WorldWideScience

Sample records for external correction strategy

  1. Externality-correcting taxes and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, V.; Smith, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much of the literature on externalities has considered taxes and direct regulation as alternative policy instruments. Both instruments may in practice be imperfect, reflecting informational deficiencies and other limitations. We analyse the use of taxes and regulation in combination, to control externalities arising from individual consumption behaviour. We consider cases where taxes are either imperfectly differentiated to reflect individual differences in externalities, or where some consum...

  2. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  3. Optimal Software Strategies in the Presence of Network Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yipeng

    2009-01-01

    Network externalities or alternatively termed network effects are pervasive in computer software markets. While software vendors consider pricing strategies, they must also take into account the impact of network externalities on their sales. My main interest in this research is to describe a firm's strategies and behaviors in the presence of…

  4. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how...

  5. Surgical correction of severe spinal deformities using a staged protocol of external and internal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudnikova, Oksana G; Shchurova, Elena N

    2018-02-01

    There is high risk of neurologic complications in one-stage management of severe rigid spinal deformities in adolescents. Therefore, gradual spine stretching variants are applied. One of them is the use of external transpedicular fixation. Our aim was to retrospectively study the outcomes of gradual correction with an apparatus for external transpedicular fixation followed by internal fixation used for high-grade kyphoscoliosis in adolescents. Twenty five patients were reviewed (mean age, 15.1 ± 0.4 years). Correction was performed in two stages: 1) gradual controlled correction with the apparatus for external transpedicular fixation; and 2) internal posterior transpedicular fixation. Rigid deformities in eight patients required discapophysectomy. Clinical and radiographic study of the outcomes was conducted immediately after treatment and at a mean long-term period of 3.8 ± 0.4 years. Pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS, 10 points). The Oswestry questionnaire (ODI scale) was used for functional assessment. Deformity correction with the external apparatus was 64.2 ± 4.6% in the main curve and 60.7 ± 3.7% in the compensatory one. It was 72.8 ± 4.1% and 66.2 ± 5.3% immediately after treatment and 70.8 ± 4.6% and 64.3 ± 4.2% at long term, respectively. Pain relieved by 33.2 ± 4.2% (p external transpedicular fixation provides gradual controlled correction for high-grade kyphoscoliosis in adolescents. Transition to internal fixation preserves the correction achieved, and correction is maintained at long term.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of correction strategies in connected discourse tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunato, K E; Weisenberger, J M

    1994-10-01

    The effectiveness of four correction strategies commonly used in connected discourse tracking was investigated in the present study. The strategies were 1) verbatim repetition of a word or phrase; 2) use of antonyms or synonyms as cues; 3) use of phonemic cues, with no whole word repetition; and 4) going back or ahead in the text, with no repetition of the missed segment. Four normal-hearing adults served as listeners. Live-voice presentation of text by two female talkers was employed for all conditions. Listeners were tested in two stimulus presentation modes, speechreading alone and speechreading plus a multichannel tactile aid. Results indicated that strategy 1, repetition of the missed segment, produced the highest tracking rates, significantly higher than any of the other strategies. Strategy 2 produced the lowest tracking rates. Strategies 1 and 3 yielded the lowest percentage of initially missed words, or blockages, and strategy 4 the highest percentage. Significantly higher tracking rates were found under the speechreading plus tactile aid presentation mode, compared with speechreading alone. Further, tracking rates increased significantly from the beginning to the end of training. Data were compared with a more typical CDT task, in which all correction strategies were operative, and results showed little difference in tracking rates between this task and the constrained CDT employing only strategy 1. Overall, results suggest that simple repetition of missed segments is an effective correction strategy for CDT and argue for its inclusion in computer-assisted tracking implementations.

  7. Can Eyewitnesses Correct for External Influences on Their Lineup Identifications? The Actual/Counterfactual Assessment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Steve D.; Wells, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Real-world eyewitnesses are often asked whether their lineup responses were affected by various external influences, but it is unknown whether they can accurately answer these types of questions. The witness-report-of-influence mental-correction model is proposed to explain witnesses' reports of influence. Two experiments used a new paradigm (the…

  8. Real time noninvasive assessment of external trunk geometry during surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac-Thiong Jean-Marc

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The correction of trunk deformity is crucial in scoliosis surgery, especially for the patient's self-image. However, direct visualization of external scoliotic trunk deformity during surgical correction is difficult due to the covering draping sheets. Methods An optoelectronic camera system with 10 passive markers is used to track the trunk geometry of 5 scoliotic patients during corrective surgery. The position of 10 anatomical landmarks and 5 trunk indices computed from the position of the passive markers are compared during and after instrumentation of the spine. Results Internal validation of the accuracy of tracking was evaluated at 0.41 +/- 0.05 mm RMS. Intra operative tracking during surgical maneuvers shows improvement of the shoulder balance during and after correction of the spine. Improvement of the overall patient balance is observed. At last, a minor increase of the spinal length can be noticed. Conclusion Tracking of the external geometry of the trunk during surgical correction is useful to monitor changes occurring under the sterile draping sheets. Moreover, this technique can used be used to reach the optimal configuration on the operating frame before proceeding to surgery. The current tracking technique was able to detect significant changes in trunk geometry caused by posterior instrumentation of the spine despite significant correction of the spinal curvature. It could therefore become relevant for computer-assisted guidance of surgical maneuvers when performing posterior instrumentation of the scoliotic spine, provide important insights during positioning of patients.

