are introduced to derive quantitative measures of band-pass filtered CC-contaminated ECGs, combined with three more criteria for frequency-band evaluation of reconstructed ECGs (rECG). The rECGs are derived by specific techniques for CC waves similarity assessment and are reproducing to some extent the underlying ECG rhythms. The rhythm classifier embedded in SAS takes a probabilistic decision designed by statistics on the training dataset. Both training and testing are fully performed on real CC-contaminated strips of 10 s extracted from human ECGs of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest interventions. The testing is done on 172 shockable strips (ventricular fibrillations VF), 371 non-shockable strips (NR) and 330 asystoles (ASYS). The achieved sensitivity of 90.1% meets the AHA performance goal for noise-free VF (>90%). The specificity of 88.5% for NR and 83.3% for ASYS are comparable or even better than accuracy reported in literature. It is important to note that, the aim of this SAS is not to recommend shock delivery but to advice the rescuers to "Continue CPR" or to "Stop CPR and Prepare for Shock" thus minimizing "hands-off" intervals.

  11. [Automatic external defibrillator--mode of operation and clinical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieneke, H; Konorza, T; Breuckmann, F; Reinsch, N; Erbel, R

    2008-10-01

    Every year about 100,000 persons die from sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Germany. Although many efforts have been undertaken, mortality remains high. Only 2 - 10% of patients with out-off hospital SCD can finally be discharged from hospital after resuscitation. Observational studies show that ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia are the primary arrhythmias underlying SCD. For both arrhythmias the main determinant for survival is the time between onset and termination by defibrillation. The chance of survival declines by 10% for every minute of delay. These findings prompted the concept of early defibrillation by first responders. Many studies have shown that non-medical professionals, like police men, firemen or security officers, often arrive at the patient more early than emergency medical service. Thus, "smart" automated external defibrillators (AEDs), designed to identify VT/VF and prompt the user when to deliver a shock were introduced. These devices allow lay rescuers to terminate ventricular arrhythmias before the arrival of medical professionals. By this approach the time to defibrillation could be reduced and a significant reduction in mortality could be documented in selected situation. These encouraging results initialled the installation of AED at public places like aircrafts, airports, underground stations and shopping males. Due to the success of this approach doctors are more and more confronted with questions about technical details, reliability and cost effectiveness of these devices. The present review should give an overview about the current studies and guidelines.

  12. Automated external defibrillation by very young, untrained children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Luan; March, Juan

    2002-01-01

    For patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD), the time interval to defibrillation is the main determinant of survival. As such, the American Heart Association has attempted to promote public-access defibrillation (PAD). Previous studies have shown that automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be used successfully by untrained adults. To determine whether very young, untrained children could use AEDs. Third-grade students from an elementary school participated in this study representing a convenience sample of volunteers. They were given no formal training, but were shown how to peel off the backing from the electrode pads, like a sticker. Students were then given a mock code situation using a training manikin. The time to delivery of first shock was recorded. Students were then trained during a 2-minute review of the process, one on one with an instructor, and the study was then repeated. Data were analyzed using a paired Student's t-test comparing pre- and post-training. Thirty-one children participated in the study, with a median age of 9 years. For untrained children, the mean time for delivery of the first shock was 59.3 +/- 13.6 seconds, 95% CI = 54.3 to 64.3. Following training, the mean time for delivery of the first shock was 35.2 +/- 6.0 seconds, 95% CI = 33.0 to 37.4, p = 0.001. Although this study suggests that even very young, untrained children can successfully perform automated external defibrillation, training does significantly decrease the time to delivery of first shock.

  13. Automated External Defibrillators and Emergency Planning for Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Vermont High Schools: A Rural State's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilko, Scott M; Lisle, David K

    2013-11-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) events are tragic. Secondary prevention of SCD depends on availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). High school athletes represent a high-risk group for SCD, and current efforts aim to place AEDs in all high schools. The prevalence of AEDs and emergency planning for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in Vermont high schools is similar to other states. Understanding specific needs and limitations in rural states may prevent SCD in rural high schools. Cross-sectional survey. A survey was distributed to all 74 Vermont high school athletic directors. Outcome measures included AED prevalence, AED location, individuals trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and AED utilization, funding methods for AED attainment, and the establishment of an emergency action plan (EAP) for response to SCA. All schools (100%, 74 of 74) completed the survey. Of those, 60 (81%) schools have at least 1 AED on school premises, with the most common location for AED placement being the main office or lobby (50%). Larger sized schools were more likely to have an AED on the premises than smaller sized schools (P = 0.00). School nurses (77%) were the most likely individuals to receive formal AED training. Forty-one schools (55%) had an EAP in place for response to SCA, and 71% of schools coordinated AED placement with local emergency medical services (EMS) responders. In Vermont, more than two-thirds of high schools have at least 1 AED on school premises. However, significant improvement in the establishment of EAPs for SCA and training in CPR and AED utilization is essential given the rural demography of the state of Vermont. Rural high schools inherently have longer EMS response times. In addition to obtaining AEDs, high schools must develop a public access to defibrillation program to maximize the chance of survival following cardiac arrest, especially in rural settings.

  14. Advances for treating in-hospital cardiac arrest: safety and effectiveness of a new automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rubio, Antoni; Kanaan, Nabil; Borggrefe, Martin; Block, Michael; Mäkijärvi, Markku; Fedele, Francesco; Pappone, Carlo; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Merino, José Luis; Esquivias, Gonzalo Barón; Cinca, Juan

    2003-02-19

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively analyze the performance and safety of a new programmable, fully automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator (AECD) in a European multicenter trial. BACKGROUND Although, the response time to cardiac arrest (CA) is a major determinant of mortality and morbidity, in-hospital strategies have not significantly changed during the last 30 years. Patients (n = 117) at risk of CA in monitored wards (n = 51) and patients undergoing electrophysiologic testing or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation (n = 66) were enrolled. The accuracy of the automatic response of the device to any change of rhythm (lasting >1 s and >4 beats) was confirmed by reviewing the simultaneously recorded Holter data and the programmed parameters. During 1,240 h, 1,988 episodes of rhythm changes were documented. A total of 115 episodes lasted > or =10 s or needed treatment (pacing, n = 32; ICD, n = 51; AECD, n = 35) for termination. The device detected ventricular tachyarrhythmias with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97.6% (true negatives, n = 1,454; true positives, n = 499; false positives, n = 35; false negatives, n = 0). The false positives were all caused by T-wave oversensing during ventricular pacing. There were no complications or adverse events. The mean response time was 14.4 s for those episodes needing a full charge of the capacitor. This new AECD is safe and effective in detecting, monitoring, and treating spontaneous arrhythmias. This fully automatic device shortens the response time to treatment, and it is likely that it will significantly improve the outcome of patients with in-hospital CA.

  15. Public knowledge of how to use an automatic external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K L; Leung, L P; Poon, H T; Chiu, H Y; Liu, H L; Tang, W Y

    2016-12-01

    The survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong is low. A long delay between collapse and defibrillation is a contributing factor. Public access to defibrillation may shorten this delay. It is unknown, however, whether Hong Kong's public is willing or able to use an automatic external defibrillator. This study aimed to evaluate public knowledge of how to use an automatic external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A face-to-face semi-structured questionnaire survey of the public was conducted in six locations with a high pedestrian flow in Hong Kong. In this study, 401 members of the public were interviewed. Most had no training in first aid (65.8%) or in use of an automatic external defibrillator (85.3%). Nearly all (96.5%) would call for help for a victim of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but only 18.0% would use an automatic external defibrillator. Public knowledge of automatic external defibrillator use was low: 77.6% did not know the location of an automatic external defibrillator in the vicinity of their home or workplace. People who had ever been trained in both first aid and use of an automatic external defibrillator were more likely to respond to and help a victim of cardiac arrest, and to use an automatic external defibrillator. Public knowledge of automatic external defibrillator use is low in Hong Kong. A combination of training in first aid and in the use of an automatic external defibrillator is better than either one alone.

  16. Estimation of current density distribution under electrodes for external defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transthoracic defibrillation is the most common life-saving technique for the restoration of the heart rhythm of cardiac arrest victims. The procedure requires adequate application of large electrodes on the patient chest, to ensure low-resistance electrical contact. The current density distribution under the electrodes is non-uniform, leading to muscle contraction and pain, or risks of burning. The recent introduction of automatic external defibrillators and even wearable defibrillators, presents new demanding requirements for the structure of electrodes. Method and Results Using the pseudo-elliptic differential equation of Laplace type with appropriate boundary conditions and applying finite element method modeling, electrodes of various shapes and structure were studied. The non-uniformity of the current density distribution was shown to be moderately improved by adding a low resistivity layer between the metal and tissue and by a ring around the electrode perimeter. The inclusion of openings in long-term wearable electrodes additionally disturbs the current density profile. However, a number of small-size perforations may result in acceptable current density distribution. Conclusion The current density distribution non-uniformity of circular electrodes is about 30% less than that of square-shaped electrodes. The use of an interface layer of intermediate resistivity, comparable to that of the underlying tissues, and a high-resistivity perimeter ring, can further improve the distribution. The inclusion of skin aeration openings disturbs the current paths, but an appropriate selection of number and size provides a reasonable compromise.

  17. Temporal Trends in Coverage of Historical Cardiac Arrests Using a Volunteer-Based Network of Automated External Defibrillators Accessible to Laypersons and Emergency Dispatch Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Wissenberg, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although increased dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has been associated with more frequent AED use, the trade-off between the number of deployed AEDs and coverage of cardiac arrests remains unclear. We investigated how volunteer-based AED dissemination affected...... in coverage was observed in high-risk areas (from 5.7% to 51.3%). AED networks can be used as useful tools to optimize AED placement in community settings....

  18. [Comparative analyses of the reliability of automatic external defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoudovski, I; Schlindwein, M; Jäger, M; Kikillus, N; Bolz, A

    2004-06-01

    Automatic external defibrillators are gaining increasing acceptance. Last year 6000 devices were installed in Germany. Since the average user has only limited medical knowledge, high demands have to be made on the automatic ECG diagnosis (fibrillation detection). Within the framework of this study a fully automatic test system that permits an objective comparison of the performance of the various devices available on the market was constructed. Older devices in particular do not always meet the requirements defined by international standards with regard to sensitivity and specificity. In addition, company philosophy appears to differ in terms of the preferential emphasis on sensitivity or specificity. Purchasers of such devices need take these findings into consideration.

  19. Prepared for sudden cardiac arrest? A cross-sectional study of automated external defibrillators in amateur sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Owen; Jordan, Joseph; Quigley, Fionnuala; Molloy, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a rare but tragic part of professional and amateur sport. Following multiple high profile deaths in professional sport over the past two decades, there has been a significant trend towards the widespread availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) at amateur sports grounds. To examine the availability of AEDs in amateur sports clubs in Cork, Ireland, and to investigate club practices with respect to the purchase, accessibility, maintenance and use of AEDs. A cross-sectional survey of 218 amateur Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), soccer and rugby clubs was conducted between July and September 2012. Club committee representatives answered a 22-point questionnaire. 126 GAA clubs and 28 soccer and 17 rugby (n=171) clubs were enrolled in this study. A total of 81.3% of amateur clubs own an AED. We estimate an AED-use rate of one AED use for every 54.5 years an AED is available. Almost 50% of club representatives thought the location of their club AED could be improved while 12.9% of clubs admitted to not maintaining their club AED on a regular basis. A large proportion of amateur clubs in Cork City and County own an AED. Many clubs engage in regular maintenance and storage of AEDs. However, this study identifies several areas for improvement in facilitating a secure chain of survival for players in the event of an SCA.

  20. In-flight automated external defibrillator use and consultation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, AM; Rittenberger, JC; Ammon, CM; Harrington, S; Guyette, FX

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited information exists about the in-flight use and outcomes associated with automatic external defibrillators (AED) on commercial airlines. Methods We collected self-reported cases of AED use to an airline consultation service from three US airlines between May 2004 and March 2009. We reviewed all available data files, related consult forms, and recordings. For each case, demographics, initial rhythm, shock delivery/success, survival to admission, and ground medical consultation use were obtained. Success was defined as the return of a perfusing rhythm. Initial rhythms were classified as: sinus, heart block, SVT, atrial fibrillation/flutter, asystole, PEA and VF/VT. Results There were a total of 169 AED applications with 40 cardiac arrests. The mean ages were 58 years (SD 15) and 63 years (SD 12) respectively; both populations were 64% male. AEDs were applied for monitoring in 129 (76%) cases with initial rhythms of: sinus 114 (88%); atrial fibrillation/flutter 7 (5%); complete heart block 4 (3%); and SVT 4 (3%). Presenting rhythms among the cardiac arrest population were: asystole 16 (40%); ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia 10 (25%); and PEA 14 (35%). Fourteen patients were defibrillated including nine of the 10 patients with initial VF/VT and five for the presence of VF/VT after resuscitation for initial PEA/asystole. Defibrillation was advised but not performed in the remaining case of initial VF/VT and no medical consult was obtained. All five successful defibrillations occurred in patients with initial VF/VT. There were 6 (15%; 95% CI 3–27%) survivors with 5 occurring after successful defibrillation for initial VF/VT and one with return of a perfusing rhythm after CPR for a junctional rhythm. Survival in those with VF/VT was 5/10 (50%; 95% CI 14–86%). Medications were delivered twice. The median time to first shock was 19 (IQR 12–24) seconds from AED application. Medical consultation was obtained in 56 (33%) of the 169 AED

  1. Interruption of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of the automated external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alem, Anouk P.; Sanou, Björn T.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: The protocol for the use of the automated external defibrillator calls for a period of "hands-off" time, during which no cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be performed. We assessed the actual interruption time of CPR during the use of the automated external defibrillator in

  2. Analysis of automated external defibrillator device failures reported to the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Lawrence A; Simpson, Allan; Beskind, Dan; Grall, Kristi; Stoneking, Lisa; Stolz, Uwe; Spaite, Daniel W; Panchal, Ashish R; Denninghoff, Kurt R

    2012-02-01

    Automated external defibrillators are essential for treatment of cardiac arrest by lay rescuers and must determine when to shock and if they are functioning correctly. We seek to characterize automated external defibrillator failures reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and whether battery failures are properly detected by automated external defibrillators. FDA adverse event reports are catalogued in the Manufacturer and User Device Experience (MAUDE) database. We developed and internally validated an instrument for analyzing MAUDE data, reviewing all reports in which a fatality occurred. Two trained reviewers independently analyzed each report, and a third resolved discrepancies or passed them to a committee for resolution. One thousand two hundred eighty-four adverse events were reported between June 1993 and October 2008, of which 1,150 were failed defibrillation attempts. Thirty-seven automated external defibrillators never powered on, 252 failed to complete rhythm analysis, and 524 failed to deliver a recommended shock. In 149 cases, the operator disagreed with the device's rhythm analysis. In 54 cases, the defibrillator stated the batteries were low and in 110 other instances powered off unexpectedly. Interrater agreement between reviewers 1 and 2 ranged by question from 69.0% to 98.6% and for most likely cause was 55.9%. Agreement was obtained for 93.7% to 99.6% of questions by the third reviewer. Remaining discrepancies were resolved by the arbitration committee. MAUDE information is often incomplete and frequently no corroborating data are available. Some conditions not detected by automated external defibrillators during self-test cause units to power off unexpectedly, causing defibrillation delays. Backup units frequently provide shocks to patients. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of first-responder automated external defibrillator (AED) application rates and characteristics of AED training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, E Brooke; Billittier, Anthony J; Shah, Manish N; Newman, Mary M; Groh, William J

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether there were associations between the characteristics of first-responder automated external defibrillator (AED) training and AED application rates. This multicenter retrospective cohort study analyzed data from ten emergency medical services systems where first responders were trained and equipped with AEDs. Data were provided for all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occurring over two years, including whether the first-responder AED was applied (pads attached to patient). Systems were surveyed to determine the characteristics of their initial and continuing AED training. Data were analyzed using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Overall, the first-responder AED was applied to 53% of 2,181 OHCAs. First responders applied AEDs to 60% of OHCAs when a national AED training curriculum was used and to 49% of OHCAs when a locally created curriculum was used (OR=1.58; 95% CI=1.32-1.88). First responders applied AEDs to 61% of OHCAs when they were trained to the level of Certified First Responder or higher and to 28% of OHCAs when they were trained only in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OR=3.97; 95% CI=3.20-4.93). First responders applied AEDs to 66% of OHCAs when they each had an opportunity to apply the AED during continuing training and to 17% of OHCAs when they did not have this opportunity (OR=9.04; 95% CI=7.15-11.42). First responders applied AEDs to 59% of OHCAs when they had not received continuing training within one year of their initial training and to 42% of OHCAs when they had received continuing training in the first year (OR=2.00; 95% CI=1.67-2.40). Use of a national AED training curriculum, training to the level of Certified First Responder or higher, and the ability for each first responder to apply the AED during continuing training were associated with higher AED application rates. Continuing training within the first year did not appear to be as important as actually using the AED during the training.

  4. Automated external defibrillator availability and CPR training among state police agencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Lior M; Wallace, Sarah K; Leary, Marion; Tucker, Kathryn D; Becker, Lance B; Abella, Benjamin S

    2012-07-01

    Access to automated external defibrillators and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training are key determinants of cardiac arrest survival. State police officers represent an important class of cardiac arrest first responders responsible for the large network of highways in the United States. We seek to determine accessibility of automated external defibrillators and CPR training among state police agencies. Contact was attempted with all 50 state police agencies by telephone and electronic mail. Officers at each agency were guided to complete a 15-question Internet-based survey. Descriptive statistics of the responses were performed. Attempts were made to contact all 50 states, and 46 surveys were completed (92% response rate). Most surveys were filled out by police leadership or individuals responsible for medical programs. The median agency size was 725 (interquartile range 482 to 1,485) state police officers, with 695 (interquartile range 450 to 1,100) patrol vehicles ("squad cars"). Thirty-three percent of responding agencies (15/46) reported equipping police vehicles with automated external defibrillators. Of these, 53% (8/15) equipped less than half of their fleet with the devices. Regarding emergency medical training, 78% (35/45) of state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage, and 98% (44/45) reported training them in CPR. One third of state police agencies surveyed equipped their vehicles with automated external defibrillators, and among those that did, most equipped only a minority of their fleet. Most state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage and CPR. Increasing automated external defibrillator deployment among state police represents an important opportunity to improve first responder preparedness for cardiac arrest care. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automatic external defibrillator training in schools: "is anyone learning how to save a life?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Devin; Flores-Medrano, Oscar; Brooks, Steve; Buick, Jason E; Morrison, Laurie J

    2013-09-01

    Bystander resuscitation efforts, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED), save lives in cardiac arrest cases. School training in CPR and AED use may increase the currently low community rates of bystander resuscitation. The study objective was to determine the rates of CPR and AED training in Toronto secondary schools and to identify barriers to training and training techniques. This prospective study consisted of telephone interviews conducted with key school staff knowledgeable about CPR and AED teaching. An encrypted Web-based tool with prespecified variables and built-in logic was employed to standardize data collection. Of 268 schools contacted, 93% were available for interview and 83% consented to participate. Students and staff were trained in CPR in 51% and 80% of schools, respectively. Private schools had the lowest training rate (39%). Six percent of schools provided AED training to students and 47% provided AED training to staff. Forty-eight percent of schools had at least one AED installed, but 25% were unaware if their AED was registered with emergency services dispatch. Cost (17%), perceived need (11%), and school population size (10%) were common barriers to student training. Frequently employed training techniques were interactive (32%), didactic instruction (30%) and printed material (16%). CPR training rates for staff and students were moderate overall and lowest in private schools, whereas training rates in AED use were poor in all schools. Identified barriers to training include cost and student population size (perceived to be too small to be cost-effective or too large to be implemented). Future studies should assess the application of convenient and cost-effective teaching alternatives not presently in use.

  6. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  7. Use of external defibrillator jacket to facilitate safe delivery of radiotherapy for lung cancer - a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Robert W; Scott, Paul A; Roberts, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing rate of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation coupled with shared risk factors between lung cancer and ischemic cardiac disease means that the need for radiotherapy in cardiac device patients is set to become commonplace. We describe two cases referred to our electrophysiology service over a 6-month period. Both had been diagnosed with lung cancer in tissue directly posterior to a previously implanted ICD device. The cases highlight the risks to device function caused by ionizing radiation, the practical difficulties and ethical dilemmas of delivering radiotherapy to cardiac device patients safely and a novel setting for the use of a wearable defibrillator system. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Automated external defibrillators in the Australian fitness industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Kevin I; Norton, Lynda H

    2008-04-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) occurs in many thousands of Australians each year. Scientific evidence shows an increased survival rate for individuals who receive electrical defibrillation in the first few minutes after SCA. In the last decade automated (rhythm-detecting) external defibrillators (AEDs) have become available that are portable and affordable. Although still relatively rare, there is still the potential that SCA may occur when a person undertakes physical activity. Consequently, health/fitness centres are increasingly recognised as higher risk sites that may benefit from placement of AEDs. There are no laws in Australia requiring health/fitness centres to install AEDs. However, several international and professional organisations have "strongly encouraged" larger centres to install AEDs. Guidelines and algorithms are presented to help estimate the risk of SCA in fitness centres. Fitness centre placement is particularly important if the clientele is older or has a 'high-risk' profile, for example, clients with cardiovascular, respiratory or metabolic disease. International negligence case law and duty of care principles suggests the standard of care required in health/fitness centres may be increasing. Therefore, it may be prudent to install AEDs in larger centres and those in which higher risk groups are physically active.

  9. Automated external defibrillator use for in-hospital emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschak, G; Dünnebier, A; Kaisers, U X; Huschens, B; Bercker, S

    2016-05-01

    The in-hospital spread of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is aimed to allow for a shock-delivery within three minutes. However, it has to be questioned if the implementation of AED alone really contributes to a 'heart-safe hospital'. We performed a cohort study of 1008 in-hospital emergency calls in a university tertiary care hospital, analysing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) cases with and without AED use. In total, 484 patients (48%) had cardiac arrest and received CPR. Response time of the emergency team was 4.3 ± 4.0 minutes. Only 8% percent of the CPR cases had a shockable rhythm. In three of 43 placements a shock was delivered by the AED. There were no differences in survival between patients with CPR only and CPR with AED use. Our data do not support the use of an AED for in-hospital CPR if a professional response team is rapidly available.

  10. [Basic resuscitation of adults and automatic external defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlac, Peter Anthony; Torp-Pedersen, Christian T; Lippert, Freddy K

    2008-11-17

    The new ERC guidelines on resuscitation emphasize the importance of quality CPR. BLS should be started as early as possible. Lay rescuers should not check for a pulse, they should call for help and start chest compressions immediately. Compression depth should be 4-5 cm at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. Chest compressions and ventilation should be performed in a ratio of 30:2. Lay rescuers should continue until professional help arrives. Lay rescuers may use the same procedure for children as recommended for adults. Professionals should, however, initiate CPR in children with 5 ventilations followed by a compression-ventilation ratio of 15:2. Automatic External Defibrillation should be used as early as possible.

  11. Electromagnetic interference between external defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy-pacemaker (CRT-P) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Hamid; Al-Ameri, Hazim; Ottino, Jessica; Hastings, Cordell; Kippola, James; Gueron, Ioni; Daccarett, Marcos; Machado, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Implantable heart rhythm devices are susceptible to interference in hospitals where electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources are ubiquitous. We report three cases in which EMI from the external defibrillator caused the inability to interrogate Boston Scientific cardiac resynchronization therapy-pacemaker (CRT-P) devices. We have documented interference with the Boston Scientific CRT-P Contact Renewal device model numbers H120/H125 (Natick, MA, USA) and two brands of external defibrillators: the Philips Heartstart XL model number M4735A (Andover, MA, USA) and the Hewlett-Packard Codemaster model number M1722B (Palo Alto, CA, USA). For device implants, we routinely place external pacing pads with the external defibrillator in the "standby" mode for transcutaneous pacing so that only the pacer "start/stop" button needs to be pressed when necessary. We have not been able to interrogate three consecutive Boston Scientific CRT-P devices prior to closure while the external defibrillator had the back-up pacing mode on "standby." In our initial case, a second device was opened because this interaction was not recognized. We documented EMI with the standby pacing mode ON and discovered that by disabling only the "standby" pacing mode on the external defibrillator, the device could be interrogated without difficulty. This is a case series reporting EMI with a Boston Scientific CRT-P Contact Renewal device H120/H125 telemetry from an external defibrillator with pacing mode on "standby." Failure to recognize this important interaction may lead to inappropriate device and resource utilization. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An esophageal probe for measuring three-dimensional electric fields during external cardiac defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, David A; de Jongh Curry, Amy L

    2012-03-01

    External defibrillation is a common treatment for the cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation. Electrode placement has been shown to affect defibrillation efficacy and required energy levels. We suggest investigating the relationship between esophageal electric fields (EEFs) and atrial defibrillation thresholds to determine the feasibility of creating patient-specific electrode placements using EEFs. This study presents the design and implementation of an esophageal probe (EP) that accurately measures three-dimensional electric fields. The root-mean-square error of the EP was 1.69% as determined by measurements performed in an electrolytic tank. The EP also performed well during in vivo testing in a pig. There was a strong positive relationship between EEF(2)s and applied energy during defibrillation strength shocks. The EEF measurements were also repeatable, with less than 4.24% difference between repeated shocks. This is the first description of a probe designed specifically for measuring electric fields in the esophagus.

  13. Pharmacy Students' Retention of Knowledge and Skills Following Training in Automated External Defibrillator Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopp, Anna Legreid; Dopp, John M.; Vardeny, Orly; Sims, J. Jason

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess pharmacy students' retention of knowledge about appropriate automated external defibrillator use and counseling points following didactic training and simulated experience. Design Following a lecture on sudden cardiac arrest and automated external defibrillator use, second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were assessed on their ability to perform basic life support and deliver a shock at baseline, 3 weeks, and 4 months. Students completed a questionnaire to evaluate recall of counseling points for laypeople/the public. Assessment Mean time to shock delivery at baseline was 74 ± 25 seconds, which improved significantly at 3 weeks (50 ± 17 seconds, p defibrillator counseling points was diminished after 4 months. Conclusion Pharmacy students can use automated external defibrillators to quickly deliver a shock and are able to retain this ability after 4 months. Refresher training/courses will be required to improve students' retention of automated external defibrillator counseling points to ensure their ability to deliver appropriate patient education. PMID:21045951

  14. Interprofessional education and social interaction: The use of automated external defibrillators in team-based basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, Arif; Simsek, Nurettin

    2017-04-01

    Automated external defibrillators are pervasive computing devices designed for the treatment and management of acute sudden cardiac arrest. This study aims to explain users' actual use behavior in teams formed by different professions taken after a short time span of interaction with automated external defibrillator. Before the intervention, all the participants were certified with the American Heart Association Basic Life Support for healthcare providers. A statistically significant difference was revealed in mean individual automated external defibrillator technical skills between uniprofessional and interprofessional groups. The technical automated external defibrillator team scores were greater for groups with interprofessional than for those with uniprofessional education. The nontechnical automated external defibrillator skills of interprofessional and uniprofessional teams revealed differences in advantage of interprofessional teams. Students positively accept automated external defibrillators if well-defined and validated training opportunities to use them expertly are available. Uniprofessional teams were successfully supported by their members and, thereby, used automated external defibrillator effectively. Furthermore, the interprofessional approach resulted in as much effective teamwork as the uniprofessional approach.

  15. Quality of life effects of automatic external defibrillators in the home: results from the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniel B; Anstrom, Kevin J; McNulty, Steven E; Flaker, Greg C; Tonkin, Andrew M; Smith, Warren M; Toff, William D; Dorian, Paul; Clapp-Channing, Nancy E; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Schron, Eleanor B; Poole, Jeanne E; Lee, Kerry L; Bardy, Gust H

    2010-04-01

    Public access automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) can save lives, but most deaths from out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest occur at home. The Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT) found no survival advantage for adding a home AED to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training for 7,001 patients with a prior anterior wall myocardial infarction. Quality of life (QOL) outcomes for both the patient and spouse/companion were secondary end points. A subset of 1,007 study patients and their spouse/companions was randomly selected for ascertainment of QOL by structured interview at baseline and 12 and 24 months after enrollment. The primary QOL measures were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form psychological well-being (reflecting anxiety and depression) and vitality (reflecting energy and fatigue) subscales. For patients and spouse/companions, the psychological well-being and vitality scales did not differ significantly between those randomly assigned an AED plus CPR training and controls who received CPR training only. None of the other QOL measures collected showed a clinically and statistically significant difference between treatment groups. Patients in the AED group were more likely to report being extremely or quite a bit reassured by their treatment assignment. Spouse/companions in the AED group reported being less often nervous about the possibility of using AED/CPR treatment than those in the CPR group. Adding access to a home AED to CPR training did not affect QOL either for patients with a prior anterior myocardial infarction or their spouse/companion but did provide more reassurance to the patients without increasing anxiety for spouse/companions. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac arrests in schools: assessing use of automated external defibrillators (AED) on school campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swor, Robert; Grace, Heather; McGovern, Heather; Weiner, Michelle; Walton, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest in schools are infrequent, but emotionally charged events. The purpose of our study was to: (1) describe characteristics and outcomes of school cardiac arrests; and (2) assess the feasibility of conducting school bystander interviews to describe the events surrounding cardiac arrests, assess AED availability and use, and identify barriers to AED use. We performed a telephone survey of bystanders to cardiac arrests occurring in K-12 schools in communities participating in the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) database and a local cardiac arrest database. The study period was from 8/2005 to 8/2011 and continued in one community through 2011. Utstein style descriptive data and outcomes were collected. A structured telephone interview of a bystander or administrative personnel was conducted for each cardiac arrest event. We collected a descriptive event summary, including provision of bystander CPR, presence of an AED and information regarding AED deployment, training, and use and perceived barriers to AED use. Descriptive data are reported. During the study period there were 30,603 cardiac arrests identified at study communities, of which 47 (0.15%) events were at K-12 schools. Of these, 21 (45.7%) were at high schools, a minority (16, 34.0%) were children (a majority (36, 76.6%) received bystander CPR, and 27 (57.4%) were initially in ventricular fibrillation (VF). Most arrests (28/40, 70%) occurred during the school day (7a-5p). From this population, 15 (31.9%) survived to hospital discharge. A telephone interview was completed for 30 of 47 K-12 events. Nineteen schools had an AED on site. Most schools (84.2%) with AEDs reported that they had a training program, and personnel identified for its use. An AED was applied in 11 of 19 patients, of these 8 were in VF and 4 (all VF) survived to hospital discharge. Bystanders identified multiple reasons for non-use of the AED in the other eight patients. Cardiac arrests in schools are

  17. [The automated external defibrillator in the resuscitation chain. The importance of the AED examined].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosterd, Arend

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for those suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is improving slowly, with > 90% of the survivors being discharged from hospital with cognitive function intact. A recent analysis of the ARREST (AmsteRdam Resuscitation Study) group documented an increase in survival rates with favourable neurological outcome from 16.2% in 2006 to 19.7% in 2012. Only those victims whose initial cardiac rhythm is 'shockable' (i.e. ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia) reap the benefits: their survival rate increased from 29.1% to 41.4%. The prognosis for those with a non-shockable rhythm remains grim (A recent analysis of the ARREST database points to the increasing use of AEDs (by laypersons, but particularly by police officers and fire-fighters with a training in basic life support) as one of the main drivers of this improved prognosis. An AED is now used in 59% of OHCA in the greater Amsterdam area, and has become an essential link in the resuscitation chain.

  18. Training program on cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of automated external defibrillator in a university

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Boaventura; Ana Maria Kazue Miyadahira

    2012-01-01

    A desfibrilação precoce na ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP) recebe crescente destaque quanto à prioridade e rapidez. Este é um relato de experiência da implantação de um programa de capacitação em RCP, utilizando o desfibrilador em uma universidade privada. O programa em manobras básicas de RCP foi baseado nas diretrizes mundiais, envolvendo um curso teórico com demonstração prática das manobras de RCP com desfibrilador, treinamento prático individual, avaliação teórica e prática. Quanto ao...

  19. Locating Automated External Defibrillators in a Complicated Urban Environment Considering a Pedestrian-Accessible Network that Focuses on Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Kwon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Automated external defibrillators (AEDs are portable devices that defibrillate and diagnose sudden-cardiac-arrest patients. Therefore, AEDs are widely installed in public places such as airports, schools, sport complexes, etc., and the installation of AEDs is required by law in these places. However, despite their usefulness, AEDs are mostly installed indoors with limited coverage outdoors. Hence, this study conducts research in the placement of AEDs in outdoor locations. This study considers a complicated urban environment using a pedestrian network dataset and network barriers. We draw on the Teitz and Bart’s (1968 heuristic method that was built in the location-allocation solver in ArcMap. The results of this study found that a total of 455 AEDs, including 227 pre-installed AEDs, could be placed in the study area, thus providing an additional 228 devices. Compared with 10 different installation methods that were set as experimental groups, our test results found that additional installations were able to cover 10% to 30% more actual out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest cases. The main contribution of this study is the proposal of a new method in locating AEDs in optimal areas while considering complicated urban environments. We predict that the cardiac-arrest-related mortality rate would be reduced through implementing the findings of this study.

  20. Automated External Defibrillators Inaccessible to More Than Half of Nearby Cardiac Arrests in Public Locations During Evening, Nighttime, and Weekends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Wissenberg, Mads; Weeke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite wide dissemination, use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in community settings is limited. We assessed how AED accessibility affected coverage of cardiac arrests in public locations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified cardiac arrests in public locations (1994...

  1. Automated external defibrillator and operator performance in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Jolande A.; Bekkers, Loes E.; Hulleman, Michiel; Beesems, Stefanie G.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: An increasing number of failing automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is reported: AEDs not giving a shock or other malfunction. We assessed to what extent AEDs are 'failing' and whether this had a device-related or operator-related cause. Methods: We studied analysis periods from AEDs used

  2. Training of police officers as first responders with an automated external defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Fabian O.; van Alem, Anouk P.; Koster, Rudolph W.; de Vos, Rien

    2004-01-01

    A short and effective training programme is an essential prerequisite for the use of automated external defibrillators (AED) by EMS providers and first responders. We evaluated a 3-h AED course based on the ERC requirements. Methods: As part of a study evaluating the effectiveness of AEDs used by

  3. Defibrillation for Ventricular Fibrillation: A Shocking Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Graham; Sayre, Michael R; Guerra, Federico; Poole, Jeanne

    2017-09-19

    Cardiac arrest is defined as the termination of cardiac activity associated with loss of consciousness, of spontaneous breathing, and of circulation. Sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are terms often used interchangeably. Most patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have shown coronary artery disease or symptoms during the hour before the event. Cardiac arrest is potentially reversible by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, cardioversion, cardiac pacing, or treatments targeted at the underlying disease (e.g., acute coronary occlusion). We restrict SCD hereafter to cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation, including rhythms shockable by an automatic external defibrillator (AED), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), or wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD). We summarize the state of the art related to defibrillation in treating SCD, including a brief history of the evolution of defibrillation, technical characteristics of modern AEDs, strategies to improve AED access and increase survival, ancillary treatments, and use of ICDs or WCDs. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated external defibrillator rescues among children with diagnosed and treated long QT syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pundi, K.N.; Bos, J.M.; Cannon, B.C.; Ackerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. A comprehensive LQTS-directed treatment program often includes an automated external defibrillator (AED). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of AED rescues among

  5. Defibrilleren met een automatische externe defibrillator buiten het ziekenhuis: een levensreddende, maar voorbehouden handeling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R. W.; Buiting, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Application of the automatic external defibrillator can improve the chance of success during resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, because lay persons can defibrillate awaiting the arrival of the ambulance. Defibrillation is mentioned in the Dutch Individual Health Care Professionals Act

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of two different automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Johan; Wangenheim, Burkard von; Årestedt, Kristofer; Semark, Birgitta; Schildmeijer, Kristina; Carlsson, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the clinical performance of two different types of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Three investigators reviewed 2938 rhythm analyses performed by AEDs in 240 consecutive patients (median age 72, q1-q3=62-83) who had suffered cardiac arrest between January 2011 and March 2015. Two different AEDs were used (AED A n=105, AED B n=135) in-hospital (n=91) and out-of-hospital (n=149). Among 194 shockable rhythms, 17 (8.8%) were not recognized by AED A, while AED B recognized 100% (n=135) of shockable episodes (sensitivity 91.2 vs 100%, pAED A, 8 (47.1%) of these episodes were judged to be algorithm errors while 9 (52.9%) were caused by external artifacts. Among 1039 non-shockable rhythms, AED A recommended shock in 11 (1.0%), while AED B recommended shock in 63 (4.1%) of 1523 episodes (specificity 98.9 vs 95.9, pAED A, 2 (18.2%) of these episodes were judged to be algorithm errors (AED B, n=40, 63.5%), while 9 (81.8%) were caused by external artifacts (AED B, n=23, 36.5%). There were significant differences in sensitivity and specificity between the two different AEDs. A higher sensitivity of AED B was associated with a lower specificity while a higher specificity of AED A was associated with a lower sensitivity. AED manufacturers should work to improve the algorithms. In addition, AED use should always be reviewed with a routine for giving feedback, and medical personnel should be aware of the specific strengths and shortcomings of the device they are using. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Data from automated external defibrillators provide important information on the quality of in-hospital resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergård, Lone Due; Løfgren, Bo; Krarup, Niels Henrik Vinther; Holm, Tina; Andersen, Lone Kærslund

    2014-09-01

    International guidelines recommend monitoring the outcome following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Using data from automatic external defibrillators (AED) prospectively collected during a three-year period in a regional hospital, we evaluated the treatment quality of resuscitation. Time to defibrillation was acceptable, but quality of chest compressions did not comply with current international recommendations. AED use led to a high fraction of time with no chest compressions. Survival to discharge was 11%. Consequently, training in basic and advanced life support of hospital staff has been modified.

  8. Availability of Automated External Defibrillators in Public High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michelle J; Loccoh, Emefah C; Goble, Monica M; Yu, Sunkyung; Duquette, Deb; Davis, Matthew M; Odetola, Folafoluwa O; Russell, Mark W

    2016-05-01

    To assess automated external defibrillator (AED) distribution and cardiac emergency preparedness in Michigan secondary schools and investigate for association with school sociodemographic characteristics. Surveys were sent via electronic mail to representatives from all public high schools in 30 randomly selected Michigan counties, stratified by population. Association of AED-related factors with school sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated using Wilcoxon rank sum test and χ(2) test, as appropriate. Of 188 schools, 133 (71%) responded to the survey and all had AEDs. Larger student population was associated with fewer AEDs per 100 students (P schools. Schools with >20% students from racial minority groups had significantly fewer AEDs available per 100 students than schools with less racial diversity (P = .03). Schools with more students eligible for free and reduced lunch were less likely to have a cardiac emergency response plan (P = .02) and demonstrated less frequent AED maintenance (P = .03). Although AEDs are available at public high schools across Michigan, the number of AEDs per student varies inversely with minority student population and school size. Unequal distribution of AEDs and lack of cardiac emergency preparedness may contribute to outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fully automatic external defibrillators in acute care: Clinicians' experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Helen C; Roebuck, Alun; Farrer, Martyn; Campbell, Steve

    2006-09-01

    Fully automatic external defibrillators (FAEDs) reduce the time to defibrillation [Martinez-Rubio A, Kanaan N, Borggrefe M, Block M, Makijarvi M, Fedele F, et al. Advances in treating in-hospital cardiac arrest: safety and effectiveness of a new automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(4):627-32; Mattioni T, Kanaan N, Riggio D, Bahu M, Lin D, Welch S, et al. Performance of an automatic external-cardioverter-defibrillator algorithm in the discrimination of supraventricular from ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:1323-6] and improve outcomes [Martinez-Rubio A, Kanaan N, Borggrefe M, Block M, Makijarvi M, Fedele F, et al. Advances in treating in-hospital cardiac arrest: safety and effectiveness of a new automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(4):627-32]. There is, however, no guidance or standard about their use in the UK. This paper presents the results of a study, which explored clinicians' experiences and perceptions of using FAEDs in acute care in the UK. This study sought to understand clinicians' experiences and perceptions of the use of FAEDs in acute care and their impact on decision making. Using a qualitative approach, 43 nurses and four physicians were included in a trial of FAEDs in a Coronary Care Unit (CCU) and cardiology ward during 2004. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurses and physicians prior to and following the trial. Data were analysed using thematic analysis [Attride-Stirling J, Thematic networks: an analytic to research. Qual Res 2001;1(3):385-405]. Decision control, safety, a lack of confidence in the technology, previous experience and concerns about the psychological affect on patients affected clinicians' decision making and limited the use of the FAED. Despite reported benefits of the FAED [Martinez-Rubio A, Kanaan N, Borggrefe M, Block M, Makijarvi M, Fedele F, et al. Advances in treating in-hospital cardiac arrest: safety and effectiveness of a

  10. Treatment of cardiac arrest with automatic external defibrillators: impact on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varon, Joseph; Marik, Paul E

    2003-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in the US and most developed nations. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the most common initial rhythm in survivors of cardiac arrest. The most important factor in determining survival from VF is the time from collapse to administration of the first defibrillation shock. Automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) have been developed and widely deployed in an attempt to reduce the time to defibrillation. Data on early defibrillation using AEDs has led to a number of public access defibrillator placements in the US and ongoing studies of public access AED use. The safety of lay person AED use is clear. Clearly some concentrated captive populations (e.g. airports, airplanes) may benefit from public access AEDs. Therefore, widespread AED education as a means of increasing public acceptance of lay person AED use must be a priority. As technology evolves costs will decline, however, the current economic reality requires careful consideration of the cost effectiveness of specific AED placement.

  11. Automatic external defibrillator: key link in the chain of survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is a major health problem. Worldwide success of resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is modest, with 5% to 10% survival to hospital discharge. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the chain of survival, early defibrillation (goal <5 min after collapse) is a major

  12. [The design of the external defibrillator using the truncated exponential biphasic waveform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Er-mei; Wu, Xiao-mei; Yang, Cui-wei; Fang, Zu-xiang

    2006-01-01

    The external defibrillator is an emergency instrument used very widely in clinics. It plays an important role in rescuing ventricle fibrillation (VF) patients. We have designed an external defibrillator using the truncated exponential biphasic waveform. The system consists of three parts: the ECG collection module, the control module and the defibrillator module. They are introduced respectively, listing the main problems and the methods to solve them. Some experiments have been done and the corresponding results are given.

  13. Automatic external defibrillators for prevention of out-of-hospital sudden death: effectiveness of the automatic external defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerburg, Robert J; Velez, Maurico; Rosenberg, Donald G; Fenster, Jeffrey; Castellanos, Agustin

    2003-09-01

    Approaches to the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) include strategies designed to attack the problem from the multiple perspectives of primary prevention of the underlying diseases, prophylactic treatment of high-risk individuals with identified diseases, and responses to cardiac arrest victims in the community. The latter strategy began with conventional fire department-based emergency rescue systems (emergency medical services [EMS]) that originated in the early 1970s. Although such systems were innovative and impressive at the time, they are limited by less-than-optimal response times that translate to low survival rates. Newer strategies, designed to respond faster, include a variety of methods, including ambulance- and police-based automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), deployment of AEDs in settings in which crowds accumulate and designated rescuers are available, and more general public access sites. The value of conventional EMS systems remains because of their ability to provide advanced life support as part of a dual-response system. These approaches, in conjunction with better primary and secondary prevention strategies, offer the hope of reducing the SCD burden.

  14. Evaluation of a Unique Defibrillation Unit with Dual-Vector Biphasic Waveform Capabilities: Towards a Miniaturized Defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hideo; Desimone, Christopher V; Killu, Ammar M; Gilles, Emily J; Tri, Jason; Asirvatham, Roshini; Ladewig, Dejae J; Suddendorf, Scott H; Powers, Joanne M; Wood-Wentz, Christina M; Gray, Peter D; Raymond, Douglas M; Savage, Shelley J; Savage, Walter T; Bruce, Charles J; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Friedman, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Automated external defibrillators can provide life-saving therapies to treat ventricular fibrillation. We developed a prototype unit that can deliver a unique shock waveform produced by four independent capacitors that is delivered through two shock vectors, with the rationale of providing more robust shock pathways during emergent defibrillation. We describe the initial testing and feasibility of this unique defibrillation unit, features of which may enable downsizing of current defibrillator devices. We tested our defibrillation unit in four large animal models (two canine and two swine) under general anesthesia. Experimental defibrillation thresholds (DFT) were obtained by delivery of a unique waveform shock pulse via a dual-vector pathway with four defibrillation pads (placed across the chest). DFTs were measured and compared with those of a commercially available biphasic defibrillator (Zoll M series, Zoll Medical, Chelmsford, MA, USA) tested in two different vectors. Shocks were delivered after 10 seconds of stable ventricular fibrillation and the output characteristics and shock outcome recorded. Each defibrillation series used a step-down to failure protocol to define the defibrillation threshold. A total of 96 shocks were delivered during ventricular fibrillation in four large animals. In comparison to the Zoll M series, which delivered a single-vector, biphasic shock, the energy required for successful defibrillation using the unique dual-vector biphasic waveform did not differ significantly (P = 0.65). Our early findings support the feasibility of a unique external defibrillation unit using a dual-vector biphasic waveform approach. This warrants further study to leverage this unique concept and work toward a miniaturized, portable shock delivery system. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Optimizing the Deployment of Public Access Defibrillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Timothy C.Y.; Demirtas, Derya; Kwon, Roy H.

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a significant public health issue, and treatment, namely, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, is very time sensitive. Public access defibrillation programs, which deploy automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for bystander use in an emergency, reduce

  16. [Worldwide experience with automated external defibrillators: What have we achieved? What else can we expect?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2016-03-01

    In Germany approximately 70,000-100,000 SCD patients die from sudden cardiac death (SCD). SCD is not caused by a single factor but is a multifactorial problem. In 50 % of SCD victims, sudden cardiac death is the first manifestation of heart disease. SCD is caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmias in approximately 90 % of patients, whereas SCD is caused by bradyarrhythmias in 5-10 % of the patients. Risk stratification is not possible in the majority of them prior to the fatal event. Early defibrillation is the method of choice to terminate ventricular fibrillation. Therefore, it is mandatory to install automatic external defibrillators (AED) in places with many people. There is general agreement that early defibrillation with automated external defibrillators (AED) is an effective tool to treat patients with ventricular fibrillation and will improve survival. It seems necessary to teach cardiocompression and AED use, also to children and adolescents. AED therapy "at home" did not improve survival in patients with cardiac arrest and can not be recommended.

  17. Automated external defibrillators in Washington State high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmier, Justin D; Drezner, Jonathan A; Harmon, Kimberly G

    2007-05-01

    The placement of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in schools and public sporting venues is a growing national trend. To determine the prevalence and use of AEDs in Washington State high schools and to examine the existing emergency preparedness for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Cross-sectional survey. High schools in Washington State. The principal at each high school in the Washington Interscholastic Activities Association (n = 407) was invited to complete a web-based questionnaire using the National Registry for AED Use in Sports (http://www.AEDSPORTS.com). The primary outcome measures studied included AED prevalence and location, funding for AEDs, AED training of school personnel, coordination of AED placement with local emergency response agencies, and prior AED use. 118 schools completed the survey (29% response rate). 64 (54%) of the schools have at least one AED on school grounds (mean 1.6, range 1-4). The likelihood of AED placement increased with larger school size (p = 0.044). 60% of AEDs were funded by donations, 27% by the school district and 11% by the school or athletic department itself. Coaches (78%) were the most likely to receive AED training, followed by administrators (72%), school nurses (70%) and teachers (48%). Only 25% of schools coordinated the implementation of AEDs with an outside medical agency and only 6% of schools coordinated with the local emergency medical system. One school reported having used an AED previously to treat SCA in a basketball official who survived after a single shock. The estimated probability of AED use to treat SCA was 1 in 154 schools per year. Over half of Washington State high schools have an AED on school grounds. AED use occurred in schools annually and was effective in the treatment of SCA. Funding of AED programmes was mostly through private donations, with little coordination with local emergency response teams. Significant improvement is needed in structuring emergency response plans and training

  18. Use of Automated External Defibrillators in Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objectives were to identify the components of a program to deliver early defibrillation that optimizes the effectiveness of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in out-of-hospital and hospital settings, to determine whether AEDs are cost-effective, and if cost-effectiveness was determined, to advise on how they should be distributed in Ontario. Clinical Need Survival in people who have had a cardiac arrest is low, especially in out-of-hospital settings. With each minute delay in defibrillation from the onset of cardiac arrest, the probability of survival decreases by 10%. (1) Early defibrillation (within 8 minutes of a cardiac arrest) has been shown to improve survival outcomes in these patients. However, in out-of-hospital settings and in certain areas within a hospital, trained personnel and their equipment may not be available within 8 minutes. This implies that “first responders” should take up the responsibility of delivering shock. The first responders in out-of-hospital settings are usually bystanders, firefighters, police, and community volunteers. In hospital settings, they are usually nurses. These first responders are not trained in reading electrocardiograms and identifying abnormal heart rhythms restorable by defibrillation. The Technology An AED is a device that can analyze a heart rhythm and deliver a shock if needed. Thus, AEDs can be used by first responders to deliver early defibrillation in out-of-hospital and hospital settings. However, simply providing an AED would not likely improve survival outcomes. Rather, AEDs have a role in strengthening the “chain of survival,” which includes prompt activation of the 911 telephone system, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rapid defibrillation, and timely advanced life support. In the chain of survival, the first step for a witness of a cardiac arrest in an out-of-hospital setting is to call 911. Second, the witness initiates CPR (if she or he is

  19. Method for determining automatic external defibrillator need at mass gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Tracy M; Winslow, James E; Newton, Kelly; Brice, Jane H

    2005-06-01

    A method for determining the number of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) required for a 3-min response at mass gatherings has been described previously. Our study sought to modify the method, replicate it, then validate the results. Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) were timed walking defined courses in a football stadium. Velocities were obtained for a horizontal distance and ascending/descending upper and lower decks. This was replicated in a basketball arena. To validate, actual response times were compared to predicted times for predetermined distances in each venue. Predicted response times were calculated using the second standard deviation velocities as the most pessimistic. Numbers of AEDs needed were calculated using predicted response times for each venue's longest distance. Average velocities in m/s (football) were horizontal 1.7, lower deck 1.6 ascending and 1.4 descending, upper deck 1.0 ascending and 1.1 descending. Average velocities (basketball) were horizontal 1.7, lower deck 1.2 ascending and descending, upper deck 0.9 ascending and descending. In the validation phase, every EMT completed the four predetermined courses within the predicted intervals. Predicted response times were 363 s for the longest football stadium distance, and 187 s for the basketball arena. For a 3-min (180 s) response, the number of AEDs required can be calculated. This method was easily replicated and appears to be useful for determining the number of AEDs at mass gatherings. The number of AEDs needed for any desired response interval can be calculated using the predicted response time for the longest distance within an arena.