  9. Humeral lengthening and proximal deformity correction with monorail external fixator in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hongjiang; Zhu, Yi; Liu, Shen; Kang, Qinglin

    2018-05-01

    Several humeral lengthening or simultaneous deformity corrections through one osteotomy using various external fixators were reported, while literature regarding correction of shortening and proximal varus deformity is scarce. This retrospective clinical study evaluated the results of preforming an acute correction and delayed lengthening in young adults through two osteotomies using monorail external fixator. We report seven patients with various pathologies who underwent humeral proximal deformity correction and lengthening between 2009 and 2015. Pre-operative and post-operative clinical and radiographic data were collected. The mean follow-up time was 33.4 months (25-46 months). The humeral neck-shaft angle improved from 97.9° (85-110°) to 138.6° (135-145°). The magnitude of lengthening achieved was average 7.6 cm (range, 6-10 cm) at an average healing index of lengthening of 30.2 days/cm (range, 27.7-35.4 days/cm). There was a significant increase in range of shoulder abduction, and active abduction improved from pre-operative 136.4° (range, 95-160°) to post-operative 166.4° (range, 150-180°). The DASH score improved significance from 23.29 ± 8.36 to 6.57 ± 3.65 (t = 4.848; p monorail external fixator can be used for humeral shortening and proximal varus angular deformity. Functional improvement is expected after surgery and post-operative therapy.

  10. Correction of axial deformity during lengthening in fibular hypoplasia: Hexapodal versus monorail external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalopin, A; Geffroy, L; Pesenti, S; Hamel, A; Launay, F

    2017-09-01

    Childhood fibular hypoplasia is a rare pathology which may or may not involve limb-length discrepancy and axial deformity in one or more dimensions. The objective of the present study was to compare the quality of the axial correction achieved in lengthening procedures by hexapodal versus monorail external fixators. The hypothesis was that the hexapodal fixator provides more precise correction. A retrospective multicenter study included 52 children with fibular hypoplasia. Seventy-two tibias were analyzed, in 2 groups: 52 using a hexapodal fixator, and 20 using a monorail fixator. Mean age was 10.2 years. Mean lengthening was 5.7cm. Deformities were analyzed and measured in 3 dimensions and classified in 4 preoperative types and 4 post-lengthening types according to residual deformity. Complete correction was achieved in 26 tibias in the hexapodal group (50%) and 2 tibias in the monorail group (10%). Mean post-correction mechanical axis deviation was smaller in the hexapodal group: 12.83mm, versus 14.29mm in the monorail group. Mean post-correction mechanical lateral distal femoral angle was 87.5° in the hexapodal group, versus 84.3° in the monorail group (P=0.002), and mean mechanical medial proximal tibial angle 86.9° versus 89.5°, respectively (P=0.015). No previous studies focused on this congenital pathology in lengthening and axial correction programs for childhood lower-limb deformity. The present study found the hexapodal fixator to be more effective in conserving or restoring mechanical axes during progressive bone lengthening for fibular hypoplasia. The hexapodal fixator met the requirements of limb-length equalization in childhood congenital lower-limb hypoplasia, providing better axial correction than the monorail fixator. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The regulatory instruments for the correction of energy-related environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labanderia Villot, X.; Lopez Otero, X.; Rodriguez Mendez, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the different regulatory instruments for the correction of energy-related environmental externalities. This objective is justified by the size and general occurrence of this type of externalities in contemporary societies. In this sense, we distinguish between three main generations of instruments: conventional regulations, market mechanisms and voluntary approaches. In all cases, some practical examples of their application are presented, albeit emphasizing the experience with the so-called market instruments and the results of hypothetical simulations for the Spanish case. As a general conclusion we underline the role of economic analysis in the design, choice and evaluation of those mechanisms, which also explains the structure and contents of the article. (Author)

  12. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  13. Two types of external fixators to correct humeral fracture in domestic pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, F.; Schossler, J.E.; Bertoletti, B.; Vasconcelos, A.; Muller, D.; Schossler, D.R.; Gomes, K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper was aimed at evaluating two changes in the external fixators for osteosynthesis of the humeral fracture that induce the correction of the humeral fracture in pigeons. The reduction of diaphyseal fracture was made with an intramedulary pin associated to another perpendicular one inserted into the distal segment (Group A - GA); in the Group B (GB) an additional pin was used in the proximal fragment. All the pigeons were evaluated clinically and radiographically up to 60 days, except for four of each group which were submitted to euthanasia at 15, 22, 29 and 36 days for the macro and microscope exams. The flight test was successful in all pigeons. The bone calus was radiografically visible only in the GA; the mean time and the standard deviation for flight was 32.25 ± 6.5 days for the GA and 39.8 ± 3.83 for the GB. The mean time and standard deviation for fracture healing was 36 ± 0 days in the GA and 34 ± 3.4 in the GB. The two types of external fixator evaluated were efficient to stabilized the fracture site allowing complete consolidation and return to function. The use of the external fixator with two perpendicular pins provides more stability at the fracture site although it is necessary more time for the surgery procedure [pt

  14. Ordering Strategy for Fresh Agricultural Products in External Financing Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi; DU

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the two stage supply chain consisting of single agricultural product producer and fund restraint retailer.Then,it analyzed the influence of bank interest rate on order quantity,wholesale price and expected profit of retailer and producer on the condition of retailer taking external loan strategy.Studies have shown that when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.9),the order quantity of agricultural products is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),wholesale price of agricultural products decreases with increase in the bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,0.6),the expected profit of retailer is a decreasing function of bank interest rate; when the bank interest rate is in(0,1),the expected profit of producer decreases with increase in the bank interest rate.Finally,through simulation calculation examples,it verified suitability of the conclusion,in the hope of providing reference and application value for management of supply chain.