  20. Survival After Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Subway System: First Successful Targeted Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Program in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Vianna, Caio Brito; Monteiro Alves, Maurício; Timerman, Sergio; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Kern, Karl B

    2015-10-09

    Targeted automated external defibrillator (AED) programs have improved survival rates among patients who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in US airports, as well as European and Japanese railways. The Sao Paulo (Brazil) Metro subway carries 4.5 million people per day. A targeted AED program was begun in the Sao Paulo Metro with the objective to improve survival from cardiac arrest. A prospective, longitudinal, observational study of all cardiac arrests in the Sao Paulo Metro was performed from September 2006 through November 2012. This study focused on cardiac arrest by ventricular arrhythmias, and the primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge with minimal neurological impairment. A total of 62 patients had an initial cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. Because no data on cardiac arrest treatment or outcomes existed before beginning this project, the first 16 months of the implementation was used as the initial experience and compared with the subsequent 5 years of full operation. Return of spontaneous circulation was not different between the initial 16 months and the subsequent 5 years (6 of 8 [75%] vs. 39 of 54 [72%]; P=0.88). However, survival to discharge was significantly different once the full program was instituted (0 of 8 vs. 23 of 54 [43%]; P=0.001). Implementation of a targeted AED program in the Sao Paulo Metro subway system saved lives. A short interval between arrest and defibrillation was key for good long-term, neurologically intact survival. These results support strategic expansion of targeted AED programs in other large Latin American cities. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Automated External Defibrillators and Emergency Planning for Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Vermont High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilko, Scott M.; Lisle, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) events are tragic. Secondary prevention of SCD depends on availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). High school athletes represent a high-risk group for SCD, and current efforts aim to place AEDs in all high schools. Hypothesis: The prevalence of AEDs and emergency planning for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in Vermont high schools is similar to other states. Understanding specific needs and limitations in rural states may prevent SCD in rur...

  2. Optimal Installation Locations for Automated External Defibrillators in Taipei 7-Eleven Stores: Using GIS and a Genetic Algorithm with a New Stirring Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment with an automated external defibrillator (AED increases out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patient survival potential. While considerable attention has been given to determining optimal public AED locations, spatial and temporal factors such as time of day and distance from emergency medical services (EMSs are understudied. Here we describe a geocomputational genetic algorithm with a new stirring operator (GANSO that considers spatial and temporal cardiac arrest occurrence factors when assessing the feasibility of using Taipei 7-Eleven stores as installation locations for AEDs. Our model is based on two AED conveyance modes, walking/running and driving, involving service distances of 100 and 300 meters, respectively. Our results suggest different AED allocation strategies involving convenience stores in urban settings. In commercial areas, such installations can compensate for temporal gaps in EMS locations when responding to nighttime OHCA incidents. In residential areas, store installations can compensate for long distances from fire stations, where AEDs are currently held in Taipei.

  3. Cardioverter-Defibrillator: A Treatment for Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your heart to stop the fast heartbeat.Defibrillation: For ventricular fibrillation, the ICD sends a stronger ... can feel like a thump in your chest.Defibrillation is the strongest treatment. Most people say it ...

  4. Effects of introducing a voluntary virtual patient module to a basic life support with an automated external defibrillator course: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononowicz Andrzej A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of virtual patients (VPs encompasses a great variety of predominantly case-based e-learning modules with different complexity and fidelity levels. Methods for effective placement of VPs in the process of medical education are sought. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of a voluntary virtual patients module into a basic life support with an automated external defibrillator (BLS-AED course improved the knowledge and skills of students taking the course. Methods Half of the students were randomly assigned to an experimental group and given voluntary access to a virtual patient module consisting of six cases presenting BLS-AED knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-course knowledge tests and skills assessments were performed, as well as a survey of students' satisfaction with the VP usage. In addition, time spent using the virtual patient system, percentage of screen cards viewed and scores in the formative questions in the VP system throughout the course were traced and recorded. Results The study was conducted over a six week period and involved 226 first year medical students. The voluntary module was used by 61 (54% of the 114 entitled study participants. The group that used VPs demonstrated better results in knowledge acquisition and in some key BLS-AED action skills than the group without access, or those students from the experimental group deliberately not using virtual patients. Most of the students rated the combination of VPs and corresponding teaching events positively. Conclusions The overall positive reaction of students and encouraging results in knowledge and skills acquisition suggest that the usage of virtual patients in a BLS-AED course on a voluntary basis is feasible and should be further investigated.

  5. Comparative performance assessment of commercially available automatic external defibrillators: A simulation and real-life measurement study of hands-off time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Simone; Vanni, Vincenzo; Burkart, Roman; Raimondi, Maurizio; Canevari, Fabrizio; Molinari, Simone; Baldi, Enrico; Danza, Aurora I; Caputo, Maria Luce; Mauri, Romano; Regoli, Francois; Conte, Giulio; Benvenuti, Claudio; Auricchio, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Early and good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) improve cardiac arrest patients' survival. However, AED peri- and post-shock/analysis pauses may reduce CPR effectiveness. The time performance of 12 different commercially available AEDs was tested in a manikin based scenario; then the AEDs recordings from the same tested models following the clinical use both in Pavia and Ticino were analyzed to evaluate the post-shock and post-analysis time. None of the AEDs was able to complete the analysis and to charge the capacitors in less than 10s and the mean post-shock pause was 6.7±2.4s. For non-shockable rhythms, the mean analysis time was 10.3±2s and the mean post-analysis time was 6.2±2.2s. We analyzed 154 AED records [104 by Emergency Medical Service (EMS) rescuers; 50 by lay rescuers]. EMS rescuers were faster in resuming CPR than lay rescuers [5.3s (95%CI 5-5.7) vs 8.6s (95%CI 7.3-10). AEDs showed different performances that may reduce CPR quality mostly for those rescuers following AED instructions. Both technological improvements and better lay rescuers training might be needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Public health surveillance of automated external defibrillators in the USA: protocol for the dynamic automated external defibrillator registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, JoAnn Broeckel; Merchant, Raina; Daya, Mohamud; Youngquist, Scott; Salcido, David; Valenzuela, Terence; Nichol, Graham

    2017-03-29

    Lay use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) before the arrival of emergency medical services (EMS) providers on scene increases survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). AEDs have been placed in public locations may be not ready for use when needed. We describe a protocol for AED surveillance that tracks these devices through time and space to improve public health, and survival as well as facilitate research. Included AEDs are installed in public locations for use by laypersons to treat patients with OHCA before the arrival of EMS providers on scene. Included cases of OHCA are patients evaluated by organised EMS personnel and treated for OHCA. Enrolment of 10 000 AEDs annually will yield precision of 0.4% in the estimate of readiness for use. Enrolment of 2500 patients annually will yield precision of 1.9% in the estimate of survival to hospital discharge. Recruitment began on 21 Mar 2014 and is ongoing. AEDs are found by using multiple methods. Each AED is then tagged with a label which is a unique two-dimensional (2D) matrix code; the 2D matrix code is recorded and the location and status of the AED tracked using a smartphone; these elements are automatically passed via the internet to a secure and confidential database in real time. Whenever the 2D matrix code is rescanned for any non-clinical or clinical use of an AED, the user is queried to answer a finite set of questions about the device status. The primary outcome of any clinical use of an AED is survival to hospital discharge. Results are summarised descriptively. These activities are conducted under a grant of authority for public health surveillance from the Food and Drug Administration. Results are provided periodically to participating sites and sponsors to improve public health and quality of care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Spatial decision on allocating automated external defibrillators (AED) in communities by multi-criterion two-step floating catchment area (MC2SFCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo-Cheng; Chen, Chao-Wen; Chen, Chien-Chou; Kuo, Chiao-Ling; Fan, I-Chun; Ho, Chi-Kung; Liu, I-Chuan; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2016-05-25

    The occurrence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a critical life-threatening event which frequently warrants early defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator (AED). The optimization of allocating a limited number of AEDs in various types of communities is challenging. We aimed to propose a two-stage modeling framework including spatial accessibility evaluation and priority ranking to identify the highest gaps between demand and supply for allocating AEDs. In this study, a total of 6135 OHCA patients were defined as demand, and the existing 476 publicly available AEDs locations and 51 emergency medical service (EMS) stations were defined as supply. To identify the demand for AEDs, Bayesian spatial analysis with the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) method is applied to estimate the composite spatial risks from multiple factors. The population density, proportion of elderly people, and land use classifications are identified as risk factors. Then, the multi-criterion two-step floating catchment area (MC2SFCA) method is used to measure spatial accessibility of AEDs between the spatial risks and the supply of AEDs. Priority ranking is utilized for prioritizing deployment of AEDs among communities because of limited resources. Among 6135 OHCA patients, 56.85 % were older than 65 years old, and 79.04 % were in a residential area. The spatial distribution of OHCA incidents was found to be concentrated in the metropolitan area of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. According to the posterior mean estimated by INLA, the spatial effects including population density and proportion of elderly people, and land use classifications are positively associated with the OHCA incidence. Utilizing the MC2SFCA for spatial accessibility, we found that supply of AEDs is less than demand in most areas, especially in rural areas. Under limited resources, we identify priority places for deploying AEDs based on transportation time to the nearest hospital and

  8. Bystander Automated External Defibrillator Use and Clinical Outcomes after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Mathias J; Vognsen, Mikael; Andersen, Mikkel S

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review studies comparing bystander automated external defibrillator (AED) use to no AED use in regard to clinical outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), and to provide a descriptive summary of studies on the cost-effectiveness of bystander AED use. METHODS: We.......79]) and favorable neurological outcome (all rhythms OR: 2.12 [95%CI: 1.36, 3.29], shockable rhythms OR: 2.37 [95%CI: 1.58, 3.57]). There was no association between bystander AED use and neurological outcome for non-shockable rhythms (OR: 0.76 [95%CI: 0.10, 5.87]). The Public-Access Defibrillation trial found higher...

  9. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with semi-automated external defibrillator: assessment of the teaching-learning process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue; Quilici, Ana Paula; Martins, Carmem da Costa; de Araújo, Giane Leandro; Pelliciotti, Josikélem da Silva Sodré

    2008-09-01

    Studies demonstrate that, for every minute delayed on defibrillating a heart arrest patient, survival chances decrease by 10%, and that the same chances of survival are 98% effective when it is employed within 30 seconds. While attending a heart arrest patient, it is crucial that the use of external semi-automated defibrillator (AED) is included in the training. The purpose of the present study is to compare Psychomotor Ability and the Theoretical Knowledge of lay people on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using AED, before and after training. This sample was composed of 40 administrative workers of a public institution that were trained on CPR technique using EAD, as an experiment. The significantly higher scores in the assessment instrument items of Psychomotor Ability and Theoretical Knowledge, after training, indicates that the participants have presented improvements in their performances.

  10. A multiple linear regression analysis of factors affecting the simulated Basic Life Support (BLS) performance with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) in Flemish lifeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Schouppe, Gilles; Charlier, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Research investigating lifeguards' performance of Basic Life Support (BLS) with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is limited. Assessing simulated BLS/AED performance in Flemish lifeguards and identifying factors affecting this performance. Six hundred and sixteen (217 female and 399 male) certified Flemish lifeguards (aged 16-71 years) performed BLS with an AED on a Laerdal ResusciAnne manikin simulating an adult victim of drowning. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with BLS/AED performance as outcome variable and demographic data as explanatory variables. Mean BLS/AED performance for all lifeguards was 66.5%. Compression rate and depth adhered closely to ERC 2010 guidelines. Ventilation volume and flow rate exceeded the guidelines. A significant regression model, F(6, 415)=25.61, p<.001, ES=.38, explained 27% of the variance in BLS performance (R2=.27). Significant predictors were age (beta=-.31, p<.001), years of certification (beta=-.41, p<.001), time on duty per year (beta=-.25, p<.001), practising BLS skills (beta=.11, p=.011), and being a professional lifeguard (beta=-.13, p=.029). 71% of lifeguards reported not practising BLS/AED. Being young, recently certified, few days of employment per year, practising BLS skills and not being a professional lifeguard are factors associated with higher BLS/AED performance. Measures should be taken to prevent BLS/AED performances from decaying with age and longer certification. Refresher courses could include a formal skills test and lifeguards should be encouraged to practise their BLS/AED skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rationale and design of the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Gust H; Lee, Kerry L; Mark, Daniel B; Poole, Jeanne E; Toff, William D; Tonkin, Andrew M; Smith, Warren; Dorian, Paul; Yallop, Julie J; Packer, Douglas L; White, Roger D; Longstreth, Will; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Bischoff, Eric; Munkers, Crystal D; Brown, Amanda; McNulty, Steven; Ray, Linda Davidson; Clapp-Channing, Nancy E; Rosenberg, Yves; Salive, Marcel; Schron, Eleanor B

    2008-03-01

    Most cardiac arrests occur in the home, where emergency medical services (EMS) systems are challenged to provide timely care. Because a large proportion of sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs) are due to ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, home use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) might offer an opportunity to decrease mortality in those at risk. Predicting who will have a cardiac arrest in the general population is difficult. Individuals at high risk are usually easily identified and may become candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillators. It is within the population at lower risk where home AEDs may be most useful. The purpose of the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT) is to test whether providing home access to an AED can improve survival in patients at modest risk of SCA, such as those surviving an anterior myocardial infarction but in whom implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy is not deemed necessary. Between January 23, 2003, and October 20, 2005, 7001 patients were enrolled, with completion of follow-up scheduled for September 30, 2007. Randomization was conducted in a 1:1 fashion between control therapy, comprising the standard lay response to SCA (calling the EMS and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation), and the use of an AED first, followed by calling the EMS and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The primary end point is all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include survival from SCA (witnessed and unwitnessed, in home and out of home), incremental cost-effectiveness, and quality of life measures for both the patient and the spouse/companion. The results of the trial should be available in mid 2008.

  12. Intraoperative Defibrillation Testing of Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Systems-A Simple Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommeyer, Gerrit; Zumhagen, Sven; Dechering, Dirk G; Larbig, Robert; Bettin, Markus; Löher, Andreas; Köbe, Julia; Reinke, Florian; Eckardt, Lars

    2016-03-15

    The results of the recently published randomized SIMPLE trial question the role of routine intraoperative defibrillation testing. However, testing is still recommended during implantation of the entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) system. To address the question of whether defibrillation testing in S-ICD systems is still necessary, we analyzed the data of a large, standard-of-care prospective single-center S-ICD registry. In the present study, 102 consecutive patients received an S-ICD for primary (n=50) or secondary prevention (n=52). Defibrillation testing was performed in all except 4 patients. In 74 (75%; 95% CI 0.66-0.83) of 98 patients, ventricular fibrillation was effectively terminated by the first programmed internal shock. In 24 (25%; 95% CI 0.22-0.44) of 98 patients, the first internal shock was ineffective and further internal or external shock deliveries were required. In these patients, programming to reversed shock polarity (n=14) or repositioning of the sensing lead (n=1) or the pulse generator (n=5) led to successful defibrillation. In 4 patients, a safety margin of defibrillation testing is not necessary in transvenous ICD systems, it seems particular important for S-ICD systems, because in nearly 25% of the cases the primary intraoperative test was not successful. In most cases, a successful defibrillation could be achieved by changing shock polarity or by optimizing the shock vector caused by the pulse generator or lead repositioning. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Automated external defibrillators: to what extent does the algorithm delay CPR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Thomas D; Shah, Sachita; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Copass, Michael K; Cobb, Leonard A

    2005-08-01

    Maximizing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during resuscitation may improve survival. Resuscitation protocols stack up to 3 shocks to achieve defibrillation, followed by an immediate postdefibrillation pulse check. The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes of rhythm reanalyses immediately after shock, stacked shocks, and initial postshock pulse checks in relation to achieving a pulse and initiating CPR. We conducted an observational study of patients with ventricular fibrillation treated by first-tier emergency medical services (EMS). We collected data from EMS, dispatch, and hospital records. Additionally, we analyzed automatic external defibrillator recordings to determine the proportion of cardiac arrest victims who were defibrillated and achieved a pulse according to shock number (single versus stacked shock), proportion of victims with a pulse during the initial postdefibrillation pulse check, and interval from initial shock to CPR. The study included 481 cardiac arrest subjects. Automatic external defibrillators terminated ventricular fibrillation with the initial shock in 83.6% (n=402) of cases. A second shock terminated ventricular fibrillation in an additional 7.5% (n=36) of cases, and a third shock terminated ventricular fibrillation in 4.8% (n=23) of cases. The initial sequence of 3 shocks failed to terminate ventricular fibrillation in 4.1% (n=20) of cases. In total, automatic external defibrillators performed 560 rhythm reanalyses during the initial shock sequence and delivered 122 "stacked" shocks. Termination of ventricular fibrillation was not synonymous with return of a pulse. The initial shock produced a pulse that was eventually detected in 21.8% (105/481) of cases. Stacked shocks produced a pulse in 10.7% (13/122) of cases. For the 24.5 % (n=118) of cases in which a pulse returned, the pulse was detected during the initial postshock pulse check only 12 times, or 2.5% of all cases. The median interval from initial shock until CPR was

  14. Impact of onsite or dispatched automated external defibrillator use on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdowski, Jocelyn; Blom, Marieke T.; Bardai, Abdennasser; Tan, Hanno L.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the effectiveness of bystander automated external defibrillator (AED) use in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The objective of this study was to determine whether actual use of onsite or dispatched AED reduces the time to first shock compared with no AED use and thereby

  15. Trained first-responders with an automated external defibrillator: how do they perform in real resuscitation attempts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wiebe; van Alem, Anouk P.; de Vos, Rien; van Oostrom, Joost; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of first-responder performance at the end of automated external defibrillator (AED) training may not predict the performance adequately during a real resuscitation attempt. Methods: Between January and December 2000, we evaluated 67 resuscitation attempts in Amsterdam and

  16. New signs to encourage the use of Automated External Defibrillators by the lay public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher M; Colquhoun, Michael C; Samuels, Marc; Hodson, Mark; Mitchell, Sarah; O'Sullivan, Judy

    2017-05-01

    Public Access Defibrillation - the use of Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) by lay bystanders before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services - is an important strategy in delivering prompt defibrillation to victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and can greatly improve survival rates. Such public-access AEDs are used rarely: one barrier might be poor understanding and content of current signage to indicate their presence. The aim of this project was to develop a sign, with public consultation, that better indicated the function of an AED, and an associated poster to encourage its use. Two public surveys were undertaken, in July and December 2015, to investigate perceptions of the current AED location sign recommended for use in the UK and to produce an improved location sign and associated information poster. There were 1895 and 2115 respondents to the surveys. Fewer than half (47.9%, 895/1870) understood what the current location sign indicated. One of four design options for a location sign best explained the indication for (preferred by 56.0%, 1023/1828) and best encouraged the use of a public AED (51.8%, 946/1828). 83.5% (1766/2115) preferred an illustration of a stylised heart trace to the lightning bolt used at present. From five wording options, 'Defibrillator - Heart Restarter' was the most popular (29.4%, 622/2115). An associated poster was developed using design features from the new location sign, findings from the surveys and expert group input regarding its content. This is the first time that public consultation has been used to design a public AED location sign. Effective signage has the potential to help break down the barriers to more widespread use of AEDs in public places. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival and health care costs until hospital discharge of patients treated with onsite, dispatched or without automated external defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdowski, Jocelyn; Kuiper, Mathijs J.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine whether automated external defibrillator (AED) use during resuscitation is associated with lower in-hospital health care costs. Methods: For this observational prospective study, we included all treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of suspected cardiac

  18. TED-Time and life saving External Defibrillator for home-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Teddy A; Rosenheck, Shimon; Gorni, Shraga; Katz, Ioni; Mendelbaum, Mendel; Gilon, Dan

    2014-06-01

    Sudden Cardiac Death--SCD --is a major unmet health problem that needs urgent and prompt solution. AICDs are very expensive, risky and indicated for a small group of patients, at the highest risk. AEDs--Automatic External Defibrillators--are designed for public places and although safe, cannot enter the home-market due to their cost and need for constant, high-cost maintenance. We developed TED, a low-cost AED that derives its energy off the mains, designed for home-use, to save SCD victims' lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence and extraction of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads with conductor externalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciąg, Aleksander; Syska, Paweł; Sterliński, Maciej; Kołodzińska, Agnieszka; Oręziak, Artur; Kuśmierski, Krzysztof; Marciniak-Emmons, Marta; Przybylski, Andrzej; Szumowski, Łukasz; Opolski, Grzegorz; Szwed, Hanna

    2017-08-25

    The increasing number of patients (pts) with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) contributes to BACKGROUND: : The increasing number of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) contributes to the rising number of patients qualifying for a transvenous lead extraction (TLE) due to infection, vascular or lead failure related indications. The purpose of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the occurrence of conductor externalization in TLE patients and to assess the success rate in theextraction of these leads. TLE procedure was performed between 2012 and 2014 of 428 electrodes in 259 patients. Out of these, 143 (33.4%) leads in 138 (52.9%) patients were ICD leads. The indications for the TLE in ICD patients were: infection in 37 patients, lead failure in 84 patients and others in 17 patients. Conductor externalization was observed in 8 ICD leads (5.6%) in 8 (5.8%) patients. The mean dwelling time for externalized leads was 87.9 (55 to 132) months compared to 60.1 (3 to 246) months of the remaining 135 ICD leads (p = 0.0329). All externalized leads were successfully and completely extracted using device traction, mechanical telescopic sheaths and/or autorotational cutting sheaths. No complications of lead extraction procedures were observed in 8 patients with externalization. Patients with lead externalization were often in a better New York Heart Association functional class (I or II) compared to those in the rest of the study group (p = 0.0212). Conductor externalization is a rare finding in patients undergoing TLE. This occurs with different manufacturers and lead types. In this complication transvenous lead extraction with the mechanical extraction tools can be safely performed.

  20. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and placement of automated external defibrillators in the community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    defibrillering før ambulance ankomst. Sådanne strategier betegnes ’defibrillering med offentlig adgang’ (public access defibrillation (PAD)). Megen forskning har fokuseret på placering af og overlevelse med brug af AED i udvalgte områder, hvorimod der er meget begrænset viden om hvor udbredt AED’er bør være i...

  1. Role of wearable and automatic external defibrillators in improving survival in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byron K; Olgin, Jeffery E

    2009-10-01

    Cardiac arrest is a vexing public health problem. Fortunately, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been proven to decrease overall mortality in several populations at high risk for cardiac arrest. However, it is still unclear how to treat patients who have an elevated risk of cardiac arrest but are not in one of the identified high-risk groups proven to benefit from an ICD. It also is uncertain how to manage high-risk patients who have an accepted indication for an ICD but are unable or unwilling to have an ICD. In these clinical situations, the wearable defibrillator and automatic external defibrillator are options that should be considered. Both devices have been shown in small series to be highly effective at restoring sinus rhythm in patients with a ventricular tachyarrhythmia. However, there is still a lack of large-scale trials proving that these devices should be employed routinely in specific high-risk patient populations.

  2. Providers with Limited Experience Perform Better in Advanced Life Support with Assistance Using an Interactive Device with an Automated External Defibrillator Linked to a Ventilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Christian Werner; Qalanawi, Mohammed; Kersten, Jan Felix; Kalwa, Tobias Johannes; Scotti, Norman Alexander; Reip, Wikhart; Doehn, Christoph; Maisch, Stefan; Nitzschke, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Medical teams with limited experience in performing advanced life support (ALS) or with a low frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) while on duty, often have difficulty complying with CPR guidelines. This study evaluated whether the quality of CPR of trained medical students, who served as an example of teams with limited experience in ALS, could be improved with device assistance. The primary outcome was the hands-off time (i.e., the percentage of the entire CPR time without chest compressions). The secondary outcome was seven time intervals, which should be as short as possible, and the quality of ventilations and chest compressions on the mannequin. We compared standard CPR equipment to an interactive device with visual and acoustic instructions for ALS workflow measures to guide briefly trained medical students through the ALS algorithm in a full-scale mannequin simulation study with a randomized crossover study design. The study equipment consisted of an automatic external defibrillator and ventilator that were electronically linked and communicating as a single system. Included were regular medical students in the third to sixth years of medical school of one class who provided written informed consent for voluntary participation and for the analysis of their CPR performance data. No exclusion criteria were applied. For statistical measures of evaluation we used an analysis of variance for crossover trials accounting for treatment effect, sequence effect, and carry-over effect, with adjustment for prior practical experience of the participants. Forty-two medical students participated in 21 CPR sessions, each using the standard and study equipment. Regarding the primary end point, the study equipment reduced the hands-off time from 40.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 36.9-43.4%) to 35.6% (95% CI 32.4-38.9%, p = 0.031) compared with the standard equipment. Within the prespecified secondary end points, study equipment reduced the time interval until

  3. Successful defibrillation in water: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock-Frézot, J C; Ohley, W J; Schock, R B; Cote, M; Schofield, L

    2006-01-01

    Mild hypothermia (32-34 deg C) treatment alleviates vital organ damage after cardiac arrest. A new cooling device, the Thermosuit operates by applying of a thin layer of water directly to the body surface. Hypothermic patients may experience sequential fibrillation. Therefore, we examined whether defibrillation could be administered safely and effectively in water. A 35 kg swine was anesthetized and placed inside the Thermosuit system. This consists of a water containing surround and pumping system. Conventional AED disposable defibrillation electrodes were applied to the animal's chest. Fibrillation was created by applying a 50-volt signal to a pacing wire introduced into the heart. Following a 30-second period of fibrillation, defibrillation was attempted using Medtronic AED 1000 defibrillator. Defibrillation voltage and current were measured. There were three test cases: dry in the system, wet in the functioning system, and damp. Cooling water in the system was contaminated with saline to simulate potential conditions in clinical application. In each fibrillation-defibrillation sequence, the heart was restarted successfully; this required less than 220 joules. Only a small difference was measured in the overall defibrillation voltage and current as applied to the electrodes for the different cases. Thus, underwater defibrillation is safe and can be performed effectively.

  4. Use and benefits of public access defibrillation in a nation-wide network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are known to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to examine the use and benefit of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in a nation-wide network. We primarily sought to assess survival at 1 month...

  5. [Resuscitation - Basic Life Support in adults and application of automatic external defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Andreas; Seewald, Stephan; Wnent, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Witnesses of a sudden cardiac arrest play a key-role in resuscitation. Lay-persons should therefore be trained to recognize that a collapsed person who is not breathing at all or breathing normally might suffer from cardiac arrest. Information of professional emergency medical staff by lay-persons and their initiation of cardio-pulmonary-resuscitation-measures are of great importance for cardiac-arrest victims. Ambulance-dispatchers have to support lay-rescuers via telephone. This support includes the localisation of the nearest Automatic External Defibrillator (AED). Presentation of agonal breathing or convulsions due to brain-hypoxia need to be recognized as potential early signs of cardiac arrest. In any case of cardiac arrest chest-compressions need to be started. There is insufficiant data to recommend "chest-compression-only"-CPR as being equally sufficient as cardio-pulmonary-resuscitation including ventilation. Rescuers trained in ventilation should therefore combine compressions and ventilations at a 30:2-ratio. Movement of the chest is being used as a sign of sufficient ventilation. High-quality chest-compressions of at least 5 cm of depth, not exceeding 6 cm, are recommended at a ratio of 100-120 chest conpressions/min. Interruption of chest-compression should be avoided. At busy public places AED should be available to enable lay-rescuers to apply early defibrillation. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Emergency response planning and sudden cardiac arrests in high schools after automated external defibrillator legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M; Kannankeril, Prince J; Meredith, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To compare medical emergency response plan (MERP) and automated external defibrillator (AED) prevalence and define the incidence and outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in high schools before and after AED legislation. In 2011, Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association member schools were surveyed regarding AED placement, MERPs, and on-campus SCAs within the last 5 years. Results were compared with a similar study conducted in 2006, prior to legislation requiring AEDs in schools. Of the schools solicited, 214 (54%, total enrollment 182 289 students) completed the survey. Compared with 2006, schools in the 2011 survey had a significantly higher prevalence of MERPs (84% vs 71%, P medical emergency communication systems (80% vs 62%, P training (20% vs 17%, P = .58) or full compliance with American Heart Association guidelines (11% vs 7%, P = .16). Twenty-two SCA victims were identified, yielding a 5-year incidence of 1 in 10 schools. After state legislation, schools demonstrated a significant increase in MERPs and on-campus defibrillators but rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and overall compliance with guidelines remained low. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical efficacy of a truncated exponential decay defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacker, W A; Cole, J S; Geddes, L A

    1976-01-01

    Trans-chest electrical ventricular defibrillation was attempted in eight adult patients using a 400 watt-second truncated exponential decay waveform defibrillator. All attempts occurred in the immediate post-operative period after heart surgery. Five of the eight subjects were defibrillated (63% success). This success rate is similar to that of 300 watt-second damped sinusoidal waveform defibrillators.

  8. Mechanisms of defibrillation by standing waves in the bidomain ventricular tissue with voltage applied in an external bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanidi, Oleg V.; Benson, Alan P.; Boyett, Mark R.; Zhang, Henggui

    2009-06-01

    Standing waves of depolarisation produced by periodic low-voltage driving eliminate propagation activity in the heart, thus providing a defibrillating effect. The phenomenon cannot be reproduced by mono- or bidomain models of cardiac tissue, where voltage perturbations decay exponentially with a space constant λ 1≈1 mm. Extension of the bidomain model taking into account effects of the external bathing medium allows simulation of the standing waves which eliminate spiral wave activity in the tissue. Mechanisms of such a defibrillating effect can be explained by the existence of an additional, unusually long space constant, λ 2≈20 mm, in the bidomain model with a bath, which emerges due to redistribution of the applied voltage by the external conductive medium.

  9. A second defibrillator chest patch electrode will increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A J; Swartz, J F; Rodak, D J; Moore, H J; Hannan, R L; Tracy, C M; Fletcher, R D

    1996-09-01

    Nonthoracotomy defibrillator systems can be implanted with a lower morbidity and mortality, compared to epicardial systems. However, implantation may be unsuccessful in up to 15% of patients, using a monophasic waveform. It was the purpose of this study to prospectively examine the efficacy of a second chest patch electrode in a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system. Fourteen patients (mean age 62 +/- 11 years, ejection fraction = 0.29 +/- 0.12) with elevated defibrillation thresholds, defined as > or = 24 J, were studied. The initial lead system consisted of a right ventricular electrode (cathode), a left innominate vein, and subscapular chest patch electrode (anodes). If the initial defibrillation threshold was > or = 24 J, a second chest patch electrode was added. This was placed subcutaneously in the anterior chest (8 cases), or submuscularly in the subscapular space (6 cases). This resulted in a decrease in the system impedance at the defibrillation threshold, from 72.3 +/- 13.3 omega to 52.2 +/- 8.6 omega. Additionally, the defibrillation threshold decreased from > or = 24 J, with a single patch, to 16.6 +/- 2.8 J with two patches. These changes were associated with successful implantation of a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system in all cases. In conclusion, the addition of a second chest patch electrode (using a subscapular approach) will result in lower defibrillation thresholds in patients with high defibrillation thresholds, and will subsequently increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

  10. Reconfirmation algorithms should be the standard of care in automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddy, Steven C

    2006-03-01

    Non-sustained and self-terminating arrhythmias pose a significant challenge during resuscitation. Delivery of a defibrillation shock to a non-shockable rhythm has a poorly understood effect on the heart. The importance of assessing rhythm right up until the delivery of a shock is of increased importance when "blind" shocks are being delivered by automatic defibrillators or minimally trained rescuers. Reconfirmation algorithms are common in current-generation implantable defibrillators but this investigation of current-generation AEDs shows that only 71% of devices presently available have reconfirmation algorithms. A case of spontaneous reversion of a non-sustained arrhythmia is presented. The implications of delivering a defibrillator shock to a non-shockable rhythm are discussed.

  11. Radiated radiofrequency immunity testing of automated external defibrillators - modifications of applicable standards are needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassen Howard I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the worst-case radiated radiofrequency (RF susceptibility of automated external defibrillators (AEDs based on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC requirements of a current standard for cardiac defibrillators, IEC 60601-2-4. Square wave modulation was used to mimic cardiac physiological frequencies of 1 - 3 Hz. Deviations from the IEC standard were a lower frequency limit of 30 MHz to explore frequencies where the patient-connected leads could resonate. Also testing up to 20 V/m was performed. We tested AEDs with ventricular fibrillation (V-Fib and normal sinus rhythm signals on the patient leads to enable testing for false negatives (inappropriate "no shock advised" by the AED. Methods We performed radiated exposures in a 10 meter anechoic chamber using two broadband antennas to generate E fields in the 30 - 2500 MHz frequency range at 1% frequency steps. An AED patient simulator was housed in a shielded box and delivered normal and fibrillation waveforms to the AED's patient leads. We developed a technique to screen ECG waveforms stored in each AED for electromagnetic interference at all frequencies without waiting for the long cycle times between analyses (normally 20 to over 200 s. Results Five of the seven AEDs tested were susceptible to RF interference, primarily at frequencies below 80 MHz. Some induced errors could cause AEDs to malfunction and effectively inhibit operator prompts to deliver a shock to a patient experiencing lethal fibrillation. Failures occurred in some AEDs exposed to E fields between 3 V/m and 20 V/m, in the 38 - 50 MHz range. These occurred when the patient simulator was delivering a V-Fib waveform to the AED. Also, we found it is not possible to test modern battery-only-operated AEDs for EMI using a patient simulator if the IEC 60601-2-4 defibrillator standard's simulated patient load is used. Conclusions AEDs experienced potentially life-threatening false-negative failures from

  12. Lay Bystanders' Perspectives on What Facilitates Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Use of Automated External Defibrillators in Real Cardiac Arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rosenkranz, Simone Mørk; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will fail to receive bystander intervention (cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] or defibrillation) despite widespread CPR training and the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We sought to investigate what...... factors encourage lay bystanders to initiate CPR and AED use in a cohort of bystanders previously trained in CPR techniques who were present at an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-eight semistructured qualitative interviews with CPR-trained lay bystanders......, until data saturation. We used cross-sectional indexing (using software), and inductive in-depth thematic analyses, to identify those factors that facilitated CPR and AED use. In addition to prior hands-on CPR training, the following were described as facilitators: prior knowledge that intervention...

  13. Automated external defibrillator rescues among children with diagnosed and treated long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundi, Kavitha N; Bos, J Martijn; Cannon, Bryan C; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. A comprehensive LQTS-directed treatment program often includes an automated external defibrillator (AED). The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of AED rescues among children evaluated, risk-stratified, and treated in an LQTS specialty center. We performed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records to identify 1665 patients evaluated in our Genetic Heart Rhythm Clinic (1999-2013). Subset analysis was performed on 291 children managed without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). The average age at diagnosis was 8.3 ± 5.7 years with an average. QTc of 463 ± 40 ms (17% ≥500 ms). The represented LQTS genotypes included type 1 (LQT1) in 52%, type 2 (LQT2) in 35%, and type 3 (LQT3) in 7%. During follow-up, 3 of 291 children (1%) had a cardiac arrest with an appropriate AED rescue (2/51 symptomatic, 1/240 asymptomatic). The first AED rescue occurred during exercise in a symptomatic 3-year-old boy with compound LQT1 treated with beta-blocker and videoscopic left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD). The second AED rescue occurred in a remotely symptomatic 14-year-old boy with high-risk LQT2 (QTc >550 ms) on a beta-blocker who previously declined a prophylactic ICD. The third AED rescue involved an asymptomatic 17-year-old girl with LQT3 on mexiletine who collapsed in school. An AED should seldom be necessary in an appropriately treated child with LQTS. Nevertheless, despite only 3 AED rescues in more than 1700 patient-years, an AED can be a lifesaving and cost-effective part of an LQTS patient's comprehensive sudden death prevention program. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of a geographic information system to identify differences in automated external defibrillator installation in urban areas with similar incidence of public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, David; Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang; Jonsson, Martin; Svensson, Leif; Djarv, Therese; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ringh, Mattias; Claesson, Andreas

    2017-06-02

    Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the distribution of public AEDs follows the incident locations of public OHCAs in urban areas of Stockholm County, Sweden. OHCA data were obtained from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and AED data were obtained from the Swedish AED Register. Urban areas in Stockholm County were objectively classified according to the pan-European digital mapping tool, Urban Atlas (UA). Furthermore, we reclassified and divided the UA land cover data into three classes (residential, non-residential and other areas). GIS software was used to spatially join and relate public AED and OHCA data and perform computations on relations and distance. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 a total of 804 OHCAs occurred in public locations in Stockholm County and by December 2013 there were 1828 AEDs available. The incidence of public OHCAs was similar in residential (47.3%) and non-residential areas (43.4%). Fewer AEDs were present in residential areas than in non-residential areas (29.4% vs 68.8%). In residential areas the median distance between OHCAs and AEDs was significantly greater than in non-residential areas (288 m vs 188 m, pgeographical location into account when suggesting locations for AED installation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Minimizing pre- and post-shock pauses during the use of an automatic external defibrillator by two different voice prompt protocols. A randomized controlled trial of a bundle of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesems, Stefanie G; Berdowski, Jocelyn; Hulleman, Michiel; Blom, Marieke T; Tijssen, Jan G P; Koster, Rudolph W

    2016-09-01

    Previous large retrospective analyses have found an association between duration of peri-shock pauses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and survival. In a randomized trial, we tested whether shortening these pauses improves survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Patients with OHCA between May 2006 and January 2014 with shockable initial rhythm, treated by first responders, were randomized to two automated external defibrillator (AED) treatment protocols. In the control protocol AEDs performed post-shock analysis and prompted rescuers to a pulse check (Guidelines 2000). In the experimental protocol a 15s period of CPR during and after charging of the AED was added to the voice prompts and CPR was resumed immediately after defibrillation (modification of the Guidelines 2005). Survival was assessed at hospital admission and discharge. Of 1174 OHCA patients, 456 met the inclusion criteria: 227 were randomly assigned to the experimental protocol and 229 to the control protocol. The experimental group experienced shorter pre-shock pauses (6 [5-11]s vs. 20 [18-23]s; P<0.001), and shorter post-shock pauses (7 [6-9]s vs. 27 [16-34]s; P<0.001). Similar proportions of patients survived to hospital admission (experimental: 62% vs. 65%; RR [95%CI] 0.96 [0.83-1.10], P=0.51), and hospital discharge (experimental: 42% vs. 38%; RR [95%CI] 1.09 [0.87-1.37], P=0.46). In patients with OHCA and shockable initial rhythms, treatment with AEDs with the experimental protocol shortened pre-shock and post-shock CPR pauses, and increased overall CPR time, but did not improve survival to hospital admission or discharge. http://www.isrctn.com unique identifier: ISRCTN72257677. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of Automated External Defibrillators by laypersons in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using an SMS alert service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Annemieke C.; van Manen, Jeanette Gabrielle; van der Worp, Wim E.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate an SMS service (SMS = short message service = text message) with which laypersons are alerted to go to patients with suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and perform early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use an Automated External Defibrillator (AED). This study is the

  17. [Chronobiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Galicia with semi-automatic external defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Araujo, L; Costa-Parcero, M; López-Campos, M; Sánchez-Santos, L; Iglesias-Vázquez, J A; Rodríguez-Núñez, A

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the chronobiological variations of out-hospital cardiac arrest in which an automated external defibrillator was used in Galicia. Descriptive retrospective study of the cardiac arrest attended by the Emergency Medical Service in which an automated external defibrillator was in use during a period of 5 years (2007-2011). An Utstein style database was used. The sex, age, date and hour of the event, location, cardiac arrest attended, beginning of resuscitation by the professional, first monitored rhythm, emergency team activation time and care, endotracheal intubation, and recovery of spontaneous circulation were studied as independent variables. A total of 2,005 cases (0.14/1,000 population-year) was recorded. Time slot with more frequency of cardiac arrest: between 09-11 hrs (18.4%). Months with more cases: January (10.4%) and December (9.8%). It was significantly more probable that the cardiac arrest occurred in the home between 00-08 hrs, and in the street between 08-16 hrs. Asystole was more frequent in the night period (00-08 hrs), whereas the shockable rhythm was in the evening (16-00 hrs). There is more probability of death after cardiac arrest between 00-08 hrs, with recovery of spontaneous circulation being more probable between 16-00 hrs. The time between the emergency team activation and time care was longer in night schedule. In Galicia, cardiac arrest is more frequent in the winter months and in morning schedule. There is a circadian distribution of the cardiac arrest and the rhythm detected at the time of the first assistance, with asystole being more common in night schedule and the shockable rhythm in the evening. The chronobiology of the cardiac arrest should be taken into account in order to organize the distribution and the schedule of the healthcare resources. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of double sequential external defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Eric; Krebs, William; Davis, James; Keseg, David P; Panchal, Ashish R

    2016-11-01

    Survival from out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is highest in victims with shockable rhythms when early CPR and rapid defibrillation are provided. However, a subset of individuals present with ventricular fibrillation (VF) that does not respond to defibrillation (refractory VF). One intervention that may be a possible option in refractory VF is double sequential external defibrillation (DSD). The objective of this case series was to describe the outcome of prehospital victims with refractory VF treated with DSD in the out-of-hospital setting. This evaluation is a retrospective chart review of VF patients treated with DSD in the prehospital setting from August 1st, 2010 through June 30th, 2014. Patients were excluded if less than 17 years of age. The outcomes we evaluated were the number of patients with return of spontaneous circulation, conversion from VF, survival-to-hospital discharge, and Cerebral Performance Category score. Total of 2428 OHCA events were reviewed with twelve patients treated with DSD. Median DSD and prehospital resuscitation times were 27min (IQR 22-33) and 32 (IQR 24-38), respectively. Of the 12 patients treated, return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in three patients, nine patients were converted out of ventricular fibrillation, three patients survived to hospital discharge, and two patients (2/12, 17%) were discharged with Cerebral Performance Category scores of 1 (good cerebral performance). Double sequential defibrillation may be another tool to improve neurologically intact survival from OHCA. Further studies are needed to demonstrate direct benefits to patient outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. The availability, condition and employability of automated external defibrillators in large city centres in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huig, Isabelle C; Boonstra, Linda; Gerritsen, Patricia C; Hoeks, Sanne E

    2014-10-01

    In the Netherlands there are, at the time of writing, no clear guidelines about the implementation of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). An observational study was conducted to investigate the current status of AEDs in city centres in the Netherlands looking specifically at the availability, condition and employability of the AEDs. The shopping areas in the old city centres of the six largest cities in the Netherlands were included in the study. After the AEDs had been identified, a questionnaire was used to determine the availability, condition and employability of the AED. In total 130 AEDs were found and 122 included in the study. The following results were found: 40% of the AEDs were not visible (range 21-64), 29% were not indicated with a sign (range 19-41), 7% had an empty battery (range 0-23), 16% of the defipads had expired (range 0-31) and in 98% of the AEDs a trained employee was present (range 96-100). After combining these results, 71% of the AEDs were available for use (range 61-93), 70% were in a good condition (range 46-82) and 70% were employable (range 58-93). The results show a major variability between cities. Our study demonstrates that although national guidelines have not been implemented, a reasonable amount of AEDs can be found. However there is certainly room for improvement in the current availability, condition and employability of AEDs in city centres in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of brief training on use of automated external defibrillators by people without medical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K Blake; Gugerty, Leo; Muth, Eric

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the effect of three types of brief training on the use of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) by 43 lay users. Because AEDs were recently approved for home use, brief training for nonprofessional users needs investigation. During training, the exposure training group read an article about AEDs that provided no information on how to operate them; the low-training group inspected the AED and read the operating instructions in the paper-based manual but was not allowed to use the device; and the high-training group watched a training video and performed a mock resuscitation using the AED but no manikin. All participants returned 2 weeks later and performed a surprise simulated AED resuscitation on a manikin. Most participants in each training group met criteria of minimally acceptable performance during the simulated manikin resuscitation, as measured by time to first shock, pad placement accuracy, and safety check performance. All participants who committed errors were able to successfully recover from them to complete the resuscitation. Compared with exposure training, the low and high training had a beneficial effect on time to first shock and errors. Untrained users were able to adequately use this AED, demonstrating walk-up-and-use usability, but additional brief training improved user performance. This study demonstrated the importance of providing high-quality but brief training for home AED users. In conjunction with other findings, the current study helps demonstrate the need for well-designed training for consumer medical devices.

  1. Quality of basic life support education and automated external defibrillator setting in schools in Ishikawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Akiteru; Ito, Sayori; Maruyama, Kaori; Ryo, Yusuke; Saito, Manami; Fujimura, Shuhei; Ishiura, Yuna; Hori, Ariyuki

    2017-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have been installed in schools in Japan since 2004, and the government strongly recommends teaching basic life support (BLS). We therefore examined the quality of BLS education and AED installation in schools. We conducted a prefecture-wide questionnaire survey of all primary and junior high schools in 2016, to assess BLS education and AED installation against the recommendations of the Japan Circulation Society. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared test. In total, 195 schools out of 315 (62%) responded, of which 38% have introduced BLS education for children. BLS training was held in a smaller proportion of primary schools (18%) than junior high schools (86%). More than 90% of primary school staff had undergone BLS training in the previous 2 years. The most common locations of AED were the gymnasium (32%) followed by entrance hall (28%), staffroom (25%), and infirmary (12%). The reasons given for location were that it was obvious (34%), convenient for staff (32%), could be used out of hours (17%), and the most likely location for a heart attack (15%). Approximately 18% of schools reported that it takes >5 min to reach the AED from the furthest point. BLS training, AED location, and understanding of both are not sufficient to save children's lives efficiently. Authorities should make recommendations about the correct number of AED, and their location, and provide more information to improve the quality of BLS training in schools. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. A Case Series of Double Sequence Defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Mark A; Tagore, Ammundeep; Bauter, Robert; Arshad, Faizan H

    2016-01-01

    Double Sequence Defibrillation or Double Simultaneous Defibrillation (DSD) is the use of two defibrillators almost simultaneously at their highest allowed energy setting to treat refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF). One set of pads is placed in the Anterior-Posterior position and the other set of pads is placed in the Anterior-Lateral Position. Both defibrillation buttons are pressed simultaneously. We sought to determine ROSC and survival rates in a large EMS system when DSD is routinely utilized for RVF. A retrospective case series was performed of all patients who received DSD from January 1, 2015 to April 30, 2015. During the four month period, we requested physicians to instruct paramedics to use DSD on patients after three refractory episodes of VF. All Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ALS) patients treated by paramedics are discussed via telephone communication with a physician in the system of 100 ALS treated patients per day. From January 1, 2015 to April 1, 2015, a total of 7 patients were treated with DSD. The mean age was 62 (Range: 45-78), with mean resuscitation time of 34.3 minutes before first DSD (Range: 23-48). The mean number of single shocks was 5.4 prior to DSD (Range: 3-9), with a mean of 2 DSD shocks delivered. VF converted after DSD in 5 cases (57.1%). Four patients survived to admission (43%). Three patients survived to discharge with no or minimal neurologic disability (28.6%). The mean Cerebral Performance Category Scale was 3.4 with 1 indicating good cerebral performance and 5 indicating Brain Death. The correct amount of energy in joules for VF remains unknown. In this case series, significant patients converted out of VF. The reason for improved VF conversion may be several factors including additional defibrillation vectors, increased energy, more energy across myocardium, and unknown variables. Additional research is underway to determine if routine DSD will result in improved survival compared to standard defibrillation

  3. [Does public access to defibrillators have a chance in Germany?--On the US model, legal considerations and justification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, M; Knorr, M

    2000-12-01

    The introduction of public access to defibrillation via automated external defibrillators makes it possible to reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest cases. Since they may expect civil and criminal liability after negligence causing damage, many German potential First Responders might hesitate to use an AED. After we demonstrate the medical reasons and compare the legal situation of Public Access Defibrillation between the USA and Germany we analyse a possible hesitation of German First Responders. More than 30 states of the USA provide immunity from civil liability after a public access defibrillation followed by damage due to negligence. However, only an AED-trained US-First Responder is granted immunity from civil liability. In Germany there is no immunity from civil and criminal liability in case of public access defibrillation with damage caused by negligence. German law will not decrease any possible hesitation by First Responders. For a successful system of public access defibrillation, revision of the legal situation is mandatory.

  4. Minimal instructions improve the performance of laypersons in the use of semiautomatic and automatic external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan; Fries, Michael; Bickenbach, Johannes; Derwall, Matthias; Kuhlen, Ralf; Rossaint, Rolf

    2005-04-01

    There is evidence that use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) by laypersons improves rates of survival from cardiac arrest, but there is no consensus on the optimal content and duration of training for this purpose. In this study we examined the use of semiautomatic or automatic AEDs by laypersons who had received no training (intuitive use) and the effects of minimal general theoretical instructions on their performance. In a mock cardiac arrest scenario, 236 first year medical students who had not previously attended any preclinical courses were evaluated in their first study week, before and after receiving prespecified instructions (15 min) once. The primary end-point was the time to first shock for each time point; secondary end-points were correct electrode pad positioning, safety of the procedure and the subjective feelings of the students. The mean time to shock for both AED types was 81.2 +/- 19.2 s (range 45-178 s). Correct pad placement was observed in 85.6% and adequate safety in 94.1%. The time to shock after instruction decreased significantly to 56.8 +/- 9.9 s (range 35-95 s; P automatic AED (first evaluation: 77.5 +/- 20.5 s versus 85.2 +/- 17 s, P automatic AEDs sufficiently quickly and without instruction. After one use and minimal instructions, improvements in practical performance were significant. All tested laypersons were able to deliver the first shock in under 1 min.