  15. Error field and its correction strategy in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Yongkyoon

    2014-01-01

    While error field correction (EFC) is to minimize the unwanted kink-resonant non-axisymmetric components, resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) application is to maximize the benefits of pitch-resonant non-axisymmetric components. As the plasma response against non-axisymmetric field increases with beta increase, feedback-controlled EFC is a more promising EFC strategy in reactor-relevant high-beta regimes. Nonetheless, various physical aspects and uncertainties associated with EFC should be taken into account and clarified in the terms of multiple low-n EFC and multiple MHD modes, in addition to the compatibility issue with RMP application. Such a multi-faceted view of EFC strategy is briefly discussed. (author)

  16. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher

  17. The Development of Knowledge of an External Retrieval Cue Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kenneth

    1978-01-01

    Investigated preschool and third grade children's metamnemonic knowledge that in order to serve as an efficient retrieval cue of the location of a hidden object, an external marker sign must differentiate it from other locations. (JMB)

  18. Comprehension of Relations among Controversial Texts: Effects of External Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of external strategy use on the comprehension of relations among controversial texts. About 80 undergraduates read six controversial texts for the purpose of either finding intertextual relations or forming their opinion about the controversial issue. Half of them were permitted to use external strategies, the other…

  19. [University-external sector linkage: a managerial strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Gilberto

    2004-06-01

    The University-External Sector vinculation is an increasing phenomenon in Latin America as in the rest of the world. The universities through its investigation processes actively participate in the creation and incorporation of science and technology to produce technological processes, to bring foreign technology into national reality, and also to create and transmit innovation for the productive sector. In those ways these institutions achieve bonds with the external sector which provide them with additional income and allows them to have certain relief for their tight teaching and investigation budgets. Several studies in university organizations have been made to identify the motivations and barriers for de adequate development of the interaction between the university and the external sector. The lack of vinculation between these institutions could be due in part to the lack of knowledge that the external sector has of the possibility to obtain services from the university, and also the lack of knowledge that the university has about the needs of potential users of their services. The goals achieved by public Venezuelan universities, in the last years, in their search of a vinculation with the external sector could grow and consolidate through an adequate strategic management plan that allows a mayor diffusion and promotion of the results of their investigations and services, to reach in a wider and more direct way, and to a greater number of potential clients.

  20. REHABILITATING CRIMINAL SELVES: Gendered Strategies in Community Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Jessica J B

    2013-04-01

    As the community corrections system has moved away from a focus on rehabilitation, it has been suggested that criminal offenders are no longer understood psychologically, but rather as rational actors for whom criminality is a choice. Rehabilitative efforts thus aim to guide these choices. Utilizing mixed methodology that draws on observational, interview, and case note data collected within the probation/parole system of a western U.S. state, I suggest that both officers' conceptualizations of the criminal self and the rehabilitative strategies they use are gendered. I find that officers view the male criminal self as flawed or underdeveloped and the female as permeable and amorphous, that is, lacking firm boundaries. In response to these constructions, officers aim to rehabilitate men largely by encouraging economic roles and responsibilities, while for women, rehabilitation aims to solidify boundaries: discouraging relationship formation and containing emotions. The differences identified point to ways in which gendered concepts of the criminal self contribute to gender disparities in contemporary supervision.

  1. Economic Analysis of Immunization Strategies for PRRS Control [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C L Linhares

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 1 year and 9 months [corrected]. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  2. The Formation of International Marketing Strategy of Company’s Entry Into the External Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtal Tetiana V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the theoretical and practical aspects of formation of the international marketing strategy of company’s entry into the external market. The concept of «strategy of the company» was considered in detail on the basis of studying works of the well-known foreign and domestic scientists. The use of terms of «strategic marketing» and of «marketing strategy» in the researches of many domestic and foreign economists was analyzed. The most common marketing strategies of company’s entry into the external markets have been grouped and characterized. Based on the study of a number of statements by the leading Ukrainian scientists on international marketing, a definition of strategy of international marketing has been made. The algorithm of formation of the international marketing strategy of company at the external market has been developed. The stages of the process of forming the strategy of international marketing at the company’s entry into the external market have been generalized. The directions of assessment of the international marketing activity of company according to the efficiency of development of marketing strategies at the external market have been suggested.

  3. Evaluation of off-axis wedge correction factor using diode dosimeters for estimation of delivered dose in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Shirazi, Alireza; Geraily, Ghazale; Mohammadkarim, Alireza; Esfehani, Mahbod; Nedaie, Hasanali

    2012-01-01

    An in vivo dosimetry system, using p-type diode dosimeters, was characterized for clinical applications of treatment machines ranging in megavoltage energies. This paper investigates two different models of diodes for externally wedged beams and explains a new algorithm for the calculation of the target dose at various tissue depths in external radiotherapy. The values of off-axis wedge correction factors were determined at two different positions in the wedged (toward the thick and thin edges) and in the non-wedged directions on entrance and exit surfaces of a polystyrene phantom in 60 Co and 6 MV photon beams. Depth transmission was defined on the entrance and exit surfaces to obtain the off-axis wedge correction factor at any depth. As the sensitivity of the diodes depends on physical characteristics (field size, source-skin distance (SSD), thickness, backscatter), correction factors were applied to the diode reading when measuring conditions different from calibration situations. The results indicate that needful correction factors for 60 Co wedged photons are usually larger than those for 6 MV wedged photon beams. In vivo dosimetry performed with the proposed algorithms at externally wedged beams has negligible probable errors (less than 0.5%) and is a reliable method for patient dose control. (author)

  4. Evaluation of off-axis wedge correction factor using diode dosimeters for estimation of delivered dose in external radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Allahverdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo dosimetry system, using p-type diode dosimeters, was characterized for clinical applications of treatment machines ranging in megavoltage energies. This paper investigates two different models of diodes for externally wedged beams and explains a new algorithm for the calculation of the target dose at various tissue depths in external radiotherapy. The values of off-axis wedge correction factors were determined at two different positions in the wedged (toward the thick and thin edges and in the non-wedged directions on entrance and exit surfaces of a polystyrene phantom in 60 Co and 6 MV photon beams. Depth transmission was defined on the entrance and exit surfaces to obtain the off-axis wedge correction factor at any depth. As the sensitivity of the diodes depends on physical characteristics [field size, source-skin distance (SSD, thickness, backscatter], correction factors were applied to the diode reading when measuring conditions different from calibration situations . The results indicate that needful correction factors for 60 Co wedged photons are usually larger than those for 6 MV wedged photon beams. In vivo dosimetry performed with the proposed algorithms at externally wedged beams has negligible probable errors (less than 0.5% and is a reliable method for patient dose control.