  5. Training lay-people to use automatic external defibrillators: are all of their needs being met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Paul, Russell; Timmons, Stephen; van Schalkwyk, Wilna Dirkse

    2006-10-01

    We explored the experiences of lay people who have been trained to use automatic external defibrillators. The research questions were: (1) How can training courses help prepare people for dealing with real life situations? (2) Who is ultimately responsible for providing critical incident debriefing and how should this be organised? (3) What is the best process for providing feedback to those who have used an AED? Fifty-three semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted, some with those who had been trained and others with trainers. Locations included airports, railway stations, private companies and first responder schemes. Geographically, we covered Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, Staffordshire, Essex and the West Midlands in the UK. Our analysis of the data indicates that most people believe scenarios based within their place of work were most useful in preparing for 'real life'. Many people had not received critical incident debriefing after using an AED. There were a variety of systems in place to provide support after an incident, many of which were informal. Training scenarios should be conducted outside the classroom. There should be more focus on critical incident debriefing during training and a clear identification of who should provide support after an incident. Other issues which were of interest included: (1) people's views on do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR); (2) perceived boundaries of responsibility when using an AED; (3) when is someone no longer 'qualified' to use an AED?

  6. 78 FR 17890 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Automated External Defibrillator System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... to rescuers or bystanders. There is the potential risk of delivering an electrical shock during defibrillation of a patient to a rescuer or bystander if there is physical contact between them and the patient... action is of a type that does not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human...

  7. High school automated external defibrillator programs as markers of emergency preparedness for sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresdahl, Brett G; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2013-01-01

    School-based automated external defibrillator (AED) programs have demonstrated a high survival rate for individuals suffering sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in US high schools. To examine the relationship between high schools having an AED on campus and other measures of emergency preparedness for SCA. Cross-sectional study. United States high schools, December 2006 to September 2009. Principals, athletic directors, school nurses, and certified athletic trainers represented 3371 high schools. Comprehensive surveys on emergency planning for SCA submitted by high school representatives to the National Registry for AED Use in Sports from December 2006 to September 2009. Schools with and without AEDs were compared to assess other elements of emergency preparedness for SCA. A total of 2784 schools (82.6%) reported having 1 or more AEDs on campus, with an average of 2.8 AEDs per school; 587 schools (17.4%) had no AEDs. Schools with an enrollment of more than 500 students were more likely to have an AED (relative risk [RR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.16, P schools were more likely to have an AED than were rural (RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.11, P schools (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.23, P Schools with 1 or more AEDs were more likely to ensure access to early defibrillation (RR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.97, 3.99, P emergency action plan for SCA (RR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.67, 2.00, P emergency action plan at least annually (RR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.58, 2.50, P emergency medical services to develop the emergency action plan (RR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.32, P emergency responders (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.08, P High schools with AED programs were more likely to establish a comprehensive emergency response plan for SCA. Implementing school-based AED programs is a key step associated with emergency planning for young athletes with SCA.

  8. High School Automated External Defibrillator Programs as Markers of Emergency Preparedness for Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresdahl, Brett G.; Harmon, Kimberly G.; Drezner, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: School-based automated external defibrillator (AED) programs have demonstrated a high survival rate for individuals suffering sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in US high schools. Objective: To examine the relationship between high schools having an AED on campus and other measures of emergency preparedness for SCA. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: United States high schools, December 2006 to September 2009. Patients or Other Participants: Principals, athletic directors, school nurses, and certified athletic trainers represented 3371 high schools. Main Outcome Measure(s): Comprehensive surveys on emergency planning for SCA submitted by high school representatives to the National Registry for AED Use in Sports from December 2006 to September 2009. Schools with and without AEDs were compared to assess other elements of emergency preparedness for SCA. Results: A total of 2784 schools (82.6%) reported having 1 or more AEDs on campus, with an average of 2.8 AEDs per school; 587 schools (17.4%) had no AEDs. Schools with an enrollment of more than 500 students were more likely to have an AED (relative risk [RR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.16, P defibrillation (RR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.97, 3.99, P < .01), establish an emergency action plan for SCA (RR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.67, 2.00, P < .01), review the emergency action plan at least annually (RR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.58, 2.50, P < .01), consult emergency medical services to develop the emergency action plan (RR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.32, P < .01), and establish a communication system to activate emergency responders (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.08, P < .01). Conclusions: High schools with AED programs were more likely to establish a comprehensive emergency response plan for SCA. Implementing school-based AED programs is a key step associated with emergency planning for young athletes with SCA. PMID:23672389

  9. Changes in anxiety and depression over 2 years in medically stable patients after myocardial infarction and their spouses in the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT): a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sue A; Friedmann, Erika; Lee, Hyeon-Joo; Son, Heesook; Morton, Patricia G

    2011-03-01

    To compare the long-term effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and CPR/automatic external defibrillator (AED) training on anxiety and depression of patients who were medically stable after myocardial infarction (MI) and of their spouses/companions. Longitudinal. Post-MI patients (N=460) and their spouses/companions from the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial. Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II scores) and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores). At study entry, 25% of the patients and 15% of their spouses were depressed and 21% of the patients and 19% of the spouses were anxious. The prevalence of depression and anxiety did not change over time in the patients or their spouses. Average depression and anxiety decreased for patients but not for spouses. An intervention group did not contribute significantly to these changes. Psychological distress, indicated by depression or anxiety of the spouse or the patient, occurred in 191 couples. Among psychologically distressed patients (N=128), depression and anxiety decreased over time; the intervention group did not contribute to these changes. The reduction in anxiety among male patients was greater than in female patients (p=0.012, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.018). Among psychologically distressed spouses (N=118), depression decreased over time independently of the intervention. Changes in spouse anxiety depended on the intervention group (p=0.012, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.012); anxiety decreased significantly in the CPR and remained high in the CPR/AED group. There was no evidence that home AEDs caused psychological distress among patients. Even among those who were psychologically distressed when they were assigned to receive either CPR training or CPR/AEDs, home AEDs did not influence changes in patients' depression or anxiety or spouses' depression in comparison with CPR training. Among psychologically distressed spouses, AEDs may keep anxiety higher than it would be otherwise. Interventions to

  10. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and placement of automated external defibrillators in the community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    INDLEDNING Chancen for at overleve et hjertestop udenfor hospital er i de første minutter efter kollaps afhængig af hjælpen fra nærmeste tilstedeværende. Dette har faciliteret strategier for placering af automatiske eksterne defibrillatorer (AED) i det offentlige rum og muliggjort hurtig defibril...

  11. Effect of an interactive cardiopulmonary resuscitation assist device with an automated external defibrillator synchronised with a ventilator on the CPR performance of emergency medical service staff: a randomised simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, Rainer; Doehn, Christoph; Kersten, Jan F; Blanz, Julian; Kalwa, Tobias J; Scotti, Norman A; Kubitz, Jens C

    2017-04-04

    The present study evaluates whether the quality of advanced cardiac life support (ALS) is improved with an interactive prototype assist device. This device consists of an automated external defibrillator linked to a ventilator and provides synchronised visual and acoustic instructions for guidance through the ALS algorithm and assistance for face-mask ventilations. We compared the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality of emergency medical system (EMS) staff members using the study device or standard equipment in a mannequin simulation study with a prospective, controlled, randomised cross-over study design. Main outcome was the effect of the study device compared to the standard equipment and the effect of the number of prior ALS trainings of the EMS staff on the CPR quality. Data were analysed using analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and binary logistic regression, accounting for the study design. In 106 simulations of 56 two-person rescuer teams, the mean hands-off time was 24.5% with study equipment and 23.5% with standard equipment (Difference 1.0% (95% CI: -0.4 to 2.5%); p = 0.156). With both types of equipment, the hands-off time decreased with an increasing cumulative number of previous CPR trainings (p = 0.042). The study equipment reduced the mean time until administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by 23 s (p = 0.003) and that of amiodarone by 17 s (p = 0.016). It also increased the mean number of changes in the person doing chest compressions (0.6 per simulation; p CPR.com compared to the standard equipment (p = 0.004). With an increasing number of prior CPR trainings, the time intervals in the ALS algorithm until the defibrillations decreased with standard equipment but increased with the study device. EMS staff with limited training in CPR profit from guidance through the ALS algorithm by the study device. However, the study device somehow reduced the ALS quality of well-trained rescuers and thus can only be recommended for

  12. A shocking past: a walk through generations of defibrillation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2014-05-01

    Defibrillation is one of the most successful and widely recognized applications of electrotherapy. Yet the historical road to its first successful application in a patient and the innovative adaptation to an implantable device is marred with unexpected turns, political and personal setbacks, and public and scientific condemnation at each new idea. Driven by dedicated scientists and ever-advancing creative applications of new technologies, from electrocardiography to high density mapping and computational simulations, the field of defibrillation persevered and continued to evolve to the life-saving tool it is today. In addition to critical technological advances, the history of defibrillation is also marked by the plasticity of the theory of defibrillation. The advancing theories of success have propelled the campaign for reducing the defibrillation energy requirement, instilling hope in the development of a painless and harmless electrical defibrillation strategy.

  13. Amplitude spectrum area to guide defibrillation: a validation on 1617 patients with ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Mauri, Tommaso; Cesana, Giancarlo; Li, Yongqin; Finzi, Andrea; Fumagalli, Francesca; Rossi, Gianpiera; Grieco, Niccolò; Migliori, Maurizio; Andreassi, Aida; Latini, Roberto; Fornari, Carla; Pesenti, Antonio

    2015-02-03

    This study sought to validate the ability of amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) to predict defibrillation success and long-term survival in a large population of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. ECGs recorded by automated external defibrillators from different manufacturers were obtained from patients with cardiac arrests occurring in 8 city areas. A database, including 2447 defibrillations from 1050 patients, was used as the derivation group, and an additional database, including 1381 defibrillations from 567 patients, served as validation. A 2-second ECG window before defibrillation was analyzed, and AMSA was calculated. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were used for associations between AMSA and study end points: defibrillation success, sustained return of spontaneous circulation, and long-term survival. Among the 2447 defibrillations of the derivation database, 26.2% were successful. AMSA was significantly higher before a successful defibrillation than a failing one (13 ± 5 versus 6.8 ± 3.5 mV-Hz) and was an independent predictor of defibrillation success (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.37) and sustained return of spontaneous circulation (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.26). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for defibrillation success prediction was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.88). AMSA was also significantly associated with long-term survival. The following AMSA thresholds were identified: 15.5 mV-Hz for defibrillation success and 6.5 mV-Hz for defibrillation failure. In the validation database, AMSA ≥ 15.5 mV-Hz had a positive predictive value of 84%, whereas AMSA ≤ 6.5 mV-Hz had a negative predictive value of 98%. In this large derivation-validation study, AMSA was validated as an accurate predictor of defibrillation success. AMSA also appeared as a predictor of long-term survival. © 2014 American Heart

  14. Defibrillation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haskell Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defibrillation is the only effective treatment for ventricular fibrillation (VF. Optimal methods for defibrillation in children are derived and extrapolated from adult data. VF occurs as the initial rhythm in 8-20% of pediatric cardiac arrests. This has fostered a new interest in determining the optimal technique for pediatric defibrillation. This review will provide a brief background of the history of defibrillation and a review of the current literature on pediatric defibrillation. The literature search was performed through PubMed, using the MeSH headings of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation and electric countershock. The authors′ personal bibliographic files were also searched. Only published articles were chosen. The recommended energy dose has been 2 J/kg for 30 years, but recent reports may indicate that higher dosages may be more effective and safe. In 2005, the European Resuscitation Council recommended 4 J/kg as the initial dose, without escalation for subsequent shocks. Automated external defibrillators are increasingly used for pediatric cardiac arrest, and available reports indicate high success rates. Additional research on pediatric defibrillation is critical in order to be able to provide an equivalent standard of care for children in cardiac arrest and improve outcomes.

  15. Defibrillation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Sarah E; Atkins, Dianne L

    2010-01-01

    Defibrillation is the only effective treatment for ventricular fibrillation (VF). Optimal methods for defibrillation in children are derived and extrapolated from adult data. VF occurs as the initial rhythm in 8-20% of pediatric cardiac arrests. This has fostered a new interest in determining the optimal technique for pediatric defibrillation. This review will provide a brief background of the history of defibrillation and a review of the current literature on pediatric defibrillation. The literature search was performed through PubMed, using the MeSH headings of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation and electric countershock. The authors’ personal bibliographic files were also searched. Only published articles were chosen. The recommended energy dose has been 2 J/kg for 30 years, but recent reports may indicate that higher dosages may be more effective and safe. In 2005, the European Resuscitation Council recommended 4 J/kg as the initial dose, without escalation for subsequent shocks. Automated external defibrillators are increasingly used for pediatric cardiac arrest, and available reports indicate high success rates. Additional research on pediatric defibrillation is critical in order to be able to provide an equivalent standard of care for children in cardiac arrest and improve outcomes. PMID:20930970

  16. Use of automated external defibrillators for in-hospital cardiac arrest : Any time, any place?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzler, A; Kloppe, C; Bilgard, A K; Mügge, A; Hanefeld, C

    2017-11-07

    Acute treatment of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is challenging and overall survival rates are low. However, data on the use of public-access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for IHCA remain controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate characteristics of patients experiencing IHCA and feasibility of public-access AED use for resuscitation in a university hospital. IHCA events outside the intensive care unit were analysed over a period of 21 months. Patients' characteristics, AED performance, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 24 h survival were evaluated. Outcomes following adequate and inadequate AED use were compared. During the study period, 59 IHCAs occurred. AED was used in 28 (47.5%) of the cases. However, AED was adequately used in only 42.8% of total AED cases. AED use was not associated with an increased survival rate (12.9 vs. 10.7%, p = 0.8) compared to non-AED use. However, adequate AED use was associated with a higher survival rate (25 vs. 0%, p = 0.034) compared to inadequate AED use. Time from emergency call to application of AED >3 min was the most important factor of inadequate AED use. Adequate AED use was more often observed between 7:30 and 13:30 and in the internal medicine department. AEDs were applied in less than 50% of the IHCA events. Furthermore, AED use was inadequate in the majority of the cases. Since adequate AED use is associated with improved survival, AEDs should be available in hospital areas with patients at high risk of shockable rhythm.

  17. Optimization of automated external defibrillator deployment outdoors: An evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Benjamin; Jabre, Patricia; Karam, Nicole; Misslin, Renaud; Bories, Marie-Cécile; Tafflet, Muriel; Bougouin, Wulfran; Jost, Daniel; Beganton, Frankie; Beal, Guillaume; Pelloux, Patricia; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The benefits of available automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) are well known, but strategies for their deployment outdoors remain somewhat arbitrary. Our study sought to assess different strategies for AED deployment. All OHCAs in Paris between 2000 and 2010 were prospectively recorded and geocoded. A guidelines-based strategy of placing an AED in locations where more than one OHCA had occurred within the past five years was compared to two novel strategies: a grid-based strategy with a regular distance between AEDs and a landmark-based strategy. The expected number of AEDs necessary and their median (IQR) distance to the nearest OHCA were assessed for each strategy. Of 4176 OHCAs, 1372 (33%) occurred in public settings. The first strategy would result in the placement of 170 AEDs, with a distance to OHCA of 416 (180-614) m and a continuous increase in the number of AEDS. In the second strategy, the number of AEDs and their distance to the closest OHCA would change with the grid size, with a number of AEDs between 200 and 400 seeming optimal. In the third strategy, median distances between OHCAs and AEDs would be 324m if placed at post offices (n=195), 239 at subway stations (n=302), 137 at bike-sharing stations (n=957), and 142 at pharmacies (n=1466). This study presents an original evidence-based approach to strategies of AED deployment to optimize their number and location. This rational approach can estimate the optimal number of AEDs for any city. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of automated external defibrillators in cardiac arrest: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The objectives were to identify the components of a program to deliver early defibrillation that optimizes the effectiveness of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in out-of-hospital and hospital settings, to determine whether AEDs are cost-effective, and if cost-effectiveness was determined, to advise on how they should be distributed in Ontario. Survival in people who have had a cardiac arrest is low, especially in out-of-hospital settings. With each minute delay in defibrillation from the onset of cardiac arrest, the probability of survival decreases by 10%. (1) Early defibrillation (within 8 minutes of a cardiac arrest) has been shown to improve survival outcomes in these patients. However, in out-of-hospital settings and in certain areas within a hospital, trained personnel and their equipment may not be available within 8 minutes. This implies that "first responders" should take up the responsibility of delivering shock. The first responders in out-of-hospital settings are usually bystanders, firefighters, police, and community volunteers. In hospital settings, they are usually nurses. These first responders are not trained in reading electrocardiograms and identifying abnormal heart rhythms restorable by defibrillation. An AED is a device that can analyze a heart rhythm and deliver a shock if needed. Thus, AEDs can be used by first responders to deliver early defibrillation in out-of-hospital and hospital settings. However, simply providing an AED would not likely improve survival outcomes. Rather, AEDs have a role in strengthening the "chain of survival," which includes prompt activation of the 911 telephone system, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rapid defibrillation, and timely advanced life support. In the chain of survival, the first step for a witness of a cardiac arrest in an out-of-hospital setting is to call 911. Second, the witness initiates CPR (if she or he is trained in CPR). If the witness cannot initiate CPR, or the first

  19. Presence of automated external defibrillators in North Carolina public middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Bright, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have been used in the school setting to successfully resuscitate students, staff, and visitors. All public high schools in North Carolina have an AED. However, the number of North Carolina public middle schools with an AED is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of AEDs at public middle schools in North Carolina and to estimate the cost associated with providing an AED to all public middle schools currently without one. All 547 middle schools in North Carolina's 117 public school systems were surveyed in 2009 via e-mail, fax, and, when necessary, telephone about whether an AED was present on site. For middle schools without AEDs, we estimated the cost of purchase and for 1 year of maintenance. A total 66.6% of public middle schools responded to 1 of 3 survey mailings. The remaining schools were contacted by telephone, so that 100% were included in data collection. At the time of the survey, at least 1 AED was present in 334 schools (61.1%). Of the 213 schools without AEDs, 57 (26.8%) were in school systems in which some middle schools had AEDs, and 156 (73.2%) were in systems in which no middle school had an AED. On the basis of a start-up cost of $1,200 per AED, the cost of providing an AED to each school without one is approximately $255,600. These data are based on self-report, and we could not verify whether AEDs were functional. Cost estimates do not include charges for ongoing maintenance and staff training. Two hundred and thirteen North Carolina public middle schools (38.9%) do not have an AED on site.

  20. Automated external defibrillator and operator performance in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Jolande A; Bekkers, Loes E; Hulleman, Michiel; Beesems, Stefanie G; Koster, Rudolph W

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of failing automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is reported: AEDs not giving a shock or other malfunction. We assessed to what extent AEDs are 'failing' and whether this had a device-related or operator-related cause. We studied analysis periods from AEDs used between January 2012 and December 2014. For each analysis period we assessed the correctness of the (no)-shock advice (sensitivity/specificity) and reasons for an incorrect (no)-shock advice. If no shock was delivered after a shock advice, we assessed the reason for no-shock delivery. We analyzed 1114 AED recordings with 3310 analysis periods (1091 shock advices; 2219 no-shock advices). Sensitivity for coarse ventricular fibrillation was 99% and specificity for non-shockable rhythm detection 98%. The AED gave an incorrect shock advice in 4% (44/1091) of all shock advices, due to device-related (n=15) and operator-related errors (n=28) (one unknown). Of these 44 shock advices, only 2 shocks caused a rhythm change. One percent (26/2219) of all no-shock advices was incorrect due to device-related (n=20) and operator-related errors (n=6). In 5% (59/1091) of all shock advices, no shock was delivered: operator failed to deliver shock (n=33), AED was removed (n=17), operator pushed 'off' button (n=8) and other (n=1). Of the 1073 analysis periods with a shockable rhythm, 67 (6%) did not receive an AED shock. Errors associated with AED use are rare (4%) and when occurring are in 72% caused by the operator or circumstances of use. Fully automatic AEDs may prevent the majority of these errors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved efficacy of anodal biphasic defibrillation shocks following a failed defibrillation attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P R; Allen, S; Smith, D C; Urban, J F; Euler, D E; Kallok, M J; Morgan, J M

    1999-12-01

    Although it is generally assumed that defibrillation becomes more difficult when the duration of VF is prolonged, after a failed defibrillation attempt, there is little information on the defibrillation efficacy of multiple shocks delivered at the same energy. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the efficacy of a second shock delivered at the same or reversed polarity after a failed first shock. Defibrillation was attempted after 10 seconds of VF in 12 pigs (30-56 kg) using biphasic waveforms and a nonthoracotomy lead system. Shock energy was held constant for the first and second shocks at 50%-90% of the DFT. The second shock was delivered 10 seconds after a failed first shock. First and second shock polarity (first phase) was randomized to (+, +), (+, -), (-, -), (-, +). The incidence of successful defibrillation (for all polarities) was 12.3% for first and 49.1% for second shocks (P defibrillation by a second shock after a failed first. The optimal configuration for first and second shocks is with the RV as anode. Polarity reversal of a second shock after a failed first does not affect the probability of second shock success.

  2. [Atrial defibrillator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W; Lüderitz, B

    2000-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent and costly health care problem representing the most common arrhythmia resulting in hospital admission. Total mortality and cardiovascular mortality are significantly increased in patients with AF compared to controls. In addition to symptoms of palpitations, patients with AF have an increased risk of stroke and may also develop decreased exercise tolerance and left ventricular dysfunction. All of these problems may be reversed with restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm. External electrical cardioversion has been a remarkably effective and safe method for termination of this arrhythmia. Originally described by Lown et al. in 1963, it has been a well accepted mode of acute therapy. However, this technique requires general anesthesia or heavy sedation. Internal atrial defibrillation has been evaluated as an alternative approach to the external technique for over 2 decades. Recent studies have shown that low-energy internal atrial defibrillation using biphasic shocks is an effective and safe means in restoring sinus rhythm in patients with AF and should be considered especially in patients in whom external cardioversion attempts have failed. Implantable Atrial Defibrillator: Recently, a stand alone IAD, the Metrix System (models 3000 and 3020), has entered clinical investigation. Atrial defibrillation is accomplished by a shock delivered between electrodes in the right atrium and the coronary sinus. The right atrium lead has an active fixation in the right atrium. The coronary sinus lead has a natural spiral configuration for retention in the coronary sinus, and can be straightened with a stylet. Both leads are 7 French in diameter and the defibrillation coils are each 6 cm in length. The electrodes may be placed using separate leads, or very soon by using a single bipolar lead. A separate bipolar right ventricular lead is used for R wave synchronization and post shock pacing. The Metrix defibrillator can be used to induce

  3. [Learning to use semiautomatic external defibrillators through audiovisual materials for schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Soto, Cristina; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Gregorio-García, Carolina; Prieto-Saborit, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To assess the ability of schoolchildren to use a automated external defibrillator (AED) to provide an effective shock and their retention of the skill 1 month after a training exercise supported by audiovisual materials. Quasi-experimental controlled study in 205 initially untrained schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years old. SAEDs were used to apply shocks to manikins. The students took a baseline test (T0) of skill, and were then randomized to an experimental or control group in the first phase (T1). The experimental group watched a training video, and both groups were then retested. The children were tested in simulations again 1 month later (T2). A total of 196 students completed all 3 phases. Ninety-six (95.0%) of the secondary school students and 54 (56.8%) of the primary schoolchildren were able to explain what a SAED is. Twenty of the secondary school students (19.8%) and 8 of the primary schoolchildren (8.4%) said they knew how to use one. At T0, 78 participants (39.8%) were able to simulate an effective shock. At T1, 36 controls (34.9%) and 56 experimental-group children (60.2%) achieved an effective shock (P< .001). At T2, 53 controls (51.4%) and 61 experimental-group children (65.6%) gave effective shocks (P=.045). All the students completed the tests in 120 seconds. Their average times decreased with each test. The secondary school students achieved better results. Previously untrained secondary school students know what a AED is and half of them can manage to use one in simulations. Brief narrative, audiovisual instruction improves students' skill in managing a SAED and helps them retain what they learned for later use.

  4. Machine Learning Techniques for the Detection of Shockable Rhythms in Automated External Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuera, Carlos; Irusta, Unai; Morgado, Eduardo; Aramendi, Elisabete; Ayala, Unai; Wik, Lars; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Eftestøl, Trygve; Alonso-Atienza, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Early recognition of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and electrical therapy are key for the survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated with automated external defibrillators (AED). AED algorithms for VF-detection are customarily assessed using Holter recordings from public electrocardiogram (ECG) databases, which may be different from the ECG seen during OHCA events. This study evaluates VF-detection using data from both OHCA patients and public Holter recordings. ECG-segments of 4-s and 8-s duration were analyzed. For each segment 30 features were computed and fed to state of the art machine learning (ML) algorithms. ML-algorithms with built-in feature selection capabilities were used to determine the optimal feature subsets for both databases. Patient-wise bootstrap techniques were used to evaluate algorithm performance in terms of sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and balanced error rate (BER). Performance was significantly better for public data with a mean Se of 96.6%, Sp of 98.8% and BER 2.2% compared to a mean Se of 94.7%, Sp of 96.5% and BER 4.4% for OHCA data. OHCA data required two times more features than the data from public databases for an accurate detection (6 vs 3). No significant differences in performance were found for different segment lengths, the BER differences were below 0.5-points in all cases. Our results show that VF-detection is more challenging for OHCA data than for data from public databases, and that accurate VF-detection is possible with segments as short as 4-s.

  5. Effect of automatic external defibrillator audio prompts on cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, L J; Larsen, P D; Tzeng, Y C; Galletly, D C

    2005-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) audio prompts in an automatic external defibrillator in 24 lay subjects, before and after CPR training. Untrained subjects were asked to perform CPR on a manikin with and without the assistance of audio prompts. All subjects were then trained in CPR, and retested them eight weeks later. Untrained subjects who performed CPR first without audio prompts performed poorly, with only (mean (SD)) 24.5% (32%) of compressions at the correct site and depth, a mean compression rate of 52 (31) per minute, and with 15% (32%) of ventilatory attempts adequate. Repeat performance by this group with audio prompts resulted in significant improvements in compression rate (91(12), p = 0.0002, paired t test), and percentage of correct ventilations (47% (40%), p = 0.01 paired t test), but not in the percentage correct compressions (23% (29%)). Those who performed CPR first with audio prompts performed significantly better in compression rate (87 (19), p = 003, unpaired t test), and the percentage of correct ventilations (51 (34), p = 0.003 unpaired t test), but not in the percentage of correct compressions (18 (27)) than those without audio prompts. After training, CPR performance was significantly better than before training, but there was no difference in performance with or without audio prompts, although 73% of subjects commented that they felt more comfortable performing CPR with audio prompts. For untrained subjects, the quality of CPR may be improved by using this device, while for trained subjects the willingness to perform CPR may be increased.

  6. Retention of skills in medical students following minimal theoretical instructions on semi and fully automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Fries, Michael; Bickenbach, Johannes; Skorning, Max H; Derwall, Matthias; Kuhlen, Ralf; Rossaint, Rolf

    2007-03-01

    There is consent that the use of automated external defibrillators (AED) by laypersons improves survival rates in case of cardiac arrest, but no evident consensus exists on the content and duration of training for this purpose. Acceptance of the implementation of Public Access Defibrillation programmes will depend on practical and target-oriented training concepts. The aim of this prospective randomised interventional study was to evaluate long-term effects of a specific, minimal training programme on using semiautomatic and fully automatic AEDs in simulated cardiac arrest. In a mock cardiac arrest scenario 59 medical students with no specific previous medical education were tested during their first semester at medical school. Students who passed any medical emergency training were excluded. The subjects were evaluated before and after attending specified instructions of 15 min duration and after a period of 6 months. Main end points were time to first shock, electrode-positioning and safety throughout the procedure. Mean time to first shock without prior instructions was 77.7+/-17.05 s. After instruction there was a significant improvement to 56.5+/-9.5 s (pautomatic AED sufficiently fast and safe without prior training. A significant improvement in time to first shock can be detected up to 6 months after receiving non-specific instructions of 15 min duration.

  7. Use of a wearable automated defibrillator in children compared to young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn K; Silva, Jennifer N A; Rhee, Edward K; Schaffer, Michael S

    2010-09-01

    A wearable automated external defibrillator has been shown to be efficacious in the prevention of sudden death in adults who had a history of cardiac arrest but who did not have a permanent internal cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) placed. The use of a wearable defibrillator has not been established in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical database for the wearable external defibrillator from ZOLL Lifecor Corporation (Pittsburgh, PA, USA). We compared the use of the wearable defibrillator in patients ≤18 years of age to those aged 19-21 years. There were 81 patients ≤18 years of age (median age = 16.5 years [9-18] and 52% male). There were 103 patients aged 19-21 years (median age = 20 years [19-21] and 47% male). There was no difference between groups in average hours/day or in total number of days the patients wore the defibrillator. In patients ≤18 years of age, there was one inappropriate therapy and one withholding of therapy due to a device-device interaction. In patients aged 19-21 years, there were five appropriate discharges in two patients and one inappropriate discharge in a single patient. It is reasonable to consider the wearable automated external defibrillator as a therapy for pediatric patients who are at high risk of sudden cardiac arrest but who have contraindications to or would like to defer placement of a permanent ICD. As there were no appropriate shocks in our patients ≤18 years of age, this study cannot address efficacy of the therapy. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [The automatic external defibrillator in the Netherlands; an advisory report from the Health Council of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of the automatic external defibrillator could become an important improvement in the treatment of sudden cardiac arrest in the Netherlands, if the legal regulations for the treatment of sudden cardiac death in the Individual Healthcare Professions Act are modified. The time gained

  9. Evaluation of the use of automatic external defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, J C

    1999-07-01

    A retrospective 6-month audit of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Hong Kong following the introduction of automatic external defibrillators is presented. During the 6-month period from 1 July 1995 to 31 December 1995, resuscitation was attempted on 754 patients. Of the 744 patients with cardiac arrest whose records were available, 53.6% had a witnessed arrest. Few cardiac arrest patients (8.9%) received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the majority (80%) of arrests occurred at home. Six hundred and forty-three (86.4%) patients were declared dead on arrival at hospital or in the Accident and Emergency department; 89 (12%) died in hospital and only 12 (1.6%) were discharged alive. The average ambulance response interval (call receipt to arrival of ambulance at scene) was 6.42 min. The average arrest-to-first-shock interval was 23.77 min. Factors predicting survival included initial rhythm and arrest-to-first-shock interval. The survival rate of 1.6% is low by world standards. To improve the survival rates of people with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the arrest-to-call interval must be reduced and the frequency of bystander CPR assistance increased. Once these changes are in place, a beneficial effect from the use of pre-hospital defibrillation might be seen.

  10. Public claims about automatic external defibrillators: an online consumer opinions study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Arthur G; Barnett, Julie; Kuljis, Jasna

    2011-05-18

    Patients are no longer passive recipients of health care, and increasingly engage in health communications outside of the traditional patient and health care professional relationship. As a result, patient opinions and health related judgements are now being informed by a wide range of social, media, and online information sources. Government initiatives recognise self-delivery of health care as a valuable means of responding to the anticipated increased global demand for health resources. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), designed for the treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA), have recently become available for 'over the counter' purchase with no need for a prescription. This paper explores the claims and argumentation of lay persons and health care practitioners and professionals relating to these, and how these may impact on the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home context. We carry out a thematic content analysis of a novel form of Internet-based data: online consumer opinions of AED devices posted on Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer. A total of #83 online consumer reviews of home AEDs are analysed. The analysis is both inductive, identifying themes that emerged from the data, exploring the parameters of public debate relating to these devices, and also driven by theory, centring around the parameters that may impact upon the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Five high-level themes around which arguments for and against the adoption of home AEDs are identified and considered in the context of TAM. These include opinions relating to device usability, usefulness, cost, emotional implications of device ownership, and individual patient risk status. Emotional implications associated with AED acceptance, adoption and use emerged as a notable factor that is not currently reflected within the existing TAM. The value, credibility and

  11. Public Claims about Automatic External Defibrillators: An Online Consumer Opinions Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients are no longer passive recipients of health care, and increasingly engage in health communications outside of the traditional patient and health care professional relationship. As a result, patient opinions and health related judgements are now being informed by a wide range of social, media, and online information sources. Government initiatives recognise self-delivery of health care as a valuable means of responding to the anticipated increased global demand for health resources. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), designed for the treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA), have recently become available for 'over the counter' purchase with no need for a prescription. This paper explores the claims and argumentation of lay persons and health care practitioners and professionals relating to these, and how these may impact on the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home context. Methods We carry out a thematic content analysis of a novel form of Internet-based data: online consumer opinions of AED devices posted on Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer. A total of #83 online consumer reviews of home AEDs are analysed. The analysis is both inductive, identifying themes that emerged from the data, exploring the parameters of public debate relating to these devices, and also driven by theory, centring around the parameters that may impact upon the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Results Five high-level themes around which arguments for and against the adoption of home AEDs are identified and considered in the context of TAM. These include opinions relating to device usability, usefulness, cost, emotional implications of device ownership, and individual patient risk status. Emotional implications associated with AED acceptance, adoption and use emerged as a notable factor that is not currently reflected within the existing TAM

  12. Public Claims about Automatic External Defibrillators: An Online Consumer Opinions Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Julie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients are no longer passive recipients of health care, and increasingly engage in health communications outside of the traditional patient and health care professional relationship. As a result, patient opinions and health related judgements are now being informed by a wide range of social, media, and online information sources. Government initiatives recognise self-delivery of health care as a valuable means of responding to the anticipated increased global demand for health resources. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs, designed for the treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA, have recently become available for 'over the counter' purchase with no need for a prescription. This paper explores the claims and argumentation of lay persons and health care practitioners and professionals relating to these, and how these may impact on the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home context. Methods We carry out a thematic content analysis of a novel form of Internet-based data: online consumer opinions of AED devices posted on Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer. A total of #83 online consumer reviews of home AEDs are analysed. The analysis is both inductive, identifying themes that emerged from the data, exploring the parameters of public debate relating to these devices, and also driven by theory, centring around the parameters that may impact upon the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Results Five high-level themes around which arguments for and against the adoption of home AEDs are identified and considered in the context of TAM. These include opinions relating to device usability, usefulness, cost, emotional implications of device ownership, and individual patient risk status. Emotional implications associated with AED acceptance, adoption and use emerged as a notable factor that is not currently reflected

  13. Anesthetic management of a parturient with Kearns–Sayre syndrome, dual-chamber and VVI implantable defibrillator pacemaker/defibrillator, and preeclampsia for cesarean delivery: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsen Al Ghamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS, a rare form of mitochondrial myopathy, is a triad of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, bilateral pigmentary retinopathy, and cardiac conduction abnormalities. In this report, we show how a combined spinal epidural anesthesia can be useful for cesarean delivery, as we illustrate in a dual-chamber and VVI implantable defibrillator pacemaker/defibrillator parturient with a KSS and preeclampsia.

  14. Anesthetic management of a patient with severe dilated cardiomyopathy and an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) during total gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mamoru; Iwasaki, Tatsuo; Oue, Tomoyo; Taga, Naoyuki; Toda, Yuichiro; Oe, Katsunori; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of severe dilated cardiomyopathy with an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) undergoing total gastrectomy. During the operation, the defibrillation function of the ICD was suspended and its pacing function was used solely in VOO mode. Electrodes of an external defibrillator were attached on the chest wall, and a pulmonary arterial (PA) catheter with a ventricle pacing port was inserted into the pulmonary artery. Proper perioperative management, including measures that the patient underwent the surgery uneventfully and could attain a rapid and successful discharge from the intensive care unit.

  15. Emergency dispatcher assistance decreases time to defibrillation in a public venue: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyapan, Sattha; Lubin, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    We attempted to determine the effect of prearrival instructions that included the specific location of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in a public venue on the time to defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario using untrained bystanders. The study was a randomized controlled trial at an urban shopping mall. Participants were asked to retrieve an AED and come back to defibrillate a mannequin. Only the experimental group received the location of the AED. We measured the percentage of shocks that were delivered in less than 3 minutes from the start of the scenario and also recorded several other time intervals. Thirty-nine participants completed the study, with 20 participants in the experimental group. The median time to defibrillation in the experimental group was 2.6 minutes (interquartile range, 2.4-2.8) which was significantly less than the control group's median time of 5.9 minutes (interquartile range, 4.38-7.65). Ninety percent (95% confidence interval, 68.3%-98.8%) of the participants in the experimental group defibrillated within 3 minutes, which was significantly different from the control group (10.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.3%-33.1%). In this study, a prearrival protocol providing participants with the location of the nearest AED in a public building resulted in a significant decrease in the time required to deliver a simulated shock. Further investigations in various types of public settings are needed to confirm the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Double Sequential Defibrillation for Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Aurora M; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Tan, David K

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old male struck his chest against a pole during a basketball game and had sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. After bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, fire and emergency medical services personnel provided six defibrillation attempts prior to emergency department arrival. A 7th attempt in the emergency department using a different vector was unsuccessful. On the 8th attempt, using a second defibrillator with defibrillator pads placed adjacent to the primary set of defibrillator pads, two shocks were administered in near simultaneous fashion. The double sequential defibrillation was successful and the patient had return of spontaneous circulation at the next pulse check. He recovered in the intensive care unit, was discharged home 1 month later, and continues to follow up in clinic over 1 year later with a Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 (short-term memory deficits).

  17. Late Development of a Bronchocutaneous Fistula due to an Epicardial Cardioverter-Defibrillator Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Patris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous complications caused by a pacemaker or defibrillator are widely documented, but the development of a bronchocutaneous fistula has never been described before. We report the case of a 79-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital because of a seemingly superficial cutaneous infection, externalized defibrillator leads, and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopical investigation proved the existence of the fistula, which connected the epicardium, the left main bronchus, and the aforementioned site of skin infection. The patient refused an operation for the complete removal of the epicardial defibrillator and was treated conservatively. This case demonstrated that the long-term presence of foreign bodies in the epicardium may cause serious complications

  18. Performance of an automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator algorithm in the discrimination of supraventricular from ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioni, Thomas; Kanaan, Nabil; Riggio, David; Bahu, Marwan; Lin, Don; Welch, Sue; Williams, Claudia

    2003-06-01

    An automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator (AECD) with a programmable supraventricular-ventricular tachycardia (VT) zone underwent evaluation of arrhythmia discrimination performance in the electrophysiologic laboratory during induced supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and unipolar and bipolar atrial pacing. The AECD SVT zone was programmed so that the induced SVT rate would fall within this zone. Atrial pacing was also performed at a rate within this zone. The ability of the AECD to accurately discriminate between VT and SVT and to recommend shock delivery was assessed. A total of 98 patients underwent conventional diagnostic electrophysiologic studies (49 men, age 59 +/- 19 years) with a total of 55 inducible sustained SVTs. High right atrial pacing was performed in 56 patients in unipolar and in 82 patients in bipolar fashion. In response to induced sustained SVT, the AECD correctly classified 47 episodes as nonshockable, 4 incorrectly as shockable, and 4 episodes correctly as shockable with a resultant sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92%. Bipolar high right atrial pacing was correctly identified as nonshockable in 75 episodes, incorrectly identified as shockable in 5 episodes, and correctly identified as shockable in 2 episodes with a resultant sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 94%. The Powerheart AECD accurately discriminates SVT from VT and is expected to correctly deliver automatic external shocks rapidly in the presence of spontaneous life-threatening tachycardia and appropriately withhold therapy during SVT.

  19. External cardiac defibrillation does not cause acute histopathological changes typical of thermal injuries in pigs with in situ cerebral stimulation electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbitsch, Christian; Eisner, Wilhelm; Kleinsasser, Axel; Biebl, Matthias; Fiegele, Thomas; Löckinger, Alexander; Lorenz, Ingo H; Mikuz, Gregor; Moser, Patrizia L

    2004-02-01

    Parkinson's disease patients with long-term L-dopa syndrome may benefit from an implanted cerebral stimulation device. When advanced life support demands cardioversion or defibrillation in these patients, undesired effects of monophasic electroshocks might occur in brain tissue adjacent to the stimulation electrodes (e.g., thermal injury), but also in the stimulation device itself. Thus, in this animal study (n = 6 pigs), we investigated the effects of repeated defibrillation (2 x 200 J [n = 1] and 2 x 360 J [n = 5]) at the implantation site of cerebral stimulation electrodes and on stimulation device function. Repeated external cardiac defibrillation did not cause acute histopathologic changes typical of thermal injury to brain tissue adjacent to the cerebral stimulation electrodes. Functionality of the stimulator device after defibrillation, however, ranged from normal to total loss of function. Therefore, when defibrillation is performed, the greatest possible distance between the defibrillation site and the stimulator device implantation site should be considered. Subsequent testing of the stimulator device's function is mandatory. Repeated cardiac defibrillation did not cause histopathologic changes typical of thermal injury at the implantation site of cerebral stimulation electrodes. The function of the stimulator device after defibrillation, however, ranged from normal to total loss of function.

  20. Public Access Defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Marianne; Nielsen, Anne Møller; Hansen, Carolina Malta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Copenhagen, a volunteer-based Automated External Defibrillator (AED) network provides a unique opportunity to assess AED use. We aimed to determine the proportion of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) where an AED was applied before arrival of the ambulance, and the proportion...

  1. A patch in the pectoral position lowers defibrillation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, P; Solomon, A; Verdino, R; Moore, H; Rodak, D; Hannan, R; Fletcher, R

    1997-06-01

    Implantable pacemaker cardioverter defibrillators are now available with biphasic waveforms, which have been shown to markedly improve defibrillation thresholds (DFTs). However, in a number of patients the DFT remains high. Also, DFT may increase after implantation, especially if antiarrhythmic drugs are added. We report on the use of a subcutaneous patch in the pectoral position in 15 patients receiving a transvenous defibrillator as a method of easily reducing the DFT. A 660-mm2 patch electrode was placed beneath the generator in a pocket created on the pectoral fascia. The energy required for defibrillation was lowered by 56% on average, and the system impedance was lowered by a mean of 25%. This maneuver allowed all patients to undergo a successful implant with adequate safety margin.

  2. Conocimiento del desfibrilador automático externo (DEA por parte de candidatos a instructores en reanimación básica Trainee basic reanimation instructors' knowledge concerning an automated external defibrillator (DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NavarroVargas José Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El uso apropiado del desfibrilador automático externo (DEA hace parte del tercer eslabón de la cadena de supervivencia, fundamental para el manejo del paro cardiaco más frecuente en el adulto, la Fibrilación Ventricular (FV. La capacitación en las maniobras básicas de reanimación tiene 3 estaciones de trabajo: la RCP o maniobras de compresiones y ventilaciones, el manejo de la obstrucción de la vía aérea y el manejo del DEA. Objetivo. Evaluar el conocimiento previo que tienen sobre el DEA, los aspirantes a instructores en Reanimación Cardiocerebropulmonar (RCCP Básico. Material y Métodos. Estudio de corte transversal descriptivo, en asistentes al taller de formación de instructores en RCCP Básico (n=4 residentes de anestesiología y 29 anestesiólogos, durante el Congreso Peruano de Anestesiología (octubre de 2012. En la estación de manejo del DEA se realizó un taller de formación de instructores en RCCP Básico a 4 residentes de anestesiología y 29 anestesiólogos. En la estación del manejo del DEA se realizó una encuesta a partir de 3 interrogantes básicos: ¿para qué sirve?, los factores que interfieren en su funcionamiento y las indicaciones. Resultados. Los 33 asistentes respondieron la encuesta. 17 participantes, respondieron correctamente la primera pregunta. En la segunda pregunta, 14 participantes no propusieron ningún factor; 11 acertaron con un solo factor, 3 con 2 factores y 5 con 3 factores. En la tercera pregunta, 14 contestaron correctamente. Conclusión. Este estudio encontró un desconocimiento al ingreso al taller, de los principios básicos del DEA. Se sugiere continuar con los lineamientos básicos de enseñanza en el manejo del DEA y de renovar la adquisición de estas competencias en un periodo no mayor de 2 años.Background. The proper use of an automated external defibrillator (AED forms part of the third link in the chain of survival; it is fundamental in managing ventricular

  3. Use a defibrillator, save a life

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    With the work for Long Shutdown 1 looming on the horizon, the CERN Fire Brigade is anticipating a heavy workload: more people working at CERN means more call-outs. So the more trained first-aiders around to help out before the paramedics arrive, the better. Would you know what to do in a medical emergency?   It could happen at any time: two colleagues are having a coffee at work, when one suddenly clutches his or her chest and falls to the floor unconscious. What would you do? Run to find a first-aider? Call the ambulance and wait, finishing your coffee? Neither response is entirely correct. On Monday 11 June in Building 40 the CMS safety group, in collaboration with the Fire Brigade and the Medical Service, demonstrated the recommended, potentially life-saving response to cardiac arrest (see the video), including the correct use of a defibrillator, ten of which were recently installed in key CERN locations (the Bulletin reported).     “In countries where...

  4. [Study of knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation in sports instructors of public sport centers in Asturias (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cuervo, Coral; Cuartas Álvarez, Tatiana; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation (AED) in sport instructors working in public sport centers in Asturias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on sports instructors in May 2014, by completing a self-administered questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of AED, with 25 items and four possible answers, only one valid, divided into five categories (emergency medical system in Asturias, initial assessment, circulation,airway and use of AED). Age, gender, work experience as sports instructor, previous training courses, education and training and employment contract were studied as epidemiological variables. A total 26 questionnaires (52%) were collected in public sports centers, and 84% of total responses were correct. It should be emphasized that among the wrong answers, 42.30% did not know what was the first action in a cardiac arrest, and 36.62% did not know how to perform a complete cardiopulmonary resuscitation if the person affected had a perioral injury, with 46.15% not knowing how to respond to a cardiac arrest due to drowning. It is recommended to include the management of cardiac arrest in their workplace in the training plans and the continuing education of sports instructors, at least every two years, according to national laws and laws from Asturias, including also training on the use and management of AED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Low Energy Defibrillation in Human Cardiac Tissue: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stuart W.; Plank, Gernot; Biktasheva, Irina V.; Biktashev, Vadim N.

    2009-02-01

    We aim to assess the effectiveness of feedback controlled resonant drift pacing as a method for low energy defibrillation. Antitachycardia pacing is the only low energy defibrillation approach to have gained clinical significance, but it is still suboptimal. Low energy defibrillation would avoid adverse side effects associated with high voltage shocks and allow the application of ICD therapy where it is not tolerated today. We present results of computer simulations of a bidomain model of cardiac tissue with human atrial ionic kinetics. Re-entry was initiated and low energy shocks were applied with the same period as the re-entry, using feedback to maintain resonance. We demonstrate that such stimulation can move the core of re-entrant patterns, in the direction depending on location of electrodes and a time delay in the feedback. Termination of re-entry is achieved with shock strength one order of magnitude weaker than in conventional single-shock defibrillation. We conclude that resonant drift pacing can terminate re-entry at a fraction of the shock strength currently used for defibrillation and can potentially work where antitachycardia pacing fails, due to the feedback mechanisms. Success depends on a number of details which these numerical simulations have uncovered. \\emph{Keywords} Re-entry; Bidomain model; Resonant drift; ICD; Defibrillation; Antitachycardia pacing; Feedback.

  6. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyuck Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basic life support (BLS training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min, level 2 (80 min, level 3 (120 min, and level 4 (180 min. Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p<0.001 and average chest compression depth (p=0.003. All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p<0.001. Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.

  7. Survival and health care costs until hospital discharge of patients treated with onsite, dispatched or without automated external defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdowski, Jocelyn; Kuiper, Mathijs J; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Tijssen, Jan G P; Koster, Rudolph W

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether automated external defibrillator (AED) use during resuscitation is associated with lower in-hospital health care costs. For this observational prospective study, we included all treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of suspected cardiac cause. Clinical, survival and cost data were collected from July 2005 until March 2008. Cost data were based on hospital transport, duration of admission in hospital wards, diagnostics and interventions. We divided the study population in three groups based on AED use: (1) onsite AED, (2) dispatched AED, (3) no AED. The endpoint was survival to discharge. Pcosts per survivor for hospital stay were euro9233 (euro7351-euro11,280), euro14,194 (euro11,656-euro17,254), and euro13,693 (euro12,226-euro15,166), respectively*; total health care costs were euro29,575 (euro24,695-euro34,183), euro34,533 (euro29,832-euro39,487) and euro31,772 (euro29,217-euro34,385), respectively. For both survivors and non-survivors, total costs per patient were euro14,727 (euro11,957-euro18,324), euro7703 (euro6141-euro9366) and euro6580 (euro5875-euro7238), respectively*. Onsite AED use was associated with higher survival rates. Surviving patients of the onsite AED group had lower total costs, mainly due to the shorter ICU stay. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of automatic external defibrillator using real time ventricular fibrillation detecting algorithm based on time domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Ki Woong; Na, Sung Dae; Park, Young Sik; Park, Hee-Joon; Kim, Myoung Nam; Cho, Jin-Ho; Lee, Jyung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The increase in mortality associated with arrhythmia is an inevitable problem of modern society such as westernized eating habits and an increase in stress due to industrialization, and the related social costs are increasing. In this regard, the supply of automatic external defibrillator (AED) used outside hospitals is increasing mainly in public institutions, and AED is a medical practice performed by non-medical personnel. Therefore, studies on arrhythmia detection algorithm to make accurate clinical judgment for proper use are increasing. In this paper, we propose a time domain analysis method to detect arrhythmia in real time and implement AED by porting it to programmable gate array and digital signal processor. The analysis of the phase domain improves the detection rate of R-peak using the differentiated electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform rather than the existing ECG waveform and makes it easy to distinguish the normal ECG from the arrhythmia signal in the phase domain. The proposed algorithm was verified by simulation using Labview and ModelSim, and it was verified that the proposed algorithm works effectively by performing animal experiments using the implemented AED.

  9. Cardiac arrest in Greek primary health care and willingness of general practitioners to use automatic external defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Koutsovasilis, Anastasios; Mazarakis, Antonios; Lelovas, Pavlos; Kakkavas, Sotiris; Papadimitriou, Lila; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in primary health care in Greece and assess general practitioners' (GPs) willingness towards the use of automatic external defibrillator (AED). We conducted a survey in GPs working in both private and public sectors. The survey consisted of 32 questions and was distributed via email in 180 randomly selected GPs. To estimate OHCA incidence, data concerning the number of examined patients and the number of cardiac arrests were used. Based on the population of our study, the incidence of OHCA in primary health care in Greece is 15.3/100,000 population per year. Most of the arrests occur in health centers, while ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia are the first monitored rhythms. Almost all GPs were willing to use an AED even though some of them did not know how to use it. The incidence of OHCA in primary health care in Greece is 15.3/100,000 population per year. Greek GPs may have an important role in managing OHCA victims and are willing to use an AED. This is the first study estimating OHCA in primary health care in Greece. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Local lay rescuers with AEDs, alerted by text messages, contribute to early defibrillation in a Dutch out-of-hospital cardiac arrest dispatch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Jolande A; Stieglis, Remy; Riedijk, Frank; Smeekes, Martin; van der Worp, Wim E; Koster, Rudolph W

    2014-11-01

    Public access defibrillation rarely reaches out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in residential areas. We developed a text message (TM) alert system, dispatching local lay rescuers (TM-responders). We analyzed the functioning of this system, focusing on response times and early defibrillation in relation to other responders. In July 2013, 14112 TM-responders and 1550 automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were registered in a database residing with the dispatch center of two regions of the Netherlands. TM-responders living defibrillator was connected from February 2010 until July 2013. Electrocardiograms from all defibrillators were analyzed for connection and defibrillation time. Of all OHCAs, the dispatcher activated the TM-alert system 893 times (58.1%). In 850 cases ≥1 TM-responder received a TM-alert and in 738 cases ≥1 AED was available. A TM-responder AED was connected in 184 of all OHCAs (12.0%), corresponding with 23.1% of all connected AEDs. Of all used TM-responder AEDs, 87.5% were used in residential areas, compared to 71.6% of all other defibrillators. TM-responders with AEDs defibrillated mean 2:39 (min:sec) earlier compared to emergency medical services (median interval 8:00 [25-75th percentile, 6:35-9:49] vs. 10:39 [25-75th percentile, 8:18-13:23], Pdefibrillation in OHCA, particularly in residential areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Factors predicting survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest managed with semiautomatic external defibrillators in Galicia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Araujo, Lorena; Costa-Parcero, Manuel; González-González, María Dolores; Sánchez-Santos, Luis; Iglesias-Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    To determine prognostic factors in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests managed with semiautomatic external defibrillators (SAEDs) by emergency health service responders in Galicia, Spain. Retrospective descriptive study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests treated with SAEDs over a period of 5 years. We collected Utstein outcome data from the database and analyzed the following variables: sex, age, date and time of cardiac event, rural vs urban setting, type of location, witnessed or not, bystander resuscitation attempts or not, time first heart rhythm was detected, use of orotracheal intubation or not, time of call for help, and time to arrival of emergency responders. We analyzed 2005 cases (0.14/1000 person-years; 68.2% male, 70.8% in rural locations, 61% at home). Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in situ in 10.9% (in 29.9% of patients with shockable rhythms and in 3.3% of those in asystole). Intubation was necessary in 15.7%; ROSC was achieved in 24.8% of the intubated patients. ROSC was achieved in significantly more patients when responders arrived soon after the call for help (mean: 12 minutes, 26 seconds) than when arrival was delayed (mean: 16 minutes, 16 seconds when ROSC was not achieved; PGalicia were the presence of a shockable rhythm, shorter response time, continuation of basic life support measures including advanced airway management, bystander life-support maneuvers, an urban location, and night timing of the arrest.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of a national public access defibrillation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick S; Teljeur, Conor; Masterson, Siobhán; O'Neill, Michelle; Harrington, Patricia; Ryan, Máirín

    2015-06-01

    Proposed Irish legislation aimed at increasing survival from out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA) mandates the provision of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in a comprehensive range of publicly accessible premises in urban and rural areas. This study estimated the clinical and cost effectiveness of the legislation, compared with alternative programme configurations involving more targeted AED placement. We used a cost-utility analysis to estimate the costs and consequences of public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes from a societal perspective, based on AED deployment by building type. Comparator programmes ranged from those that only included building types with the highest incidence of OHCA, to the comprehensive programme outline in the proposed legislation. Data on OHCA incidence and outcomes were obtained from the Irish Out-of-Hospital-Cardiac-Arrest Register (OHCAR). Costs were obtained from the Irish health service, device suppliers and training providers. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the most comprehensive PAD scheme was €928,450/QALY. The ICER for the most scaled-back programme involving AED placement in transport stations, medical practices, entertainment venues, schools (excluding primary) and fitness facilities was €95,640/QALY. A 40% increase in AED utilisation when OHCAs occur in a public area could potentially render this programme cost effective. National PAD programmes involving widespread deployment of static AEDs are unlikely to be cost-effective. To improve cost-effectiveness any prospective programmes should target locations with the highest incidence of OHCA and be supported by efforts to increase AED utilisation, such as improving public awareness, increasing CPR and AED training, and establishing an EMS-linked AED register. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Results of the first five years of the prehospital automatic external defibrillation project in Singapore in the "Utstein style".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, V; Teo, Wee Siong; Chan, Yiong Huak; Chee, Teck Siong; Chua, Terrence

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, all emergency medical services (EMS) ambulance officers in Singapore were trained to perform pre-hospital defibrillation with semi-automated external defibrillators (AED). All non-traumatic cardiac arrest patients over 10 years old were included, excluding those who were obviously dead and children below 36 kg. The data were collected by the ambulance officers according to the Utstein guidelines. From 1 February 1994 to 31 January 1999; resuscitation was attempted in 968 non-trauma cardiac arrests. Fifteen percent of the cases were of non-cardiac origin. The overall survival rate was 40/968 (4.1%, 95% CI 2.9-5.6%). Of 968 patients, 22/136 (16.2%, 95% CI 10.4-23.5%), 18/622 (2.9%, 95% CI 1.7-4.5%) and 0/210 (0%, 95% CI 0-1.7%) survived in the EMS witnessed, bystander witnessed and un-witnessed groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Within the EMS witnessed group, those with an initial rhythm of VF/VT had a higher survival rate (30.6%) than those without VF/VT (4.1%). P < 0.001, OR = 10.3, 95% CI 2.9-36.9. Similarly, the VF/VT survival rate in the bystander witnessed group (4.5%) was higher than the non-VF/VT (1.0%) (P = 0.011, OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.3-15.4). The survival rate of patients with bystander witnessed VF/VT arrest who received bystander CPR was 9.4% compared to 1.0% in those who did not (P = 0.037, OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.01-20.1). Our survival rate of bystander witnessed VF/VT arrest is comparable to large metropolitan cities in the USA. The determinants of survival include EMS witnessed arrest and VF/VT arrest. Increased quantity and quality of bystander CPR rate may improve the outcome in bystander witnessed cardiac arrest.

  14. Part 6: electrical therapies: automated external defibrillators, defibrillation, cardioversion, and pacing: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Mark S; Atkins, Dianne L; Passman, Rod S; Halperin, Henry R; Samson, Ricardo A; White, Roger D; Cudnik, Michael T; Berg, Marc D; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Kerber, Richard E

    2010-11-02

    The recommendations for electrical therapies described in this section are designed to improve survival from SCA and life-threatening arrhythmias. Whenever defibrillation is attempted, rescuers must coordinate high-quality CPR with defibrillation to minimize interruptions in chest compressions and to ensure immediate resumption of chest compressions after shock delivery. The high first-shock efficacy of newer biphasic defibrillators led to the recommendation of single shocks plus immediate CPR instead of 3-shock sequences that were recommended prior to 2005 to treat VF. Further data are needed to refine recommendations for energy levels for defibrillation and cardioversion using biphasic waveforms.

  15. The Effects of Public Access Defibrillation on Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Josefine S; Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances, the average survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains defibrillation by an automated external defibrillator is the most important intervention for patients with OHCA, showing survival proportions >50%. Accordingly, placement...... of automated external defibrillators in the community as part of a public access defibrillation program (PAD) is recommended by international guidelines. However, different strategies have been proposed on how exactly to increase and make use of publicly available automated external defibrillators...... an automated external defibrillator had been used by nonemergency medical services. PAD was divided into 3 groups according to who applied the defibrillator: nondispatched lay first responders, professional first responders (firefighters/police) dispatched by the Emergency Medical Dispatch Center (EMDC...

  16. Prevalence and presentation of externalized conductors and electrical abnormalities in Riata defibrillator leads after fluoroscopic screening: report from the Netherlands Heart Rhythm Association Device Advisory Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuns, Dominic A M J; Elvan, Arif; de Voogt, Willem; de Cock, Carel C; van Erven, Lieselot; Meine, Mathias

    2012-12-01

    The Riata family of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads is prone to a specific insulation abrasion characterized by externalization of conductor cables. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of externalized conductors and electrical abnormalities in Riata ICD leads by fluoroscopic screening and standard ICD interrogation. All ICD implantation centers were contacted by the Netherlands Heart Rhythm Association Device Advisory Committee to identify all patients with an active Riata ICD lead and to perform fluoroscopic screening of the lead. In addition, the electrical integrity of the lead was assessed. As of March 1, 2012, data for 1029 active Riata leads were available; 47% of these were 8-F Riata and 53% were 7-F Riata ST. Externalized conductors were observed in 147 leads (14.3%). Proportion of externalized conductors was higher in 8-F Riata compared with 7-F Riata ST (21.4% vs 8.0%; Pconductors was 65.3 months. The estimated rates of externalized conductors were 6.9% and 36.6% at 5 and 8 years after implantation, respectively. Of the 147 leads with externalized conductors, 10.9% had abnormal electrical parameters vs 3.5% in nonexternalized leads (Pconductors in Riata leads is significantly high (14.3%) using fluoroscopic screening. The majority of externalized conductors are not detectable with standard ICD interrogation. Screening with fluoroscopy is reasonable.

  17. Numerical study of defibrillation mechanisms using a one-dimensional model of cardiac tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Simic, A.; Bragard, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the study presented in this thesis we have used one-dimensional model to study mechanisms associated with the application of the external stimulus to the cardiac tissue. Arrhythmic dynamics is approximated with the reentrant wave on a ring of cardiac tissue. Successful defibrillation is modeled with the complete removal of the reentrant dynamics. The propagation of the electrical signal is modeled with the bidomain model, while cellular membrane current is modeled with the modified Beeler-...

  18. Inconsistent shock advisories for monomorphic VT and Torsade de Pointes--A prospective experimental study on AEDs and defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Abi; Johnson, Meshell; Hirsch, Jan; Rich, Mary-Ann; Fidler, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac arrest are the leading causes of death in the United States. Early defibrillation is key to successful resuscitation for patients who experience shockable rhythms during a cardiac arrest. It is therefore vital that the shock advisory of AEDs (automated external defibrillators) or defibrillators in AED mode be reliable and appropriate. The goal of this study was to better understand the performance of multiple lay-rescuer and hospital professional defibrillators in AED mode in their analysis of ventricular arrhythmias. The measurable objectives of this study sought to quantify: 1. No shock advisory for sinus rhythms at any rate. 2. Recognition and shock advisory for ventricular fibrillation (VF). 3. Recognition and shock advisory for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). 4. Recognition and shock advisory for Torsades de Pointes (TdP). This is a prospective evaluation of two AEDs and four semi-automatic, hospital professional defibrillators. This study represents post-marketing evaluation of FDA approved devices. Each defibrillator was connected to multiple rhythm simulators and presented with simulated ECG waveforms 20 consecutive times at various rates when possible. All four defibrillators and both AEDs tested consistently recognized normal sinus rhythm (NSR) from all rhythm sources, and did not recommend a shock for NSR at any rate (from 80 to 220 bpm). All four defibrillators and both AEDs recognized VF from all rhythm sources tested and recommended a shock 100% of the time. Variations were found in the shock advisory rates among defibrillators when testing simulated VT heart rates at or below 150 bpm. One AED tested did not consistently advise a shock for monomorphic VT or TdP at any tested rate. Lay-rescuer AEDs and professional hospital defibrillators tested in AED mode did not reliably recommend a shock for sustained monomorphic VT or TdP at certain rates, despite the fact that it is a critical component of the

  19. Subtraction of 16.67 Hz railroad net interference from the electrocardiogram: application for automatic external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekova, Irena; Krasteva, Vessela

    2005-12-01

    The widespread application of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) for treating out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidents and their particular use at railway stations defines the task for 16.67 Hz power line interference elimination from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although this problem exists only in five European countries, it has to be solved in all AEDs, which must comply with the European standard for medical equipment requirements for interchangeability and compatibility between rail systems. The elimination of the railroad interference requires a specific approach, since its frequency band overlaps with a significant part of the frequencies in the QRS spectra. We present a method based only on one channel ECG signal processing, which effectively subtracts the interference components. The computation procedure is based on simple signal processing tools, which include: (i) bi-directional band-pass filtering (13-23 Hz) of the analyzed ECG segment; (ii) estimation of adequate linearity thresholds; (iii) frequency measurement and calculation of dynamic interference buffer in linear segments and (iv) phase synchronization and subtraction technique in nonlinear segments. The developed method has proved advantageous in providing sufficient quality of the output interference free ECG signal for seven defined arrhythmia types (normal sinus rhythm, normal rhythm, supraventricular tachicardia, slow/rapid ventricular tachycardia, and coarse/fine ventricular fibrillation), and simulated interferences with constant or variable frequencies and amplitudes, which cover the entire amplitude range of the input channel. The procedure is suitable to be embedded in AEDs as a preprocessing branch, which proves reliable for analysis of ECG signals, thus guaranteeing the specified accuracy of the AED automatic rhythm analysis algorithms.

  20. [Knowledge and attitudes of citizens in the Basque Country (Spain) towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automatic external defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Peña, S; Fernández-Aedo, I; Pérez-Urdiales, I; García-Azpiazu, Z; Unanue-Arza, S

    2016-03-01

    To explore the training, ability and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of automatic defibrillators among the population of the Basque Country (Spain). A face-to-face survey. Capital cities of the Basque Country. A total of 605 people between 15-64 years of age were randomly selected. Information about the knowledge, perceptions and self-perceived ability to identify and assist cardiopulmonary arrest was requested. A total of 56.4% of the responders were women, 61.8% were occupationally active, and 48.3% had higher education. Thirty-seven percent of the responders claimed to be trained in resuscitation techniques, but only 20.2% considered themselves able to apply such techniques. Public servants were almost 4 times more likely of being trained in defibrillation compared to the rest of workers (OR 3.7; Pdefibrillator. Citizens of the Basque Country consider the early identification and treatment of cardiorespiratory arrest victims to be important, though their knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation is limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Bilateral Subclavian Vein Occlusion in a SAPHO Syndrome Patient Who Needed an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Masato; Yamamoto, Yuko; Yamada, Shintaro; Maemura, Sonoko; Nakata, Ryo; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takizawa, Masataka; Uozumi, Hiroki; Ikenouchi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-25

    A 79-year-old Asian man was hospitalized because of progressive exertional dyspnea with decreasing left ventricular ejection fraction and frequent non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Pre-procedure venography for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation showed occlusion of the bilateral subclavian veins. In consideration of subcutaneous humps in the sterno-clavicular area and palmoplantar pustulosis, we diagnosed him as having synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome and speculated that it induced peri-osteal chronic inflammation in the sterno-clavicular area, resulting in occlusion of the adjacent bilateral subclavian veins. An automatic external defibrillator (AED) was installed in the patient's house and total subcutaneous ICD was considered. Venous thrombosis in SAPHO syndrome is not frequent but has been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral subclavian vein occlusion in a SAPHO syndrome patient who needs ICD implantation.

  2. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest-review of demographics in South Australia to inform decisions about the provision of automatic external defibrillators within the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Kathryn; Grantham, Hugh; Elliot, Robert; Zeitz, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Sudden, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has an annual incidence of approximately 50 per 100,000 population. Public access defibrillation is seen as one of the key strategies in the chain-of-survival for OHCA. Positioning of these devices is important for the maximization of public health outcomes. The literature strongly advocates widespread public access to automated external defibrillatiors (AEDs). The most efficient placement of AEDs within individual communities remains unclear. A retrospective case review of OHCAs attended by the South Australia Ambulance Service in metropolitan and rural South Australia over a 30-month period was performed. Data were analyzed using Utstein-type indicators. Detailed demographics, summative data, and clinical data were recorded. A total of 1,305 cases of cardiac arrest were reviewed. The annual rate of OHCA was 35 per 100,000 population. Of the cases, the mean value for the ages was 66.3 years, 517 (39.6%) were transported to hospital, 761 (58.3%) were judged by the paramedic to be cardiac, and 838 (64.2%) were witnessed. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed in 495 (37.9%) of cases. The rhythm on arrival was ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 419 (32.1%) cases, and 315 (24.1%) of all arrests had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before or on arrival at the hospital. For cardiac arrest cases that were witnessed by the ambulance service (n=121), the incidence of ROSC was 47.1%. During the 30-month period, there only was one location that recorded more than one cardiac arrest. No other location recorded recurrent episodes. This study did not identify any specific location that would justify defibrillator placement over any other location without an existing defibrillator. The impact of bystander CPR and the relatively low rate of bystander CPR in this study points to an area of need. The relative potential impact of increasing bystander CPR rates versus investing in

  3. Public-access defibrillation: where do we place the AEDs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, M; Lindholm, D J; Campbell, J P

    1999-01-01

    Many prehospital cardiac arrests occur in public places. Even the best EMS systems have a finite response time. Therefore, it has been recommended that automated external defibrillators (AEDs) be placed in public areas for immediate access by trained members of the general public. To determine the locations of multiple cardiac arrests in order to plan for placement of public-access AEDs. Retrospective review of all primary cardiac arrests in calendar year 1997. Cardiac arrests in which resuscitation was not attempted (DOA), traumatic cases, pediatric cases, and those due to "other" causes were excluded. Location of the cardiac arrest was obtained from the ambulance run ticket. The EMS system is an urban, Midwestern, all-ALS, public-utility model system with fire department first responders that transports approximately 58,000 patients annually. There was scene response to 922 cardiac arrests. 377 DOAs and 219 nonprimary cardiac arrests were excluded. There were 326 primary cardiac arrests. Sixteen locations had more than one cardiac arrest: 11 locations had two cardiac arrests, four locations had three cardiac arrests, and one location had four cardiac arrests. The airport, an airline overhaul facility, a casino, and two hotels each had two cardiac arrests; the other locations of multiple cardiac arrests were in nursing homes. The professional sports stadiums had no cardiac arrests. Since very few locations had more than one cardiac arrest, it may be difficult to identify high-yield public places in which to place an AED. Nursing homes may want to consider AED availability.

  4. Worldwide experience with a totally subcutaneous implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambiase, Pier D; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The totally subcutaneous implantable-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a new alternative to the conventional transvenous ICD system to minimize intravascular lead complications. There are limited data describing the long-term performance of the S-ICD. This paper presents the first large international...

  5. Early Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest after Early Defibrillation: a 24 Months Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Terranova

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death in the United States and most other Western nations. Among these deaths, sudden, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest claims approximately 1000 lives each day in the United States alone. Most of these cardiac arrests are due to ventricular fibrillation. Though highly reversible with the rapid application of a defibrillator, ventricular fibrillation is otherwise fatal within minutes, even when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is provided immediately. The overall survival rate in the United States is estimated to be less than 5 percent. Recent developments in automated-external-defibrillator technology have provided a means of increasing the rate of prompt defibrillation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. After minimal training, nonmedical personnel (e.g., flight attendants and casino workers are also able to use defibrillators in the workplace, with lifesaving effects. Nonetheless, such programs have involved designated personnel whose job description includes assisting persons who have had sudden cardiac arrest. Data are still lacking on the success of programs in which automated external defibrillators have been installed in public places to be used by persons who have no specific training or duty to act. Materials and Methods: All patients who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 2003 and December 2004 and who received early defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation were included. We conducted a 24 months retrospective population-based analysis of the outcome in our population. Results: Over a 24 month period, 446 people had non–traumatic cardiac arrest, and in all of them it was observed to be ventricular fibrillation. In a very few cases, the defibrillator operators were good Samaritans, acting voluntarily. Eighty-nine patients (about 19% with ventricular fibrillation were successfully resuscitated, including eighteen who regained consciousness before

  6. AED use in a passenger during a long-haul flight: repeated defibrillation with a successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harve, Heini; Hämäläinen, Olavi; Kurola, Jouni; Silfvast, Tom

    2009-04-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death, and early defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the single most important intervention for improving survival. The automated external defibrillator (AED) and the concept of public access defibrillation provide a solution to shorten defibrillation delays. Commercial aircraft create a unique environment for the use of the AED since an emergency medical service system (EMS) response is not available. We review published studies on this subject and describe the case of a passenger who developed VF during an intercontinental flight and was successfully resuscitated despite recurrent episodes of VF. A 60-yr-old man developed VF during a flight from Tokyo to Helsinki. VF frequently recurred and shocks were delivered 21 times altogether. The aircraft was diverted to the city of Kuopio. When the local EMS crew encountered the patient 3 h after the onset of the cardiac arrest, the rhythm again converted to VF and three further shocks were delivered. The patient recovered, and 3 wk later he was transported to his home country, fully alert. There are three large studies reporting placing AEDs on commercial aircraft. No harm for co-passengers or malfunctions were reported. Survival rates have been higher than those obtained by well-performing EMS. According to previous studies, placing AEDs on commercial aircraft is also cost effective. The absence of a suitable diversion destination should not influence the rescuers' decision to attempt CPR on board.

  7. Cardiac resyncronization therapy with or without cardioverter-defibrillator versus defibrillator therapy alone, Pereira (Colombia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango- Franco, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate survival in patients with cardiac resynchronization with or without cardioverterdefibrillator versus patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator alone Materials and methods: Retrospective cohort, the primary end point was death from cardiac causes, the exposure was electrophysiological therapies, and the information sources were medical files and other records. Results: 70 elderly patients with functional devices; 82 % of them received optimized medical therapy. No significant association was found between survival of patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy with or without defibrillator and cardioverter-defibrillator therapy alone (log rank test, p = 0.54, but the former had a longer survival time (ANOVA p = 0.0012. The hazard ratio was 0.017 for day 371 and 0.15 for day 2169. Fourteen deaths occurred during the observation period, three of them from non-cardiac causes. Conclusion: Cardiac resynchronization therapy was associated with significantly longer survival time.

  8. Azygos Vein Lead Implantation For High Defibrillation Thresholds In Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga VA Kommuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of defibrillation threshold is a standard of care during implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator. High defibrillation thresholds are often encountered and pose a challenge to electrophysiologists to improve the defibrillation threshold. We describe a case series where defibrillation thresholds were improved after implanting a defibrillation lead in the azygos vein.

  9. The role of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mina K

    2014-05-01

    The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is an option for external monitoring and defibrillation in patients at risk for sudden cardiac arrest caused by ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and who are not candidates for or who refuse an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). WCDs provide monitoring with backup defibrillation protection. WCDs have been used when a patient's condition delays or prohibits ICD implantation, or as a bridge when an indicated ICD must be explanted. WCDs are used for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death during high-risk gap periods early after myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or new diagnosis of heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of three instructional methods for teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of an automatic external defibrillator to high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, S; Cummings, P; Quan, L

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate new instructional methods for teaching high school students cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) knowledge, actions and skills. We conducted a cluster-controlled trial of 3 instructional interventions among Seattle area high school students, with random allocation based on classrooms, during 2003-04. We examined two new instructional methods: interactive-computer training and interactive-computer training plus instructor-led (hands-on) practice, and compared them with traditional classroom instruction that included video, teacher demonstration and instructor-led (hands-on) practice, and with a control group. We assessed CPR and AED knowledge, performance of key AED and CPR actions, and essential CPR ventilation and compressions skills 2 days and 2 months after training. All outcomes were transformed to a scale of 0-100%. For all outcome measures mean scores were higher in the instructional groups than in the control group. Two days after training all instructional groups had mean CPR and AED knowledge scores above 75%, with use of the computer program scores were above 80%. Mean scores for key AED actions were above 80% for all groups with training, with hands-on practice enhancing students' positive outcomes for AED pad placement. Students who received hands-on practice more successfully performed CPR actions than those in the computer program only group. In the 2 hands-on practice groups the scores for 3 of the outcomes ranged from 57 to 74%; they were 32 to 54% in the computer only group. For the outcome of continuing CPR until the AED was available scores were high, 89 to 100% in all 3 training groups. Mean CPR skill scores were low in all groups. The highest mean score for successful ventilations was 15% and for compressions, 29%. The pattern of results was similar after 2 months. We found evidence that interactive computer based self instruction alone was sufficient to teach CPR and AED knowledge and AED

  11. The challenges and possibilities of public access defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringh, Mattias; Hollenberg, Jacob; Palsgaard-Moeller, Thea

    2018-01-01

    collapse to defibrillation. Historically, defibrillation has only been performed by physicians and in-hospital. With the development of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), rapid defibrillation by non-medical professionals and subsequently by trained or untrained lay bystanders has become possible...... is in most settings anecdotal with little effect on overall OHCA survival. The major reasons for low use of public AEDs are that most OHCA take place outside high incidence sites of cardiac arrest and that most OHCAs take place in residential settings, currently defined as not suitable for Public Access...... Defibrillation. However, the use of new technology for identification and recruitment of lay bystanders and nearby AEDs to the scene of the cardiac arrest as well as new methods for strategic AED placement redefines and challenges the current concept and definitions of Public Access Defibrillation. Existing...

  12. Advances in sudden death prevention: the emerging role of a fully subcutaneous defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majithia, Arjun; Estes, N A Mark; Weinstock, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Randomized clinical trials support the use of implantable defibrillators for mortality reduction in specific populations at high risk for sudden cardiac death. Conventional transvenous defibrillator systems are limited by implantation-associated complications, infection, and lead failure, which may lead to delivery of inappropriate shocks and diminish survival. The development of a fully subcutaneous defibrillator may represent a valuable addition to therapies targeted at sudden death prevention. The PubMed database was searched to identify all clinical reports of the subcutaneous defibrillator from 2000 to the present. We reviewed all case series, cohort analyses, and randomized trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous defibrillators. The subcutaneous defibrillator is a feasible development in sudden cardiac death therapy and may be useful particularly to extend defibrillator therapy to patients with complicated anatomy, limited vascular access, and congenital disease. The subcutaneous defibrillator should not be considered in patients with an indication for cardiac pacing or who have ventricular tachycardia responsive to antitachycardia pacing. Further investigation is needed to compare long-term, head-to-head performance of subcutaneous defibrillators and conventional transvenous defibrillator systems. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Pharmacologic defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Shue-ren; Weil, Max Harry; Sun, Shijie; Tang, Wanchun; Pellis, Tommaso

    2002-04-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is generally sustained. The mechanism is, at least in part, caused by progressive accumulation of intracellular sodium and calcium ions during untreated ventricular fibrillation, which subsequently increases defibrillation threshold. Cariporide, a potent and specific inhibitor of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger, has been shown to reduce intracellular sodium and calcium concentration in the setting of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. We hypothesized that cariporide would facilitate defibrillation from prolonged ventricular fibrillation in a rodent model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive bolus injections of cariporide or placebo in a dose of 3 mg/kg into the right atrium either 5 mins before or at 8 mins after onset of ventricular fibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and untreated for 8 mins. Precordial compression together with mechanical ventilation was then started and continued for an interval of 8 mins before attempted electrical defibrillation. All but one placebo-treated animal were successfully resuscitated. Spontaneous defibrillation with restoration of circulation was observed in both cariporide pretreatment and treatment groups but in none of the placebo-treated animals. The duration of postresuscitation survival was significantly increased in animals pretreated with cariporide. Therefore, sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitors may provide new options in settings of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to facilitate defibrillation.

  14. INTRACARDIAC ATRIAL DEFIBRILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Derek J.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Intravascular ventricular defibrillation and intravascular atrial defibrillation have many similarities, some of which are as follows. An important factor influencing the outcome of the shock is the potential gradient field created throughout the ventricles or the atria by the shock. A minimum potential gradient is required throughout the ventricles and probably the atria to defibrillate. The value of this minimum potential gradient is affected by several factors including the duration, tilt, and number of phases of the waveform. For shock strengths near the defibrillation threshold, earliest activation following failed shocks arises in a region in which the potential gradient is low. The defibrillation threshold energy can be decreased by adding a third and even a fourth defibrillation electrode in regions where the shock potential gradient is low for the shock field created by the first two defibrillation electrodes and giving two sequential shocks, each through a different set of electrodes. However, the addition of more electrodes and sequential shocks complicates both the device and its implantation. Since patients are conscious when the atrial defibrillation shock is given, they experience pain during the shock, which is one of the main drawbacks of intravascular atrial defibrillation. Unfortunately, the pain threshold for defibrillation shocks is so low that a shock of less than 1 Joule is uncomfortable and is not much less painful than shocks several times stronger. Therefore, even though electrode configurations exist that have lower atrial defibrillation threshold energy requirements than the atrial defibrillation threshold with standard defibrillation electrode configurations used in implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) for ventricular defibrillation, they are not clinically practical because their shocks are almost as painful as with the standard ICD electrode configurations and they would cause the ICD to be more complicated and to take

  15. Determining risk for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by location type in a Canadian urban setting to guide future public access defibrillator placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven C; Hsu, Jonathan H; Tang, Sabrina K; Jeyakumar, Roshan; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2013-05-01

    Automated external defibrillator use by lay bystanders during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely occurs but can improve survival. We seek to estimate risk for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by location type and evaluate current automated external defibrillator deployment in a Canadian urban setting to guide future automated external defibrillator deployment. This was a retrospective analysis of a population-based out-of-hospital cardiac arrest database. We included consecutive public location, nontraumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurring in Toronto from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2010, captured in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry database. Two investigators independently categorized each out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and automated external defibrillator location into one of 38 categories. Total site counts in each location category were used to estimate average annual per-site cardiac arrest incidence and determine the relative automated external defibrillator coverage for each location type. There were 608 eligible out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases. The top 5 location categories by average annual out-of-hospital cardiac arrests per site were race track/casino (0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0 to 1.63), jail (0.62; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.06), hotel/motel (0.15; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.18), hostel/shelter (0.14; 95% CI 0.067 to 0.19), and convention center (0.11; 95% CI 0 to 0.43). Although schools were relatively lower risk for cardiac arrest, they represented 72.5% of automated external defibrillator-covered locations in the study region. Some higher-risk location types such as hotel/motel, hostel/shelter, and rail station were severely underrepresented with respect to automated external defibrillator coverage. We have identified types of locations with higher per-site risk for cardiac arrest relative to others. We have also identified potential mismatches between cardiac arrest risk by location type and registered automated external

  16. Factors associated with delayed defibrillation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A prospective simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Castan

    Full Text Available Early defibrillation is an important factor of survival in cardiac arrest. However, novice resuscitators often struggle with cardiac arrest patients. We investigated factors leading to delayed defibrillation performed by final-year medical students within a simulated bystander cardiac arrest situation.Final-year medical students received a refresher lecture and basic life support training before being confronted with a simulated cardiac arrest situation in a simulation ambulance. The scenario was analyzed for factors leading to delayed defibrillation. We compared the time intervals the participants needed for various measures with a benchmark set by experienced resuscitators. After training, the participants were interviewed regarding challenges and thoughts during the scenario.The median time needed for defibrillation was 158 s (n = 49, interquartile range: 107-270 s, more than six-fold of the benchmark time. The major part of total defibrillation time (49%; median, n = 49 was between onset of ventricular fibrillation and beginning to prepare the defibrillator, more specifically the time between end of preparation of the defibrillator and actual delivery of the shock, with a mean proportion of 26% (n = 49, SD = 17% of the overall time needed for defibrillation (maximum 67%. Self-reported reasons for this delay included uncertainty about the next step to take, as reported by 73% of the participants. A total of 35% were unsure about which algorithm to follow. Diagnosing the patient was subjectively difficult for 35% of the participants. Overall, 53% of the participants felt generally confused.Our study shows that novice resuscitators rarely achieve guideline-recommended defibrillation times. The most relative delays were observed when participants had to choose what to do next or which algorithm to follow, and thus i.e. performed extensive airway management before a life-saving defibrillation. Our data provides a first insight in the process of

  17. Uso do desfibrilador automático externo no ambiente pré-hospitalar peruano: melhorando a resposta a emergências na América Latina Use of automated external defibrillator in Peruvian out-of-hospital environment: improving emergency response in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lister

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este relato de caso reporta o atendimento pré-hospitalar de um paciente com fatores de risco atendido pelo serviço pré-hospitalar ao ser acometido por uma parada cardíaca e apresentar fibrilação ventricular. O paciente foi atendido seguindo os padrões de suporte básico de vida e suporte cardiovascular avançado. Um desfibrilador automático externo (DAE foi aplicado com resultados favoráveis e o paciente se recuperou do quadro de perigo de vida com sucesso. Este é o primeiro relato documentado com resultados favoráveis no Peru, na área de atendimento pré-hospitalar e enfatiza a necessidade de serem adotadas políticas de acesso público à desfibrilação precoce.El presente reporte de caso, relata la atencion prehospitalaria de un paciente con factores de riesgo atendido en el area prehospitalaria al sufrir arresto cardiaco y presentar fibrilacion ventricular. El paciente fue atendido bajo estandares de Soporte Basico Vital y Soporte Cardiovascular Avanzado Vital, se aplico un Desfibrilador Automatizado Externo (DEA con resultado favorable y exito al recuperar al paciente de su condicion de compromiso de vida. Este es el primer reporte documentado con resultado favorable en el pais, en el area prehospitalaria y refuerza la conveniencia de adoptar politicas de Acceso Publico a la Desfibrilacion Temprana.This case report relates out-of-hospital care to a patient with risk factors treated in the out-of-hospital services after cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation. The patient was treated according to the standards of basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support; by applying an automated external defibrillator (AED with favorable outcome and successful recovery of the patient from his risk of life condition. This is the first documented report with a favorable outcome in Peru, in out-of-hospital services and stresses the desirability of adopting policies for public access to early defibrillation.

  18. Advances in defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D

    2011-06-01

    The place of defibrillation in the chain of survival is paramount and this review covers advances in this aspect of resuscitation over the past 18 months. The main advance is the publication of 2010 European Resuscitation Council guidelines of which defibrillation is a key aspect. Additionally, there have been a number of important articles discussing safety issues with defibrillation, the occurrence of refibrillation following successful cardioversion, prediction of shock success and changes in transthoracic impedance with sequential defibrillation shocks. The focus of these articles is to improve the delivery of defibrillation without interrupting chest compression and aiming to do so at an optimal stage of the resuscitation attempt.

  19. Performance of dedicated versus integrated bipolar defibrillator leads with CRT-defibrillators: results from a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Roger A; Petrakian, Alex; Boyce, Ker; Haffajee, Charles; Val-Mejias, Jesus E; Oza, Ashish L

    2009-02-01

    Right ventricular (RV) anodal stimulation may occur in cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) when left ventricular (LV) pacing is configured between the LV lead and an electrode on the RV defibrillator lead. RV defibrillator leads can have a dedicated proximal pacing ring electrode (dedicated bipolar) or utilize the distal shocking coil as the proximal pacing electrode (integrated bipolar). This study compares the performance of integrated versus dedicated leads with respect to anodal stimulation incidence, sensing, and inappropriate ventricular tachyarrhythmia detection in patients implanted with CRT-D. Two hundred ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to receive dedicated or integrated bipolar RV leads at the time of CRT-D implantation. Patients were followed for 6 months. Patients with dedicated bipolar RV leads exhibited markedly higher rates of anodal stimulation than did patients with integrated leads. The incidence of anodal stimulation was 64% at implant for dedicated bipolar RV leads compared to 1% for integrated bipolar RV leads. The likelihood of anodal stimulation in patients with dedicated leads fell progressively during the 6-month follow-up (51.5%), but always exceeded the incidence of anodal stimulation in patients with integrated leads (5%). Clinically detectable undersensing and oversensing were very unusual and did not differ significantly between lead designs. There were no inappropriate ventricular tachyarrhythmia detections for either lead type. Integrated bipolar RV defibrillator leads had a significantly lower incidence of RV anodal stimulation when compared to dedicated bipolar RV defibrillation leads, with no clinically detectable oversensing or undersensing, and with no inappropriate ventricular tachyarrhythmia detections for either lead type.

  20. A Grouped Up-and-Down Method Used for Efficacy Comparison Between Two Different Defibrillation Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Danian; Wang, Jianjie; Yang, Kecheng; Wang, Kaifa; Quan, Weilun; Herken, Ulrich; Li, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Electrical defibrillation, which consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of the electrical current to the fibrillating heart with the aid of a defibrillator, is still the only effective way to treat life-threatening ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, the efficacy of electrical therapy for terminating VF is highly dependent on the waveform applied. When new defibrillation waveforms or techniques are developed, their efficacy needs to be accurately evaluated and compared to those in use. A common method for the comparison of defibrillation efficacy is to estimate and compare the individual defibrillation threshold (DFT) by constructing dose response curves or using an up-and-down method. Since DFT is calculated by repetitive and sequential shocks, there will be variability for each measurement and for each individual. This creates a considerable uncertainty for paired comparison. In this paper, a novel grouped up-and-down method is developed for the comparison of defibrillation efficacy between two different defibrillation waveforms or techniques. The efficacy of two commonly used biphasic defibrillation waveforms was compared in a porcine model of cardiac arrest using the developed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more sensitive for efficacy comparison and requires less defibrillation attempts compared with traditional DFT methods.

  1. Live defibrillation in simulation-based medical education--a survey of simulation center practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Joseph W; Peters, Deborah P; Berg, Benjamin W

    2010-02-01

    Resuscitation from cardiac arrhythmia, requiring cardioversion/defibrillation is a common simulation training scenario. Use of live defibrillation enhances simulation fidelity but is not without risk. This survey was conducted to describe the prevalence of live defibrillation use during training scenarios in healthcare simulation centers, and when used, if safety training was required before using live defibrillation. A convenience sample of attendees at the 7th annual International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare (January 2007) was surveyed using a closed-ended 23-item survey instrument. Survey domains included responder and simulation center demographics, simulation center defibrillation safety policies, and attitudes toward defibrillation practices in simulation training environments. Fifty-seven individuals representing 39 simulation centers returned surveys, 29 of which were in the United States. Live defibrillation was used in 35 of the 39 centers (90%). A defibrillation safety training policy was in effect at 14 of 39 centers (36%). Formal training before using live defibrillation was considered necessary by 48 of 55 responders (87%). Forty-eight of 54 responders (89%) strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, "I feel using live defibrillation plays an important role in simulation-based education." Although most responders consider use of live defibrillation important and believe formal defibrillator safety training should be conducted before use, only about one third of the centers had a training policy in effect. It remains to be determined whether safety training before the use of live defibrillation during simulation-based education increases user safety.

  2. PA/Lateral chest X-ray is equivalent to cine-fluoroscopy for the detection of conductor externalization in defibrillation leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Christian; Sarrazin, Jean-François; Philippon, François; Champagne, Jean; Molin, Franck; Nault, Isabelle; Blier, Louis; Bouchard, Marc-André; Arsenault, Jean; O'Hara, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Riata™ and Riata ST defibrillation leads (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA) are susceptible to insulation defects with conductor externalization. Cine-fluoroscopy is considered to be the gold standard for the documentation of insulation defects, but similar detection rates have been reported for posterior-anterior (PA)/lateral chest x-ray (CXR) with zooming. Prospective single-center study to assess the diagnostic equivalence of a PA/lateral CXR with zooming for the detection of Riata insulation defects in a direct comparison to cine-fluoroscopy. Seventy-eight consecutive patients underwent 3-view cine-fluoroscopy and a PA/lateral CXR. All CXRs and cine-fluoroscopy images were reviewed by blinded electrophysiologists and staff radiologists. Forty-four of 78 patients had an abnormal cine-fluoroscopy (56%). The diagnostic correlation between PA/lateral CXR and cine-fluoroscopy was excellent (κ = 0.90; 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.00). PA/lateral CXR was equivalent to cine-fluoroscopy for the detection of conductor externalization showing a sensitivity of 97.7% and a specificity of 91.2%. The mean radiation effective dose of CXR was significantly lower compared to cine-fluoroscopy (0.09 millisievert [mSV] vs 0.85 ± 0.47 mSv; P cine-fluoroscopy for the detection of Riata insulation defects and should be considered as the preferred screening method. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Signal integral for optimizing the timing of defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobo; Bisera, Joe; Tang, Wanchun

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of successful defibrillation decreases with an increased duration of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Futile electrical shocks are inversely correlated with myocardial contractile function and long-term survival. Previous studies have demonstrated that various ECG waveform analyses predict the success of defibrillation. This study investigated whether the absolute amplitude of pre-shock VF waveform is likely to predict the success of defibrillation. ECG recordings of 350 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) patients were obtained from the automated external defibrillator (AED) and analyzed by the method of signal integral. Successful defibrillation was defined as organized rhythm with heart rate ≥40beat/min commencing within one min of post-shock period and persisting for a minimum of 30s. Signal integral was significantly greater in successful defibrillation than unsuccessful defibrillation (81.76±32.3mV vs. 34.9±15.33mV, pdefibrillation were 90%, 86%, 80% and 93%, respectively. The receiver operator curve further revealed that signal integral predicted the likelihood of successful defibrillation (area under the curve=0.949). Signal integral predicted successful electrical shocks on patients with ventricular fibrillation and have potential to optimize the timing of defibrillation and reduce the number of electrical shocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-energy defibrillation research using a rabbit ventricular model: optimizing the potential gradient distribution using multiple epicardial electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianfei Wang; Lian Jin; Xiaomei Wu; Biao Song; Li Qian; Weiqi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac potential gradient distribution directly affects defibrillation efficacy, and the electrode configuration that ensures optimal distribution is yet to be determined. In this study, a rabbit ventricular finite element conductor model containing blood perfusion in ventricular cavities was developed. The electric field was solved on the model by using 95% myocardial volume potential gradient higher than 5 V/cm as the successful defibrillation threshold (DFT). Multiple epicardial electrodes (MEE) protocols and a SCAN protocol were used to identify the optimum defibrillation method. Results showed that when using the SCAN protocol, DFT energy reduced to 4.3% that of the control group which had the traditional implantable cardioverter defibrillator current path. Rapidly switching scanning stimuli generated using MEE pairs is a promising low-energy defibrillation method. For multiple electrodes defibrillation, the distribution of the electrode pairs determine the defibrillation efficacy, and the counteraction effect has negative effect on defibrillation. These findings can provide suggestions for clinical applications.

  5. Possible Triggers and Temporal Patterns of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Discharges: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-20

    Drugs , 41(Suppl. 2), 24-46. The Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) Investigators. (1997). A comparison of antiarrhythmic - drug ... Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators [A VIDJ Investigators, 1997). These devices are used to detect sustained ventricular...premature complexes (VPCs), nor did they predict response to antiarrhythmic therapy. In focusing on animal models of stress-induced arrhythmia

  6. A case of defibrillator-associated infective endocarditis due to Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, A; Fabiszak, T; Mikucka, A; Andrzejewska, M; Kruszyńska, E; Gospodarek, E; Klawe, J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative, spiral motile bacteria. Infections caused by Campylobacter fetus are frequently of invasive character, but they are very rare. The described case of infection of a cardioverter defibrillator implantation site was effectively cured with antibiotics, but it required removal of the cardioverter defibrillator.

  7. ICU nurses' perceptions of potential constraints and anticipated support to practice defibrillation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, George C M; Low, Lisa P L; Lee, Iris S F

    2011-08-01

    The study examines the experience of intensive care nurses in caring for patients in cardiac arrest, and their perceptions of introducing nurse-led defibrillation. This was a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study at an intensive care unit (ICU) of an acute regional hospital in Hong Kong. Twelve registered nurses were purposefully selected for interview. Although all the participants were trained in basic life support, only 50% were trained in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and those trained in ACLS described having limited opportunities to apply their defibrillation knowledge. Whilst participants believed that they were theoretically prepared to influence the patient's resuscitation outcomes, newly qualified nurses were reluctant to be accountable for defibrillation. In contrast, experienced nurses were more willing to perform nurse-led defibrillation. Support from management, cooperation between nurses and doctors, regular in-hospital 'real-drill' programmes, sponsorship for training, and the use of alternative defibrillation equipment should be considered to encourage nurse-led defibrillation in ICU settings. Nurse-led defibrillation is an approach of delivering prompt care to critically ill patients, and a way ahead for intensive care nursing in Hong Kong. Emphasis on a consistent policy to promote nurse-led defibrillation practice is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The NO Regular Defibrillation testing In Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation (NORDIC ICD) trial: concept and design of a randomized, controlled trial of intra-operative defibrillation testing during de novo defibrillator implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Brandt, Johan; Bode, Frank; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Felk, Angelika; Hauser, Tino; Wegscheider, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Although defibrillation (DF) testing is still considered a standard procedure during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) insertion and has been an essential element of all trials that demonstrated the survival benefit of ICD therapy, there are no large randomized clinical trials demonstrating that DF testing improves clinical outcome and if the outcome would remain the same by omitting DF testing. Between February 2011 and July 2013, we randomly assigned 1077 patients to ICD implantation with (n = 540) or without (n = 537) DF testing. The intra-operative DF testing was standardized across all participating centres. After inducing a fast ventricular tachycardia (VT) with a heart rate ≥240 b.p.m. or ventricular fibrillation (VF) with a low-energy T-wave shock, DF was attempted with an initial 15 J shock. If the shock reversed the VT or VF, DF testing was considered successful and terminated. If unsuccessful, two effective 24 J shocks were administered. If DF was unsuccessful, the system was reconfigured and another DF testing was performed. An ICD shock energy of 40 J had to be programmed in all patients for treatment of spontaneous VT/VF episodes. The primary endpoint was the average efficacy of the first ICD shock for all true VT/VF episodes in each patient during follow-up. The secondary endpoints included the frequency of system revisions, total fluoroscopy, implantation time, procedural serious adverse events, and all-cause, cardiac, and arrhythmic mortality during follow-up. Home Monitoring was used in all patients to continuously monitor the system integrity, device programming and performance. The NO Regular Defibrillation testing In Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation (NORDIC ICD) trial is one of two large prospective randomized trials assessing the effect of DF testing omission during ICD implantation. NCT01282918. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email

  9. A new defibrillator mode to reduce chest compression interruptions for health care professionals and lay rescuers: a pilot study in manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, David M; Raymond, Richard P; Tan, Qing; Silver, Annemarie E

    2011-01-01

    Chest compression interruptions are detrimental during the resuscitation of cardiac arrest patients, especially immediately prior to shock delivery. To evaluate the effect of use of a new defibrillator technology, which filters compression-induced artifact and provides reliable rhythm analysis with automatic defibrillator charging during chest compressions, on preshock chest compression interruption. Thirty subjects (20 basic life support [BLS]; 10 advanced life support [ALS]) worked in pairs to perform two randomly ordered simulated cardiac resuscitations with the defibrillator operating in either standard mode (ALS = manual; BLS = automated external defibrillator [AED]) or the new Analysis and Charging during CPR (AC-CPR) mode. During each resuscitation simulation, rescuers switched roles as chest compressor and defibrillator operator every two segments of CPR (one segment = 2 minutes of chest compressions, rhythm analysis, and shock delivery, if appropriate), for eight total segments. The participants rested ≥30 minutes between trials and received brief AC-CPR training (BLS = 30 seconds; ALS = 5 minutes). Heart rate and perceived exertion were measured with pulse oximetry and the Borg scale, respectively. Mean (± standard deviation) preshock chest compression pause time was considerably shorter in each CPR segment with AC-CPR versus standard defibrillator operation (2.13 ± 0.99 sec vs. 10.93 ± 1.33, p defibrillator operation versus AC-CPR (p = 0.2-1.0). Preshock pause time is reduced by 80% utilizing a novel technology that employs automated analysis and charging during chest compression. Although chest compression pause time is reduced with the use of the new technology, participants do not excessively fatigue.

  10. If a patient arrests after cardiac surgery is it acceptable to delay cardiopulmonary resuscitation until you have attempted either defibrillation or pacing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockowandt, Ulf; Levine, Adrian; Strang, Tim; Dunning, Joel

    2008-10-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether it is acceptable to delay cardiopulmonary resuscitation if a patient arrests after cardiac surgery in order to attempt defibrillation or pacing, prior to performing external cardiac massage. Altogether 550 papers were found in Medline and 990 in Embase using the reported search, of which 22 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. We conclude that current resuscitation guidelines state that there is no evidence to support or refute external cardiac massage prior to defibrillation in-hospital, although a benefit has been shown for patients out-of-hospital if the response time is over 4-5 min. In addition, four large studies including the AHA National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, who reported the findings of 6789 in-hospital arrests, emphasise the importance of early defibrillation within 1-2 min. More concerning in patients post-cardiac surgery are four case reports after cardiothoracic surgery and five in the non-surgical literature where significant harm has been caused from external cardiac massage, although equally we found cohort studies of cardiac surgical patients who had external cardiac massage followed by re-sternotomy and found no trauma due to external cardiac massage. We recommend that guidelines for immediate external massage should be adhered to currently as the evidence that these guidelines may do harm is not yet strong enough to recommend a change in practice. However, we acknowledge that there are no in-hospital data to support very short periods of external massage prior to defibrillation and there have been examples of damage to the myocardium due to external massage. This should be borne in mind when external massage is being performed on

  11. Locally propagated activation immediately after internal defibrillation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chattipakorn, N; KenKnight, B H; Rogers, J M; Walker, R G; Walcott, G P; Rollins, D L; Smith, W M; Ideker, R E

    1998-01-01

    .... Ten biphasic shocks of a strength near the defibrillation threshold (DFT) were delivered via intracardiac catheter electrodes, and epicardial activation sequences were mapped before and after attempted defibrillation...