  5. 76 FR 8371 - Notice Correction; Generic Submission of Technology Transfer Center (TTC) External Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Submission of Technology Transfer Center (TTC) External Customer Satisfaction Surveys (NCI) The Federal... project titled, ``Technology Transfer Center (TTC) External Customer Satisfaction Survey (NCI)'' was... will include multiple customer satisfaction surveys over the course of three years. At this time, only...

  6. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  7. Raising the Bar on External Research Funding: Infrastructure and Strategies for Enhancing Faculty Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Nossaman, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Administrators seek faculty who have the expertise to secure external funding to support their research agenda. Administrators also seek strategies to support and enhance faculty productivity across different ranks. In this manuscript, we describe the infrastructure we established and strategies we implemented to enhance the research enterprise at…

  8. THE EFFECT OF EXTERN AND INTERN ENVIRONMENT TOWARD BUSINESS STRATEGIES AND THEIR IMPACT TOWARD BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo A.Y.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to see the effect of extern and intern environment toward business strategies and the performance of micro, small and medium enterprises. The population of this study was business owners in Bajawa Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Indonesia, represented by 122 respondents as the samples of this study. The samples were chosen using a proportionate stratified random sampling. The data of this study were then analyzed using Partial Least Square technique. The result of this study shows that extern and intern environment have significant effects toward business strategies and performance as mediators.

  9. External fixation to correct tarsal-metatarsal fracture in rock pigeon (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Almeida Rui

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Orthopedic conditions, such as bone fractures, are very common in avian medicine. External fixators have been considered the gold standard for birds, since they allow early movement of the limbs and minimal invasive surgery. Fractures in several bones have been successfully treated in pigeons. However, to the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of successful surgical repair of tarsal-metatarsal fracture in rock pigeon. External fixator was made with four 24G catheters, being inserted manually proximal and distal to the fracture and connected with polymerizable acrylic. Radiographic consolidation of fracture was observed 60 days post-surgery and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic protocols were successful on avoiding pain and infection during surgery and bone healing.

  10. Correction of aortic insufficiency with an external adjustable prosthetic aortic ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogbashian, Andrew; Ghanta, Ravi K; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Rangaraj, Aravind T; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-09-01

    Less invasive, valve-sparing options are needed for patients with aortic insufficiency (AI). We sought to evaluate the feasibility of reducing AI with an external adjustable aortic ring in an ovine model. To create AI, five sheep underwent patch plasty enlargement of the aortic annulus and root by placement of a 10 x 15 mm pericardial patch between the right and noncoronary cusps. An adjustable external ring composed of a nylon band was fabricated and placed around the aortic root. Aortic flow, aortic pressure, and left ventricular pressures were measured with the ring loose (off) and tightened (on). Mean regurgitant orifice area decreased by 86%, from 0.07 +/- 0.03 cm2 (ring loose, off) to 0.01 +/- 0.00 cm2 (ring tightened, on) [p < 0.01]. The regurgitant fraction decreased from 18 +/- 4% to 2 +/- 1% [p < 0.01]. The ring did not significantly affect stroke volume and aortic pressure. An ovine model of aortic root dilatation resulting in acute AI has been developed. In this model, application of an external, adjustable constricting aortic ring eliminated AI. An aortic ring may be a useful adjunct in reducing AI secondary to annular dilatation.

  11. Beam-centric algorithm for pretreatment patient position correction in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Supratik; Shukla, Himanshu; Maltz, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In current image guided pretreatment patient position adjustment methods, image registration is used to determine alignment parameters. Since most positioning hardware lacks the full six degrees of freedom (DOF), accuracy is compromised. The authors show that such compromises are often unnecessary when one models the planned treatment beams as part of the adjustment calculation process. The authors present a flexible algorithm for determining optimal realizable adjustments for both step-and-shoot and arc delivery methods. Methods: The beam shape model is based on the polygonal intersection of each beam segment with the plane in pretreatment image volume that passes through machine isocenter perpendicular to the central axis of the beam. Under a virtual six-DOF correction, ideal positions of these polygon vertices are computed. The proposed method determines the couch, gantry, and collimator adjustments that minimize the total mismatch of all vertices over all segments with respect to their ideal positions. Using this geometric error metric as a function of the number of available DOF, the user may select the most desirable correction regime. Results: For a simulated treatment plan consisting of three equally weighted coplanar fixed beams, the authors achieve a 7% residual geometric error (with respect to the ideal correction, considered 0% error) by applying gantry rotation as well as translation and isocentric rotation of the couch. For a clinical head-and-neck intensity modulated radiotherapy plan with seven beams and five segments per beam, the corresponding error is 6%. Correction involving only couch translation (typical clinical practice) leads to a much larger 18% mismatch. Clinically significant consequences of more accurate adjustment are apparent in the dose volume histograms of target and critical structures. Conclusions: The algorithm achieves improvements in delivery accuracy using standard delivery hardware without significantly increasing

  12. How externalities impact an evaluation of strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance in health care organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine R. Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rates of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO continue to increase for both hospitalized and community patients. Few resources have been allocated to reduce the spread of resistance on global, national and local levels, in part because the broader economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (i.e. the externality is not fully considered when determining how much to invest to prevent AROs, including strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance, such as antimicrobial stewardship programs. To determine how best to measure and incorporate the impact of externalities associated with the antimicrobial resistance when making resource allocation decisions aimed to reduce antimicrobial resistance within healthcare facilities, we reviewed the literature to identify publications which 1 described the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, 2 described approaches to quantifying the externalities associated with antimicrobial resistance or 3 described macro-level policy options to consider the impact of externalities. Medline was reviewed to identify published studies up to September 2016. Main body An externality is a cost or a benefit associated with one person’s activity that impacts others who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. We did not identify a well-accepted method of accurately quantifying the externality associated with antimicrobial resistance. We did identify three main methods that have gained popularity to try to take into account the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, including regulation, charges or taxes on the use of antimicrobials, and the right to trade permits or licenses for antimicrobial use. To our knowledge, regulating use of antimicrobials is the only strategy currently being used by health care systems to reduce antimicrobial use, and thereby reduce AROs. To justify expenditures on programs that reduce AROs (i.e. to formally incorporate the impact of the negative externality of