  12. Patient perceptions of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane MacIver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a class I recommendation for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions to occur between physicians and heart failure patients. Few studies have reported the patient’s perspective on the timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Aim: To determine patient awareness, preferences and timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Design: Grounded theory was used to collect and analyze interview data from 25 heart failure patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Setting and participants: Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, from the Heart Function Clinic at University Health Network (Toronto, Canada. Results: The sample (n = 25 was predominately male (76% with an average age of 62 years. Patients identified three stages where they felt implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation should be discussed: (1 prior to implantation, (2 with any significant deterioration but while they were of sound mind to engage in and communicate their preferences and (3 at end of life, where patients wished further review of their previously established preferences and decisions about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation. Most patients (n = 17, 68% said they would consider deactivation, six (24% were undecided and two (8% were adamant they would never turn it off. Conclusion: The patient preferences identified in this study support the need to include information on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation at implant, with change in clinical status and within broader discussions about end-of-life treatment preferences. Using this process to help patients determine and communicate their implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation preferences may reduce the number of patients experiencing distressing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks at end of life.

  13. Survival after application of automatic external defibrillators before arrival of the emergency medical system: evaluation in the resuscitation outcomes consortium population of 21 million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfeldt, Myron L; Sitlani, Colleen M; Ornato, Joseph P; Rea, Thomas; Aufderheide, Tom P; Davis, Daniel; Dreyer, Jonathan; Hess, Erik P; Jui, Jonathan; Maloney, Justin; Sopko, George; Powell, Judy; Nichol, Graham; Morrison, Laurie J

    2010-04-20

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of contemporary automatic external defibrillator (AED) use. In the PAD (Public Access Defibrillation) trial, survival was doubled by focused training of lay volunteers to use an AED in high-risk public settings. We performed a population-based cohort study of persons with nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest before emergency medical system (EMS) arrival at Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) sites between December 2005 and May 2007. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between AED application and survival to hospital discharge. Of 13,769 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, 4,403 (32.0%) received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation but had no AED applied before EMS arrival, and 289 (2.1%) had an AED applied before EMS arrival. The AED was applied by health care workers (32%), lay volunteers (35%), police (26%), or unknown (7%). Overall survival to hospital discharge was 7%. Survival was 9% (382 of 4,403) with bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation but no AED, 24% (69 of 289) with AED application, and 38% (64 of 170) with AED shock delivered. In multivariable analyses adjusting for: 1) age and sex; 2) bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed; 3) location of arrest (public or private); 4) EMS response interval; 5) arrest witnessed; 6) initial shockable or not shockable rhythm; and 7) study site, AED application was associated with greater likelihood of survival (odds ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 2.50; p < 0.002). Extrapolating this greater survival from the ROC EMS population base (21 million) to the population of the U.S. and Canada (330 million), AED application by bystanders seems to save 474 lives/year. Application of an AED in communities is associated with nearly a doubling of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. These results reinforce the importance of strategically expanding community-based AED programs. Copyright

  14. Defibrillators in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, C; Kerr, A; Varghese, A; Wilson, C

    1984-01-01

    After a successful pilot scheme introduced in 1975, when six portable defibrillators were provided for health centres, an additional 50 defibrillators were provided in February 1982 for general practitioners to use. Between December 1975 and February 1984 defibrillation was attempted in 54 patients who collapsed with clinical cardiac arrest in the presence of general practitioners or less than five minutes before their arrival. A cardiac output was achieved in 32 patients, 28 survived to reac...

  15. Genoplivning med automatisk ekstern defibrillator på hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Wahlgreen, Claus; Hoffmann, Anne Mette

    2009-01-01

    Early defibrillation is a determinant of survival in cardiac arrest. We report a Danish case of successful in-hospital resuscitation using an automated external defibrillator (AED). This case illustrates important aspects of implementation of in-hospital use of an AED, i.e. location of the AED......, education of the staff, systematic registration and data collection and technical aspects of AED use. If in-hospital AED implementation is carefully executed, its use may provide a safe and effective way of obtaining early defibrillation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-26...

  16. Improved low energy defibrillation efficacy in man with the use of a biphasic truncated exponential waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle, R A; Mead, R H; Ruder, M A; Gaudiani, V; Buch, W S; Pless, B; Sweeney, M; Schmidt, P

    1989-01-01

    The standard implantable defibrillator waveform is a truncated exponential of approximately 6 msec duration. This study compares the defibrillation efficacy of a standard monophasic truncated exponential to a biphasic 12 msec truncated exponential waveform in 21 patients undergoing automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) surgery. For the biphasic waveform, the polarity was reversed and remaining capacitor voltage was attenuated by 75% after 6 msec. Two hundred thirty episodes of VF were induced with 115 "matched pairs" of monophasic and biphasic waveforms of identical initial capacitor voltages given over a range from 70 to 600 V (0.35 to 25.7 joules). The biphasic waveform was superior to the monophasic waveform (p less than 0.006), especially for "low energy" defibrillation. For initial voltages less than 200 V, the percent successful defibrillation was 28% for the monophasic waveform versus 64% for the biphasic waveform and from 200 to 290 V (energies less than 6.4 joules) it was 45% versus 69%. There was no difference in the two waveforms in time to the first QRS complex or in the blood pressure following defibrillation. This study shows that a 12 msec biphasic truncated exponential is superior to a 6 msec monophasic waveform for defibrillation in man, especially at energies less than 6.4 joules. The waveform can be achieved in an implanted device without any increase in capacitor size or in battery energy consumption.

  17. Defibrillation probability and impedance change between shocks during resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Robert G.; Koster, Rudolph W.; Sun, Charles; Moffat, George; Barger, Joseph; Dodson, Pamela P.; Chapman, Fred W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Technical data now gathered by automated external defibrillators (AEDs) allows closer evaluation of the behavior of defibrillation shocks administered during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We analyzed technical data from a large case series to evaluate the change in transthoracic

  18. Achieving safe hands-on defibrillation using electrical safety gloves--a clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Thomsen, Jakob E; Løfgren, Bo; Petley, Graham W

    2015-05-01

    Safe hands-on defibrillation (HOD) will allow uninterrupted chest compression during defibrillation and may improve resuscitation success. We tested the ability of electrical insulating gloves to protect the rescuer during HOD using a 'worst case' electrical scenario. Leakage current flowing from the patient to the 'rescuer' during antero-lateral defibrillation of patients undergoing elective cardioversion was measured. The 'rescuer' maintained firm (20 kgf) contact with the patient during defibrillation, wearing Class 1 electrical insulating gloves while simulating an inadvertent contact with the patient, through an additional wired contact between 'rescuer' and patient. Data from 61 shocks from 43 different patients were recorded. The median leakage current from all defibrillations was 20.0 μA, (range: 2.0-38.5). In total, 18 of the shocks were delivered at 360 J and had a median leakage current of 27.0 μA (range: 14.3-38.5). When using Class 1 electrical insulating gloves for hands-on defibrillation, rescuer leakage current is significantly below the 1 mA safe threshold, allowing safe hands-on defibrillation if the rescuer makes only one other point of contact with the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient ECG recording control for an automatic implantable defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Glen H. (Inventor); Lee, Jr., David G. (Inventor); Kitchin, David A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An implantable automatic defibrillator includes sensors which are placed on or near the patient's heart to detect electrical signals indicative of the physiology of the heart. The signals are digitally converted and stored into a FIFO region of a RAM by operation of a direct memory access (DMA) controller. The DMA controller operates transparently with respect to the microprocessor which is part of the defibrillator. The implantable defibrillator includes a telemetry communications circuit for sending data outbound from the defibrillator to an external device (either a patient controller or a physician's console or other) and a receiver for sensing at least an externally generated patient ECG recording command signal. The patient recording command signal is generated by the hand held patient controller. Upon detection of the patient ECG recording command, DMA copies the contents of the FIFO into a specific region of the RAM.

  20. Direct comparison of monophasic, biphasic and sequential pulse defibrillation over a single current pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, R; Souza, J J; Chapman, P D; Troup, P J; Wetherbee, J N

    1996-04-01

    Defibrillation waveform and its spatial and temporal distribution are important determinants of its efficacy. Previous comparisons of monophasic, biphasic and sequential waveforms have used one current pathway for monophasic and biphasic defibrillation and two pathways for sequential defibrillation thus confounding a direct comparison of the waveforms. This study compared monophasic, biphasic and sequential pulse defibrillation over a single current pathway using a nonthoracotomy and a thoracotomy lead system in a dog model. Eight mongrel dogs (mean weight 21.6+/-2.9 kg) first underwent nonthoracotomy defibrillation testing followed by a median sternotomy and implantation of two 13.9 cm2 epicardial patch electrodes posterior = cathode). Nonthoracotomy electrode configuration consisted of a right ventricular catheter (cathode) and a chest wall subcutaneous patch (anode). After 10 s of alternating current induced ventricular fibrillation, defibrillation was attempted with a test shock. Monophasic, biphasic and sequential shocks of 10 ms total duration were compared. Biphasic and sequential shocks consisted of two 5 ms components separated by 0.25 ms switch time constant. Four trials of five leading edge voltages were performed for each waveform and stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine 80% probability of successful defibrillation (E80). For epicardial defibrillation, E80s were monophasic 11.3+/-1.5 J; biphasic 7.9+/-1.2 J; and sequential 12.1+/-1.4 J. For nonthoracotomy defibrillation, E80s were monophasic 17.7+/-3.4 J; biphasic 13.8+/-3.3 J; and sequential 18.2+/-3.5 J. The mean E80 for biphasic pulses was significantly lower than monophasic or sequential pulses for either lead system. Biphasic pulses are superior to monophasic or sequential pulses delivered over a single current pathway.

  1. Defibrillation via the Elimination of Spiral Turbulence in a Model for Ventricular Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Pande, Ashwin; Pandit, Rahul

    2001-04-01

    Ventricular fibrillation, the major reason behind sudden cardiac death, is turbulent cardiac electrical activity in which rapid, irregular disturbances in the spatiotemporal electrical activation of the heart make it incapable of any concerted pumping action. Methods of controlling ventricular fibrillation include electrical defibrillation as well as injected medication. Electrical defibrillation, though widely used, involves subjecting the whole heart to massive, and often counterproductive, electrical shocks. We propose a defibrillation method that uses a very low-amplitude shock (of order mV) applied for a brief duration (of order 100 ms) and over a coarse mesh of lines on our model ventricle.

  2. Successful intermuscular implantation of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a Japanese patient with pectus excavatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kondo, M.D., Ph.D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD system was developed to provide a life-saving defibrillation therapy that does not affect the heart and vasculature. The subcutaneous ICD is preferred over the transvenous ICD for patients with a history of recurrent infection presenting major life-threatening rhythms. In this case report, we describe the first successful intermuscular implantation of a completely subcutaneous ICD in a Japanese patient with pectus excavatum. There were no associated complications with the device implantation or lead positioning. Further, the defibrillation threshold testing did not pose any problem with the abnormal anatomy of the patient.

  3. Bystander defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Public vs Residential Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Møller; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Bystander-delivered defibrillation (hereinafter referred to as bystander defibrillation) of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) remains limited despite the widespread dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Objective: To examine calendar changes...... in bystander defibrillation and subsequent survival according to a public or a residential location of the cardiac arrest after nationwide initiatives in Denmark to facilitate bystander-mediated resuscitative efforts, including bystander defibrillation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide study......, 2016. Exposures: Nationwide initiatives to facilitate bystander resuscitative efforts, including bystander defibrillation, consisted of resuscitation training of Danish citizens, dissemination of on-site AEDs, foundation of an AED registry linked to emergency medical dispatch centers, and dispatcher...

  4. The Prognosis of Patients who Received Automated External Defibrillator Treatment in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Kato, MD

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: The situation of AED use may be different whether it is used in hospital or outof-hospital. This study suggests that using AED in the hospital may have limited effect when it is used for critically ill patients.

  5. [Peer-led training in basic life support and resuscitation using an automatic external defibrillator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løfgren, Bo; Petersen, Christina Børlum; Mikkelsen, Ronni; Secher, Niels; Eika, Berit; Grove, Erik L

    2009-11-30

    Peer-led training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate healthcare training. In this paper we describe the implementation of the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED Course as a peer-led training program for medical students.

  6. Peer-led training in basic life support and resuscitation using an automatic external defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Petersen, Christina Børlum; Mikkelsen, Ronni

    2009-01-01

    Peer-led training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate healthcare training. In this paper we describe the implementation of the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED Course as a peer-led training program for medical students....

  7. Basic life support and automated external defibrillator skills among ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Ambulance personnel play an essential role in the 'Chain of Survival'. The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was dismal on a rural Danish island and in this study we assessed the cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of ambulance personnel on that island....

  8. The Effect of Compressor-administered Defibrillation on Peri-shock Pauses in a Simulated Cardiac Arrest Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Joshua; Lehman, Erik; Terndrup, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Methods This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation) or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation) groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Results Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47–0.67) compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35–1.64). Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58–2.95) compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08–4.43). Conclusion Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits. PMID:24672620

  9. The Effect of Compressor-Administered Defibrillation on Peri-shock Pauses in a Simulated Cardiac Arrest Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Glick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Results: Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47-0.67 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35-1.64. Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58-2.95 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08-4.43. Conclusion: Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:246–250.

  10. The effect of compressor-administered defibrillation on peri-shock pauses in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Joshua; Lehman, Erik; Terndrup, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation) or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation) groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47-0.67) compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35-1.64). Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58-2.95) compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08-4.43). Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits.

  11. Minimizing pre- and post-shock pauses during the use of an automatic external defibrillator by two different voice prompt protocols. A randomized controlled trial of a bundle of measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beesems, Stefanie G.; Berdowski, Jocelyn; Hulleman, Michiel; Blom, Marieke T.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous large retrospective analyses have found an association between duration of peri-shock pauses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and survival. In a randomized trial, we tested whether shortening these pauses improves survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Patients with

  12. Cardioverter defibrillator therapy as a bridge to heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, H J; Wenzlaff, P

    1995-03-01

    The prognosis of patients with severely impaired left ventricular function is poor, with an annual mortality rate of about 50%, and the majority die from sudden cardiac death. Heart transplantation is an accepted therapy for patients with end-stage heart disease; however, about 30% of candidates for transplantation die from sudden cardiac death while on the waiting list. It has been shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy has a low surgical mortality and is highly effective in the prevention of sudden death. Therefore, prophylactic ICD implantation may prevent sudden death in patients with end-stage heart disease while on the waiting list, and it is highly probable that patients with an ICD have a greater chance of survival until a donor heart becomes available. However, this hypothesis still has to be proven by prospective studies.

  13. Automatic external defibrillation and its effects on neurologic outcome in cardiac arrest patients in an urban, two-tiered EMS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Held, T; Heegaard, W; Crimmins, T

    1997-01-01

    To describe the use of the Automatic External Defibrillation (AED) device in an urban, two-tiered Emergency Medical Service (EMS) response setting with regard to its potential effects on cardiac arrest patient survival and neurologic outcome. A retrospective and descriptive design was utilized to study all cardiac arrest patients that had resuscitations attempted in the prehospital environment over a 30-month period. The study took place in a two-tiered EMS system serving an urban population of 368,383 persons. The first tier of EMS response is provided by the City Fire Department, which is equipped with a standard AED device. All first-tier personnel are trained to the level of Emergency Medical Technician-Basic. The second tier of EMS response is provided by personnel from one of two ambulance services. All second-tier personnel are trained to the level of Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic. 271 cardiac arrest patients were identified for inclusion. One-hundred nine of these patients (40.2%) had an initial rhythm of either ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia and were shocked using the AED upon the arrival of first-tier personnel. Forty-two patients (38.5%) in this group had a return of spontaneous circulation in the field and 22 (20.2%) survived to hospital discharge. Of the survivors, 17 (77.3%) had moderate to good neurologic function at discharge based on the Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Categories. Faster response times by the first-tier personnel appeared to correlate with better neurologic outcomes. First responder-based AED usage on patients in ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia can be applied successfully in an urban setting utilizing a two-tiered EMS response. In this study, a 20.2% survival to hospital discharge rate was obtained. Seventy-seven percent of these survivors had a moderate to good neurologic outcome based on the Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Categories.

  14. Risk stratification for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: the role of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Helmut U; Goldenberg, Ilan; Moss, Arthur J

    2013-08-01

    The benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy depends upon appropriate evaluation of a persisting risk of sudden death and estimation of the patient's overall survival. Assessment of a stable and unchangeable arrhythmogenic substrate is often difficult. Structural abnormality and ventricular dysfunction, the two major risk parameters, may recover, and heart failure symptoms can improve so that ICD therapy may not be indicated. Risk stratification can take time while the patient continues to be at high risk of arrhythmic death, and patients may need temporary bridging by a defibrillator in cases of interrupted ICD therapy. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) combines a long-term electrocardiogram (ECG)-monitoring system with an external automatic defibrillator. The LIfeVest® (ZOLL, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) is composed of a garment, containing two defibrillation patch electrodes on the back, and an elastic belt with a front-defibrillation patch electrode and four non-adhesive ECG electrodes, connected to a monitoring and defibrillation unit. The WCD is a safe and effective tool to terminate ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation events, unless a conscious patient withholds shock delivery. It may be used in patients in the early phase after acute myocardial infarction with poor left ventricular function, after acute coronary revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤35%), in patients with acute heart failure in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy of uncertain aetiology and prognosis. The WCD may be helpful in subjects with syncope of assumed tachyarrhythmia origin or in patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes. The WCD may replace ICD implantation in patients waiting for heart transplantation or who need a ventricular-assist device. This review describes the technical details and characteristics of the WCD, discusses its

  15. Innovative cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator programs in schools: Results from the Student Program for Olympic Resuscitation Training in Schools (SPORTS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Victoria L; Haley, Danielle M; Dugan, Noreen P; Iyer, V Ramesh; Shults, Justine

    2016-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are low. Our study objective was to encourage Philadelphia high school students to develop CPR/AED (automated external defibrillator) training programs and to assess their efficacy. The focus was on developing innovative ways to learn the skills of CPR/AED use, increasing willingness to respond in an emergency, and retention of effective psychomotor resuscitation skills. Health education classes in 15 Philadelphia School District high schools were selected, with one Control and one Study Class per school. Both completed CPR/AED pre- and post-tests to assess cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. After pre-tests, both were taught CPR skills and AED use by their health teacher. Study Classes developed innovative programs to learn, teach, and retain CPR/AED skills. The study culminated with Study Classes competing in multiple CPR/AED skills events at the CPR/AED Olympic event. Outcomes included post-tests, Mock Code, and presentation scores. All students' cognitive and psychomotor skills improved with standard classroom education (pschools at the CPR/AED Olympics and the development of their own student-directed education programs resulted in remarkable retention of psychomotor skill scores in the Study Class (88%) vs the Control Class (79%) (pschools ≥94%. Students who developed creative and novel methods of teaching and learning resuscitation skills showed outstanding application of these skills in a Mock Code with remarkable psychomotor skill retention, potentially empowering a new generation of effectively trained CPR bystanders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ventricular tachycardia initiated by high energy cardioversion in a patient with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    OpenAIRE

    Chinushi, M.; Aizawa, Y; Higuchi, K.

    1997-01-01

    A transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) was implanted into a 58 year old woman with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who had drug refractory monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). Antitachycardia pacing failed to terminate the VT; termination was attempted at 24 J, which was above the defibrillation threshold. When cardioversion at 24 J was delivered, VT with a different morphology and slower rate was reproducibly initiated. At 3 J, however, the original VT was successf...

  17. Evaluating the quality of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by reviewing automated external defibrillator records and survival for out-of-hospital witnessed arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Chen, Wen-Jone; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Lin, Fang-Yue

    2005-02-01

    Without an easy method to monitor the performance of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), earlier studies have not been able to assess the quality of CPR. In this study, we have used a new approach to evaluate prehospital CPR performance and the impact on outcome using data retrieved from the automatic external defibrillators (AED). Electrocardiography (ECG) and voice records from AED data cards from 633 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) were reviewed. Fifty-two witnessed cardiac arrests in ventricular fibrillation (VF) requiring post-shock CPR underwent an independent, structured review by two physicians. The adequacy of prehospital CPR was defined on the basis of noticeable deflection of the ECG with chest compressions, the actual number of chest compressions delivered per minute, and the continuity of prehospital CPR at the scene and during transport. Outcome measures included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital admission and discharge. The quality of prehospital CPR was judged as adequate in 15 (29%, 95%; CI: 18-42%) and inadequate in 37 (71%, 95%; CI: 58-82%) of the consensus. Adequate CPR performance resulted in a higher rate of ROSC at the scene (53% versus 8%, 95% CI of the difference 14-76%), and survival to hospital discharge (53% versus 8%, 95% CI of the difference 14-76%). Two reviewers agreed on whether CPR was adequate in 92.3% of cases, with a kappa of 0.82. The quality of prehospital CPR is associated with a greater likelihood of survival in witnessed VF arrests in need of post-shock CPR. The potential of widely available electrocardiography and voice records in AEDs in providing a convenient and real-time evaluation of prehospital CPR should be explored further.

  18. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Materials and Methods: The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Results: Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  19. Comparison of defibrillation efficacy between two pads placements in a pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Yu, Tao; Quan, Weilun; Freeman, Gary; Li, Yongqin

    2012-06-01

    The placement of defibrillation pads at ideal anatomical sites is one of the major determinants of transthoracic defibrillation success. However, the optimal pads position for ventricular defibrillation is still undetermined. In the present study, we compared the effects of two different pads positions on defibrillation success rate in a pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest. Eight domestic male pigs weighing 12-15 kg were randomized to receive shocks using either the anterior-posterior (AP) or the anterior-lateral (AL) position with pediatric pads. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced and untreated for 30 s. A sequence of randomized biphasic electrical shocks ranging from 10 to 100 J was attempted. If the defibrillation failed to terminate VF, a 100 J rescuer shock was then delivered. After a recovery interval of 5 min, the sequence was repeated for a total of approximately 30 test shocks were attempted for each animal. The dose response curves were constructed and the defibrillation thresholds were compared between groups. The aggregated success rate was 65.6% for AP placement and 43.0% for AL one (p=0.0005) when shock energy was between 10 and 70 J. A significantly lower 50% defibrillation threshold was obtained for AP pads placement compared with traditional AL pads position (2.1±0.4 J/kg vs. 3.6±0.9 J/kg, p=0.041). In this pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest, the anterior-posterior placement of pediatric pads yielded a higher success rate by lowering defibrillation threshold compared to the anterior-lateral position. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Christian; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm J

    2012-10-01

    Many studies over the past decade have investigated delaying initial defibrillation to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), as it has been associated with increased rates of restoration of spontaneous circulation and/or survival. Since 2006, a number of studies have investigated these procedures. The objective of this study was to undertake a literature review examining the commencement of CPR before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting. A literature review was undertaken using the electronic medical databases Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL Plus, Cochrane Systematic Review and Meditext, from their commencement to the end of June 2011. Keywords used in the search included: CPR, defibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, VF, EMS, EMT, paramedic, emergency medical service, emergency medical technician, prehospital, out-of-hospital and ambulance. References of relevant articles were also reviewed. Of the 3079 articles located, 10 met the inclusion criteria. The results of these studies showed conflicting results. All retrospective studies (n=6) indicated a benefit in performing pre-shock CPR on patients with ventricular fibrillation for durations between 90 and 180 s. Conversely, all randomised controlled trials demonstrated no benefit from providing CPR before defibrillation compared with immediate defibrillation for return of spontaneous circulation, neurological outcome and/or survival to hospital discharge. However, none of the studies reported evidence that CPR before defibrillation is harmful. Conflicting evidence remains regarding the benefit of CPR before defibrillation. The establishment of a consistent timeframe of chest compressions before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting will provide uniformity in standards in clinical practice and education and training.

  1. [History of electric defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Wan, Zhi

    2007-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most effective methods in rescuing those in critical situations. In recent decades, electric cardiac defibrillation has made the biggest advance in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It has been found that the rate of successful resuscitation with electric defibrillation is much higher than by bare-handed or drug resuscitations by which more lives have been saved, has become the most essential and most important means of first aid. The history of the development of electric defibrillation is a successful modality of multidisciplinary cooperation of physicians, biologists, physiologists, and engineers. Although "early defibrillation" has been recognized as an idea of standard therapy and a basic measure of life support by international organizations as American Heart Association, it is far from being perfect and has a long way to go. A review of the history may help to bring the technique of electric defibrillation into perfection, and to save more lives in the future.

  2. Real world utilization and impact of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator in a community setting

    OpenAIRE

    Naniwadekar, Aditi; Alnabelsi, Talal; Joshi, Kamal; Obasare, Edinrin; Greenspan, Allan; Mainigi, Sumeet

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) is used in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) but not immediate candidates for intracardiac defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Methods: We performed a single center retrospective study of patients prescribed WCD upon hospital discharge from January 2002 to October 2015. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the hospital electronic database and device data from Zoll LifeVest database. Results: Of 140 patients, ...

  3. Successful defibrillation in the prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, C C; Newton, M C

    2001-12-01

    Early defibrillation provides the greatest chance of survival after ventricular fibrillation. Conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation requires the patient to be in the supine position. Electrical treatment of arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation by means of a defibrillator back paddle in patients receiving prone ventilation in intensive care has been described. We report a case in which electrical defibrillation was successfully performed in the prone position in a patient undergoing complex spinal surgery. We suggest that, if defibrillation were required in ventilated patients positioned prone, defibrillation should be attempted in the prone position, as turning the patient supine would consume valuable minutes and reduce the chances of successful defibrillation.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Defibrillator Charging During Ongoing Chest Compressions: A Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Dana P.; Robertson-Dick, Brian J.; Yuen, Trevor C.; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Walsh, Deborah; Bareis, Charles J.; Vanden Hoek, Terry L.; Abella, Benjamin S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pauses in chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation have been shown to correlate with poor outcomes. In an attempt to minimize these pauses, the American Heart Association recommends charging the defibrillator during chest compressions. While simulation work suggests decreased pause times using this technique, little is known about its use in clinical practice. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study of defibrillator charging at three US academic teaching hospitals between April 2006 and April 2009. Data were abstracted from CPR-sensing defibrillator transcripts. Pre-shock pauses and total hands- off time preceding the defibrillation attempts were compared among techniques. RESULTS A total of 680 charge-cycles from 244 cardiac arrests were analyzed. The defibrillator was charged during ongoing chest compressions in 448 (65.9%) instances with wide variability across the three sites. Charging during compressions correlated with a decrease in median pre-shock pause [2.6 (IQR 1.9–3.8) vs 13.3 (IQR 8.6–19.5) s; p defibrillation [10.3 (IQR 6.4–13.8) vs 14.8 (IQR 11.0–19.6) s; p defibrillator in anticipation of the pause, prior to any rhythm analysis. There was no difference in inappropriate shocks when charging during chest compressions (20.0 vs 20.1%; p=0.97) and there was only one instance noted of inadvertent shock administration during compressions, which went unnoticed by the compressor. CONCLUSIONS Charging during compressions is underutilized in clinical practice. The technique is associated with decreased hands-off time preceding defibrillation, with minimal risk to patients or rescuers. PMID:20807672

  5. Comparison of rectilinear biphasic waveform with biphasic truncated exponential waveform in a pediatric defibrillation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglan; Tang, Wanchun; Brewer, James E; Freeman, Gary; Chang, Yun-Te; Weil, Max Harry

    2007-08-01

    To compare the rectilinear biphasic waveform with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform for pediatric defibrillation. Prospective, randomized study. Experimental laboratory of a university-affiliated research institute. Male domestic piglets (4-24 kg). Eleven piglets (4-8 kg), which represented a patient truncated exponential waveforms, comprising five shocks at five energy settings. Each group of five shocks was fixed at a predetermined energy value, depending on the body weight of the animal. Dose-response curves were constructed using logistic regression. Aortic pressure, electrocardiogram, left ventricular pressure, and left ventricular pressure value of 40 mm Hg were continually measured. Dose-response curves determined defibrillation thresholds at 50% (D50) and 90% (D90) probability of success. The rectilinear biphasic waveform defibrillated with truncated exponential waveform. The rectilinear biphasic waveform also successfully defibrillated with significantly less energy per body weight and per heart weight compared with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform. The rectilinear biphasic waveform has superior defibrillation performance compared with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform in a piglet defibrillation model for young children.

  6. Immediate defibrillation or defibrillation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Soichi; Tanabe, Seizan; Ogawa, Toshio; Akahane, Manabu; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsumoto, Shinya; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether short cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services before defibrillation (CPR first) has a better outcome than immediate defibrillation followed by CPR (shock first) in patients with ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pulseless VT) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We analyzed a national database between 2006 and 2008, and included patients aged 18 years or more who had witnessed cardiac arrests and whose first recorded rhythm was VF/pulseless VT. Those study subjects were divided into five groups in accordance with the CPR/defibrillation intervention sequence. Each group was subdivided into call-to-response intervals of attempted defibrillation did not present a better outcome compared with shock first as measured by either one-month survival or neurologically favorable one-month survival, after adjusting for potential confounders. Further studies are required to determine whether CPR first has an advantage over shock first.

  7. Atrial defibrillation threshold in humans minutes after atrial fibrillation induction; "A stitch in time saves nine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardas, P E; Manios, E G; Kanoupakis, E M; Dermitzaki, D N; Mavrakis, H E; Kallergis, E M

    2001-09-01

    To assess the effects of atrial fibrillation duration on the defibrillation threshold in atrial fibrillation patients seconds or minutes after initiation of the arrhythmia. Nineteen patients with recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation were evaluated. After programmed induction of atrial fibrillation, the defibrillation threshold was assessed after two sequential periods of arrhythmia in the same patient: an "ultrashort" period of 30 s duration and a "short" period, which lasted 10 min. After the specified period, internal cardioversion was attempted using a balloon-guided catheter that allows the delivery of biphasic shocks between one electrode array placed in the left pulmonary artery and a proximal electrode array on the lateral right atrial wall. The defibrillation threshold was assessed with energy steps of 0.5 J with a starting level of 0.5 J. Mean time from induction to successful defibrillation was 92+/-30 s after the "ultrashort" period of atrial fibrillation and 910+/-86 s after the short period. The defibrillation threshold was significantly greater after 10 min of atrial fibrillation than after 30 s of arrhythmia (2.32+/-0.61 J vs 1.31+/-0.66 J, Pdefibrillation threshold. Prolongation of atrial fibrillation over minutes in patients with paroxysmal arrhythmia increases the energy requirements for successful defibrillation. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Learning Intervention Targeting First-Year Resident Defibrillation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Justin; Eppich, Walter; Trainor, Jennifer; Mobley, Bonnie; Adler, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate an educational intervention targeting the acquisition and retention of critical core skills of defibrillation in first-year pediatric residents using simulation-based training and deliberate practice. From January 2011 to April 2012, a total of 23 first-year pediatric residents participated in a pretest-posttest study. An initial survey evaluated previous experience, training, and comfort. The scoring tool was designed and validated using a standard setting procedure and 60% was determined to be the minimum passing score. The 1-hour educational intervention included a brief video describing the defibrillator, 10 to 15 minutes of hands-on time with the defibrillator, and 30 minutes of simulation-based scenarios using deliberate practice with real-time feedback. The number of subjects who achieved competency in defibrillation skills increased from 8 to 16 of 23 (35% vs 70%, P defibrillation (282-189 s, P defibrillation skills by first-year pediatric residents. In the process, we uncovered educational gaps in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and other resuscitation skills that need to be addressed in future educational interventions and training.

  9. Impact of city police layperson education and equipment with automatic external defibrillators on patient outcome after out of hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Philipp; Spahn, Gabriela H; Müller, Stefan; Zollinger, Andreas; Baulig, Werner; Brüesch, Martin; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R

    2017-09-01

    Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurs frequently and the outcome is often dismal. Early defibrillation saves lives and brain function in OHCA. The Zurich city police (STAPO) forces were instructed and equipped to provide basic life support (BLS) and to use an AED in 2009. Retrospective observational study comparing period 1 (P1) 2004-2009 before equipping and training of the STAPO and period 2 (P2) 2010-2015 after the implementation. Patients suffering from OHCA of cardiac or presumed cardiac origin in the city of Zurich undergoing CPR by EMS in P1 (n=709) and P2 (n=684) were included. Intervention periods and outcome were compared between the periods. Outcome variables were adjusted for patient age and gender, witnessed status, and defibrillation by the EMS, STAPO, layperson or no defibrillation. In P2, CPR was started by the STAPO in a median of 8 (IQR 6-9) minutes after the arrest and thus significantly earlier (median 3min) than by the EMS (pdefibrillation in a median of 9 (IQR 8-10) minutes and thus significantly earlier (median 6min) than the EMS (pdefibrillated by the STAPO, ROSC (STAPO 74.4%, adj. OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.4, p=0.010) and hospital admission (STAPO 72.1%, adj. OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.6, p=0.005) was higher compared to patients firstly defibrillated by the EMS. Survival to hospital discharge (STAPO 30.2%, adj. OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7-2.9, p=0.38) was unchanged. Dispatching BLS trained and AED equipped police forces results in earlier and more successful resuscitation of OHCA victims, leading to higher proportions of patients with ROSC, hospital admission and survival to hospital discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conocimiento del desfibrilador automático externo (DEA) por parte de candidatos a instructores en reanimación básica Trainee basic reanimation instructors' knowledge concerning an automated external defibrillator (DEA)

    OpenAIRE

    NavarroVargas José Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes. El uso apropiado del desfibrilador automático externo (DEA) hace parte del tercer eslabón de la cadena de supervivencia, fundamental para el manejo del paro cardiaco más frecuente en el adulto, la Fibrilación Ventricular (FV). La capacitación en las maniobras básicas de reanimación tiene 3 estaciones de trabajo: la RCP o maniobras de compresiones y ventilaciones, el manejo de la obstrucción de la vía aérea y el manejo del DEA. Objetivo. Evaluar el conocimiento previo que tienen ...

  11. Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Andrew H; Perkins, Gavin D; Berg, Robert A; Castren, Maaret; Considine, Julie; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raul J; Koster, Rudolph W; Lim, Swee Han; Nation, Kevin J; Olasveengen, Theresa M; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R; Sierra, Alfredo; Smyth, Michael A; Stanton, David; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2015-10-20

    This review comprises the most extensive literature search and evidence evaluation to date on the most important international BLS interventions, diagnostics, and prognostic factors for cardiac arrest victims. It reemphasizes that the critical lifesaving steps of BLS are (1) prevention, (2) immediate recognition and activation of the emergency response system, (3) early high-quality CPR, and (4) rapid defibrillation for shockable rhythms. Highlights in prevention indicate the rational and judicious deployment of search-and-rescue operations in drowning victims and the importance of education on opioid-associated emergencies. Other 2015 highlights in recognition and activation include the critical role of dispatcher recognition and dispatch-assisted chest compressions, which has been demonstrated in multiple international jurisdictions with consistent improvements in cardiac arrest survival. Similar to the 2010 ILCOR BLS treatment recommendations, the importance of high quality was reemphasized across all measures of CPR quality: rate, depth, recoil, and minimal chest compression pauses, with a universal understanding that we all should be providing chest compressions to all victims of cardiac arrest. This review continued to focus on the interface of BLS sequencing and ensuring high-quality CPR with other important BLS interventions, such as ventilation and defibrillation. In addition, this consensus statement highlights the importance of EMS systems, which employ bundles of care focusing on providing high-quality chest compressions while extricating the patient from the scene to the next level of care. Highlights in defibrillation indicate the global importance of increasing the number of sites with public-access defibrillation programs. Whereas the 2010 ILCOR Consensus on Science provided important direction for the “what” in resuscitation (ie, what to do), the 2015 consensus has begun with the GRADE methodology to provide direction for the quality of

  12. Implantation of a Resynchronization Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in a Patient with Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Antonelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of resynchronization implantable cardioverter defibrillator was performed in a patient with persistent left superior vena cava. A dual coil defibrillation lead was inserted in the right ventricle apex via a small innominate vein. Left ventricular and atrial leads were implanted through persistent left superior vena cava. Left ventricular lead was easily implanted into the postero lateral vein. Pacing thresholds and sensing values were excellent and remained stable at 18 months follow-up. Presence of persistent left superior vena cava generally makes transvenous lead implantation difficult. However when a favorable coronary sinus anatomy is also present, it may facilitate left ventricular lead positioning in the coronary sinus branches.

  13. "Hosting" an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: A phenomenological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrino, Lorenza; Borraccino, Alberto; Peraudo, Enrico; Bobbio, Marco; Dimonte, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) can reduce unexpected cardiac mortality, but they also have a dramatic impact on a patient's quality of life. We aimed to explore ICD recipients' experiences in order to foster improvements in the quality of care. Analyses were done using a descriptive phenomenological method, based on qualitative interview data from a purposive sample of 20 ICD recipients. Four main themes emerged: living with fear; relying on technology; knowing about the ICD and how to live with it; and coping with the effects of the ICD on daily life. ICD recipients lived in a constant state of fear due to the presence of the device and the uncertainty related to the potential electrical shocks it could deliver. This fear was compounded by changes that severely affected the quality of their daily life. ICD recipients felt they were always on the brink of death, and that although they received sufficient technical information they did not feel they received meaningful information to help them accept, live with, and cope with the device. Emotional information and support, rather than technical information, must be provided to ICD recipients to give them the ability to cope with the everyday threats they perceive because of the device. Qualitative evidence may help professionals tackle known threats to patients' quality of life and increase the quality of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fabry cardiomyopathy presenting with a high defibrillation threshold: A short case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kanda, MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive glycosphingolipid storage disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A. It is recognized that Fabry disease patients often have ventricular arrhythmias. Although the effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD therapy in patients with ventricular fibrillation is established, there is little evidence regarding ICD therapy for Fabry disease. Here, we report the case of patient with Fabry disease who was treated with an ICD and presented with high defibrillation thresholds.

  15. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation: a hospice quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynik, Sally E; Casarett, David J; Corcoran, Amy M

    2014-09-01

    Dying patients whose implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) continue to deliver shocks may experience significant pain, and the National Quality Forum has endorsed routine deactivation of ICDs when patients near the end of life. The overarching goal of this quality improvement project was to increase rates of ICD deactivation among hospice patients. ICD deactivation rates pre- vs. post-intervention; and clinicians' knowledge and confidence regarding ICD management. A multifaceted intervention included clinical tools, education, and standardized documentation templates in the electronic medical record. The proportion of patients whose ICD was deactivated increased after the intervention (pre- vs. post-intervention: 39/68, 57% vs. 47/56, 84%; odds ratio 3.88; 95% confidence interval 1.54-10.37; P = 0.001). Clinicians' knowledge and confidence regarding ICD management improved (pre- vs. post-intervention median questionnaire scores: 5 vs. 9 on a scale of 0 to 10; Wilcoxon signed-rank test Z = -5.01; P < 0.001). A multifaceted intervention can increase rates of ICD deactivation among patients near the end of life. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanisms of Defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Derek J.; Fast, Vladimir G.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical shock has been the one effective treatment for ventricular fibrillation for several decades. With the advancement of electrical and optical mapping techniques, histology, and computer modeling, the mechanisms responsible for defibrillation are now coming to light. In this review, we discuss recent work that demonstrates the various mechanisms responsible for defibrillation. On the cellular level, membrane depolarization and electroporation affect defibrillation outcome. Cell bundles and collagenous septae are secondary sources and cause virtual electrodes at sites far from shocking electrodes. On the whole-heart level, shock field gradient and critical points determine whether a shock is successful or whether reentry causes initiation and continuation of fibrillation. PMID:20450352

  17. Antitachycardia pacing programming in implantable cardioverter defibrillator: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Elia; Giacopelli, Daniele; Borghi, Ambra; Modonesi, Letizia; Cappelli, Stefano

    2017-05-26

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) programming involves several parameters. In recent years antitachycardia pacing (ATP) has gained an increasing importance in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, whether slow or fast. It reduces the number of unnecessary and inappropriate shocks and improves both patient's quality of life and device longevity. There is no clear indication regarding the type of ATP to be used, except for the treatment of fast ventricular tachycardias (188 bpm-250 bpm) where it has been shown a greater efficacy and safety of burst compared to ramp; 8 impulses in each sequence of ATP appears to be the best programming option in this setting. Beyond ATP use, excellent clinical results were obtained with programming standardization following these principles: extended detection time in ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone; supraventricular discrimination criteria up to 200 bpm; first shock in VF zone at the maximum energy in order to reduce the risk of multiple shocks. The MADIT-RIT trial and some observational registries have also recently demonstrated that programming with a widespread use of ATP, higher cut-off rates or delayed intervention reduces the number of inappropriate and unnecessary therapies and improves the survival of patients during mid-term follow-up.

  18. The effect of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmia on heart failure or death in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients: a MADIT-CRT substudy (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Pietrasik, Grzegorz; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Ruwald, Martin H; Jons, Christian; McNitt, Scott; Wang, Paul; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of both history of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmias (IAT) and in-trial IAT on the risk of heart failure (HF) or death comparing cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment in mildly symptomatic HF patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Limited data exist regarding the benefit of CRT-D in patients with IAT. The benefit of CRT-D in reducing the risk of HF/death was evaluated using multivariate Cox models incorporating the presence of, respectively, a history of IAT at baseline and time-dependent development of in-trial IAT during follow-up in 1,264 patients with LBBB enrolled in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study. The overall beneficial effect of CRT-D versus ICD on the risk of HF/death was not significantly different between LBBB patients with or without history of IAT (HR: 0.50, p = 0.028, and HR: 0.46, p Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy; NCT00180271). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with high defibrillation thresholds. A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, A E; Ellenbogen, K A; Kirk, K A; Kay, G N; Dailey, S M; Plumb, V J

    1992-10-01

    Successful defibrillation by an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) depends on its ability to deliver shocks that exceed the defibrillation threshold. This study was designed to identify clinical characteristics that may predict the finding of an elevated defibrillation threshold and to describe the outcome of patients with high defibrillation thresholds. The records of 1,946 patients from 12 centers were screened to identify 90 patients (4.6%) with a defibrillation threshold greater than or equal to 25 J. Excluding three patients who received ICDs that delivered greater than 30 J, there were 81 men and six women with a mean age of 59.5 +/- 10.1 years, a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.32 +/- 0.14, and a 76% prevalence of coronary artery disease. Sixty-one patients (70%) were receiving antiarrhythmic drugs, and 45 (52%) were receiving amiodarone. Seventy-one patients (82%) received an ICD. Death occurred in 27 patients--19 of the 71 (27%) with an ICD (eight arrhythmic), and eight of the 16 (50%) without an ICD (four arrhythmic). Actuarial survival for all patients at 5 years was 67%. Actuarial survival rates at 2 years for patients with and without an ICD were 81% and 36%, respectively (p = 0.0024). Actuarial survival at 5 years for the ICD patients was 73%; no patient without an ICD has lived longer than 32 months. Actuarial survival free of arrhythmic death in the ICD patients at 5 years was 84%. Although the only variable to predict survival was ICD implantation (p = 0.003), it is entirely possible that in this retrospective analysis, clinical selection decisions to implant or to not implant an ICD differentiated patients destined to have better or worse outcomes, respectively. Antiarrhythmic drug use may be causally related to the finding of an elevated defibrillation threshold. When patients with high defibrillation thresholds receive an ICD, arrhythmic death remains an important risk (42% of deaths in these patients were arrhythmia

  20. 41 CFR 102-79.115 - What guidelines must an agency follow if it elects to establish a public access defibrillation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency follow if it elects to establish a public access defibrillation program in a Federal facility? 102... SPACE Assignment and Utilization of Space Public Access Defibrillation Programs § 102-79.115 What guidelines must an agency follow if it elects to establish a public access defibrillation program in a...

  1. A comparison of biphasic and monophasic waveform defibrillation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Weil, M H; Sun, S; Povoas, H P; Klouche, K; Kamohara, T; Bisera, J

    2001-09-01

    To compare the effects of biphasic defibrillation waveforms and conventional monophasic defibrillation waveforms on the success of initial defibrillation, postresuscitation myocardial function, and duration of survival after prolonged duration of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF), including the effects of epinephrine. Prospective, randomized, animal study. Animal laboratory and university-affiliated research and educational institute. Domestic pigs. VF was induced in 20 anesthetized domestic pigs receiving mechanical ventilation. After 10 min of untreated VF, the animals were randomized. Defibrillation was attempted with up to three 150-J biphasic waveform shocks or a conventional sequence of 200-J, 300-J, and 360-J monophasic waveform shocks. When reversal of VF was unsuccessful, precordial compression was performed for 1 min, with or without administration of epinephrine. The protocol was repeated until spontaneous circulation was restored or for a maximum of 15 min. No significant differences in the success of initial resuscitation or in the duration of survival were observed. However, significantly less impairment of myocardial function followed biphasic shocks. Administration of epinephrine reduced the total electrical energy required for successful resuscitation with both biphasic and monophasic waveform shocks. Lower-energy biphasic waveform shocks were as effective as conventional higher-energy monophasic waveform shocks for restoration of spontaneous circulation after 10 min of untreated VF. Significantly better postresuscitation myocardial function was observed after biphasic waveform defibrillation. Administration of epinephrine after prolonged cardiac arrest decreased the total energy required for successful resuscitation.

  2. Public knowledge and confidence in the use of public access defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ben; Chan, Stephanie; Lander, Peter; Adamson, Robbie; Hodgetts, Gillian A; Deakin, Charles D

    2015-06-01

    Growing numbers of public access defibrillators aim to improve the effectiveness of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to ambulance arrival. In the UK, however, public access defibrillators are only deployed successfully in 1.7% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. We aimed to understand whether this was due to a lack of devices, lack of awareness of their location or a reflection of lack of public knowledge and confidence to use a defibrillator. Face-to-face semistructured open quantitative questionnaire delivered in a busy urban shopping centre, to identify public knowledge relating to public access defibrillation. 1004 members of the public aged 9-90 years completed the survey. 61.1% had been first aid trained to a basic life support level. 69.3% claimed to know what an automatic external defibrillator was and 26.1% reported knowing how to use one. Only 5.1% knew where or how to find their nearest public access defibrillator. Only 3.3% of people would attempt to locate a defibrillator in a cardiac arrest situation, and even fewer (2.1%) would actually retrieve and use the device. These findings suggest that a lack of public knowledge, confidence in using a defibrillator and the inability to locate a nearby device may be more important than a lack of defibrillators themselves. Underused public access defibrillation is a missed opportunity to save lives, and improving this link in the chain of survival may require these issues to be addressed ahead of investing more funds in actual defibrillator installation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ICD inserted. When You're in the Hospital A type of heart specialist called an electrophysiologist ... interfere with your defibrillator, but some with strong magnetic fields might. Ask your provider if you have ...

  4. A randomized control hands-on defibrillation study-Barrier use evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, David; Kharod, Chetan; Bolleter, Scotty; Burkett, Alison; Gabehart, Caitlin; Manifold, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Chest compressions and defibrillation are the only therapies proven to increase survival in cardiac arrest. Historically, rescuers must remove hands to shock, thereby interrupting chest compressions. This hands-off time results in a zero blood flow state. Pauses have been associated with poorer neurological recovery. This was a blinded randomized control cadaver study evaluating the detection of defibrillation during manual chest compressions. An active defibrillator was connected to the cadaver in the sternum-apex configuration. The sham defibrillator was not connected to the cadaver. Subjects performed chest compressions using 6 barrier types: barehand, single and double layer nitrile gloves, firefighter gloves, neoprene pad, and a manual chest compression/decompression device. Randomized defibrillations (10 per barrier type) were delivered at 30 joules (J) for bare hand and 360J for all other barriers. After each shock, the subject indicated degree of sensation on a VAS scale. Ten subjects participated. All subjects detected 30j shocks during barehand compressions, with only 1 undetected real shock. All barriers combined totaled 500 shocks delivered. Five (1%) active shocks were detected, 1(0.2%) single layer of Nitrile, 3(0.6%) with double layer nitrile, and 1(0.2%) with the neoprene barrier. One sham shock was reported with the single layer nitrile glove. No shocks were detected with fire gloves or compression decompression device. All shocks detected barely perceptible (0.25(±0.05)cm on 10cm VAS scale). Nitrile gloves and neoprene pad prevent (99%) responder's detection of defibrillation of a cadaver. Fire gloves and compression decompression device prevented detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Minimally invasive, pericardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in a young child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Maki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful minimally invasive placement of a pericardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD in a 16-kg child. A transvenous ICD dual coil was advanced through a small subxiphoid incision and screwed into the oblique sinus pericardium under fluoroscopic guidance. An additional sense-pace lead was sutured onto the right ventricular apex, and the generator was placed in the upper abdominal wall through the same incision. Threshold testing demonstrated successful defibrillation at 15 J. After implantation, the patient had two episodes of appropriate shock for ventricular fibrillation. The ICD system continues to show stable impedance at 6 months of follow-up.