  13. Efficient on-line setup correction strategies using plan-intent functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Harry; Jaffray, David A.; Rosewall, Tara; White, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) delivery systems on-line set-up correction strategies have gained in popularity. Usually, the correction workload of these strategies is high compared to off-line strategies as daily setup corrections have to be performed based on a predefined action level. In this work, it is proposed that on-line strategies must not only be judged in terms of workload but also in terms of efficacy. While workload can be easily predicted for such strategies, the efficacy must ultimately reflect the efficiency with which the original treatment plan intent is met. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tradeoff between workload and efficacy of three different on-line set-up correction strategies: The common fixed action level strategy and two novel on-line setup correction strategies, i.e., a dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraint and an equivalent uniform dose (EUD) score strategy that aim directly for better compliance with original treatment plan intent. All strategies were reformulated in terms of a score function that reflected treatment plan intent. A retrospective study was conducted on 5 prostate patients (7-field conformal, 79.8 Gy, 42 fractions). PTV margins were 10 mm except in the posterior direction (7 mm). The original treatment plan intent for these patients was defined using a set of DVH constraints. The results show that the on-line setup correction strategy based on a fixed action level of 3 mm resulted in a considerable correction workload. For larger action levels, a dose benefit (in terms of EUD) in the rectum and bladder was observed for all patients which is clinically ''fortuitous'' but difficult to take advantage of. In contrast, the application of the two novel strategies generally resulted in a controlled decrease of the dose to the rectum and the bladder with a smaller workload. It is concluded that using information about target anatomy and the planned dose distribution allows the

  14. 3D Dose Reconstruction to Insure Correct External Beam Treatment of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Wendel Dean

    2007-01-01

    Radiation therapy treatments have become increasingly more complicated. There are multiple opportunities for humans, machines, software, and combinations thereof to result in a treatment error that could be of significance. Current methods for quality assurance are often abstract in nature and may have unclear underlying assumptions as to what is assumed to be working correctly, or may depend upon the diligence of persons to discover errors from a review of the treatment plan. Here, an example will be shown of a direct method to reconstruct and demonstrate the dose and the dose distribution delivered to a particular patient. By measuring the radiation fields that come out of the accelerator, and using the measurement as input to a 3-dimensional (3D) dose algorithm, the delivered patient dose is determined and presented in a manner similar to the treatment plan. The intended treatment plan dose may be directly compared. Using this feedback mechanism, there is less abstraction and dependence upon the diligence of individuals checking multiple steps in a treatment process, and assumptions can be clearly stated. With this system, the dose is determined and presented minimizing assumptions and dependence upon other systems

  15. Corrective action strategy for single-shell tanks containing organic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    A Waste Tank Organic Safety Program (Program) Plan is to be transmitted to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) for approval by December 31, 1993. In April 1993 an agreement was reached among cognizant U.S. Department of Energy - Headquarters (HQ), RL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff that the Program Plan would be preceded by a ''Corrective Action Strategy,'' which addressed selected planning elements supporting the Program Plan. The ''Corrective Action Strategy'' would be reviewed and consensus reached regarding the planning elements. A Program Plan reflecting this consensus would then be prepared. A preliminary ''corrective action strategy'' is presented for resolving the organic tanks safety issue based on the work efforts recommended in the ISB (Interim Safety Basis for Hanford Site tank farm facilities). A ''corrective action strategy'' logic was prepared for individual SSTs (single-shell tanks), or a group of SSTs having similar characteristics, as appropriate. Four aspects of the organic tanks safety issue are addressed in the ISB: SSTs with the potential for combustion in the tank's headspace; combustion of a floating organic layer as a pool fire; surface fires in tanks that formerly held floating organic layers; SSTs with the potential for organic-nitrate reactions. A preliminary ''corrective action strategy'' for each aspect of the organic tanks safety issue is presented

  16. Is external rotation the correct immobilisation for acute shoulder dislocation? An MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, J; Proust, J; Marcheix, P S M; Charissoux, J L; Mabit, C; Arnaud, J P

    2010-06-01

    Anterior dislocation of the shoulder is frequent, with high rates of recurrence. Immobilization in external rotation (ER) seems to improve results, although few studies have actually demonstrated this. The present MRI study examined the impact of ER on labral and capsular ligamentous complex lesions after primary dislocation. A prospective study was started up on January 1st, 2007. Inclusion criteria were: acute initial anteromedial dislocation of the shoulder, without past history of shoulder trauma. There were 23 such patients, with a mean age of 37 years. Early MRI scan used the following protocol: one acquisition in internal rotation followed by one in ER. Study criteria were: hemarthrosis, ER amplitude, rotator cuff status, bone lesion, and labral lesion stage (Habermeyer's classification) and displacement (Itoi criteria). There were 12 right and 11 left shoulders. Mean time to MRI was 3.7 days. There were three rotator cuff tears, no glenal lesions, and 14 humeral notches. Hemarthrosis was almost systematically present, with its distribution modified by ER in 75% of cases; three patients showed no posterior hemarthrosis, in whatever rotation. Mean ER was 37 degrees. On Habermeyer's classification, there were 12 stage-1 lesions, and 10 stage-2; one patient had no labral lesion. All separated labra were reduced in ER, five (21%) totally. In six cases, labral displacement changed according to rotation. All anterior joint effusion was reduced in ER, in three cases totally. According to Itoi among others, immobilization in ER is the way to reduce recurrence of anterior dislocation. The present study confirmed that labral reduction was systematic with ER, but it was by no means always complete. ER seemed more effective in reducing the separation. Results further confirmed that ER reduced anterior capsule volume, a recurrence factor. ER reduced hemarthrosis, anterior capsule detachment and labral lesions, and never the contrary. The interest of immobilization in ER