  6. Cardiogenic Shock and Lung Injury as a Complication of Defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Serdar Kıhtır

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Local burns, embolism, and arrhythmia are the most common side effects observed after electrical shock treatments. However, systolic function may be rarely affected and pulmonary edema may develop. The cases of pulmonary edema after electrical shock treatments have been reported since 1960s and the proposed mechanism is the inadequacy of the left atrium cuff and ventricle. It was learned that a 7-year-old-girl without any known disease except vesicoureteral reflux had a ventricular fibrillation during general anesthesia induction and defibrillation at 2 joule/kg was attempted. It was also learned that the procedure was delayed and the patient was diagnosed with a long QT (QTc: 0.47 ms and had respiratory distress and circulatory disturbances after four hours. Pulmonary edema and heart failure was determined, and due to hipoxemia (SpO2 <88% not getting any better with non-invasive ventilation, the patient was intubated and followed with mechanical ventilation. A thermodilution catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and a low cardiac index (CI: 1.58 L/min/m2, elevated extravascular lung water index (EVLWI: 18 mL/kg and high pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI: 7.6 were determined. The patient was treated by mechanical ventilation and vasoactive/inotropic management and discharged at the fifth day of hospitalization without any sequela. Having high EVLWI with high PVPI suggest that the pulmonary edema mechanism may also be caused by alveolocapillary membrane damage, which is not accompanied by heart failure alone. This case is presented to show that it is the first child in the literature and that the results of transpulmonary thermodilution can also give information about lung function as well as cardiac function.

  7. Community socioeconomic status and public access defibrillators: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Sang Do; Park, Yong Joo; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, Eui Jung; Lee, Kyoung Won; Lee, Yu Jin

    2017-11-01

    Although current guidelines recommend that distribution of public-access defibrillators (PADs) should take into account area-level risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), community socioeconomic status (SES) can unduly influence policy implementation in positioning PADs. Using recent, complete data from Seoul Metropolitan City, Korea, this study aims to examine whether community SES is associated with distribution of PADs, in terms of per capita count and risk-grid coverage. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using three sources of administrative data: (1) PAD registry data (2007-2015), (2) OHCA database (2010-2014), and (3) community socioeconomic characteristics of two sub-city levels (neighborhoods nested in districts). We examined the relationship between neighborhood per capita tax, an SES proxy, with each of the two outcome variables. After examining per capita number of PADs and risk-grid coverage by neighborhood tax quartile, multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted to account for the nested nature of data and also to control for OHCA risk in the model. A total of 6609 PADs in 405 neighborhoods were included in the analysis. The average number of positioned PADs per 10,000 persons was 7.45, showing a gradient by neighborhood SES (4.92 in the lowest SES quartile vs 12.66 in the highest). Risk-grid coverage was around 10% across all neighborhood SES quartiles. These findings remained valid in the multilevel analysis: per capita number of PADs was still positively associated with neighborhood SES, while risk-grid coverage of PADs was not. More affluent neighborhoods in Seoul exhibit higher per capita PADs, even accounting for OHCA risk, while risk-grid coverage is generally low regardless of community SES. Seoul's ongoing program aimed to increase PAD coverage should also pay attention to improving community-level inequality as well as distributional efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death through a wearable cardioverter-defibrillator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Domenico; Benvenuto, Manuela; Baroni, Matteo; Oliva, Fabrizio; Capucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is the gold standard for the prevention of sudden cardiac death due to tachyarrhythmias. However, its use is not free from short and long-term risks. In the last years, the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) has become a widespread option for patients who need a safe and reversible protection against ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Notwithstanding this, its everyday application is restricted by several limitations, including the risk of inappropriate shocks, the device size and the need for strict compliance of both patients and caregivers. In this review, we report the most relevant literature data on WCD usage along with the main fields of applications and future perspectives.

  9. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in paediatric practice: a single-centre UK experience with focus on subcutaneous defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griksaitis, Michael J; Rosengarten, James A; Gnanapragasam, James P; Haw, Marcus P; Morgan, John M

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk can be managed by implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Defibrillation shocks can be delivered via ICD generator and/or intracardiac or subcutaneous coil configurations. We present our single-centre use of childhood ICDs. Twenty-three patients had ICD implantation, with median age and weight of 12.96 years and 41.35 kg. Indications included eight long QT; four hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; three Brugada syndrome; two idiopathic ventricular fibrillation; two post-congenital heart repair; two family history of SCD with abnormal repolarization; one catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; and one left ventricle non-compaction. Twelve had out of hospital cardiac arrests prior to implantation. Techniques included 13 conventional ICD implants (pre-pectoral device with endocardial leads), 7 with subcutaneous defibrillation coils (sensing via epicardial or endocardial leads tunnelled to the ICD), and 3 with exclusive subcutaneous ICD (sensing and defibrillation via the same subcutaneous lead). Satisfactory defibrillation efficacy and ventricular arrhythmia sensing was confirmed at implantation. Follow-up ranged from 0.17 to 11.08 years. One child died with the ICD in situ. Ten children received appropriate shocks; five on more than one occasion. Five received inappropriate shocks (for inappropriate recognition of sinus tachycardia or supraventricular tachycardia). Five children underwent six further interventions; all had intracardiac leads. Innovative shock delivery systems can be used in children requiring an ICD. The insertion technique and device used need to accommodate the age and weight of the child, and concomitant need for pacing therapy. We have demonstrated effective defibrillation with shocks delivered via configurations employing subcutaneous coils in children.

  10. Electrocardiographic evaluation of defibrillation shocks delivered to out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliner, B E; White, R D

    1999-07-01

    Following out-of-hospital defibrillation attempts, electrocardiographic instability challenges accurate assessment of defibrillation efficacy and post-shock rhythm. Presently, there is no precise definition of defibrillation efficacy in the out-of-hospital setting that is consistently used. The objective of this study was to characterize out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rhythms following low-energy biphasic and high-energy monophasic shocks in order to precisely define defibrillation efficacy and establish uniform criteria for the evaluation of shock performance. Automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) delivering 150 J impedance-compensating biphasic or 200-360 J monophasic damped sine waveform shocks were observed in a combined police and paramedic program. ECGs from 29 biphasic patients and 87 monophasic patients were classified as organized, asystole or VF at post-shock times of 3, 5, 10, 20 and 60 s. Post-shock time (Pcardiac disease. Defibrillation should uniformly be defined as termination of VF for a minimum of 5-s after shock delivery. Rhythms should be reported at 5-s after shock delivery to assess early effects of the defibrillation shock and at 60-s after shock delivery to assess the interaction of the defibrillation therapy and factors such as post-shock myocardial dysfunction and the patient's underlying cardiac disease.

  11. A Comparative Study of Defibrillator Leads at a Large-Volume Implanting Hospital: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Todd J; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Patel, Dhimesh

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine survival in the implantable defibrillator subset of implanted leads at a large-volume implanting hospital. Implantable lead survival has been the subject of many multicenter studies over the past decade. Fewer large implanting volume single-hospital studies have examined defibrillator lead failure as it relates to patient survival and lead construction. This investigator-initiated retrospective study examined defibrillator lead failure in those who underwent implantation of a defibrillator between February 1, 1996 and December 31, 2011. Lead failure was defined as: failure to capture/sense, abnormal pacing and/or defibrillator impedance, visual insulation defect or lead fracture, extracardiac stimulation, cardiac perforation, tricuspid valve entrapment, lead tip fracture and/or lead dislodgment. Patient characteristics, implant approach, lead manufacturers, lead models, recalled status, patient mortality, and core lead design elements were compared using methods that include Kaplan Meier analysis, univariate and multivariable Cox regression models. A total of 4078 defibrillator leads were implanted in 3802 patients (74% male; n = 2812) with a mean age of 70 ± 13 years at Winthrop University Hospital. Lead manufacturers included: Medtronic: [n = 1834; 801 recalled]; St. Jude Medical: [n = 1707; 703 recalled]; Boston Scientific: [n = 537; 0 recalled]. Kaplan-Meier analysis adjusted for multiple comparisons revealed that both Boston Scientific's and St. Jude Medical's leads had better survival than Medtronic's leads (PLead survival was comparable between Boston Scientific and St. Jude Medical (P=.80). A total of 153 leads failed (3.5% of all leads) during the study. There were 99 lead failures from Medtronic (5.4% failure rate); 56 were recalled Sprint Fidelis leads. There were 36 lead failures from St. Jude (2.1% failure rate); 20 were recalled Riata or Riata ST leads. There were 18 lead failures from Boston Scientific (3

  12. Acute performance of a right ventricular automatic pacing threshold algorithm for implantable defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Michael R; Dong, Yanting; Greer, Steve; Giudici, Michael C; Haffajee, Charles I; Lowy, Jonathan; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2012-03-01

    Automatic pacing threshold (AT) testing with threshold trending and output adjustment may simplify follow-up and improve cardiac rhythm device longevity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new right ventricular (RV) AT algorithm for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) using RVcoil to Can evoked response sensing. Patients undergoing ICD, with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy device, implant, replacement, or upgrade were enrolled. A pulse generator emulator (Can) was temporarily placed in the device pocket. An external pacing system (Boston Scientific, St. Paul, MN, USA) with customized software was used for performing threshold tests and data acquisition. RV manual threshold and up to four AT tests using various pacing parameters were conducted. The threshold measurement and the capture detection performance of the RV AT tests were evaluated through comparison with visual examination of surface electrocardiogram. Data from 43 patients were analyzed. A total of 158 AT tests were performed, in which 144 AT tests (91.1%) measured correct threshold values. No consecutive asystolic noncaptured beats were observed in any AT tests, and none of the AT tests resulted in incorrectly low threshold measurements. The difference between manual and AT measurements was -0.05 ± 0.43 V. The accuracy for detecting capture and noncaptured beats were 95% and 99%, respectively. The RVcoil to Can evoked response sensing based RV AT algorithm can reliably measure pacing threshold for ICDs, including CRT-Ds. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hvor er den automatiske eksterne defibrillator? Udvikling og uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Grove, Erik; Krarup, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has presented a universal sign to indicate the presence of automated external defibrillators (AED). To disseminate the knowledge of this important signage, a review in a Danish context is presented. It is essential that the public in general...

  14. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation without using fluoroscopy in a pregnant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Volkan; Kilinc, Orhan U

    2012-09-01

    Conventional lead implantation requires fluoroscopic guidance. This may be problematic in certain patient groups such as pregnant patients. We report a case of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation without fluoroscopy in a pregnant patient. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Massive thrombi on an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead in a patient with the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Waqas; Chambers, John B; Hunt, Beverley J; Blauth, Christopher; Rinaldi, Christopher A

    2011-08-01

    A patient with the antiphospholipid syndrome, who was suboptimally anticoagulated, presented with two large thrombi attached to her implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead. Anticoagulation was unsuccessful so, in view of the risk from embolization, the system was removed surgically and an epicardial system implanted to reduce the risk of future device-related thrombosis.

  16. Cardiac Arrest During Medically-Supervised Exercise Training: A Report of Fifteen Successful Defibrillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyfer, Howard R.; And Others

    The Cardio-Pulmonary Research Institute conducted an exercise program for men with a history of coronary heart disease. Over 7 years, there were 15 cases of cardiac arrest during exercise (one for every 6,000 man-hours of exercise). Trained medical personnel were present in all cases, and all were resuscitated by electrical defibrillation with no…

  17. Dual defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliot M; Redman, Theodore T; Harper, Stephen A; Mapp, Julian G; Wampler, David A; Miramontes, David A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of our study is to determine if prehospital dual defibrillation (DD) is associated with better neurologically intact survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of prospectively collected Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement data from a large urban fire based EMS system out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) database between Jan 2013 and Dec 2015. Our inclusion criteria were administration of DD or at least four conventional 200J defibrillations for cases of recurrent and refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF). We excluded any case with incomplete data. The primary outcome for our study was neurologically intact survival (defined as Cerebral Performance Category 1 and 2). A total of 3470 cases of OHCA were treated during the time period of Jan 2013 to Dec 2015. There were 302 cases of recurrent and refractory VF identified. Twenty-three cases had incomplete data. Of the remaining 279 cases, 50 were treated with DD and 229 received standard single shock 200J defibrillations. There was no statistically significant difference in the primary outcome of neurologically intact survival between the DD group (6%) and the standard defibrillation group (11.4%) (p=0.317) (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.15-1.72). Our retrospective cohort analysis on the prehospital use of DD in OHCA found no association with neurologically intact survival. Case-control studies are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of DD in the prehospital setting. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. 21 CFR 870.5325 - Defibrillator tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defibrillator tester. 870.5325 Section 870.5325...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Therapeutic Devices § 870.5325 Defibrillator tester. (a) Identification. A defibrillator tester is a device that is connected to the output of a...

  19. Successful use of wearable cardioverter defibrillator in a patient with dextrocardia and persistent left superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chingping; Oren, Jess W; Szymkiewicz, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Congenital disorders, such as dextrocardia and persistent left superior vena cava, are rare. However, their presence is often associated with other cardiac anomalies, and may lead to lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which result in sudden cardiac death. Treating patients with these disorders can present a challenge to clinicians, as it may cause technical difficulties during interventional procedures, and more often, altered defibrillation techniques in a setting of prehospital sudden cardiac arrest. This report describes the first case of successful defibrillation therapy delivered by the wearable cardioverter defibrillator to a patient with dextrocardia and persistent left superior vena cava during a ventricular tachycardia arrest. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Experiences of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator in Turkey: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been an increase in the number of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD. It isimportant to understand ICD patients’ experiences with it.Aim. The aim of this study was to describe experiences of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD.Methodology. A qualitative approach was used. Focus group interviews were used to obtain data from 19 patients whowere implanted cardioverter defibrillator at two centers in Izmir, Turkey. The patients were assigned into four groups. Thedata was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results. The analysis revealed six main themes: activities of daily living, social life, familial relationships, emotionalchanges, implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks and experiences with receiving information and counselling fromhealth care providers.Conclusions. It can be concluded that patients with ICD experience physical and psychological problems and are not offeredthe education they need. To reduce the fears of the patients and their families and to prepare them for possible life stylechanges, comprehensive training programs that start in the pre-implantation period and continue into the post-implantationperiod should be organized.

  1. del Nido versus St. Thomas Cardioplegia Solutions: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis of Post Cross-Clamp Defibrillation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buel, Shane T; Striker, Carrie Whittaker; O'Brien, James E

    2016-06-01

    There are many cardioplegia solutions currently in use for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The most common being del Nido solution. Another common cardioplegia solution used for pediatric CPB is St. Thomas. In October 2014, Children's Mercy Kansas City changed from the use of modified St. Thomas to del Nido. This study compared rates of post cross-clamp fibrillation requiring defibrillation between del Nido solution and modified St. Thomas solution stratified by weight at Children's Mercy Kansas City. This retrospective study consisted of 394 patients who underwent cardiac surgery requiring cardioplegia between January 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015. The outcome measured was defibrillation upon cross-clamp removal. Statistical significance was determined using Fishers exact test with a two-sided significance level of .05. Incidence of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal was 4.4% in the del Nido group and 26.8% in the St. Thomas group (p defibrillation rates in groups using the del Nido solution. The 0- to 6-kg category had an incidence of fibrillation of 1.23% in the del Nido group and 17.5% in the St. Thomas group (p defibrillation of 1.82% in the del Nido group and 14% in the St. Thomas group (p defibrillation of 8.9% in the del Nido group and 61% in the St. Thomas group (p 60-kg category had an incidence of defibrillation of 16.7% in the del Nido group and 63% in the St. Thomas group (p defibrillation post cross-clamp removal between St. Thomas and del Nido cardioplegia solutions. Analyses of weight stratifications demonstrate a decrease in the rate of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal in all categories within the del Nido group.

  2. The role of bystanders, first responders, and emergency medical service providers in timely defibrillation and related outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Results from a statewide registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Kragholm, Kristian; Granger, Christopher B; Pearson, David A; Tyson, Clark; Monk, Lisa; Corbett, Claire; Nelson, R Darrell; Dupre, Matthew E; Fosbøl, Emil L; Strauss, Benjamin; Fordyce, Christopher B; McNally, Bryan; Jollis, James G

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation by bystanders and first responders has been associated with increased survival, but limited data are available from non-metropolitan areas. We examined time from 911-call to defibrillation (according to who defibrillated patients) and survival in North Carolina. Through the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, we identified 1732 defibrillated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from counties with complete case capture (population 2.7 million) from 2010 to 2013. Most patients (60.9%) were defibrillated in > 10 min. A minority (8.0%) was defibrillated defibrillated by first responders (51.8%) and bystanders (33.1%), independent of location of arrest (residential or public). Bystanders initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in 49.0% of cases and defibrillated 13.4% of those. Survival decreased with increasing time to defibrillation ( 10 min: 13.2%). Odds of survival with favorable neurologic outcome adjusted for age, sex, and bystander CPR improved with faster defibrillation ( 10 min: reference). Bystanders and first responders were mainly responsible for defibrillation within 5 min, independent of location of arrest. Bystanders initiated CPR in half of the cardiac arrest cases but only defibrillated a minority of those. Timely defibrillation and defibrillation by bystanders and/or first responders were strongly associated with increased survival. Strategic efforts to increase bystander and first-responder defibrillation are warranted to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pseudodefects in SPET myocardium imaging after placement of a defibrillator patch electrode; Pseudodefekte bei der Myokard-SPECT durch implantierte Defibrillator-Patches: Phantommessungen mit SPECT und PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin der Radiologischen Klinik; Rickers, C. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Kardiologie der Klinik fuer Innere Medizin; Fuchs, C. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin der Radiologischen Klinik; Nienaber, C.A. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Kardiologie der Klinik fuer Innere Medizin; Luebeck, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin der Radiologischen Klinik

    1996-12-01

    Aim and Methods: In order to estimate the effect of an epicardial or subcutan defibrillator patch electrode on the imaging of myocardium with SPET and PET we performed measurements with a body phantom and two different patch electrodes. Results: We found that in {sup 201}Tl-SPET with epicardial placing one electrode causes significant pseudodefects, which might lead to the impression of an infarction (`pseudoinfarction`), particularly in the case of reduced myocardial wall thickness. Measurements with {sup 99m}Tc show the same pseudodefects. In case of subcutaneous placing the electrodes are much less likely to cause relevant absorption effects. With PET even epicardially placed both patch electrodes do not produce pseudodefects. Therefore the risk of false-positive findings is very small with PET. Conclusion: In order to avoid false positive findings in cardiovascular nuclear medicine caused by defibrillator patch electrodes, patients with patch electrodes should be referred to PET, if available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel und Methoden: Um den Effekt eines epikardial oder subkutan implantierten Defibrillator-Patches bei der nuklearmedizinischen Herzdiagnostik mittels SPECT und PET abzuschaetzen, wurden Messungen an einem Koerperphantom mit zwei verschiedenen Patchelektroden durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Es zeigte sich, dass bei der {sup 201}Tl-SPECT bei epikardialer Plazierung eine der beiden Elektroden Pseudodefekte verursacht, die insbesondere im Falle duennwandiger Herzen die Beurteilung erschweren oder sogar zu falsch-positiven Befunden (`Pseudoinfarkte`) fuehren koennen. Bei Messungen mit {sup 99m}Tc findet man dieselben Pseudodefekte in nahezu gleicher Auspraegung. Im Falle subkutaner Plazierung sind beide Elektroden sowohl bei der {sup 201}Tl-SPECT als auch bei der {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT unkritisch. Bei der PET stellen die untersuchten Patchelektroden selbst bei epikardialer Plazierung keine erkennbare Stoerung dar, so dass hier die Gefahr eines falsch

  4. Riata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead failure: analysis of explanted leads with a unique insulation defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Robert G; McGriff, Deepa; Retel, Linda Kallinen

    2012-05-01

    The Riata family of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads (St Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA) appears prone to a unique failure mechanism whereby the conductor cables wear through the silicone insulation from inside-out and are seen outside the lead body (externalized conductors). To assess the extent of Riata lead damage associated with inside-out insulation defects and their clinical consequences. In September 2011, we searched the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturers and User Defined Experience medical device database for reports describing Riata lead failures that had been analyzed by the manufacturer. The Manufacturers and User Defined Experience search identified 105 leads that had inside-out insulation defects. Eight-French single-coil Riata leads accounted for a higher-than-expected proportion (25.7%) of the leads with this defect. A total of 226 insulation defects were found in the 105 leads (2.2 defects per lead), including 143 inside-out defects (1.4 defects per lead). The most common location of insulation defects was distal to the proximal coil (n = 108). Twenty-eight leads (26.7%) had inside-out insulation defects underneath the shocking coils. Of 43 leads whose cables were assessed for the integrity of the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene cable coating, 22 (51.2%) were found to be abraded, exposing the conductor surfaces. On X-ray radiography or fluoroscopy, 7 leads were found to have externalized cables; 2 of these leads had no electrical abnormalities, while 4 exhibited noise or increased impedance. Inappropriate shocks were experienced by 31 of the 105 patients (29.5%). Riata leads that have inside-out insulation defects often have multiple defects, including additional inside-out abrasions along the body of the lead and beneath the shocking coils. Eight-French single-coil Riata models may be more prone to externalized cables than are dual-coil and 7-F designs. Externalized cables are but one manifestation of interior insulation damage

  5. The Gurvich waveform has lower defibrillation threshold than the rectilinear waveform and the truncated exponential waveform in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fujian; Zarubin, Fidel; Wollenzier, Brian; Nikolski, Vladimir P; Efimov, Igor R

    2005-02-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator studies have established the superiority of biphasic waveforms over monophasic waveforms. However, external defibrillator studies of biphasic waveforms are not as widespread. Our objective was to compare the defibrillation efficacy of clinically used biphasic waveforms, i.e., truncated exponential, rectilinear, and quasi-sinusoidal (Gurvich) waveforms in a fibrillating heart model. Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 10) were stained with a voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS. Transmembrane action potentials were optically mapped from the anterior epicardium. We found that the Gurvich waveform was significantly superior (p truncated exponential waveforms. The defibrillation thresholds (mean +/- SE) were as follows: Gurvich, 0.25 +/- 0.01 J; rectilinear-1, 0.34 +/- 0.01 J; rectilinear-2, 0.33 +/- 0.01 J; and truncated exponential, 0.32 +/- 0.02 J. Using optically recorded transmembrane responses, we determined the shock-response transfer function, which allowed us to predict the cellular response to waveforms at high accuracy. The passive parallel resistor-capacitor model (RC-model) predicted polarization superiority of the Gurvich waveform in the myocardium with a membrane time constant (taum) of less than 2 ms. The finding of a lower defibrillation threshold with the Gurvich waveform in an in vitro model of external defibrillation suggests that the Gurvich waveform may be important for future external defibrillator designs.

  6. [Semi-automatic defibrillators does not always interpret heart rhythms correctly. Five patients were defibrillated despite non-shockable rhythms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenheim, Burkard; Israelsson, Johan; Lindstaedt, Michael; Carlsson, Jörg

    2015-08-04

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have become an important part of the »the chain of survival« in case of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), where early defibrillation is lifesaving. The American Heart Association demands that AEDs have a specificity of >99 % to recognize normal sinus rhythm and >95 % for the other non-shockable rhythms. Reports on their performance in the field are scarce. We present five cases in which AED recommended shock for apparently non-shockable rhythms. This indicates the necessity to systematically reevaluate AED performance.

  7. Low-energy multistage atrial defibrillation therapy terminates atrial fibrillation with less energy than a single shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H; Fedorov, Vadim V; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B; Efimov, Igor R

    2011-12-01

    Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multistage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of 3 stages: stage (ST) 1 (1-4 low-energy biphasic [BP] shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultralow-energy monophasic [MP] shocks), and ST3 (antitachycardia pacing). First, ST1 testing compared single or multiple MP and BP shocks. Second, several multistage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Third, 3 shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus, proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage, and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage. The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1 BP shock was defibrillation at or below the pain threshold.

  8. Ressuscitação cardiopulmonar com a utilização do desfibrilador externo semi-automático: avaliação do processo ensino-aprendizagem Resucitador cardiopulmonar con utilización del disfibrilador externo semiautomático: evaluación del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with semi-automated external defibrillator: assessment of the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Kazue Miyadahira

    2008-09-01

    that, for every minute delayed on defibrillating a heart arrest patient, survival chances decrease by 10%, and that the same chances of survival are 98% effective when it is employed within 30 seconds. While attending a heart arrest patient, it is crucial that the use of external semi-automated defibrillator (AED is included in the training. The purpose of the present study is to compare Psychomotor Ability and the Theoretical Knowledge of lay people on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR using AED, before and after training. This sample was composed of 40 administrative workers of a public institution that were trained on CPR technique using EAD, as an experiment. The significantly higher scores in the assessment instrument items of Psychomotor Ability and Theoretical Knowledge, after training, indicates that the participants have presented improvements in their performances.

  9. Modelling transthoracic defibrillation waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, V; Cansell, A; Daskalov, I

    2000-01-01

    Recent investigations connected with implantable defibrillators yielded new data on heart electrophysiology, resulting in reassessment of existing and advancing of new types of electrical impulses. Different electrical equivalent circuits were proposed for modelling intracardiac and transthoracic defibrillation pulse waveforms, comprising generator, electrode interface and tissue resistances. We attempted modelling of the transmembrane voltage Vm time course, induced by different applied voltage Vs waveforms, taking into account only the shapes and the relative Vs and Vm amplitudes. The excitable cell membrane impedance Zm was modelled with higher resistance and lower capacitance, so that a shunting effect on the generator and tissue resistances was avoided. The result was a very simple equivalent circuit. We proposed criteria for efficient defibrillation pulse waveforms yielding a straightforward approach to model existing and new pulses and to assess their efficiency.

  10. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ1) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ1/λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ1/4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  11. Retrospective evaluation of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihua; Yin, Changlin; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Quan, Weilun; Tan, Qing; Freeman, Gary; Li, Yongqin

    2013-05-01

    Transthoracic impedance (TTI) is a principal parameter that influences the intracardiac current flow and defibrillation outcome. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the performance of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. ECG recordings, along with TTI measurements were collected from multiple emergency medical services (EMSs) in the USA. All the EMSs in this study used automated external defibrillators (AEDs) which employing rectilinear biphasic (RLB) waveform. The distribution and change of TTI between successive shocks, the influence of preceding shock results on the subsequent shock outcome, and the performance of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation was evaluated. A total of 1166 shocks from 594 OHCA victims were examined in this study. The average TTI for the 1st shock was 134.8 Ω and a significant decrease in TTI was observed for the 2nd (pdefibrillation success. The success rate remained unchanged over the whole spectrum of TTI. The average TTI was relatively higher in this OHCA population treated with RLB defibrillation as compared with previously reported data. TTI was significantly decreased after 1st and 2nd successive escalating shock but kept constant after the 3rd shock. Preceding shock success was a better predictor of subsequent defibrillation outcome other than TTI. Current-based impedance compensation defibrillation resulted in equivalent success rate for high impedance patients when compared with those of low impedance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of interference between small bowel capsule endoscopy and implantable cardiac defibrillators: an 'in vivo' electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneghini, Dario; Lipari, Alessandro; Missale, Guido; Minelli, Luigi; Cengia, Gianpaolo; Bontempi, Luca; Curnis, Antonio; Cestari, Renzo

    2016-04-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a widely performed procedure for small bowel investigation. Once swallowed by the patient, the capsule transmits images to an external recorder over a digital radiofrequency communication channel. Potential electromagnetic interferences with implantable cardiac devices have been postulated. Clinical studies on the safety of capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac defibrillators are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess potential mutual electromagnetic interferences between capsule and defibrillators. This study used the Given M2A video capsule system. Ten different types of defibrillators were tested in a clinical setting. Before capsule ingestion, defibrillator electrical therapies were switched off. During capsule endoscopy patients were monitored with cardiac telemetry. At the end of capsule endoscopy the following defibrillator's parameters were analysed: change in device settings; inappropriate shocks; inappropriate anti-tachycardia therapy; inappropriate sensing or pacing; noise detection; device reset; programming changes; permanent electrical damages. Any technical problem related to capsule image transmission was recorded. Neither defibrillator malfunction nor interference in sensing or pacing was recorded; conversely, no capsule malfunction potentially caused by defibrillators was registered. Our results suggest that capsule endoscopy can be safely performed in patients with cardiac defibrillators.

  13. Wearable cardioverter defibrillator: A life vest till the life boat (ICD arrives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD is a life saving device ensuring protection against life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. But there are certain situations like a recent myocardial infarction where the standard guidelines do not recommend the implantation of an ICD while the patient can still be at a risk of demise due to a life threatening ventricular arrhythmia. There could also be a temporary indication for protection while explanting an infected ICD system. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD is a device which comes to the rescue in such situations. In this brief review, we discuss the historical aspects of the development of a WCD, technical aspects as well as the clinical trial data and real world scenario of its use.

  14. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction in Denmark in the years 2001-2012, a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Matilde; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Lassen, Jens F

    2017-01-01

    years surviving to discharge without prior implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Information on cardioverter defibrillator implantation was obtained from the National Patient Registry. RESULTS: We identified 974 myocardial infarction-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients surviving to hospital...... discharge, 130 of these patients (13%) had a cardioverter defibrillator implanted early (⩽40 days post-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest), 58 patients (6%) had late implantable cardioverter defibrillator (41-365 days post-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest). Odds of implantable cardioverter defibrillator......AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by myocardial infarction in Denmark 2001-2012 and subsequent survival. METHODS: The Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry was used to identify patients ⩾18...

  15. Does device-based testing save time during automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anoop K; Khasnis, Atul; Thakur, Ranjan K; Lokhandwala, Yash

    2004-01-01

    Defibrillation testing can be done either via an external cardiac defibrillator or directly via the implanted defibrillator during implantation (device-based testing). The advantage of one testing methodology over the other has not been adequately studied. Seventy-four patients (72% men) were randomized into two groups depending on the defibrillation testing methodology used--external cardiac defibrillation and device-based testing groups. R-wave, pacing threshold, pacing impedance, defibrillation threshold, defibrillation pathway impedance and total procedure time were not significantly different between the two groups. Device-based testing did not significantly reduce the procedure time. Lead and defibrillation parameters were similar in both the groups; lead repositioning and replacement were required in three patients in the external cardiac defibrillation group.

  16. A new approach towards defibrillation electrodes: highly conductive isotropic carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, E; Theres, H; Heinz, M; Albrecht, K; Georg, H; Bloemer, H

    1991-11-01

    A new carbon fiber material was studied for its potential benefit in defibrillation electrodes. Miniaturization of the fiber production can result in small strands with extremely large surface areas. Two carbon fiber patches and a single carbon fiber bundle were used for the purposes of this study, and the results were compared to those obtained with conventional titanium/mesh patch electrodes. Tests performed in a saline filled tank revealed considerably lower resistances through the carbon material when compared to standard mesh electrodes. There was also a higher peak current flow with lower voltage. The carbon fibers exhibited lower impedance for defibrillation and this may be related to low polarization known to occur with carbon materials. This new carbon material may prove to be useful and further research is required.

  17. A support vector machine for predicting defibrillation outcomes from waveform metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Andrew; Escalona, Omar J; Di Maio, Rebecca; Massot, Bertrand; Cromie, Nick A; Darragh, Karen M; Adgey, Jennifer; McEneaney, David J

    2014-03-01

    Algorithms to predict shock success based on VF waveform metrics could significantly enhance resuscitation by optimising the timing of defibrillation. To investigate robust methods of predicting defibrillation success in VF cardiac arrest patients, by using a support vector machine (SVM) optimisation approach. Frequency-domain (AMSA, dominant frequency and median frequency) and time-domain (slope and RMS amplitude) VF waveform metrics were calculated in a 4.1Y window prior to defibrillation. Conventional prediction test validity of each waveform parameter was conducted and used AUC>0.6 as the criterion for inclusion as a corroborative attribute processed by the SVM classification model. The latter used a Gaussian radial-basis-function (RBF) kernel and the error penalty factor C was fixed to 1. A two-fold cross-validation resampling technique was employed. A total of 41 patients had 115 defibrillation instances. AMSA, slope and RMS waveform metrics performed test validation with AUC>0.6 for predicting termination of VF and return-to-organised rhythm. Predictive accuracy of the optimised SVM design for termination of VF was 81.9% (± 1.24 SD); positive and negative predictivity were respectively 84.3% (± 1.98 SD) and 77.4% (± 1.24 SD); sensitivity and specificity were 87.6% (± 2.69 SD) and 71.6% (± 9.38 SD) respectively. AMSA, slope and RMS were the best VF waveform frequency-time parameters predictors of termination of VF according to test validity assessment. This a priori can be used for a simplified SVM optimised design that combines the predictive attributes of these VF waveform metrics for improved prediction accuracy and generalisation performance without requiring the definition of any threshold value on waveform metrics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Public-Access Defibrillation and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Sakai, Tomohiko; Matsuyama, Tasuku; Hatakeyama, Toshihiro; Shimamoto, Tomonari; Izawa, Junichi; Fujii, Tomoko; Nishiyama, Chika; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku

    2016-10-27

    Early defibrillation plays a key role in improving survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests due to ventricular fibrillation (ventricular-fibrillation cardiac arrests), and the use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can help to reduce the time to defibrillation for such patients. However, the effect of dissemination of public-access AEDs for ventricular-fibrillation cardiac arrest at the population level has not been extensively investigated. From a nationwide, prospective, population-based registry of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Japan, we identified patients from 2005 through 2013 with bystander-witnessed ventricular-fibrillation arrests of presumed cardiac origin in whom resuscitation was attempted. The primary outcome measure was survival at 1 month with a favorable neurologic outcome (Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2, on a scale from 1 [good cerebral performance] to 5 [death or brain death]). The number of patients in whom survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was attributable to public-access defibrillation was estimated. Of 43,762 patients with bystander-witnessed ventricular-fibrillation arrests of cardiac origin, 4499 (10.3%) received public-access defibrillation. The percentage of patients receiving public-access defibrillation increased from 1.1% in 2005 to 16.5% in 2013 (PThe percentage of patients who were alive at 1 month with a favorable neurologic outcome was significantly higher with public-access defibrillation than without public-access defibrillation (38.5% vs. 18.2%; adjusted odds ratio after propensity-score matching, 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.80 to 2.19). The estimated number of survivors in whom survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was attributed to public-access defibrillation increased from 6 in 2005 to 201 in 2013 (Pbystanders was associated with an increase in the number of survivors with a favorable neurologic outcome after out

  19. Wearable defibrillator use in heart failure (WIF: results of a prospective registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Andrew C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure (HF patients have a high risk of death, and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs are effective in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD. However, a certain percentage of patients may not be immediate candidates for ICDs, particularly those having a short duration of risk or an uncertain amount of risk. This includes the newly diagnosed patients, as well as those on the cardiac transplant list or NYHA class IV heart failure patients who do not already have an ICD. In these patients, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD may be used until long term risk of SCD is defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of SCD in this population, and the efficacy of early defibrillation by a WCD. Methods Ten enrolling centers identified 89 eligible HF patients who were either listed for cardiac transplantation, diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, or receiving inotropic medications. Data collected included medical history, device records, and outcomes (including 90 day mortality. Results Out of 89 patients, final data on 82 patients has been collected. Patients wore the device for 75±58 days. Mean age was 56.8±13.2, and 72% were male. Most patients (98.8% were diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy with a low ejection fraction ( Conclusions In conclusion, the WCD monitored HF patients until further assessment of risk. The leading reasons for end of WCD use were improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF or ICD implantation if there was no significant improvement in LVEF.

  20. Current trends in use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker or defibrillator in Japanese pediatric patients: results from a nationwide questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tsugutoshi; Sumitomo, Naokata; Yoshimoto, Jun; Miyazaki, Aya; Hinokiyama, Kazuhiro; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), cardiac resynchronization therapy with a biventricular pacemaker (CRTP) and CRT with a defibrillator (CRTD) in children has not been studied statistically, and dual-chamber (DDD) pacemakers are still used for pediatric CRT because of current government regulations. Data were obtained from 15 children's and 74 general hospitals through a questionnaire survey regarding the aforementioned therapies performed before 2012 in Japanese children (<16 years old). ICD, CRT with DDD, CRTP and CRTD were used in 64 (42%), 47 (31%), 34 (22%) and 7 (5%), respectively, of all cases reported (n=152). Among all CRTP and CRT-DDD cases (n=81), the use of DDD accounted for 41% in general hospitals vs. 89% in children's hospitals, and CRT-DDD and CRTP were effective in 67 cases (83%). Of 64 ICD cases, appropriate shocks were experienced in 28 cases (44%), and inappropriate shocks in 19 cases (29%). Additionally, data from the Japan Arrhythmia Device Industry Association obtained for overall device usage analysis revealed that CRTP was more commonly used in children than in adults. There is an increasing need for pediatric device therapy, especially CRTP. However, many children's hospitals were still using DDD pacemakers in 2012. Although the demand for device therapy in children may be small, it is indispensable in pediatric cardiology.

  1. Prearrest hypothermia improved defibrillation and cardiac function in a rabbit ventricular fibrillation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Hu, Chun-lin; Wang, Zhen-Ping; Li, Yin-Ping; Qin, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Hypothermia when cardiopulmonary resuscitation begins may help achieve defibrillation and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), but few data are available. The objective of this study was to determine whether prearrest hypothermia improved defibrillation and cardiac function in a rabbit ventricular fibrillation (VF) model. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were randomized equally to receive normothermia (Norm) (~39°C), post-ROSC hypothermia (~33°C), or prearrest hypothermia (~33°C). Ventricular fibrillation was induced by alternating current. After 4 minutes of VF, rabbits were defibrillated and given cardiopulmonary resuscitation until ROSC or no response (≥30 minutes). Hemodynamics and electrocardiogram were monitored; N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptideand troponin I were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Myocardial histology and echocardiographic data were evaluated. First-shock achievement of perfusion rhythm was more frequent in prearrest than normothermic animals (7/12 vs 1/12; P=.027). After ROSC, dp/dtmax was higher in prearrest than normothermic animals (Pdefibrillation and facilitating resuscitation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Living with life insurance: a qualitative analysis of the experience of male implantable defibrillator recipients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Losa Iglesias, Marta E; Losa, Marta E; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Salvadores-Fuentes, Paloma

    2011-07-01

    The implantation of defibrillators should not be studied simply on the basis of clinical improvement or quality of life: it is also important to understand the significance, which the recipients attach to the defibrillator and their experiences with it. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine the experience of Spanish implantable defibrillator recipients. A qualitative phenomenological study. Purposeful sampling of male implantable defibrillator recipients older than 18 years of age attended at the defibrillator consultancy at the Hospital Fuenlabrada or belonging to the Heart Patients' Association (Asociación de Pacientes Coronarios, APACOR). A secondary, theoretical sampling was also carried out to gain a more in-depth understanding of certain aspects identified in the first sampling, such as living with the discharges and difficulties during sexual activity. Data were collected using unstructured and semi-structured questionnaires and applying a question guide, field notes and the recipients' personal diaries/letters. Data collection was terminated once theoretical saturation was reached. Data were analysed using the Giorgi method. Finally, the seven themes, which showed what it means to be an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipient, were described. The defibrillator is perceived positively and is considered to be a form of life insurance, whereas the discharges are a limiting factor. The recipient's outlook on life changes. Acceptance of the changes resulting from the implant leads to the development of strategies to facilitate everyday life. An understanding of the significance attached by recipients to their disease, diagnosis and treatment allows their behaviour and expectations to be understood. Provide the basis for nursing assessment after discharge, understand the effects of the device in the recipient and track the process of adapting the recipient to daily life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Nationwide Fluoroscopic Screening of Recalled Riata Defibrillator Leads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Mosgaard; Riahi, Sam; Nielsen, Jens C.

    2013-01-01

    The natural history of insulation defects with inside-out conductor externalization in recalled St Jude Medical Riata defibrillator leads is not well understood.......The natural history of insulation defects with inside-out conductor externalization in recalled St Jude Medical Riata defibrillator leads is not well understood....

  4. [Low energy transcatheter atrial defibrillation in one patient with refractory atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, R; Morris, R; Llancaqueo, M; Lopetegui, M; Marín, G; Morales, P

    1998-03-01

    Most cases of atrial fibrillation are converted with antiarrhythmic medications or external electric defibrillation. However, in some refractory patients, an internal transcatheter defibrillation must be attempted. We report a 50 years old male with an atrial fibrillation of one year duration that was refractory to pharmacological treatment and in whom external cardioversion was unsuccessful. After the application of a bifasic shock of 10 joules between a catheter in the right atrium and another one located at the coronary sinus, the patient was converted to sinus rhythm. At two months of follow up, the patient continues in sinus rhythm.

  5. Development of a hybrid battery system for an implantable biomedical device, especially a defibrillator/cardioverter (ICD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, J.; Wolf, R.; Fehrmann, G.; Staub, R. [Litronik GmbH und Co., Pirna (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    An implantable defibrillator battery has to provide pulse power capabilities as well as high energy density. Low self-discharge rates are mandatory and a way to check the remaining available capacity is necessary. These requirements are accomplished by a system consisting of a lithium/manganese dioxide 6 V battery, plus a lithium/iodine-cell. The use of a high rate 6 V double-cell design in combination with a high energy density cell reduces the total volume required by the power source within an implantable defibrillator. The design features and performance data of the hybrid system are described. (orig.)

  6. Development of a hybrid battery system for an implantable biomedical device, especially a defibrillator/cardioverter (ICD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Jürgen; Wolf, R.; Fehrmann, G.; Staub, R.

    An implantable defibrillator battery has to provide pulse power capabilities as well as high energy density. Low self-discharge rates are mandatory and a way to check the remaining available capacity is necessary. These requirements are accomplished by a system consisting of a lithium/manganese dioxide 6 V battery, plus a lithium/iodine-cell. The use of a high rate 6 V double-cell design in combination with a high energy density cell reduces the total volume required by the power source within an implantable defibrillator. The design features and performance data of the hybrid system are described.

  7. Ensaio pré-clínico com desfibrilador externo = Pre-clinical trial with external defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, Amanda Assunção

    2014-01-01

    Conclusões: O desfibrilador protótipo, quando aplicado com energia 100 J, demonstrou maior eficácia na reversão da fibrilação ventricular e apresentou menor injúria que o desfibrilador de referência com a mesma energia. Este estudo ajudará a elevar o padrão tecnológico e a ampliar a oferta qualificada de equipamentos para a saúde produzidos no Brasil, substituindo e/ou diminuindo importações e oferecendo um dispositivo seguro de última geração

  8. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge and end-of-life device deactivation: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvedy, Samantha M; Cameron, Jan; Lugg, Eugene; Miller, Jennifer; Haedtke, Chris; Hammash, Muna; Biddle, Martha J; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Mariani, Justin A; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Chung, Misook Lee; Moser, Debra K

    2018-01-01

    End-of-life implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation discussions should commence before device implantation and be ongoing, yet many implantable cardioverter defibrillators remain active in patients' last days. To examine associations among implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge, patient characteristics and attitudes to implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. Cross-sectional survey using the Experiences, Attitudes and Knowledge of End-of-Life Issues in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients Questionnaire. Participants were classified as insufficient or sufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge and the two groups were compared. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients ( n = 270, mean age 61 ± 14 years; 73% male) were recruited from cardiology and implantable cardioverter defibrillator clinics attached to two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, and two in Kentucky, the United States. Participants with insufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge ( n = 77, 29%) were significantly older (mean age 66 vs 60 years, p = 0.001), less likely to be Caucasian (77% vs 87%, p  = 0.047), less likely to have received implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks (26% vs 40%, p = 0.031), and more likely to have indications of mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score trajectory. An interdisciplinary approach is required to ensure that discussions about implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation issues are initiated at appropriate time points, with family members ideally also included.

  9. Ensaio pré-clínico com desfibrilador externo = Pre-clinical trial with external defibrillator

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Amanda Assunção

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Avaliar a eficácia da desfibrilação em resposta à fibrilação ventricular induzida e descrever as mudanças macroscópicas ocorridas nos corações de suínos após choque de descarga capacitiva exponencial truncada aplicado por protótipo de desfibrilador produzido no Brasil e por um desfibrilador de referência, líder de mercado internacional Métodos: Dezesseis suínos foram agrupados em quatro grupos de quatro animais, para verificar a eficácia da desfibrilação em resposta à fibrilação...

  10. Biphasic truncated exponential waveform defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D; Blanton, D M

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents data from studies that have compared the efficacies of biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) and monophasic damped sine (MDS) waveform defibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in in-hospital defibrillation. When a shock is delivered, rhythms evolve rapidly in a variety of directions and take different courses, even over a short time. When defibrillation is defined as termination of ventricular fibrillation at 5 seconds postshock, whether to an organized rhythm or asystole, low-energy BTE shocks appear to be more effective than high-energy MDS shocks in out-of-hospital arrest. For future research, the terms associated with defibrillation should be standardized and used uniformly by all investi-gators. In particular, there should be an agreed-upon definition of shock efficacy.

  11. Totally Leadless Dual-Device Implantation for Combined Spontaneous Ventricular Tachycardia Defibrillation and Pacemaker Function: A First Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; Cunnington, Colin; Motwani, Manish; Zaidi, Amir Masood

    2017-08-01

    Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (S-ICDs) provide effective defibrillation, while also reducing the risk of long-term lead problems. However, S-ICDs do not offer bradycardia or antitachycardia pacing and therefore use has been limited. Combined implantation of an S-ICD with a leadless pacemaker (LP) has been proposed to overcome this limitation. Although a handful of combined S-ICD/LP implantations have been reported for Nanostim (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN) as well as Micra LP (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) systems, none have documented delivery of appropriate shock therapies for spontaneous ventricular tachycardia. We report the first case of effective defibrillation for spontaneous ventricular tachycardia in a patient with combined Micra LP and S-ICD. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wearable defibrillator use in heart failure (WIF): results of a prospective registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) patients have a high risk of death, and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, a certain percentage of patients may not be immediate candidates for ICDs, particularly those having a short duration of risk or an uncertain amount of risk. This includes the newly diagnosed patients, as well as those on the cardiac transplant list or NYHA class IV heart failure patients who do not already have an ICD. In these patients, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) may be used until long term risk of SCD is defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of SCD in this population, and the efficacy of early defibrillation by a WCD. Methods Ten enrolling centers identified 89 eligible HF patients who were either listed for cardiac transplantation, diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, or receiving inotropic medications. Data collected included medical history, device records, and outcomes (including 90 day mortality). Results Out of 89 patients, final data on 82 patients has been collected. Patients wore the device for 75±58 days. Mean age was 56.8±13.2, and 72% were male. Most patients (98.8%) were diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy with a low ejection fraction (<40%) and twelve were listed for cardiac transplantation. Four patients were on inotropes. There were no sudden cardiac arrests or deaths during the study. Interestingly, 41.5% of patients were much improved after WCD use, while 34.1% went on to receive an ICD. Conclusions In conclusion, the WCD monitored HF patients until further assessment of risk. The leading reasons for end of WCD use were improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or ICD implantation if there was no significant improvement in LVEF. PMID:23234574

  13. Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator magnet-mode switch induced by a laptop computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkaja, Maria; Aro, Aapo; Alanko, Tommi; Lindholm, Harri; Hietanen, Maila

    2012-06-01

    An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) experienced electromagnetic interference from a laptop computer's hard disk. The patient with the ICD was using his laptop computer at home while lying on his bed. The laptop was positioned on his chest, when he heard a beeping sound from the ICD, indicating magnet mode conversion. This situation was replicated in a controlled environment, and the conversion was found to be due to the static magnetic field produced by the laptop's hard disk. The ICD's conversion to magnet mode can be dangerous because it ends all tachyarrhythmia detections and therapies. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Patients With Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Fonarow, Gregg C; Joglar, Jose A; Inoue, Lurdes Y T; Mark, Daniel B; Lee, Kerry L; Kadish, Alan; Bardy, Gust; Sanders, Gillian D

    2017-06-01

    Conflicting data have emerged on the efficacy of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (primary prevention ICDs) in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. To investigate the association of primary prevention ICDs with all-cause mortality in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. PubMed was searched from January 1, 2000, through October 31, 2016, for the terms implantable defibrillator OR implantable cardioverter defibrillator AND non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Additional references were identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles and queries to experts in this field. Inclusion criteria consisted of a randomized clinical trial design and comparison of the ICD with medical therapy (control) in at least 100 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. In addition, studies had to report on all-cause mortality during a follow-up period of at least 12 months and be published in English. The search yielded 10 studies, of which only 1 met the inclusion criteria. A search of bibliographies of pertinent articles and queries of experts in this field led to 3 additional studies. The PRISMA guidelines were used to abstract data and assess data quality and validity. Data were pooled using fixed- and random-effects models. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Before data collection started, primary prevention ICDs were hypothesized to reduce all-cause mortality among patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Four randomized clinical trials met the selection criteria and included 1874 unique patients; 937 were in the ICD group and 937 in the control group. Pooling data from these trials showed a significant reduction in all-cause mortality with an ICD (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93; P = .008; P = .87 for heterogeneity). Primary prevention ICDs are efficacious at reducing all-cause mortality among patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. These findings support professional guidelines that

  15. Predict Defibrillation Outcome Using Stepping Increment of Poincare Plot for Out-of-Hospital Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yushun; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hehua; Li, Yongqin

    2015-01-01

    Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation together with early defibrillation is a key point in the chain of survival for cardiac arrest. Optimizing the timing of defibrillation by predicting the possibility of successful electric shock can guide treatments between defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation and improve the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation. Numerous methods have been proposed for predicting defibrillation success based on quantification of the ventricular fibrillation waveform during past decades. To date, however, no analytical technique has been widely accepted for clinical application. In the present study, we investigate whether median stepping increment that is calculated from the Euclidean distance of consecutive points in Poincare plot could be used to predict the likelihood of successful defibrillation. Electrocardiographic recordings of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients were obtained from the external defibrillators. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve and compared with the results of other established features. The results indicated that median stepping increment has comparable performance to the established methods in predicting the likelihood of successful defibrillation.

  16. Basal genoplivning af voksne og automatisk ekstern defibrillering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlac, Peter Anthony; Torp-Pedersen, Christian T; Lippert, Freddy K

    2008-01-01

    The new ERC guidelines on resuscitation emphasize the importance of quality CPR. BLS should be started as early as possible. Lay rescuers should not check for a pulse, they should call for help and start chest compressions immediately. Compression depth should be 4-5 cm at a rate of 100 compressi...... ventilations followed by a compression-ventilation ratio of 15:2. Automatic External Defibrillation should be used as early as possible....