  17. Influence of different topographic correction strategies on mountain vegetation classification accuracy in the Lancang Watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; de Wulf, Robert R.; van Coillie, Frieke M. B.; Verbeke, Lieven P. C.; de Clercq, Eva M.; Ou, Xiaokun

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of vegetation using remote sensing in mountainous areas is considerably hampered by topographic effects on the spectral response pattern. A variety of topographic normalization techniques have been proposed to correct these illumination effects due to topography. The purpose of this study was to compare six different topographic normalization methods (Cosine correction, Minnaert correction, C-correction, Sun-canopy-sensor correction, two-stage topographic normalization, and slope matching technique) for their effectiveness in enhancing vegetation classification in mountainous environments. Since most of the vegetation classes in the rugged terrain of the Lancang Watershed (China) did not feature a normal distribution, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were employed as a classifier. Comparing the ANN classifications, none of the topographic correction methods could significantly improve ETM+ image classification overall accuracy. Nevertheless, at the class level, the accuracy of pine forest could be increased by using topographically corrected images. On the contrary, oak forest and mixed forest accuracies were significantly decreased by using corrected images. The results also showed that none of the topographic normalization strategies was satisfactorily able to correct for the topographic effects in severely shadowed areas.

  18. Chromaticity correction strategy which improves the linear lattice of the TRISTAN e+-e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yongho.

    1984-08-01

    Described is a strategy of chromaticity correction for large storage rings. Starting with an optimization of the linear lattice in phase advances, based on the W-correction, the sextupole strengths are calculated by the program HARMON. For the TRISTAN e + -e - collider with the mini-β insertion, the correction results show that motions of particles with an initial transverse amplitude of 10 σsub(x,y) and with a synchrotron oscillation amplitude of up to 8 σsub(epsilon) remain stable. (author)

  19. Evaluating Fidelity to a Modified NIATx Process Improvement Strategy for Improving HIV Services in Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Jennifer; Willett, Jennifer; Yang, Yang; Swan, Holly; Dembo, Richard; Burdon, William M; Patterson, Yvonne; Pearson, Frank S; Belenko, Steven; Frisman, Linda K

    2018-04-01

    In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery.

  20. Attenuation correction strategies for multi-energy photon emitters using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretorius, P.H.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the photopeak window projections from different energy photons can be combined into a single window for reconstruction or if it is better to not combine the projections due to differences in the attenuation maps required for each photon energy. The mathematical cardiac torso (MCAT) phantom was modified to simulate the uptake of Ga-67 in the human body. Four spherical hot tumors were placed in locations which challenged attenuation correction. An analytical 3D projector with attenuation and detector response included was used to generate projection sets. Data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with Butterworth filtering in conjunction with one iteration of Chang attenuation correction, and with 5 and 10 iterations of ordered-subset maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization reconstruction. To serve as a standard for comparison, the projection sets obtained from the two energies were first reconstructed separately using their own attenuation maps. The emission data obtained from both energies were added and reconstructed using the following attenuation strategies: (1) the 93 keV attenuation map for attenuation correction, (2) the 185 keV attenuation map for attenuation correction, (3) using a weighted mean obtained from combining the 93 keV and 185 keV maps, and (4) an ordered subset approach which combines both energies. The central count ratio (CCR) and total count ratio (TCR) were used to compare the performance of the different strategies. Compared to the standard method, results indicate an over-estimation with strategy 1, an under-estimation with strategy 2 and comparable results with strategies 3 and 4. In all strategies, the CCR's of sphere 4 were under-estimated, although TCR's were comparable to that of the other locations. The weighted mean and ordered subset strategies for attenuation correction were of comparable accuracy to reconstruction of the windows separately

  1. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  2. Development of Mitigation Strategy for Beyond Design Basis External Events for NRC Design Certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Lee, Jae Jong; Kim, Myung Ki [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, how to develop FLEX strategy for beyond-design-basis external events for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The development method of FLEX strategy for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The applicants should make unit-specific FLEX strategy and establish the minimum coping capabilities consistent with unit-specific evaluation of the potential impacts and responses to BDBEEs. NEI 12-06 outlines the process to define and deploy the diverse and flexible mitigation strategies(FLEX strategy) that will increase defense-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios to address the extended loss of alternating current (ac) power (ELAP) and loss of normal access to the ultimate heat sink (LUHS) occurring simultaneously at all units on a site. The order (EA-12-049) is issued to all reactor licensees, including holders of active, Construction Permit (CP) holders, and Combined License (COL) holders. Applicants for the new reactor design certification should prepare and submit FLEX strategy for NRC staff's review. Site-specific data related with the new reactor can't be determined during the new reactor design certification applications so that the unit-specific FLEX strategy should be developed.

  3. Development of Mitigation Strategy for Beyond Design Basis External Events for NRC Design Certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Lee, Jae Jong; Kim, Myung Ki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, how to develop FLEX strategy for beyond-design-basis external events for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The development method of FLEX strategy for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The applicants should make unit-specific FLEX strategy and establish the minimum coping capabilities consistent with unit-specific evaluation of the potential impacts and responses to BDBEEs. NEI 12-06 outlines the process to define and deploy the diverse and flexible mitigation strategies(FLEX strategy) that will increase defense-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios to address the extended loss of alternating current (ac) power (ELAP) and loss of normal access to the ultimate heat sink (LUHS) occurring simultaneously at all units on a site. The order (EA-12-049) is issued to all reactor licensees, including holders of active, Construction Permit (CP) holders, and Combined License (COL) holders. Applicants for the new reactor design certification should prepare and submit FLEX strategy for NRC staff's review. Site-specific data related with the new reactor can't be determined during the new reactor design certification applications so that the unit-specific FLEX strategy should be developed

  4. Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the meeting report "Strategies to observe and understand processes and drivers in the biogeosphere," published in the 14 January 2014 issue of Eos (95(2), 16, doi:10.1002/2014EO020004), an incorrect affiliation was listed for one coauthor. Michael Young is with the University of Texas at Austin.

  5. Is staged external fixation a valuable strategy for war injuries to the limbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Alexander; Fodor, Lucian; Soudry, Michael

    2006-07-01

    High-energy weapons or blast injuries usually result in substantial tissue damage and are serious medical and public health problems. We report our experience with staged external fixation for war injuries to the extremities. Forty-seven patients with 64 high-energy limb fractures caused by war weapons were retrospectively reviewed. The fractures were associated with severe soft tissue damage. There were 14 Gustilo-Anderson Type IIIA fractures, 40 Type IIIB fractures, and 10 Type IIIC fractures. Soft tissue débridement followed by axial realignment of the fractured bones with immediate skeletal stabilization using the AO/ASIF unilateral tubular external fixator was performed on the day of admission. The primary tubular fixators were exchanged 5 to 7 days later for Ilizarov frames. Delayed primary closure, skin grafts, or flaps were used for soft tissue coverage. The mean followup was 40 months, and the Ilizarov/hybrid external fixator was the definitive treatment in all patients. Bone union was achieved at an average of 8 months in 58 (90.6%) fractures. Three patients had nonunions and one patient required an amputation. Two patients were lost to followup. Staged external fixation is a valuable strategy for treatment of war injuries to the extremities. Therapeutic study, Level IV. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  7. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  8. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  9. Supporting Second Chances: Education and Employment Strategies For People Returning from Correctional Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief highlights strategies for strengthening education and employment pathways for youth and adults returning from correctional facilities and notes key questions that new research should answer. It also explores barriers to employment for people with criminal records--whether or not they have been incarcerated--and potential policy…

  10. Effectiveness of External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) strategy for APR1400 and issues of phenomenological uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.J.; Kim, H.T.

    2007-01-01

    The APR1400(Advanced Power Reactor 1400) is an evolutionary advanced light water reactor with rated thermal power of 4000 MWt. For APR1400, External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) is adopted as a primary severe accident management strategy for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium. The ERVC is a method of IVR by submerging the reactor vessel exterior. At the early stage of the APR1400 design, only ex-vessel cooling, cooling of the core melt outside the vessel after vessel is breached, is considered based on the EPRI Utility Requirement Document for Evolutionary LWR. However, based on the progress in implementation of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) for operating plants, as well as the research findings related to ERVC, ERVC strategy is adopted as a part of key severe accident management strategies. To improve its success, the strategy is reviewed and we implemented necessary design arrangement to increase its usefulness in managing the severe accident. In this paper, we examine the evolution of ERVC concept and its implementation in APR1400. Then, we review possible approach, including Risk-Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy. (authors)

  11. Tax corrections at the external borders of the European Community at the implementation of an energy levy: An inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, G.

    1993-09-01

    There are several methods to implement an energy levy in the European Union without having a negative impact on the competitive position of energy-intensive industries and businesses in the EU: (1) a worldwide energy levy; (2) partly exemption of energy-intensive industries or businesses in the EU; and (3) an import levy on energy-intensive products from outside the EU, and refunds for industries and businesses in the EU for paid energy levies on products, exported to countries outside the EU. The third option is investigated in this report for two variants: the input variant (levy only on primary energy sources) and the output variant (levies on all the energy-intensive products). Energy-intensive products discussed in this report are energy carriers, food products, paper and board, chemical and synthetic products, ceramic products, and primary products of the metal industry. Attention is paid to the practical execution, the extent to which such a levy can be enforced, and its relation with the GATT. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the two variants with tax corrections at the external borders are discussed in relation with the first two options (1) and (2) to guarantee the competitive position of energy-intensive industries and businesses. 4 tabs., 2 appendices, 30 refs

  12. The externally corrected coupled cluster approach with four- and five-body clusters from the CASSCF wave function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enhua; Li, Shuhua

    2015-03-07

    An externally corrected CCSDt (coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and active triples) approach employing four- and five-body clusters from the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function (denoted as ecCCSDt-CASSCF) is presented. The quadruple and quintuple excitation amplitudes within the active space are extracted from the CASSCF wave function and then fed into the CCSDt-like equations, which can be solved in an iterative way as the standard CCSDt equations. With a size-extensive CASSCF reference function, the ecCCSDt-CASSCF method is size-extensive. When the CASSCF wave function is readily available, the computational cost of the ecCCSDt-CASSCF method scales as the popular CCSD method (if the number of active orbitals is small compared to the total number of orbitals). The ecCCSDt-CASSCF approach has been applied to investigate the potential energy surface for the simultaneous dissociation of two O-H bonds in H2O, the equilibrium distances and spectroscopic constants of 4 diatomic molecules (F2(+), O2(+), Be2, and NiC), and the reaction barriers for the automerization reaction of cyclobutadiene and the Cl + O3 → ClO + O2 reaction. In most cases, the ecCCSDt-CASSCF approach can provide better results than the CASPT2 (second order perturbation theory with a CASSCF reference function) and CCSDT methods.