  17. Basal genoplivning af voksne og automatisk ekstern defibrillering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlac, P.A.; Lippert, F.K.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The new ERC guidelines on resuscitation emphasize the importance of quality CPR. BLS should be started as early as possible. Lay rescuers should not check for a pulse, they should call for help and start chest compressions immediately. Compression depth should be 4-5 cm at a rate of 100 compressi...... ventilations followed by a compression-ventilation ratio of 15:2. Automatic External Defibrillation should be used as early as possible Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/17...

  18. Differential effects of defibrillation on systemic and cardiac sympathetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, F; Wiegand, U; Raasch, W; Richardt, G; Potratz, J

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the effect of defibrillation shocks on cardiac and circulating catecholamines.
Design—Prospective examination of myocardial catecholamine balance during dc shock by simultaneous determination of arterial and coronary sinus plasma concentrations. Internal countershocks (10-34 J) were applied in 30 patients after initiation of ventricular fibrillation for a routine implantable cardioverter defibrillator test. Another 10 patients were externally cardioverted (50-360 J) for atrial fibrillation.
Main outcome measures—Transcardiac noradrenaline, adrenaline, and lactate gradients immediately after the shock.
Results—After internal shock, arterial noradrenaline increased from a mean (SD) of 263 (128) pg/ml at baseline to 370 (148) pg/ml (p = 0.001), while coronary sinus noradrenaline fell from 448 (292) to 363 (216) pg/ml (p = 0.01), reflecting a shift from cardiac net release to net uptake. After external shock delivery, there was a similar increase in arterial noradrenaline, from 260 (112) to 459 (200) pg/ml (p = 0.03), while coronary sinus noradrenaline remained unchanged. Systemic adrenaline increased 11-fold after external shock (p = 0.01), outlasting the threefold rise following internal shock (p = 0.001). In both groups, a negative transmyocardial adrenaline gradient at baseline decreased further, indicating enhanced myocardial uptake. Cardiac lactate production occurred after ventricular fibrillation and internal shock, but not after external cardioversion, so the neurohumoral changes resulted from the defibrillation process and not from alterations in oxidative metabolism.
Conclusions—A dc shock induces marked systemic sympathoadrenal and sympathoneuronal activation, but attenuates cardiac sympathetic activity. This might promote the transient myocardial depression observed after electrical discharge to the heart.

 Keywords: defibrillation;  autonomic cardiac function;  catecholamines;  lactate

  19. Relationship between "extension of refractoriness" and probability of successful defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, O H; Jones, J L

    1997-02-01

    The "extension of refractoriness" hypothesis, which suggests that the shock halts fibrillation by extending the refractory period, has not been directly tested. Defibrillation (5 isolated rabbit hearts; 111 episodes) was attempted by 8-ms pulses (65% tilt) delivered through epicardial patches. Monophasic action potentials were recorded in a low current density region (6.3 V/cm at 90% success). Fifty shocks failed to convert; 61 shocks successfully defibrillated. Postshock response duration (from shock to repolarization) was significantly longer for successful type A (with no postshock activations) defibrillation (102.3 +/- 7.5 ms) than for unsuccessful defibrillation (47.6 +/- 4.3 ms; P defibrillation were significantly longer than those for unsuccessful defibrillation. A minimum prolongation of 75 ms was associated with type A defibrillation. These results suggest that shock-induced response duration correlates with successful defibrillation and that a response of 75 ms is required to completely block fibrillation wavefronts.

  20. Overcoming Spatial and Temporal Barriers to Public Access Defibrillators Via Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immediate access to an automated external defibrillator (AED) increases the chance of survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Current deployment usually considers spatial AED access, assuming AEDs are available 24 h a day. Objectives The goal of this study was to develop an

  1. Wearable cardioverter-defibrillator for prevention of sudden cardiac death after infected implantable cardioverter-defibrillator removal: A cost-effectiveness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Christopher A; Carrillo, Roger G

    2015-07-01

    Prevention of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) after removal of an infected implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a challenging clinical dilemma. The cost-effectiveness of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) in this setting remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of the WCD with discharge home, discharge to a skilled nursing facility, or inpatient monitoring for the prevention of SCA after infected ICD removal. A decision model was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of use of the WCD to several different strategies for patients who undergo ICD removal. One-way and 2-way sensitivity analyses were performed to account for uncertainties. In the base-case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness of the WCD strategy was $20,300 per life-year (LY) or $26,436 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) compared to discharge home without a WCD. Discharge to a skilled nursing facility and in-hospital monitoring resulted in higher costs and worse clinical outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was as low as $15,392/QALY if the WCD successfully terminated 95% of SCA events and exceeded the $50,000/QALY willingness-to-pay threshold if the efficacy was <69%.The WCD strategy remained cost-effective, assuming 5.6% 2-month SCA risk, as long as the time to reimplantation was at least 2 weeks. The WCD likely is cost-effective in protecting patients against SCA after infected ICD removal while waiting for ICD reimplantation compared to keeping patients in the hospital or discharging them home or to a skilled nursing facility. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Cardiocirculatory arrest caused by electric shock: importance of semi-automatic defibrillator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, S; Fouadi, F E; Ababou, K; Ihrai, I; Drissi, N K

    2011-03-31

    Accidental electrical burn injuries are serious because they can cause death by cardiocirculatory arrest. Cardiocirculatory arrest induced by low-voltage current is generally due to ventricular fibrillation, and the prognosis is fairly good if the survival chain is efficient. It is necessary to give priority to early defibrillation using an automated external defibrillator. Early defibrillation can immediately restore spontaneous circulation.

  3. A Comparison of the Effect of Square and Circular Electrodes During Defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrill Beaudoin, Deborah M.; Roth, Bradley J.

    2004-10-01

    The mechanism by which defibrillation-strength electric fields affect the heart has been studied extensively. Widely cited experiments designed to look at this effect incorporated plunge electrodes, made up of insulated, 21-gauge needles, to record the transmural, extracellular potential. In a previous paper (Langrill and Roth, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48:1207-1211, 2001), we looked at the effect of a single circular plunge electrode in a passive, two-dimensional model of cardiac tissue under the influence of a defibrillation-strength electric field. In a more recent paper, we looked at 9 square plunge electrodes. It is our hypothesis that the shape of the electrode does not make a significant difference in the response of the tissue to the electric field. We perform the same simulations as in the circular plunge electrode paper and compare the two sets of data. We find that although there are some quantitative differences between the two shapes, the overall response is nearly identical.

  4. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-01-01

    .... Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated...

  5. Patient-reported outcomes in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients with a Sprint Fidelis lead advisory notification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Versteeg, Henneke; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the association between implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and lead advisory notifications and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We examined (i) whether the mode used to inform patients about a device advisory is associated with PROs, and (ii) whether...

  6. Wearable cardioverter defibrillators for the prevention of sudden cardiac arrest: a health technology assessment and patient focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettinger S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Ettinger,1 Michal Stanak,1 Piotr Szymański,2 Claudia Wild,1 Romana Tandara Haček,3 Darija Erčević,3 Renata Grenković,3 Mirjana Huić3 1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Health Technology Assessment, Vienna, Austria; 2Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department for Development, Research and Health Technology Assessment, Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health Care and Social Welfare, Zagreb, Croatia Aim: To summarize the evidence on clinical effectiveness and safety of wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD therapy for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest in patients at risk. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in databases including MEDLINE via OVID, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CRD (DARE, NHS-EED, HTA. The evidence obtained was summarized according to GRADE methodology. A health technology assessment (HTA was conducted using the HTA Core Model® for rapid relative effectiveness assessment. Primary outcomes for the clinical effectiveness domain were all-cause and disease-specific mortality. Outcomes for the safety domain were adverse events (AEs and serious adverse events (SAEs. A focus group with cardiac disease patients was conducted to evaluate ethical, organizational, patient, social, and legal aspects of the WCD use. Results: No randomized- or non-randomized controlled trials were identified. Non-comparative studies (n=5 reported AEs including skin rash/itching (6%, false alarms (14%, and palpitations/light-headedness/fainting (9% and discontinuation due to comfort/lifestyle issues (16–22%, and SAEs including inappropriate shocks (0–2%, unsuccessful shocks (0–0.7%, and death (0–0.3%. The focus group results reported that experiencing a sense of security is crucial to patients and that the WCD is not considered an option for weeks or even months due to expected restrictions in living a “normal” life. Conclusion: The WCD appears to be relatively safe for short

  7. Factors influencing health-related quality of life in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence; Sit, Janet; Wong, Eliza

    2012-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is a medical treatment to increase survival from sudden cardiac death attributed to lethal arrhythmias. Previous reports on the effect of implantable cardioverter defibrillators on the health-related quality of life are unclear. Inadequate knowledge is known about factors on health-related quality of life. The objective was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. This review was limited to studies on adult patients who received implantable cardioverter defibrillators either for primary or secondary prevention. Randomised controlled trials, pseudo-randomised trials, cohort, case control and descriptive studies that utilised a variety of health related quality of life outcome measures were considered. A thorough literature search was performed for relevant studies written in English or Chinese from 1985 to August 2011 via various healthcare related electronic databases, review of reference list of all relevant studies, and Google Scholar. Cochrane Library and JBI COnNECT were searched for similar systematic reviews were also conducted. Eleven studies were included. Nine cohort and two descriptive studies were critically appraised for methodological quality by two independent reviewers using standardised critical appraisal checklists from Joanna Briggs Institute. The methodological quality of all included studies was high. A predefined data extraction form (adapted from the standardised Joanna Briggs Institute) was used. A meta-analysis was not appropriate due to the nature of the review and statistical heterogeneity across the included studies. The evidence was therefore presented in narrative summary. In eleven studies, total sample size was 1146 ranging from 42 to 223 participants. The range of mean age was between 51 and 74 years old. Factors were categorised into non-modifiable and modifiable factors. Old age (≥60 years old), implantable

  8. Emotions and health: findings from a randomized clinical trial on psychoeducational nursing to patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Støier, Louise; Moons, Philip; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Winkel, Per; Ulrich Pedersen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Serious illness will inevitably lead to a fundamental emotional reaction. Traditionally, in interventional treatment or rehabilitation trials, the psychological status of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators has been evaluated with anxiety and depression as outcome measures. In caring for these patients, the aim of nursing is to help patients manage life with complex heart disease. The early detection and management of negative emotional response might prevent the development of pathological conditions such as depression. The aims of this study were to (a) describe the trajectory of primary emotions over time in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators and (b) examine the potential effects of psychoeducational nursing on primary emotions. During the inclusion period (October 2007 to November 2009), 196 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator were randomized (1:1) to rehabilitation versus usual care. Rehabilitation consisted of a psychoeducational nursing component and an exercise training component. This article concerns phase 1, psychoeducational nursing, guided by a theory of nursing, Rosemary Rizzo Parses Human Becoming Practice Methodologies. The outcome measure is the Emotions and Health Scale. The scale consists of 8 primary emotions: joy, agreeableness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, anger, and anticipation. Mean (SD) age was 58 (13) years, and 79% of the participants were men. Significant improvements were found in primary emotional responses over time (P nursing intervention (P > .05). Primary emotions are affected after implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. Improvements over time were found. However, it was not possible to detect any effect of a short-term psychoeducational nursing intervention. Evaluating the primary emotions might be a good way for nurses to monitor patients' psychological outcomes because the instrument is sensitive to changes over a short period. Further development of early

  9. Dutch outcome in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy (DO-IT) : Registry design and baseline characteristics of a prospective observational cohort study to predict appropriate indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Barreveld, M. (M.); M.G.W. Dijkgraaf (Marcel); Hulleman, M. (M.); L. Boersma (Lucas); P.P.H.M. Delnoy (Peter Paul); M. Meine (Mathias); Tuinenburg, A.E. (A. E.); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); P. van der Voort (Pepijn); G-J.P. Kimman (Geert-Jan); E. Buskens (Erik); Tijssen, J.P.G. (J. P.G.); Bruinsma, N. (N.); Verstraelen, T.E. (T. E.); A.H. Zwinderman (Ailko); Van Dessel, P.H.F.M. (P. H.F.M.); A.A.M. Wilde (Arthur)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are widely used for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. At present, both clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of ICD therapy in primary prevention patients are topics of discussion, as only a minority of these patients will

  10. Risk of defibrillation threshold testing in severe heart failure patient: A case of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Nakai, MD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defibrillation threshold (DFT testing is usually recommended after device implantation to confirm appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D function [1,2]. However, induction of ventricular fibrillation may result in hemodynamic compromise, and cardioversion itself may cause myocardial injury [3,4]. We report on a CRT-D patient with acute myocardial infarction who died due to multiple organ failure 1 day after DFT testing. Our case emphasizes the importance of deciding whether DFT testing should be performed for patients with very severe heart failure in the acute stage of myocardial infarction.

  11. Transvenous extraction of pacing and defibrillator leads--a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geselle, Pieter-Jan; Poesen, Ruben; Rega, Filip; Koopman, Pieter; Nuyens, Dieter; Heidbuchel, Hein; Willems, Rik

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, the number of transvenous extractions of chronically implanted endocardial leads rapidly increases. Despite great technical progress, lead extraction remains a challenging procedure with possible life-threatening complications. We present the success and complication rate of lead extractions in the University Hospitals Leuven, and investigated a possible relationship between the use of powered sheaths and lead type, fixation, location and implantation time. We present an observational retrospective cohort study of 157 patients admitted to the University Hospitals Leuven between January 2005 and December 2010, for the transvenous removal of a total of 259 endocardial leads. Complete procedural success was achieved in 92% of patients (n = 144). Of all leads, 94% (n = 243) were completely extracted. Only in 5 patients (3%), lead extraction failed. Leads that could not be removed were significantly older (134.1 +/- 90.7 months vs. 73.1 +/- 61.9 months; P = 0.02). In the other 8 patients the leads were partially removed with a remaining major retained lead fragment in 2 and a minor fragment in 6 patients. Major procedural complication rate was 2.5% (n = 4). There were no procedure-related deaths. Powered sheaths were used significantly more for the extraction of defibrillator leads (51%) (vs. pacing leads (33%; P = 0.015)) and right ventricular located leads (43%) (vs. other location (28%; P = 0.011)). However, when comparing the need of powered sheaths for the extraction of right ventricular defibrillator leads vs. right ventricular pacing leads, only a trend to higher use was noticed (51 vs. 39%; P = 0.146). Powered sheath use was not related to fixation type. Leads that required the use of a powered sheath were implanted significantly longer (112 +/- 69.5 months vs. 41.7 +/- 33.7 months; P = 0.001). Chronically implanted endocardial leads can be transvenously extracted in a high number of cases and with a low risk of procedural complications. Powered

  12. Polarity reversal improves defibrillation efficacy in patients undergoing transvenous cardioverter defibrillator implantation with biphasic shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauerte, P; Stellbrink, C; Schöndube, F A; Löser, H; Haltern, G; Messmer, B J; Hanrath, P

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of polarity reversal on DFT in patients undergoing implantation of nonthoracotomy defibrillators with biphasic shocks. Previous studies have shown higher defibrillation efficacy with using the distal electrode as anode implantation of nonthoracotomy defibrillators and monophasic shocks. However, it is as yet unclear whether biphasic shock defibrillation will also be influenced by polarity reversal. Using a transvenous lead system with a proximal electrode in the superior caval vein and a distal electrode in the RV apex, 27 patients undergoing defibrillator implantation were randomized to DFT testing "initial" (distal electrode = cathode) or "reversed" polarity (distal electrode = anode). Defibrillation energy was reduced stepwise until defibrillation failure occurred. At this point, polarity was switched and testing continued until the lowest energy requirement was determined for both polarities. With reversed polarity, DFT was 11.1 +/- 5.7 J versus 13.3 +/- 5.8 J with polarity (P = 0.033). This means a 17% reduction of the DFT. In 10 patients, the threshold was lower with reversed, whereas in 3 patients it was lower with initial polarity. In conclusion, changing electrode polarity in transvenous implantable defibrillators with biphasic shocks may significantly influence defibrillation energy requirements. Therefore, polarity reversal should always be attempted before considering patch implantation.

  13. Programa de capacitação em ressuscitação cardiorrespiratória com uso do desfibrilador externo automático em uma universidade Programa de formación en reanimación cardiopulmonar con el uso del desfibrilador externo automático en una universidad Training program on cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of automated external defibrillator in a university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Boaventura

    2012-03-01

    .Early defibrillation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR receives increasing emphasis on its priority and rapidity. This is an experience report about the implementation of a training program in CPR using a defibrillator in a private university. The training program in basic CPR maneuvers was based on global guidelines, including a theorical course with practical demonstration of CPR maneuvers with the defibrillator, individual practical training and theoretical and practical assessments. About the performance of students in the practical assessment, the mean scores obtained by students in the first stage of the course was 26.4 points, while in the second stage the mean was 252.8 points; in the theoretical assessment the mean in the first stage was 3.06 points and in the second 9.0 points. The implementation of programs like this contribute to the effective acquisition of knowledge (theory and skill (pratice for the care of CPR victims.

  14. Intra-operative defibrillation testing and clinical shock efficacy in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Brandt, Johan

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: This trial was designed to test the hypothesis that shock efficacy during follow-up is not impaired in patients implanted without defibrillation (DF) testing during first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between February 2011 and July 2013, 1077...... in 94 patients (17.6%) tested compared with 89 events in 74 patients (13.9%) not tested (P = 0.095). CONCLUSION: Defibrillation efficacy during follow-up is not inferior in patients with a 40 J ICD implanted without DF testing. Defibrillation testing during first time ICD implantation should no longer...

  15. Test and Evaluation of the Zoll Medical Inc., PD2OOO Cardiac Monitor/Pacemaker/Defibrillator System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hade, Edward

    1997-01-01

    The Zoll PD2000 is a portable cardiac monitor, defibrillator and pacemaker that offers synchronized defibrillation, electrocardiogram monitoring, noninvasive temporary pacing and advisory capability...

  16. CPR courses and semi-automatic defibrillators--life saving in cardiac arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Liane; Sterz, Fritz; Haugk, Moritz; Eisenburger, Philip; Scheinecker, Wolfdieter; Kliegel, Andreas; Laggner, Anton N

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to assess the knowledge of life-supporting first-aid in both cardiac arrest survivors and relatives, and their willingness to have a semi-automatic external defibrillator in their homes and use it in an emergency. Cardiac arrest survivors, their families, friends, neighbours and co-workers were interviewed by medical students using prepared questionnaires. Their knowledge and self-assessment of life-supporting first-aid, their willingness to have a semi-automatic defibrillator in their homes and their willingness to use it in an emergency before and after a course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with a semi-automatic external defibrillator was evaluated. Courses were taught by medical students who had received special training in basic and advanced life support. Both patients and relatives, after a course of 2-3 h, were no longer afraid of making mistakes by providing life-supporting first-aid. The automated external defibrillator (AED) was generally accepted and considered easy to handle. We consider equipping high-risk patients and their families with AEDs as a viable method of increasing their survival in case of a recurring cardiac arrest. This, of course, should be corroborated by further studies.

  17. Epicardial cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in a 4-month-old infant bridged to heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Cristina; Cereda, Alberto Francesco; Annoni, Giuseppe; Marianeschi, Stefano Maria

    2017-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the gold standard therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Nevertheless, ICD placement in the paediatric population is still limited because of several technical difficulties. Several implantation techniques have been proposed but experience in infants with very low weight and less than 6 months is very limited. We herein describe a case of a minimally invasive ICD epicardial implantation in a 4-month-old infant weighing 5 kg. A diagnosis of arrhythmic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular non-compaction disease with ventricular tachycardia storms, QT prolongation and Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern was made. Antiarrhythmic drugs, radiofrequency ablation and sympathetic denervation were not effective. ICD implantation was successful allowing the infant to survive and bridging to heart transplantation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. [Automatic, implantible cardioverter-defibrillator in a patient with chronic Chagas cardiopathy and sustained ventricular tachycardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, H; Muñoz, M; Llamas, G; Iturralde, P; Medeiros, A; Delgado, L; Mar, R; Rucinque, F; Bayram, E

    1998-01-01

    We studied a 48 years old woman, with chronic Chagasic cardiopathy, manifested with cardiomegaly, heart failure and syncope, due to a sustained ventricular tachycardia (SVT) of two different configurations (left bundle branch block and right bundle branch block). During electrophysiological testing, both types of ventricular tachycardia were reproduced. Successful ablation therapy of the right branch of His was performed due to suspicion of the bundle branch reentrant tachycardia, with a left bundle branch block. The patient continued to show SVT episodes, now with right bundle branch block pattern. Cardioverter Defibrillator was implanted. We report this case due to the rare frequency of Chagas' disease, where it could be a cause of heart disease, since the existence of the parasite (trypanosoma cruzi) and its vector (Triatoma) has been identified in some rural and suburban zones in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

  19. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillator Treatment in a Child with Heart Failure and Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Ju Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT is a new treatment for refractory heart failure. However, most patients with heart failure treated with CRT are adults, middle-aged or older with idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. We treated a 12-year-old boy, who was transferred after cardiac arrest, with dilated cardiomyopathy, left bundle-branch block, and ventricular tachycardia. We performed cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D. After CRT-D, left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 22% to 4 4% a ssessed by e chocardiog ram 1 year p ostoperatively. On e lectrocardiog ram, Q RS d uration was shortened from 206 to 144 ms. The patient’s clinical symptoms also improved. For pediatric patients with refractory heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia, CRT-D could be indicated as an effective therapeutic option.

  20. Rapidly switching multidirectional defibrillation: reversal of ventricular fibrillation with lower energy shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Marcelo A; Bassani, Rosana A; Petrucci, Orlando; Marques, Denilson A; Bassani, José Wilson M

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac arrest after open surgery has an incidence of approximately 3%, of which more than 50% of the cases are due to ventricular fibrillation. Electrical defibrillation is the most effective therapy for terminating cardiac arrhythmias associated with unstable hemodynamics. The excitation threshold of myocardial microstructures is lower when external electrical fields are applied in the longitudinal direction with respect to the major axis of cells. However, in the heart, cell bundles are disposed in several directions. Improved myocardial excitation and defibrillation have been achieved by applying shocks in multiple directions via intracardiac leads, but the results are controversial when the electrodes are not located within the cardiac chambers. This study was designed to test whether rapidly switching shock delivery in 3 directions could increase the efficiency of direct defibrillation. A multidirectional defibrillator and paddles bearing 3 electrodes each were developed and used in vivo for the reversal of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation in an anesthetized open-chest swine model. Direct defibrillation was performed by unidirectional and multidirectional shocks applied in an alternating fashion. Survival analysis was used to estimate the relationship between the probability of defibrillation and the shock energy. Compared with shock delivery in a single direction in the same animal population, the shock energy required for multidirectional defibrillation was 20% to 30% lower (P < .05) within a wide range of success probabilities. Rapidly switching multidirectional shock delivery required lower shock energy for ventricular fibrillation termination and may be a safer alternative for restoring cardiac sinus rhythm. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy: A US National Database Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Negar; Nasiri, Mojdeh; Bianco, Nicole R; Opreanu, Madalina; Singh, Vini; Satija, Vaibhav; Jhand, Aravdeep S; Karapetyan, Lilit; Safadi, Abdul Rahman; Surapaneni, Phani; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2016-10-01

    The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is often used in patients at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) who are not yet candidates for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Newly diagnosed cardiomyopathy may be reversible, and a WCD may protect patients during the initial period of risk. We evaluate the benefit and compliance of the WCD in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). We reviewed a national database of patients with NICM who used WCDs and who self-reported a history of excess alcohol use, although other causes of cardiomyopathy could not be excluded. The database contained demographic data, initial ejection fraction (EF), reason for WCD prescription, compliance and use data, any detected arrhythmias, therapies, and reason for discontinuing WCD. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Of the 127 patients, 88% were men with a mean age of 52.6 ± 11.0 years. The mean initial EF was 19.9% ± 7.4%. Patients wore the WCD for a median of 51 days and a median daily use of 18.0 hours per day. The most common reasons for discontinuing the WCD were improvement in EF (33%) or ICD implantation (23.6%). Seven patients (5.5%) had 9 sustained ventricular arrhythmia events, which were successfully treated with 100% conversion. There were 11 deaths (8.6%) during 100 days of follow-up. No deaths resulted from WCD shock failure or undersensing. NICM may have a significant risk of ventricular arrhythmias and death in the first few months. The WCD delivered appropriate therapy in 5.5% of patients. This study suggests that a WCD may be effective temporary prophylaxis for prevention of SCD in patients with newly diagnosed NICM. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Activity in Primary Versus Secondary Prevention Indication Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients 6–12 Months After Implantation – A Cross-Sectional Study With Register Follow Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe physical activity status among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) according to the indication for ICD implant compared with international guidelines and compared with a matched healthy reference population to detect potential for improved physical...

  3. If a patient arrests after cardiac surgery is it acceptable to delay cardiopulmonary resuscitation until you have attempted either defibrillation or pacing?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockowandt, Ulf; Levine, Adrian; Strang, Tim; Dunning, Joel

    2008-01-01

    .... The question addressed was whether it is acceptable to delay cardiopulmonary resuscitation if a patient arrests after cardiac surgery in order to attempt defibrillation or pacing, prior to performing...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with an implantable cardiac defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Furusho MD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old man, in whom an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD had been implanted for Brugada syndrome, suffered rapidly progressive general paralysis. Various diagnostic imaging techniques were performed, but the cause could not be determined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanning was performed. A 1.5-Tesla MRI system was used, and the ICD was programmed to ODO mode and all tachycardia detection was turned off. MRI was performed safely under electrocardiogram and pulse oximeter monitoring, and appropriate precautions were taken in preparation for an emergency. ICD parameters did not change in post-imaging investigations. MRI revealed an apparent tumor in the patient's medulla and upper cervical spinal cord, which was diagnosed as high-grade astrocytoma. When performing MRI procedures in patients with an ICD under urgent conditions, it is necessary to have complete knowledge of the procedure and to make careful preparations.

  5. [Full dental rehabilitation of a patient with implantable cardioverter defibrillator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Ildikó; Tóth, Zsuzsanna

    2012-06-01

    During dental rehabilitation of a patient with ICD, an upper telescope retained overdenture with acrylic baseplate and lower cantilever bridges were constructed. In the consultation following the anamnesis and the clinical examination, the cardiologist did not believe antibiotic profilaxis to be necessary, adding that it is advisable to avoid the use of ultrasonic depurator and electrocauter. Nowadays after saving the life the improving of patient's better quality of life is an important aspect. The risk of ICD-implantation is minimal however, not negligible, the patient can pursue a way of life free of limitation. According to the latest trends, the number of ICD-implantations will increase exponentially in the near future, due to the aging of the population, the simplification and safeness of implantation and the increase of patients who can be treated with the device. In case of arritmia or putative dysfunction, the latest ICD-s are able to send emergency alert to the arritmia centre with the help of an outer transmitter. Probably the system will completely change the follow-up of patients with ICD within the next few years, clinical researches of its efficiency are going on at present.

  6. Protection from outpatient sudden cardiac death following ICD removal using a wearable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Garisto, Juan D; Salow, Arturo; Glad, Joann M; Szymkiewicz, Steve; Saltzman, Heath E; Kutalek, Steven P; Carrillo, Roger G

    2014-05-01

    An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is effective in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD). Once an ICD is removed and reimplantation is not feasible, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) may be an alternative option. We determined the effectiveness of WCD for SCD prevention in patients who were discharged after ICD removal. A retrospective study was conducted on all WCD (LifeVest, ZOLL, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) patients who underwent ICD removal due to cardiac device infections (CDIs) at two referral centers between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. Clinical characteristics, device information, and WCD data were analyzed. Sudden cardiac arrest was defined as all sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation occurring within a single 24-hour period. Ninety-seven patients (mean age 62.8 ± 13.3, male 80.4%) were included in the study. The median duration of antibiotic use was 14.7 days (interquartile range [IQR] 10-30). The median daily WCD use was 20 hours/day and the median length of use was 21 days (IQR 5-47). A total of three patients were shocked by WCD. Two patients had four episodes of sustained VT, successfully terminated by the WCD. A third patient experienced two inappropriate treatments due to oversensitivity of the signal artifact. Three patients experienced sudden death outside the hospital while not wearing the device. Five patients died while hospitalized. WCD can prevent SCD, until ICD reimplantation is feasible in patients who underwent device removals for CDI. However, patient compliance is essential for the effective use of this device. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Shoulder Joint Dislocation as an Unusual Complication of Defibrillation Threshold Testing Following Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Noheria, MBBS, SM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old man underwent implantation of a totally subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD; Boston Scientific. He was positioned supine, with the left arm abducted, externally rotated (i.e. palm up and strapped to the arm extender. The generator was placed in the left mid-axillary line along the 5th-6th intercostal spaces and the defibrillation coil was tunneled anterior to the sternum. Defibrillation threshold (DFT testing with 65 Jcaused a forceful pectoralis twitch. The patient woke up with a painful anteriorly dislocated left shoulder. Glenohumeral dislocation due to DFT testing has not been previously reported. It is likely that this complication is specific to the S-ICD implantation, and is related to positioning with the arm abducted, externally rotated, and immobilized, and use of greater defibrillation energy with current pathway through the bulk of the pectoralis muscle.Precautions may include extending the arm palm down, strapping the arm loosely, and adduction of the arm for DFT testing.

  8. Delaying defibrillation to give basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Lars; Hansen, Trond Boye; Fylling, Frode; Steen, Thorbjørn; Vaagenes, Per; Auestad, Bjørn H; Steen, Petter Andreas

    2003-03-19

    Defibrillation as soon as possible is standard treatment for patients with ventricular fibrillation. A nonrandomized study indicates that after a few minutes of ventricular fibrillation, delaying defibrillation to give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) first might improve the outcome. To determine the effects of CPR before defibrillation on outcome in patients with ventricular fibrillation and with response times either up to or longer than 5 minutes. Randomized trial of 200 patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation in Oslo, Norway, between June 1998 and May 2001. Patients received either standard care with immediate defibrillation (n = 96) or CPR first with 3 minutes of basic CPR by ambulance personnel prior to defibrillation (n = 104). If initial defibrillation was unsuccessful, the standard group received 1 minute of CPR before additional defibrillation attempts compared with 3 minutes in the CPR first group. Primary end point was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary end points were hospital admission with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1-year survival, and neurological outcome. A prespecified analysis examined subgroups with response times either up to or longer than 5 minutes. In the standard group, 14 (15%) of 96 patients survived to hospital discharge vs 23 (22%) of 104 in the CPR first group (P =.17). There were no differences in ROSC rates between the standard group (56% [58/104]) and the CPR first group (46% [44/96]; P =.16); or in 1-year survival (20% [21/104] and 15% [14/96], respectively; P =.30). In subgroup analysis for patients with ambulance response times of either up to 5 minutes or shorter, there were no differences in any outcome variables between the CPR first group (n = 40) and the standard group (n = 41). For patients with response intervals of longer than 5 minutes, more patients achieved ROSC in the CPR first group (58% [37/64]) compared with the standard group (38% [21/55]; odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95

  9. Single-coil and dual-coil defibrillator leads and association with clinical outcomes in a complete Danish nationwide ICD cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob M; Hjortshøj, Søren P; Nielsen, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The best choice of defibrillator lead in patients with routine implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is not settled. Traditionally, most physicians prefer dual-coil leads but the use of single-coil leads is increasing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare clinical...... outcomes in patients with single- and dual-coil leads. METHODS: All 4769 Danish patients 18 years or older with first-time ICD implants from 2007 to 2011 were included from the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Register. Defibrillator leads were 38.9% single-coil leads and 61.1% dual-coil leads. The primary end...... of lead failures and extraction complications. CONCLUSION: Shock efficacy is high for modern ICD systems. The choice between single-coil and dual-coil defibrillator leads is unlikely to have a clinically significant impact on patient outcomes in routine ICD implants....

  10. What we have learned from the family of multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Arthur J

    2010-06-01

    Electrical device therapy began 50 years ago with the external defibrillator, and was followed subsequently with the introduction of implantable cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, and resynchronization devices to prevent bradycardia, sudden arrhythmic death, and heart failure. During the past 20 years the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) research group has carried out a series of trials, including the MADIT-I, MADIT-II, and MADIT-III (MADIT-CRT), that have focused on improving the outcomes for patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiac disease. The most recent MADIT-CRT trial showed that a cardiac resynchronization therapy device with defibrillator (CRT-D) was effective in reducing the risk of heart failure or death, whichever came first, in cardiac patients who were asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic (New York Heart Association class I or II) with reduced ejection fraction or =130 ms when compared with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) device. The family of MADIT ICD and CRT-D trials have provided a firm foundation for improving the clinical management of at-risk cardiac patients as the second decade of the 21(st) century begins.

  11. Imaging of Ventricular Fibrillation and Defibrillation: The Virtual Electrode Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukens, Bastiaan J; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is the major underlying cause of sudden cardiac death. Understanding the complex activation patterns that give rise to ventricular fibrillation requires high resolution mapping of localized activation. The use of multi-electrode mapping unraveled re-entrant activation patterns that underlie ventricular fibrillation. However, optical mapping contributed critically to understanding the mechanism of defibrillation, where multi-electrode recordings could not measure activation patterns during and immediately after a shock. In addition, optical mapping visualizes the virtual electrodes that are generated during stimulation and defibrillation pulses, which contributed to the formulation of the virtual electrode hypothesis. The generation of virtual electrode induced phase singularities during defibrillation is arrhythmogenic and may lead to the induction of fibrillation subsequent to defibrillation. Defibrillating with low energy may circumvent this problem. Therefore, the current challenge is to use the knowledge provided by optical mapping to develop a low energy approach of defibrillation, which may lead to more successful defibrillation.

  12. Improving Defibrillation Efficiency in Area Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent C; Shen, Jay J; Stanley, Ramona; Dahlke, Jeffrey; McPartlin, Sheri; Row, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the young is a rare event but the effects can be devastating. We sought to identify variables that would lead to an improvement in time to defibrillation (TDFB), a previously noted factor significantly influencing survival from cardiac arrest. During the 2013-2014 academic year, the Clark county school district performed quarterly drills to practice the coordinated automated external defibrillator (AED) response. Variables including school, AED carrier, and drill characteristics were measured to determine influence on TDFB. Schools were grouped by TDFB at a cutoff of three minutes. Characteristics were sought for schools with TDFB below three minutes. A mixed regression model taking into account repeated measures was created to determine which variables influenced TDFB. Time to overhead announcement, distance of AED from drill site, and time to setup AED were the variables influencing TDFB with statistical significance (P <.01). This study supports the notion of early recognition, announcement, and close proximity to an AED during a SCA to ensure an early TDFB. These results are consistent with basic life support and the chain of survival tenets of the American Heart Association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinical impact of defibrillation testing at the time of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Claudio; Atienza, Felipe; Strasberg, Boris; Arenal, Ángel; Codner, Pablo; González-Torrecilla, Esteban; Datino, Tomás; Percal, Tamara; Almendral, Jesús; Ortiz, Mercedes; Martins, Raphael; Martinez-Alzamora, Nieves; Fernandez Aviles, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is routinely induced during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion to assess defibrillator performance, but this strategy is experiencing a progressive decline. We aimed to assess the efficacy of defibrillator therapies and long-term outcome in a cohort of patients that underwent defibrillator implantation with and without defibrillation testing. Retrospective observational series of consecutive patients undergoing initial defibrillator insertion or generator replacement. We registered spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias incidence and therapy efficacy, and mortality. A total of 545 patients underwent defibrillator implantation (111 with and 434 without defibrillation testing). After 19 (range 9-31) months of follow-up, the death rate per observation year (4% vs. 4%; p = 0.91) and the rate of patients with defibrillator-treated ventricular arrhythmic events per observation year (with test: 10% vs. without test: 12%; p = 0.46) were similar. The generalized estimating equations-adjusted first shock probability of success in patients with test (95%; CI 88-100%) vs. without test (98%; CI 96-100%; p = 0.42) and the proportion of successful antitachycardia therapies (with test: 87% vs. without test: 80%; p = 0.35) were similar between groups. There was no difference in the annualized rate of failed first shock per patient and per shocked patient between groups (5% vs. 4%; p = 0.94). In this observational study, that included an unselected population of patients with a defibrillator, no difference was found in overall mortality, first shock efficacy and rate of failed shocks regardless of whether defibrillation testing was performed or not.

  14. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-09-11

    We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold but also the amount of cardiac damage. Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform-in 6 pigs with electrodes in the right ventricular apex and superior vena cava. The ascending, descending, and rectilinear waveforms had 4-, 8-, and 16-millisecond first phases and a 3.5-millisecond rectilinear second phase that was half the voltage of the first phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% first-phase and a 50% second-phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 seconds of ventricular fibrillation with a single ≈30-J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8-millisecond ascending, 8-millisecond rectilinear, and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hours after the shock. The lowest-energy defibrillation threshold was for the 8-milliseconds ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 J [mean±SD]), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours after shock, troponin I was significantly less for the ascending-ramp waveform (0.80±0.54 ng/mL) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47 ng/mL) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17±0.45 ng/mL). The ascending ramp has a significantly lower defibrillation threshold and at ≈30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the defibrillation threshold and the amount of cardiac damage.

  15. General anaesthesia for insertion of an automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a child with Brugada and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetal Goraksha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old autistic boy presented with acute gastroenteritis and hypotension. The electrocardiogram showed a ventricular fibrillation rhythm - he went into cardiorespiratory arrest and was immediately resuscitated. On investigation, the electrocardiogram showed a partial right bundle branch block with a "coved" pattern of ST elevation in leads v 1 -v 3 . A provisional diagnosis of Brugada syndrome was made, for which an automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD implantation was advised. Although the automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation is usually performed under sedation, because this was an autistic child, he needed general anaesthesia. We performed the procedure uneventfully under general anaesthesia and he was discharged after a short hospital stay.

  16. Patient outcomes following defibrillation with a low energy biphasic truncated exponential waveform in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D; Hankins, D G; Atkinson, E J

    2001-04-01

    To determine the outcome of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation as the presenting rhythm while using automated external defibrillators (AEDs) that delivered non-escalating, impedance-compensated low-energy (150 J) shocks. AEDs delivering low-energy biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) shocks were employed in an emergency medical services (EMS) system in which first-arriving personnel - police, firefighters or paramedics - delivered the initial shocks. Patients were classified according to their response to shocks: restoration of sustained spontaneous circulation (ROSC) without need for epinephrine and other advanced life support (ALS) interventions; and ALS, those requiring epinephrine in all instances. The primary end-point was neurologically-intact discharge survival. Secondary end-points were ROSC with shocks only and the call-to-shock time interval. Of 42 patients with VF arrest treated with BTE shocks, 35 were bystander-witnessed. Of these 35, 14 (38%) regained a sustained ROSC on-scene with shocks only, needing no epinephrine for ROSC. All 14 survived to discharge home. Of the remaining 21 patients needing ALS intervention, only two (9.5%) survived to discharge. Overall, 16/35 patients (46%) survived to discharge home, an outcome comparable to our experience with patients treated with escalating high-energy monophasic waveform shocks. Low-energy (150 J) non-escalating biphasic truncated exponential waveform shocks terminate VF in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with high efficacy; patient outcome is comparable with that observed with escalating high-energy monophasic shocks. Low-energy shocks, in addition to high efficacy, may confer the advantage of less shock-induced myocardial dysfunction, though this will be difficult to define in the clinical circumstance of long-duration VF provoked by a pre-existing diseased myocardial substrate.

  17. Electrical Heart Defibrillation with Ion Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Erin; Clark, Courtney; Puwal, Steffan

    Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Rotary electrical waves within heart muscle underlie electrical disorders of the heart termed fibrillation; their propagation and breakup leads to a complex distribution of electrical activation of the tissue (and of the ensuing mechanical contraction that comes from electrical activation). Successful heart defibrillation has, thus far, been limited to delivering large electrical shocks to activate the entire heart and reset its electrical activity. In theory, defibrillation of a system this nonlinear should be possible with small electrical perturbations (stimulations). A successful algorithm for such a low-energy defibrillator continues to elude researchers. We propose to examine in silica whether low-energy electrical stimulations can be combined with antiarrhythmic, ion channel-blocking drugs to achieve a higher rate of defibrillation and whether the antiarrhythmic drugs should be delivered before or after electrical stimulation has commenced. Progress toward a more successful, low-energy defibrillator will greatly minimize the adverse effects noted in defibrillation and will assist in the development of pediatric defibrillators.

  18. Scottish survey of public place defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashimi, A O; Cobbe, S M; Pell, J P

    2010-08-01

    Public place defibrillators can reduce delays to defibrillation but their cost-effectiveness has not been evaluated in randomised trials. In Scotland, unlike England, no health sector funding has been provided. Nonetheless, anecdotal evidence suggests they are increasing in number. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of all airports, shopping malls, leisure centres, and major train and bus stations to determine whether defibrillators had been purchased and by whom, the training and maintenance arrangements, and whether they had been discharged. Of the 183 eligible sites, 153 (84%) participated. 33 (22%) had at least one defibrillator. Those in airports and shopping malls were purchased privately. Those in leisure centres were bought by charities or local authorities. The majority (97%) provided training to existing staff, but 6 (18%) provided no training to new staff. Only 6 (18%) had a maintenance agreement and 8 (24%) a replacement policy. Only one site permitted public access. Defibrillators had been discharged in 10 (30%) sites. Of the 32 people shocked, 23 (72%) survived until the ambulance arrived. Despite absence of health sector funding, defibrillators are located in 22% of high footfall public places. Those purchasing defibrillators need to ensure adequate maintenance, replacement and training arrangements.

  19. Effect of a psychoeducational intervention on depression, anxiety, and health resource use in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Langberg, Jonathan J.; Reilly, Carolyn M; Viswanathan, Bindu; McCarty, Frances; Culler, Steven D.; O'Brien, Marian C.; Weintraub, William S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychological responses have been reported for some patients after the insertion of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). This study tested the effects of a psychoeducational intervention on anxiety, depressive symptoms, functional status, and health resource use during the first year after ICD implantation. Methods: ICD patients (n = 246) were randomized to usual care (UC), group (GRP), or telephone counseling (TC) intervention that included education, symptom manageme...

  20. Acute and Long-term Results After Contemporary Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Implantation: A Single-center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Miguel A; Pachón, Marta; Akerström, Finn; Puchol, Alberto; Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis

    2017-12-05

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) has emerged as an alternative to the transvenous defibrillator. The incidence of complications is similar, with inappropriate shocks (IS) being more frequent than those occurring with contemporary programming of transvenous defibrillators. Several improvements have been implemented after the S-ICD was approved for use in Europe in 2009. This study reports the results of S-ICD use in a single center, whose experience began late, at the end of 2013. Prospective observational study including consecutive patients with defibrillator indication and no indication for either permanent pacing or cardiac resynchronization who underwent S-ICD implantation. Implant data and long-term follow-up were analyzed. An S-ICD was implanted in 50 patients who were deemed suitable after electrocardiographic screening. The mean age was 46.9±15 (range, 15-78) years and 72% were male. Thirty eight percent had left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%. The most frequent heart disease was ischemic heart disease (34%), followed by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (18%). The intermuscular technique was used, with 3 incisions in 10% and 2 incisions in the remaining 90%. Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 49 patients, with 100% effectiveness in their conversion. After a mean follow-up of 18.1 (range, 2.3-44.8) months, there were no late complications requiring surgical revision, the rate of IS was 0%, and 1 patient (2%) experienced appropriate shocks. Improvements in technology, implant technique and device programming, along with appropriate patient selection, have led to outstanding acute and long-term results, especially regarding the absence of both IS and complications requiring surgical revision. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Pearls and perils of an implantable defibrillator trial using a common control: implications for the design of future studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallstrom Alfred P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Implantable defibrillators are considered life-saving therapy in heart failure (CHF patients. Surprisingly, the recent Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT reached an opposing conclusion from that of numerous other trials about their survival benefit in patients with advanced CHF. A critical analysis of common control trial design may explain this paradoxical finding, with important implications for future studies. Methods and Results Common control trials compare several intervention groups to a single rather than separate control groups. Though potentially requiring fewer patients than trials using separate controls, variation in the common control group will influence all comparisons and creates correlations between findings. During subgroup analyses, this dependency of outcomes may increase belief in the presence of a real subgroup effect when, in fact, it should increase skepticism. For example, a high (r = 0.92, statistically unlikely (p = 0.052 correlation between comparisons was observed across the subgroups reported in SCD-HeFT. Such concordance between amiodarone and a defibrillator across subgroups was unexpected, given how much the effects of these treatments significantly differed from one another in the main study. This suggests the study's subgroup findings (specifically the absence of benefit from defibrillators in advanced CHF were not necessarily a consequence of treatment; more likely, they resulted from variation in what the treatments were compared against, the common control. Conclusion Common control trials can be more efficient than other designs, but induce dependence between treatment comparisons and require cautious interpretation.

  2. Pacemaker System Malfunction Resulting from External Electrical Cardioversion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Nishida, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 2005 a 68-year-old woman received a VDD pacemaker implantation in the right pectoral region at our hospital for the treatment of complete atrioventricular block. In July 2008, she was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy based on histological testing. In November 2008, she developed syncope due to ventricular tachycardia while at another hospital. She underwent external electrical cardioversion with an anterior-lateral paddle position using a single shock of 100 J. This shock led to severe bradycardia resulting in a transfer to our hospital. The physician who provided the shock could not have been aware that the patient had an implanted pacemaker. The skin above the pulse generator was burned. The electrocardiogram showed no pacing spikes or ventricular escape rhythm. Investigation of the pacemaker 3 hours after cardioversion revealed reprogramming of the device and a marked rise in the lead impedance (>3,000 ohm. Removal of the generator and implantation of a biventricular cardioverter defibrillator were required. The emergency situation, the small size of the generator, the small incision made using the buried suture method, and the patient's obesity all probably contributed to the physician's not noticing the implanted pacemaker. It is important to increase awareness of the severe consequences that may follow if the physician administering external defibrillation does not know about the patient's implanted pacemaker.

  3. Study of Cardiac Defibrillation Through Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Marin, S.; Cherry, E. M.; Fenton, F. H.

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the defibrillation problem are presented. In particular, in this study we use the rabbit ventricular geometry as a realistic model system for evaluating the efficacy of defibrillatory shocks. Statistical data obtained from the simulations were analyzed in term of a dose-response curve. Good quantitative agreement between our numerical results and clinically relevant values is obtained. An electric field strength of about 6.6 V/cm indicates a fifty percent probability of successful defibrillation for a 12-ms monophasic shock. Our validated model will be useful for optimizing defibrillation protocols.

  4. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction in Denmark in the years 2001-2012, a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther-Jensen, Matilde; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Lassen, Jens F; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Steen M; Lippert, Freddy; Kragholm, Kristian; Christensen, Erika F; Hassager, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by myocardial infarction in Denmark 2001-2012 and subsequent survival. The Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry was used to identify patients ⩾18 years surviving to discharge without prior implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Information on cardioverter defibrillator implantation was obtained from the National Patient Registry. We identified 974 myocardial infarction-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients surviving to hospital discharge, 130 of these patients (13%) had a cardioverter defibrillator implanted early (⩽40 days post-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest), 58 patients (6%) had late implantable cardioverter defibrillator (41-365 days post-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest). Odds of implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation within one year were higher in patients receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio (OR)CPR: 1.99, confidence interval (CI): 1.23-3.22, p=0.01), and Charlson Comorbidity Index level 1, (ORCCI1: 2.10, CI:1.25-3.49, pdefibrillator was higher in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (ORPCI: 3.67, CI: 1.35-9.97, p=0. 01). An early, but not late implantable cardioverter defibrillator was associated with increased survival (event time ratioEarly ICD: 1.45, CI: 1.11-1.90, p=0.01). Chronic heart failure, higher age groups, Charlson Comorbidity Index levels 1 to ⩾3 and male sex were associated with lower survival. Highest income was associated with higher survival. Cardioverter defibrillator implantation rates in patients surviving an myocardial infarction-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest increased from 14% to 19% over the period. Of the total patient population, 13% had implantation earlier than recommended by guidelines, presumably as primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Acute PCI and arrest later in the study period (increase one year) were predictors of late

  5. The Canadian experience with Durata and Riata ST Optim defibrillator leads: a report from the Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Device Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew T; Ha, Andrew C T; Exner, Derek V; Tung, Stanley K K; Parkash, Ratika; Connors, Sean; Coutu, Benoit; Crystal, Eugene; Champagne, Jean; Philippon, Francois; Yee, Raymond; Stephenson, Elizabeth A; Nery, Pablo B; Essebag, Vidal; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Redfearn, Damian; Krahn, Andrew D; Healey, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    The St. Jude Medical Riata family of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads has demonstrated a high rate of externalized conductors and electrical failure. Given similar design elements of Durata to Riata, the purpose of this study was to assess the rates of failure of the Riata ST Optim and Durata lead families in Canada. All Canadian ICD-implanting centers were invited to submit follow-up information on all Optim-coated ICD leads implanted. Electrical failure was defined as a rapid change in impedance or pacing capture threshold leading to lead revision, or oversensing due to noise. Externalized conductors were defined as appearance of conductor wires outside the lead body. Systematic fluoroscopic screening for externalized conductors was not performed. As of December 1, 2012, 15 of 25 centers provided data on 3981 leads (44% of those sold in Canada during the same timeframe): 3477 Durata and 504 Riata ST Optim leads. The most common model numbers were 7122 (1516 leads [38%]), 7121 (707 leads [18%]), and 7120 (622 leads [16%]). Mean follow-up duration from implant to December 1, 2012, was 4.47 ± 0.48 years for Riata ST Optim leads and 2.00 ± 1.10 years for Durata leads. The annual rate of lead failure was 0.27% per year for Riata ST Optim leads and 0.24% per year for Durata leads. No instances of externalized conductors were identified in the failed leads. No deaths were attributed to lead failure; however, 2 patients experienced inappropriate shocks due to lead failure. The overall electrical failure rates of the Riata ST Optim and Durata leads appear to be low, and no instances of externalized conductors were observed. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Extended charge banking model of dual path shocks for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Derek J; Sweeney, James D

    2008-08-01

    Single path defibrillation shock methods have been improved through the use of the Charge Banking Model of defibrillation, which predicts the response of the heart to shocks as a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit. While dual path defibrillation configurations have significantly reduced defibrillation thresholds, improvements to dual path defibrillation techniques have been limited to experimental observations without a practical model to aid in improving dual path defibrillation techniques. The Charge Banking Model has been extended into a new Extended Charge Banking Model of defibrillation that represents small sections of the heart as separate RC circuits, uses a weighting factor based on published defibrillation shock field gradient measures, and implements a critical mass criteria to predict the relative efficacy of single and dual path defibrillation shocks. The new model reproduced the results from several published experimental protocols that demonstrated the relative efficacy of dual path defibrillation shocks. The model predicts that time between phases or pulses of dual path defibrillation shock configurations should be minimized to maximize shock efficacy. Through this approach the Extended Charge Banking Model predictions may be used to improve dual path and multi-pulse defibrillation techniques, which have been shown experimentally to lower defibrillation thresholds substantially. The new model may be a useful tool to help in further improving dual path and multiple pulse defibrillation techniques by predicting optimal pulse durations and shock timing parameters.

  7. Transvenous extraction of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads under advisory--a comparison of Riata, Sprint Fidelis, and non-recalled implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Michael P; Cronin, Edmond M; Jacob, Jessen; Duarte, Valeria E; Tarakji, Khaldoun G; Martin, David O; Callahan, Thomas; Borek, P Peter; Cantillon, Daniel J; Niebauer, Mark J; Saliba, Walid I; Kanj, Mohamed; Wazni, Oussama; Baranowski, Bryan; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2013-10-01

    Comparative safety and efficacy associated with transvenous lead extraction (TLE) of recalled and non-recalled implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads has not been well characterized. To compare the indications, techniques, and procedural outcomes of recalled vs non-recalled ICD lead extraction procedures. TLE procedures performed at our institution from June 2002 to June 2012 in which Riata, Sprint Fidelis, or non-recalled ICD leads were extracted were included in the analysis. ICD lead extraction procedures were performed in 1079 patients, including 430 patients with recalled leads (121 Riata, 308 Sprint Fidelis, and 1 Riata and Sprint Fidelis) and 649 patients with non-recalled ICD leads. A total of 2056 chronic endovascular leads were extracted, of which 1215 (59.1%) were ICD leads. Overall, there was 96.8% complete procedural success, 99.1% clinical success, and 0.9% failure, with 3.9% minor complications and 1.5% major complications. Procedural outcomes for Riata and Sprint Fidelis TLE procedures were no different. Lead implant duration was significantly less in recalled than in non-recalled ICD lead TLE procedures. Complete procedural success was higher in recalled (424 of 430 [98.6%]) than in non-recalled (621 of 649 [95.7%]; P = .007) ICD lead TLE procedures. Minor complications were lower in recalled (10 of 430 [2.3%]) than in non-recalled (32 of 649 [5.0%]; P = .030) ICD lead TLE procedures. Rates of clinical success, failure, and major complications were no different in the recalled and non-recalled ICD lead TLE procedures. In our experience, recalled ICD leads were extracted with safety and efficacy comparable to that of non-recalled ICD leads. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Manuell arytmitolkning och defibrillering prehospitalt för att minska avbrott i bröstkompressioner

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Andreas; Erling, Kristofer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Todays guidelines for advanced CPR emphasize chest compressions with good quality and early defibrillation. Prehospital CPR performed by ambulance crew, an automated external defibrillator (AED) is used. The AED analyzes the heart rhythm and the performer is following the advice to chock the heart or not, given by the AED. During on-going CPR there are sequences when no chest compression is performed known as hands-off time. Hands-off time includes the time for the AED to ...

  9. Defibrillation in the movies: a missed opportunity for public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgbako, Ofole U; Ha, Yoonhee P; Ranard, Benjamin L; Hypolite, Kendra A; Sellers, Allison M; Nadkarni, Lindsay D; Becker, Lance B; Asch, David A; Merchant, Raina M

    2014-12-01

    To characterize defibrillation and cardiac arrest survival outcomes in movies. Movies from 2003 to 2012 with defibrillation scenes were reviewed for patient and rescuer characteristics, scene characteristics, defibrillation characteristics, additional interventions, and cardiac arrest survival outcomes. Resuscitation actions were compared with chain of survival actions and the American Heart Association (AHA) Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) 2020 Impact Goals. Cardiac arrest survival outcomes were compared with survival rates reported in the literature and targeted by the AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goals. Thirty-five scenes were identified in 32 movies. Twenty-five (71%) patients were male, and 29 (83%) rescuers were male. Intent of defibrillation was resuscitation in 29 (83%) scenes and harm in 6 (17%) scenes. Cardiac arrest was the indication for use in 23 (66%) scenes, and the heart rhythm was made known in 18 scenes (51%). When the heart rhythm was known, defibrillation was appropriately used for ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in 5 (28%) scenes and inappropriately used for asystole in 7 (39%) scenes. In 8 scenes with in-hospital cardiac arrest, 7 (88%) patients survived, compared to survival rates of 23.9% reported in the literature and 38% targeted by an AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goal. In 12 movie scenes with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 8 (67%) patients survived, compared to survival rates of 7.9-9.5% reported in peer-reviewed literature and 15.8% targeted by an AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goal. In movies, defibrillation and cardiac arrest survival outcomes are often portrayed inaccurately, representing missed opportunities for public health education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low Energy Multi-Stage Atrial Defibrillation Therapy Terminates Atrial Fibrillation with Less Energy than a Single Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multi-stage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. Methods and Results AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of three stages: ST1 (1-4 low energy biphasic shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultra-low energy monophasic shocks), and ST3 (anti-tachycardia pacing). Firstly, ST1 testing compared single or multiple monophasic (MP) and biphasic (BP) shocks. Secondly, several multi-stage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Thirdly, three shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus (SVC>CSd), proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage (CSp>LAA) and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage (RAA>LAA). The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1BP shock was less than 1MP shock (0.55 ± 0.1 versus 1.38 ± 0.31 J; p =0.003). 2-3 BP shocks terminated AF with lower peak voltage than 1BP or 1MP shock and with lower atrial DFT than 4 BP shocks. Compared to ST1 therapy alone, ST1+ST3 lowered the atrial DFT moderately (0.51 ± 0.46 versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J; p = 0.036) while a three-stage therapy, ST1+ST2+ST3, dramatically lowered the atrial DFT (0.19 ± 0.12 J versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J for ST1 alone, p=0.0012). Finally, the three-stage therapy ST1+ST2+ST3 was equally effective for all studied vectors. Conclusions Three-stage electrotherapy significantly reduces the AF defibrillation threshold and opens the door to low energy atrial defibrillation at or below the pain threshold. PMID:21980076

  11. Could implantable cardioverter defibrillators provide a human model supporting the learned helplessness theory of depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M; Hess, B

    1999-01-01

    Affective symptoms were examined retrospectively in 25 patients following placement of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) which can produce intermittent shocks without warning in response to cardiac ventricular arrhythmias. The number of ICD random, uncontrollable discharge shocks and pre-ICD history of psychological distress (i.e., depression and/or anxiety) were documented in all patients using a demographics questionnaire and a standardized behavioral/psychological symptoms questionnaire (i.e., Symptom Checklist-90 Revised). ICD patients were dichotomized into two groups: those without a history of psychological distress prior to ICD (n = 18) and those with a history of psychological distress prior to ICD (n = 7). In ICD patients without a prior history, results indicated that quantity of ICD discharge shocks was significantly predictive of current reported depression (r = 0.45, p = 0.03) and current reported anxiety (r = 0.51, p = 0.02). Conversely, in patients with a reported history of psychological distress, there was no significant relationship found between quantity of discharge shocks and current reported depression or anxiety. This study may provide evidence in support of a human model of learned helplessness in that it supports the notion that exposure to an unavoidable and inescapable aversive stimulus was found to be related to patients' reported depression. Further studies may wish to prospectively consider a larger sample as well as a more comprehensive assessment of premorbid psychological symptoms.

  12. Performance of a radiation protection cabin during implantation of pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploux, Sylvain; Ritter, Philippe; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Clementy, Jacques; Bordachar, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Pacemaker implants are associated with a high cumulative exposure of the operators to radiation. Standard radiation protection with lead aprons is incomplete and the cause of spine disorders. A radiation protection cabin offers complete protection by surrounding the operator, without requiring a lead apron. We randomly and evenly assigned 60 patients undergoing implantations of permanent pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) with (a) a radiation protection cabin (cabin group, n = 30) versus (b) standard protection with a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent apron (control group, n = 30). Radiation exposure was measured using personal electronic dosimeters placed on the thorax, back, and head of the operator. The patient, procedural, and device characteristics of the 2 study groups were similar. All procedures in the cabin group were performed as planned without increase in duration or complication rate compared with the control group. The mean radiation dose to the head, normalized for fluoroscopy duration, was significantly lower in the cabin (0.040 +/- 0.032 microSv/min) than in the control (1.138 +/- 0.560 microSv/min) group (p apron) were similar. The use of a radiation protection cabin markedly decreased the exposure of the operator to radiation, and eliminated the need to wear a lead apron, without increasing the procedural time or complication rate during implantation of pacemaker and ICD.

  13. Home monitoring report from a single lead Lumax DX implantable cardioverter defibrillator: New observations in a new system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Konstantino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old man underwent a single lead Lumax 640 DX implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. A DX system consists of a single lead, which provides atrial as well as ventricular electrograms, and enhances atrial arrhythmia detection. Three months after the implantation, high-frequency episodes were detected on the far field and the atrial channels, but not on the bipolar right ventricular channel; these were classified as atrial tachycardia. In the present report, we discussed the unusual pattern of the artifacts that was related to an electromagnetic interference detected by the novel DX system.

  14. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: ten years experience in a medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-En; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Shang-Hung; Yeh, San-Jou; Wu, Delon

    2008-01-01

    An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the therapy of choice for survivors of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias or sudden cardiac death. To date there is little data concerning the clinical features and outcome of ICD therapy among Taiwanese. This study identifies factors related to the outcome of ICD therapy over a ten-year period at this institution. Forty-nine ICDs were implanted in 46 patients between August 1996 and January 2006. The mean follow-up duration was 32 +/- 21 months. Patient data, primary cardiac diagnosis, presenting cardiac arrhythmia, echocardiographic parameters, hemodynamic indexes, electrophysiologic findings, and follow-up observations were analyzed. The findings were compared to those of the Taiwan ICD Multicenter Registry (TIMR) Study and major secondary prevention ICD trials in the literature. The patients in this study were comparable to those of TIMR but were younger and had better left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) than those in Western countries. Furthermore, higher mortality on follow-up was observed in patients with any of the following: LVEF or = 55 mm, a left ventricular end diastolic dimension > or = 75 mm, an end systolic dimension > or = 60 mm, triple vessel disease, a prior anterior myocardial infarction, and amiodarone or diuretic therapy. Patients with structural heart disease other than ischemic heart disease or dilated cardiomyopathy had higher event recurrence rates. Left ventricular function is a major determinant affecting the outcome in ICD recipients. Aggressive treatment for heart failure is warranted in these patients.

  15. A trial design for evaluation of empiric programming of implantable cardioverter defibrillators to improve patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan John M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The delivery of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD therapy is sophisticated and requires the programming of over 100 settings. Physicians tailor these settings with the intention of optimizing ICD therapeutic efficacy, but the usefulness of this approach has not been studied and is unknown. Empiric programming of settings such as anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP has been demonstrated to be effective, but an empiric approach to programming all VT/VF detection and therapy settings has not been studied. A single standardized empiric programming regimen was developed based on key strategies with the intention of restricting shock delivery to circumstances when it is the only effective and appropriate therapy. The EMPIRIC trial is a worldwide, multi-center, prospective, one-to-one randomized comparison of empiric to physician tailored programming for VT/VF detection and therapy in a broad group of about 900 dual chamber ICD patients. The trial will provide a better understanding of how particular programming strategies impact the quantity of shocks delivered and facilitate optimization of complex ICD programming.

  16. Cardiac pacing systems and implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs): a radiological perspective of equipment, anatomy and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, K. E-mail: apqz59@dsl.pipex.comk1511@hotmail.com; Burchard, F.; Papouchado, M.; Wilde, P

    2004-08-01

    Cardiac pacing is a proven and effective treatment in the management of many cardiac arrhythmias. Implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) are beneficial for certain patient groups with a history of serious, recurrent ventricular dysrhythmias, with a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Pacemaker devices take many forms and are highly visible on the chest radiograph. The radiographic appearances of ICDs and pacemakers can be similar and are subject to similar complications. The anatomical approach to the implantation, the type of device used and anatomical variations will all affect the appearance of these devices on the chest film. Pacemaker complications identified radiographically include pneumothorax, lead malpositioning, lead displacement or fracture, fracture of outer conductor coil, loose connection between the lead and pacemaker connector block, lack of redundant loops in paediatric patients and excessive manipulation of the device by the patient (Twiddler's syndrome). This pictorial review highlights the role of chest radiography in the diagnosis of post-cardiac pacing and ICD insertion complications, as well as demonstrating the normal appearances of the most frequently implanted devices.

  17. The number of prehospital defibrillation shocks and 1-month survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Manabu; Abe, Takeru; Nagata, Takashi; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-04-17

    The relationship between the number of pre-hospital defibrillation shocks and treatment outcome in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) presenting with ventricular fibrillation (VF) is unknown currently. We examined the association between the number of pre-hospitalization defibrillation shocks and 1-month survival in OHCA patients. We conducted a prospective observational study using national registry data obtained from patients with OHCA between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 in Japan. The study subjects were ≥ 18-110 years of age, had suffered from an OHCA before arrival of EMS personnel, had a witnessed collapse, had an initial rhythm that was shockable [VF/ventricular tachycardia (pulseless VT)], were not delivered a shock using a public automated external defibrillator (AED), received one or more shocks using a biphasic defibrillator by EMS personnel, and were transported to a medical institution between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012. There were 20,851 OHCA cases which met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Signal detection analysis was used to identify the cutoff point in the number of prehospital defibrillation shocks most closely related to one-month survival. Variables related to the number of defibrillations or one-month survival in OHCA were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. A cutoff point in the number of pre-hospital defibrillation shocks most closely associated with 1-month OHCA survival was between two and three (χ(2) = 209.61, p defibrillations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.38), OHCA origin (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 2.26, 3.49), use of ALS devices (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.79), use of epinephrine (OR = 0.33, 95% C: 0.28, 0.39), interval between first defibrillation and first ROSC (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.78), and chest compression (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.38) were associated significantly with 1-month OCHA survival. The cutoff point in the number of defibrillations of

  18. Stress testing in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M; Trivax, Justin; Franklin, Barry A; Williamson, Brian; Kahn, Joel K

    2007-01-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to assess the responses to, and complications associated with, stress testing in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). Primary end points were occurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, onset of burst pacing or ICD firing, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or death during or soon after stress testing. Secondary end points were urgent coronary revascularization and/or hospital readmission for cardiovascular complications. During a 4-year period, 1734 patients underwent ICD implantation or generator replacement at our institution; 84 patients (mean age +/- SD, 67+/-12 years; 76% men) subsequently underwent 107 stress tests, including 44 exercise and 63 pharmacologic (22 dobutamine, 41 dipyridamole) evaluations. None of the ICDs were inactivated before testing. All tests were supervised by specially trained paramedical personnel, with a physician immediately available. Four patients had self-terminating, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia at peak stress. None had sustained ventricular tachycardia requiring emergent therapy. There were no deaths or hospital readmissions for ventricular arrhythmias. These findings suggest that stress testing is feasible in patients with ICDs and that it can be performed without pretest inactivation.

  19. Hands-on defibrillation and electrocardiogram artefact filtering technology increases chest compression fraction and decreases peri-shock pause duration in a simulation model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Shannon M; Cheskes, Sheldon; Howes, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Reducing pauses during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) compressions result in better outcomes in cardiac arrest. Artefact filtering technology (AFT) gives rescuers the opportunity to visualize the underlying electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythm during chest compressions, and reduces the pauses that occur before and after delivering a shock. We conducted a simulation study to measure the reduction of peri-shock pause and impact on chest compression fraction (CCF) through AFT. In a simulator setting, participants were given a standardized cardiac arrest scenario and were randomly assigned to perform CPR/defibrillation using the protocol from one of three experimental arms: 1) Standard of Care (pauses for rhythm analysis and shock delivery); 2) AFT (no pauses for rhythm analysis, but a pause for defibrillation); or 3) AFT with hands-on defibrillation (no pauses for rhythm analysis or defibrillation). The primary outcomes were CCF and peri-shock pause duration, with secondary outcomes of pre- and post-shock pause duration. AFT with hands-on defibrillation was found to have the highest CCF (86.4%), as compared to AFT alone (83.8%, pdefibrillation was associated with a reduced peri-shock pause (2.6 seconds) as compared to AFT alone (5.3 seconds, pdefibrillation.

  20. Validation of defibrillator lead performance registry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Elgaard; Larsen, Jacob Moesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The validity of registry data on defibrillator lead performance is described only sparsely, despite its clinical importance. This study investigated the validity of defibrillator lead performance registry data in a nationwide and population-based registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified.......9% (95% CI: 85.2-90.2%) with a κ value of 0.82 (95% CI:0.78-0.86) representing an almost perfect match. CONCLUSION: The validity of data on defibrillator lead performance recorded in the DPIR is excellent for the specific types of lead intervention and good for the specific reasons for defibrillator lead...... intervention. The validity of the less detailed overall reasons for lead interventions commonly used to report lead performance is also excellent. These findings indicate high registry data quality appropriate for scientific analysis and industry-independent post-marketing surveillance....

  1. Incorporating patients' preference diagnosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator decision-making: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Krystina B; Carroll, Sandra L; Birnie, David; Stacey, Dawn; Matlock, Daniel D

    2018-01-01

    Strong recommendations exist for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in appropriately selected patients. Yet, patient preferences are not often incorporated when decisions about ICD therapy are made. Literature published since 2016 was reviewed aiming to discuss current advances and ongoing challenges with ICD decision-making in adults, discuss shared decision-making (SDM) as a strategy to incorporate preference diagnoses, summarize current evidence on effective interventions to facilitate SDM, and identify opportunities for research and practice. Advances in risk stratification can identify patients who will most and least likely benefit from the ICD. Interventions to support SDM are emerging. These interventions present options, the risks, and the benefits of each option, and elicit patients' values and preferences regarding possible outcomes. Appropriate patient selection for initial or continued ICD therapy is multifactorial. It requires accurate clinical diagnosis using careful risk stratification and accurate preference diagnosis based upon the patient's preferences. SDM aims to unite the elements that constitute these two equally important diagnoses. High-quality decision-making will be difficult to achieve if patients lack or misunderstand information, and if evolving patient preferences are not incorporated when making decisions.

  2. : A qualitative study of psychological sequelae to the implantable cardioverter defibrillator as a treatment for the prevention of sudden cardiac death in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Etchegary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy caused by a TMEM43 p.S358L mutation is a fully penetrant autosomal dominant cause of sudden cardiac death where prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy significantly reduces mortality by returning lethal cardiac rhythms to normal. This qualitative study assessed the psychological ramifications of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator on recipients, their spouses and their mutation negative siblings. Design Qualitative interview study. Participants Twenty-one individuals (nine mutation positive, eight mutation negative and four spouses from 15 families completed semi-structured interviews. Results No theoretical assumptions about the data were made: inductive sub-coding was accomplished with the constant comparison method and cohesive themes across all respondent interviews were determined. All interviewees had a family history of sudden cardiac death and appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in themselves or family members. Average length of time with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was 10 years. Major themes included: (1 acceptance and gratitude, (2 grudging acceptance, (3 psychological effects (on emotional and psychological well-being; functioning of the broader family unit; and relationships, and (4 practical concerns (on clothes, travel, loss of driving licence and the effects of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge. These affected all family members, regardless of mutation status. Conclusions Despite the survival advantage of implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, the intervention carries psychological and practical burdens for family members from kindreds manifesting p.S358L TMEM43 ARVC that does not appear to dissipate with time. A move towards integrating psychology services with the cardiac genetics clinic for the extended family may provide benefit.

  3. Conceptual models of coronary perfusion pressure and their relationship to defibrillation success in a porcine model of prolonged out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Joshua C.; Salcido, David D.; Menegazzi, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The amount of myocardial perfusion required for successful defibrillation after cardiac arrest is unknown. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) is a surrogate for myocardial perfusion. One limited clinical study identifies a threshold of 15 mmHg required for return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Our exploration of threshold and dose models of CPP during the initial bout of CPR indicates higher levels than previously demonstrated are required. CPP required for shock success throughout on-going resuscitation is unknown and other conceptual models of CPP have not been explored. Hypothesis An array of conceptual models of CPP is associated with and predicts defibrillation success throughout resuscitation. Methods Data from 6 porcine cardiac arrest studies were pooled. Mean and area under the curve (AUC) CPP were derived for 30-second epochs. Five conceptual models of CPP were analyzed: threshold, delta, cumulative delta, dose, and cumulative dose. Comparative statistics were performed with one-way ANOVA and two-tailed t-test. Regression models assessed CPP trends and prediction of ROSC. Results For 316 defibrillation attempts in 124 animals, those resulting in ROSC (n=75) had significantly higher threshold, delta, cumulative delta, dose, and cumulative dose CPP than those without. All conceptual models except delta CPP had significantly different values across successive defibrillation attempts and all five models were significant predictors of ROSC, along with experimental design. Conclusions Threshold, delta, cumulative delta, dose, and cumulative dose CPP predict individual defibrillation success throughout resuscitation. PMID:22266069

  4. Shock as a determinant of poor patient-centered outcomes in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Van Den Broek, Krista C; Van Den Berg, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The medical benefits of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are well established, but ICD shocks are known to influence patient-centered outcomes. In this viewpoint, we examine the strength of the evidence as found in primary and secondary prevention trials that used quality of life...

  5. Increased anxiety in partners of patients with a cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; VAN DEN Berg, Martha; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2009-01-01

    The partner of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patient serves as an important source of support for the patient, which may be hampered if the partner experiences increased distress. We examined (1) potential differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms in ICD patients compared...

  6. Electrostriction Effects During Defibrillation

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, Michelle M; Roth, Bradley J

    2011-01-01

    Background-The electric field applied to the heart during defibrillation causes mechanical forces (electrostriction), and as a result the heart deforms. This paper analyses the physical origin of the deformation, and how significant it is. Methods-We represent the heart as an anisotropic cylinder. This simple geometry allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the potential, current density, charge, stress, and strain. Results-Charge induced on the heart surface in the presence of the electric field results in forces that deform the heart. In addition, the anisotropy of cardiac tissue creates a charge density throughout the tissue volume, leading to body forces. These two forces cause the tissue to deform in a complicated manner, with the anisotropy suppressing radial displacements in favor of tangential ones. Quantitatively, the deformation of the tissue is small, although it may be significant when using some imaging techniques that require the measurement of small displacements. Conclusions-The anisotrop...

  7. Implantable defibrillator therapy: more than defibrillation...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDuring the past 25 years, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has evolved from the treatment of last resort to the gold standard for patients at high risk for life­threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Patients at high risk include those who survived life-threatening

  8. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator as a bridge to reimplantation in patients with ICD or CRT-D-related infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The approach to treat device infection in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D is a challenging procedure. Optimal treatment is complete extraction of the infected device. To protect these patients from sudden cardiac arrest while waiting for reimplantation and to avoid recurrent infection, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD seems to be a valuable solution. Therefore, we investigated the management and outcome of patients with ICD or CRT-D infections using the WCD as a bridge to re-implantation after lead extraction procedures. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on consecutive patients who underwent ICD or CRT-D removal due to device-related local or systemic infections. All patients were prescribed a WCD at our center between 01/2012 and 10/2015. All patients returned to our outpatient clinic for regular ICD or CRT-D monitoring initially 1 and 3 months after reimplantation followed by 6-months intervals. Results Twenty-one patients (mean age 65.0 ± 8.0 years, male 76.2% were included in the study. Complete lead extraction was achieved in all patients. While waiting for reimplantation one patient experienced a symptomatic episode of sustained ventricular tachycardia. This episode was converted successfully into sinus rhythm by a single 150 J shock. Mean follow-up time 392 ± 206 days, showing survival rate of 100% and freedom from reinfection in all patients. Conclusion The WCD seems to be a valuable bridging option for patients with ICD or CRT-D infections, showing no recurrent device infection.

  9. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator as a bridge to reimplantation in patients with ICD or CRT-D-related infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L; Pecha, S; Linder, M; Vogler, J; Gosau, N; Meyer, C; Willems, S; Reichenspurner, H; Hakmi, S

    2017-11-25

    The approach to treat device infection in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) is a challenging procedure. Optimal treatment is complete extraction of the infected device. To protect these patients from sudden cardiac arrest while waiting for reimplantation and to avoid recurrent infection, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) seems to be a valuable solution. Therefore, we investigated the management and outcome of patients with ICD or CRT-D infections using the WCD as a bridge to re-implantation after lead extraction procedures. We conducted a retrospective study on consecutive patients who underwent ICD or CRT-D removal due to device-related local or systemic infections. All patients were prescribed a WCD at our center between 01/2012 and 10/2015. All patients returned to our outpatient clinic for regular ICD or CRT-D monitoring initially 1 and 3 months after reimplantation followed by 6-months intervals. Twenty-one patients (mean age 65.0 ± 8.0 years, male 76.2%) were included in the study. Complete lead extraction was achieved in all patients. While waiting for reimplantation one patient experienced a symptomatic episode of sustained ventricular tachycardia. This episode was converted successfully into sinus rhythm by a single 150 J shock. Mean follow-up time 392 ± 206 days, showing survival rate of 100% and freedom from reinfection in all patients. The WCD seems to be a valuable bridging option for patients with ICD or CRT-D infections, showing no recurrent device infection.

  10. Modeling Defibrillation of the Heart: Approaches and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayanova, Natalia; Constantino, Jason; Ashihara, Takashi; Plank, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac defibrillation, as accomplished nowadays by automatic, implantable devices (ICDs), constitutes the most important means of combating sudden cardiac death. While ICD therapy has proved to be efficient and reliable, defibrillation is a traumatic experience. Thus, research on defibrillation mechanisms, particularly aimed at lowering defibrillation voltage, remains an important topic. Advancing our understanding towards a full appreciation of the mechanisms by which a shock interacts with the heart is the most promising approach to achieve this goal. The aim of this paper is to assess the current state-of-the-art in ventricular defibrillation modeling, focusing on both numerical modeling approaches and major insights that have been obtained using defibrillation models, primarily those of realistic ventricular geometry. The paper showcases the contributions that modeling and simulation have made to our understanding of the defibrillation process. The review thus provides an example of biophysically based computational modeling of the heart (i.e., cardiac defibrillation) that has advanced the understanding of cardiac electrophysiological interaction at the organ level and has the potential to contribute to the betterment of the clinical practice of defibrillation. PMID:22273793

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Nondependent Pacemaker Patients with Pacemakers and Defibrillators with a Nearly Depleted Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hideo; Padmanabhan, Deepak; Watson, Robert E; Dalzell, Connie; Acker, Nancy; Jondal, Mary; Romme, Abby L; Cha, Yong-Mei; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Felmlee, Joel P; Friedman, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with non-MRI-conditional cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) has been shown to be safe when performed under closely monitored protocols. However, the safety of MRI in patients with devices with a nearly depleted battery has not been reported. Prospective data were collected between January 2008 and May 2015 in patients with non-MRI-conditional CIEDs undergoing clinically indicated MRI under institutional protocol. Patients who were pacemaker dependent were excluded. Patients whose devices were at elective replacement indicator (ERI) at the time of MRI or close to ERI (ERI or replacement for battery depletion within 3 months of scan) were identified through database review and analyzed for clinical events. MRI scans (n = 569) were performed in 442 patients. Of these, we identified 13 scans performed with a nearly depleted battery in nine patients. All scans with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs, n = 9) were uneventful. However, two scans with pacemakers close to ERI resulted in a power-on-reset (PoR) event. One scan with a pacemaker close to ERI that was programmed to DOO mode reached ERI during MRI and automatically changed to VVI mode. Additionally, one scan with a pacemaker at ERI did not allow programming. All pacemakers with events were implanted before 2005. Patients with pacemakers and ICDs with a nearly depleted battery can safely undergo MRI when patients are not pacemaker dependent. Attention should be paid because old devices can result in PoR or ERI during MRI, which may lead to oversensing and inhibition of pacing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for example, iPods) Household appliances, such as microwave ovens High-tension wires Metal detectors Industrial welders Electrical ... of Having an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator? An ICD works well at detecting and stopping certain life-threatening ...

  13. Definition of successful defibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.; Walker, Robert G.; van Alem, Anouk P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The definition of defibrillation shock "success" endorsed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation since the publication of Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care has been removal of ventricular fibrillation at 5 secs after shock

  14. Primary prevention with a defibrillator: are therapies always really optimized before implantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anthony; Amelot, Mathieu; Gomes, Sophie; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Saloux, Eric; Pellissier, Arnaud; Labombarda, Fabien; Scanu, Patrice; Milliez, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 30-35% is widely accepted as a cut-off for primary prevention with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy supposedly on optimal medical therapy. This study reports evolutions of LVEF and treatments of patients implanted in our institution with an ICD for primary prevention of sudden death, after 2 years of follow-up. Among 84 patients with LVEF under 35% implanted between 2005 and 2007, 28 (33%) had improved their LVEF >35% after the 2 years of follow-up. During this period, even if Beta-blockers (98%) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers (95%) were already initially prescribed, treatments were significantly optimized with improvement of maximal doses of beta-blockers and RAS blockers at 2 year follow-up compared with initial prescription (62 vs. 37% and 68 vs. 45%, respectively). In patients with improved LVEF, a trend toward a better treatment optimization and revascularization procedures (in the sub-group of ischaemic patients) were observed compared with non-improved LVEF patients. In our study of patients with prophylactic ICD, one-third of them have improved their LVEF after a 2 year follow-up. Despite an optimal medical therapy at the time of implantation, we were able to further improve the maximal treatment doses after implantation. This study highlights the issue of what should be considered as 'optimal' therapy and the possibility of improvement of LVEF related to a real optimized treatment before implantation.

  15. A single implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock unmasking an electrical storm of 389 ventricular tachycardia episodes triggering device therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Miguel A; Valverde, Irene; Puchol, Alberto; Castellanos, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Sánchez, Ana M; Alvarez-Temiño, María; Palomino, Miguel

    2008-11-01

    We describe the case of a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy who presented the first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock approximately 5 months after implantation. Device interrogation surprisingly revealed the occurrence of 389 ventricular tachyarrhythmia episodes terminated by asymptomatic antitachycardia pacing (ATP) except for the episode requiring shock. The present case of electrical storm highlights how contemporary tiered ATP schemes constitute a valuable but underused form of termination for ventricular tachyarrhythmias in ICD patients, reducing the number of painful shocks and their adverse consequences.

  16. Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondato, Fernando; Bazzell, Jane; Schwartz, Linda; Mc Donald, Bruce W; Fisher, Robert; Anderson, S Shawn; Galindo, Arcenio; Dueck, Amylou C; Scott, Luis R

    2017-01-15

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD. This study evaluated the in vivo interaction between EMI generated by HEV with ICD. Thirty patients (73±9 y/o; 80% male) with stable ICD function were exposed to EMI generated by a Toyota Prius Hybrid®. The vehicle was lifted above the ground, allowing safe changes in engine rotation and consequent variations in electromagnetic emission. EMI was measured (NARDA STS® model EHP-50C) and expressed in A/m (magnetic), Volts/m (electrical), and Hertz (frequency). Six positions were evaluated: driver, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside, at the back and front of the car. Each position was evaluated at idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds (acceleration-deceleration-brake). All ICD devices were continuously monitored during the study. The levels of EMI generated were low (highest mean levels: 2.09A/m at right back seat at 30 mph; and 3.5V/m at driver seat at variable speeds). No episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming was observed. It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with HEV. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of different models of HEV or electric engine with ICD or unipolar pacemakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Class I recall of defibrillator leads: a comparison of the Sprint Fidelis and Riata families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jeffrey; Brumberg, Genevieve; Rattan, Rohit; Jain, Sandeep; Saba, Samir

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, 2 popular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads have undergone a class I recall by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): the Sprint Fidelis and the Riata leads. To examine the failure rates of these 2 leads with respect to their date of FDA recall. All patients implanted with a Sprint Fidelis, Riata, or Sprint Quattro lead at our institution were included. Kaplan-Meier failure-free survival curves were constructed with and without censoring at the dates of announcement of the FDA recall for each lead. A total of 2270 patients (623 Sprint Fidelis, 627 Riata, and 1020 Sprint Quattro) were included. The failure-free survival of the Sprint Quattro lead was significantly better than that of the Riata lead (P <.0001), which in turn was better than that of the Sprint Fidelis lead (P = .0214). After censoring events at the time of the FDA recall for each lead, the failure-free survival of the Sprint Quattro lead continued to be superior to that of the Riata (P <.0001) and Sprint Fidelis (P = .0124) leads but the difference between the Riata and Sprint Fidelis leads was eliminated (P = .123). In this study, a comparative analysis of the failure-free survival of 2 recalled leads demonstrates discrepancies in the timing of the recall despite comparable failure-free survival patterns leading to the recall. The causes of these discrepancies are unclear and raise questions regarding the consistency of postmarketing surveillance and manufacturers' reporting of malfunctions of medical devices. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hands-on defibrillation has the potential to improve the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and is safe for rescuers-a preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Tobias; Gruenewald, Matthias; Lauenstein, Christoph; Drews, Tobias; Iden, Timo; Meybohm, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that rescuers could safely provide a low, static downward force in direct contact with patients during elective cardioversion. The purpose of our experimental study was to investigate whether shock delivery during uninterrupted chest compressions may have an impact on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality and can be safely performed in a realistic animal model of CPR. Twenty anesthetized swine were subjected to 7 minutes of ventricular fibrillation followed by CPR according to the 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines. Pregelled self-adhesive defibrillation electrodes were attached onto the torso in the ventrodorsal direction and connected to a biphasic defibrillator. Animals were randomized either to (1) hands-on defibrillation, where rescuers wore 2 pairs of polyethylene gloves and shocks were delivered during ongoing chest compressions, or (2) hands-off defibrillation, where hands were taken off during defibrillation. CPR was successful in 9 out of 10 animals in the hands-on group (versus 8 out of 10 animals in the hands-off group; not significant). In the hands-on group, chest compressions were interrupted for 0.8% [0.6%; 1.4%] of the total CPR time (versus 8.2% [4.2%; 9.0%]; P=0.0003), and coronary perfusion pressure was earlier restored to its pre-interruption level (P=0.0205). Also, rescuers neither sensed any kind of electric stimulus nor did Holter ECG reveal any serious cardiac arrhythmia. Hands-on defibrillation may improve CPR quality and could be safely performed during uninterrupted chest compressions in our standardized porcine model.

  19. Hands-On Defibrillation Has the Potential to Improve the Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Is Safe for Rescuers—A Preclinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Tobias; Gruenewald, Matthias; Lauenstein, Christoph; Drews, Tobias; Iden, Timo; Meybohm, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been demonstrated that rescuers could safely provide a low, static downward force in direct contact with patients during elective cardioversion. The purpose of our experimental study was to investigate whether shock delivery during uninterrupted chest compressions may have an impact on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality and can be safely performed in a realistic animal model of CPR. Methods and Results Twenty anesthetized swine were subjected to 7 minutes of ventricular fibrillation followed by CPR according to the 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines. Pregelled self-adhesive defibrillation electrodes were attached onto the torso in the ventrodorsal direction and connected to a biphasic defibrillator. Animals were randomized either to (1) hands-on defibrillation, where rescuers wore 2 pairs of polyethylene gloves and shocks were delivered during ongoing chest compressions, or (2) hands-off defibrillation, where hands were taken off during defibrillation. CPR was successful in 9 out of 10 animals in the hands-on group (versus 8 out of 10 animals in the hands-off group; not significant). In the hands-on group, chest compressions were interrupted for 0.8% [0.6%; 1.4%] of the total CPR time (versus 8.2% [4.2%; 9.0%]; P=0.0003), and coronary perfusion pressure was earlier restored to its pre-interruption level (P=0.0205). Also, rescuers neither sensed any kind of electric stimulus nor did Holter ECG reveal any serious cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusions Hands-on defibrillation may improve CPR quality and could be safely performed during uninterrupted chest compressions in our standardized porcine model. PMID:23316286

  20. Transthoracic defibrillation potential gradients in a closed chest porcine model of prolonged spontaneous and electrically induced ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, James T; Rosborough, John P; Youngquist, Scott T; Shah, Atman P

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the local electrical field or potential gradient, measured with a catheter-based system, required to terminate long duration electrically or ischaemically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). We hypothesized that prolonged ischaemic VF would be more difficult to terminate when compared to electrically induced VF of similar duration. Thirty anesthetized and instrumented swine were randomized to electrically induced VF or spontaneous, ischaemically induced VF, produced by balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. After 7 min of VF, chest compressions were initiated and rescue shocks were attempted 1 min later. The potential gradient for each shock was measured and the mean values required for defibrillation compared for the VF groups. The number of shocks and the shock strength required for termination of VF were not significantly different for the groups. The potential gradient of the first successful defibrillating shock was significantly greater in the spontaneous, occlusion-induced VF group (12.80+/-2.82 V/cm vs 9.60+/-2.48 V/cm, p=0.002). The number of refibrillations was greater in the ischaemic group than in the non-ischaemic electrical group (6+/-4 vs 1+/-1, pDefibrillation of prolonged VF produced by acute myocardial ischaemia requires a significantly greater potential gradient to terminate than prolonged VF induced by electrical stimulation of the right ventricular endocardium. The VF duration used in this study approximates that occurring in victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our findings may be of clinical importance in the management of such patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transthoracic Defibrillation Potential Gradients in a Closed Chest Porcine Model of Prolonged Spontaneous and Electrically Induced Ventricular Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, James T.; Rosborough, John P.; Youngquist, Scott T.; Shah, Atman P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective The purpose of this study was to measure the local electrical field or potential gradient, measured with a catheter-based system, required to terminate long duration electrically or ischaemically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). We hypothesized that prolonged ischaemic VF would be more difficult to terminate when compared to electrically induced VF of similar duration. Methods Thirty anesthetized and instrumented swine were randomized to electrically induced VF or spontaneous, ischemically induced VF, produced by balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. After 7 min of VF, chest compressions were initiated and rescue shocks were attempted 1 min later. The potential gradient for each shock was measured and the mean values required for defibrillation compared for the VF all. Results The number of shocks and the shock strength required for termination of VF were not significantly different for the all. The potential gradient of the first successful defibrillating shock was significantly greater in the spontaneous, occlusion induced VF group (12.80 ± 2.82 vs 9.60 ± 2.48 V/cm, p = 0.002). The number of refibrillations was greater in the ischaemic group than in the non-ischaemic electrical group (6 ± 4 versus 1 ± 1, p Defibrillation of prolonged VF produced by acute myocardial ischaemia requires a significantly greater potential gradient to terminate than prolonged VF induced by electrical stimulation of the right ventricular endocardium. The VF duration used in this study approximates that occurring in victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our findings may be of clinical importance in the management of such patients. PMID:20122785

  2. Determining transthoracic impedance, delivered energy, and peak current during defibrillation episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, V C; Charbonnier, F M; Long, P

    1981-01-01

    A simplified method has been developed to determine peak current, transthoracic impedance, and delivered energy during a damped sinusoidal defibrillation pulse. The discharge waveform information is generated from sampling the peak discharge current through a current transformer and measuring the voltage stored on the energy storage capacitor. For a given defibrillator circuit a unique relationship exists between the peak discharge current IM and the unknown external impedance Rext presented to the defibrillator by the patient; hence, measurement of IM allows calculation of Rext. A microprocessor-controlled algorithm provides delivered energy information using known internal resistance, capacitance, and inductance parameters. The benefit of this method of delivered energy calculation is that the current and voltage waveforms need not be digitized and then integrated to provide the desired information. This method also keeps defibrillation circuitry ground isolated and simplifies operation through the high electromagnetic fields generated during the discharge. The delivered energy information, along with time, date, and other patient parameters, is documented automatically with an annotation strip-chart recorder.

  3. Failure of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads: a matter of lead size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rordorf, Roberto; Poggio, Luca; Savastano, Simone; Vicentini, Alessandro; Petracci, Barbara; Chieffo, Enrico; Klersy, Catherine; Landolina, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    Small-diameter implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) Sprint Fidelis and Riata leads have been recalled owing to an increased risk of lead failure, thus arousing the suspicion that lead size might be a critical issue. To compare the incidence of failure of small-diameter (≤8 F) and standard-diameter (>8 F) ICD leads implanted in a single center. From January 2003 to December 2010, 190 Sprint Fidelis, 182 Riata/Riata ST, 99 Optim (Riata Optim/Durata), and 419 standard-diameter leads were implanted in our center. During a median follow-up of 33 months, the overall failure rate was 6.3%. Follow-up duration was similar for Sprint Fidelis, Riata, and standard-diameter leads but shorter for the Optim group. The failure rate was significantly higher in Sprint Fidelis leads than in both standard-diameter (4.8%/year vs 0.8%/year; Pleads. The incidence of lead failure in Riata/Riata ST leads proved significantly higher than in standard-diameter leads (2.6%/year vs 0.8%/year; P = .001). No cases of lead failure were recorded in the Optim group. On multivariable analyses, small-diameter (hazard ratio [HR] 5.03, 2.53-10.01, Pleads and agelead failure. Compared with standard-diameter leads, both Sprint Fidelis and Riata/Riata ST small-diameter ICD leads are at an increased risk of failure, although the incidence of events is significantly lower in the Riata than in the Sprint Fidelis group. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Control of postoperative pain following implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque Oliveros, M

    2017-11-20

    To evaluate local anesthetic infiltration with 0.5% bupivacaine in the management of surgical wound pain during the postoperative period. A randomized controlled trial was carried out from 1 January to 1 June 2017 SCOPE: Cardiovascular Surgery Department and Heart Area. Patients scheduled for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement, aged ≥ 18 years and who following verbal and written explanation of the purpose of the study, accepted and signed the informed consent document. The total sample consisted of 82 patients divided into anesthetic infiltration group (n=39) and control group (n=43). Patients were randomized to the control group (conventional management) or anesthetic infiltration group (infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine at surgical wound closure after ICD implantation). Pain intensity was rated with the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) during the postoperative period at rest and in the course of movement. Patient gender, sex and age, type and time of surgery, intensity of pain, surgical wound complications and rescue analgesia. The control group showed the greatest pain during the postoperative period according to the NRS resting score (at 2hours NRS=6.3; P=.001, 4hours NRS=6.1; P=.002 and 12hours NRS=4.1; P=.004) and in the course of movement (at 2hours NRS=7.1; P=.001, 4hours NRS=6.9; P=.003 and 12hours NRS=5.1; P=.005). The infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine in the surgical incision after ICD implantation reduces patient pain at rest and in the course of movement during the postoperative period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in a Patient with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD and Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ansari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD has currently become the standard treatment for preventing sudden cardiac death. There are some psychological consequences in patients with ICD such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after the shocks induced by ICD. This report aimed to present the case of a 54-year-old man with ICD who had developed PTSD; his PTSD was treated, using cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy consisting of relaxation, mindfulness and problem solving techniques. In patients with ICD who are experiencing PTSD using cognitive behavioral interventions may be helpful to reduce their psychological sufferings.

  6. The role of conductivity discontinuities in design of cardiac defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunkyung; Cun, Wenjing; Wang, Yue; Gray, Richard A.; Glimm, James

    2018-01-01

    Fibrillation is an erratic electrical state of the heart, of rapid twitching rather than organized contractions. Ventricular fibrillation is fatal if not treated promptly. The standard treatment, defibrillation, is a strong electrical shock to reinitialize the electrical dynamics and allow a normal heart beat. Both the normal and the fibrillatory electrical dynamics of the heart are organized into moving wave fronts of changing electrical signals, especially in the transmembrane voltage, which is the potential difference between the cardiac cellular interior and the intracellular region of the heart. In a normal heart beat, the wave front motion is from bottom to top and is accompanied by the release of Ca ions to induce contractions and pump the blood. In a fibrillatory state, these wave fronts are organized into rotating scroll waves, with a centerline known as a filament. Treatment requires altering the electrical state of the heart through an externally applied electrical shock, in a manner that precludes the existence of the filaments and scroll waves. Detailed mechanisms for the success of this treatment are partially understood, and involve local shock-induced changes in the transmembrane potential, known as virtual electrode alterations. These transmembrane alterations are located at boundaries of the cardiac tissue, including blood vessels and the heart chamber wall, where discontinuities in electrical conductivity occur. The primary focus of this paper is the defibrillation shock and the subsequent electrical phenomena it induces. Six partially overlapping causal factors for defibrillation success are identified from the literature. We present evidence in favor of five of these and against one of them. A major conclusion is that a dynamically growing wave front starting at the heart surface appears to play a primary role during defibrillation by critically reducing the volume available to sustain the dynamic motion of scroll waves; in contrast, virtual

  7. Local lay rescuers with AEDs, alerted by text messages, contribute to early defibrillation in a Dutch out-of-hospital cardiac arrest dispatch system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Jolande A.; Stieglis, Remy; Riedijk, Frank; Smeekes, Martin; van der Worp, Wim E.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2014-01-01

    Public access defibrillation rarely reaches out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in residential areas. We developed a text message (TM) alert system, dispatching local lay rescuers (TM-responders). We analyzed the functioning of this system, focusing on response times and early

  8. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.609). Conclusion: Intranasal endoscopic DCR is a simple, minimally invasive, day care procedure and had comparable result with conventional external DCR. Keywords: Dacryocystorhinostomy, endoscopic, external. Nigerian Medical Journal | Vol. 54 | Issue 3 | May-June ...

  9. Hemodynamic effects of ventricular defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansegrau, Donald G.; Abboud, François M.

    1970-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses to ventricular defibrillation were studied in anesthetized dogs. Observations were made on arterial, right atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures, on cardiac output (dye dilution), heart rate, and right atrial electrocardiogram. Ventricular fibrillation was induced electrically with a bipolar electrode catheter placed in the right ventricle. Fibrillation was maintained for 15 or 30 sec and terminated with a 400 w sec capacitor discharge across the thoracic cage. Responses lasted 1-10 min after conversion and included a cholinergic and an adrenergic component. The cholinergic component was characterized by sinus bradycardia, periods of sinus arrest, atrioventricular block, and ventricular premature beats. The adrenergic component included increases in arterial pressure, in cardiac output, and in left ventricular stroke work at a time when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was normal; there was no change in total peripheral resistance. The pH of arterial blood decreased slightly and pCO2 increased but pO2 and the concentration of lactate were unchanged. Bilateral vagotomy and intravenous administration of atropine blocked the cholinergic component, unmasked a sinus tachycardia, and accentuated the adrenergic component of the response. The latter was blocked by intravenous administration of propranolol and phenoxybenzamine. These responses were related primarily to conversion of ventricular fibrillation rather than to the electrical discharge of countershock because countershock without ventricular fibrillation caused more transient and smaller responses than those observed with defibrillation: furthermore, the hemodynamic effects of defibrillation were augmented by prolongation of the duration of fibrillation. The results suggest that the cholinergic component of the response may be detrimental in that it favors spontaneous recurrence of fibrillation; on the other hand, the adrenergic component may be essential for conversion

  10. Unheralded failure of Riata defibrillator lead identified at defibrillation threshold testing

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Matthew R.; Allen, Rosemary F.; Stiles, Martin K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: St Jude Medical “Riata” implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads have a higher-than-expected failure rate and carry a Class 1 recall. Failure usually relates to an insulation breach that may not be identified by lead fluoroscopic or electrical changes. Case presentation: We report a case of Riata lead failure identified by the aborted delivery of effective therapy for ventricular fibrillation at the time of defibrillation threshold testing. Lead fluoroscopic appearances wer...

  11. Transthoracic monophasic and biphasic defibrillation in a swine model: a comparison of efficacy, ST segment changes, and postshock hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, J T; Burian, D; Garner, D; Lewis, R J

    2000-09-01

    Biphasic waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation (DF) have been tested extensively after brief (15 s) episodes of VF in animal models and in patients undergoing electrophysiologic testing. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects mono- and biphasic waveforms for DF on postdefibrillation ST segments and left ventricular pressure, markers of myocardial injury, after more extended periods of VF (30 and 90 s). 21 anesthetized and instrumented swine were randomized to truncated exponential monophasic or biphasic waveform DF. VF was induced electrically and 30 s later, DF with the designated waveform was attempted with a shock dose of 200 J. If unsuccessful, 300 J and then 360 J were administered if necessary. Following return to control hemodynamic values and normalization of the surface ECG, VF was again induced and, after 90 s, DF was attempted as in the 30 s VF period. CPR was not performed during VF and each animal was countershocked with only one waveform for both VF episodes. Waveforms were compared for frequency of first shock defibrillation success, surface ECG indicators of myocardial injury (ST segment changes at 10, 20, and 30 s after countershock) and time to return to pre-VF hemodynamics after successful DF, an indicator of postshock ventricular function. Successful first shock conversion rates at 30 and 90 s were 60 and 63% for monophasic and 64 and 82% for biphasic (NS). Biphasic DF after 30 s produced ST segment changes (measured 10 s after DF) in 1/10 animals while six of eight animals in the monophasic group showed ST segment changes (P=0.013). After 90 s of VF, ST segment changes were observed in 6/8 in the monophasic group and 2/10 in the biphasic group (P=0.054). Differences in the time to hemodynamic recovery (return to control peak left ventricular pressure) were not observed between biphasic and monophasic waveforms after 30 or 90 s of VF. Monophasic and biphasic transthoracic defibrillation are equally effective in terminating VF

  12. Psychometric properties of HeartQoL, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangger, Graziella; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2018-01-01

    psychometric attributes of validity and reliability in this implantable car