  13. Chemometric strategy for automatic chromatographic peak detection and background drift correction in chromatographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Jie; Xia, Qiao-Ling; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Bing; Xie, Fu-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Ma, Yun-Ming; Wu, Hai-Long

    2014-09-12

    Peak detection and background drift correction (BDC) are the key stages in using chemometric methods to analyze chromatographic fingerprints of complex samples. This study developed a novel chemometric strategy for simultaneous automatic chromatographic peak detection and BDC. A robust statistical method was used for intelligent estimation of instrumental noise level coupled with first-order derivative of chromatographic signal to automatically extract chromatographic peaks in the data. A local curve-fitting strategy was then employed for BDC. Simulated and real liquid chromatographic data were designed with various kinds of background drift and degree of overlapped chromatographic peaks to verify the performance of the proposed strategy. The underlying chromatographic peaks can be automatically detected and reasonably integrated by this strategy. Meanwhile, chromatograms with BDC can be precisely obtained. The proposed method was used to analyze a complex gas chromatography dataset that monitored quality changes in plant extracts during storage procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2013-01-01

    Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by "rivals" and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via "power" or "refrigeration" cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and non-modal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in social

  15. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley Clark

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by rivals and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via power or refrigeration cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and nonmodal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Corrections in Geodesy and Oceanography: a Strategy for Handling Air Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Rui M.; Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Global pressure data are often needed for processing or interpreting modern geodetic and oceanographic measurements. The most common source of these data is the analysis or reanalysis products of various meteorological centers. Tidal signals in these products can be problematic for several reasons, including potentially aliased sampling of the semidiurnal solar tide as well as the presence of various modeling or timing errors. Building on the work of Van den Dool and colleagues, we lay out a strategy for handling atmospheric tides in (re)analysis data. The procedure also offers a method to account for ocean loading corrections in satellite altimeter data that are consistent with standard ocean-tide corrections. The proposed strategy has immediate application to the on-going Jason-1 and GRACE satellite missions.

  17. Evaluation and correction of uncertainty due to Gaussian approximation in radar - rain gauge merging using kriging with external drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinati, F.; Wani, O.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is widely recognised that merging radar rainfall estimates (RRE) with rain gauge data can improve the RRE and provide areal and temporal coverage that rain gauges cannot offer. Many methods to merge radar and rain gauge data are based on kriging and require an assumption of Gaussianity on the variable of interest. In particular, this work looks at kriging with external drift (KED), because it is an efficient, widely used, and well performing merging method. Rainfall, especially at finer temporal scale, does not have a normal distribution and presents a bi-modal skewed distribution. In some applications a Gaussianity assumption is made, without any correction. In other cases, variables are transformed in order to obtain a distribution closer to Gaussian. This work has two objectives: 1) compare different transformation methods in merging applications; 2) evaluate the uncertainty arising when untransformed rainfall data is used in KED. The comparison of transformation methods is addressed under two points of view. On the one hand, the ability to reproduce the original probability distribution after back-transformation of merged products is evaluated with qq-plots, on the other hand the rainfall estimates are compared with an independent set of rain gauge measurements. The tested methods are 1) no transformation, 2) Box-Cox transformations with parameter equal to λ=0.5 (square root), 3) λ=0.25 (square root - square root), and 4) λ=0.1 (almost logarithmic), 5) normal quantile transformation, and 6) singularity analysis. The uncertainty associated with the use of non-transformed data in KED is evaluated in comparison with the best performing product. The methods are tested on a case study in Northern England, using hourly data from 211 tipping bucket rain gauges from the Environment Agency and radar rainfall data at 1 km/5-min resolutions from the UK Met Office. In addition, 25 independent rain gauges from the UK Met Office were used to assess the merged products.

  18. Modeling Approach/Strategy for Corrective Action Unit 97, Yucca Flat and Climax Mine , Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet Willie

    2003-08-01

    The objectives of the UGTA corrective action strategy are to predict the location of the contaminant boundary for each CAU, develop and implement a corrective action, and close each CAU. The process for achieving this strategy includes modeling to define the maximum extent of contaminant transport within a specified time frame. Modeling is a method of forecasting how the hydrogeologic system, including the underground test cavities, will behave over time with the goal of assessing the migration of radionuclides away from the cavities and chimneys. Use of flow and transport models to achieve the objectives of the corrective action strategy is specified in the FFACO. In the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine system, radionuclide migration will be governed by releases from the cavities and chimneys, and transport in alluvial aquifers, fractured and partially fractured volcanic rock aquifers and aquitards, the carbonate aquifers, and in intrusive units. Additional complexity is associated with multiple faults in Yucca Flat and the need to consider reactive transport mechanisms that both reduce and enhance the mobility of radionuclides. A summary of the data and information that form the technical basis for the model is provided in this document.

  19. Sulfate and sulfide sulfur isotopes (δ34S and δ33S) measured by solution and laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: An enhanced approach using external correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Michael; Ridley, William I.; Emsbo, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Isotope ratio measurements using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) commonly use standard-sample bracketing with a single isotope standard for mass bias correction for elements with narrow-range isotope systems measured by MC-ICP-MS, e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, and Hg. However, sulfur (S) isotopic composition (δ34S) in nature can range from at least − 40 to + 40‰, potentially exceeding the ability of standard-sample bracketing using a single sulfur isotope standard to accurately correct for mass bias. Isotopic fractionation via solution and laser ablation introduction was determined during sulfate sulfur (Ssulfate) isotope measurements. An external isotope calibration curve was constructed using in-house and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Ssulfate isotope reference materials (RM) in an attempt to correct for the difference. The ability of external isotope correction for Ssulfate isotope measurements was evaluated by analyzing NIST and United States Geological Survey (USGS) Ssulfate isotope reference materials as unknowns. Differences in δ34Ssulfate between standard-sample bracketing and standard-sample bracketing with external isotope correction for sulfate samples ranged from 0.72‰ to 2.35‰ over a δ34S range of 1.40‰ to 21.17‰. No isotopic differences were observed when analyzing Ssulfide reference materials over a δ34Ssulfide range of − 32.1‰ to 17.3‰ and a δ33S range of − 16.5‰ to 8.9‰ via laser ablation (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. Here, we identify a possible plasma induced fractionation for Ssulfate and describe a new method using external isotope calibration corrections using solution and LA-MC-ICP-MS.

  20. A strategy to objectively evaluate the necessity of correcting detected target deviations in image guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2007-01-01

    Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup

  1. Hybrid external fixation of the proximal tibia: strategies to improve frame stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig S; Dodds, James C; Perry, Kelvin; Beck, Dennis; Seligson, David; Voor, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    To determine the specific frame construction strategies that can increase the stability of hybrid (ring with tensioned wires proximally connected by bars to half-pins distally) external fixation of proximal tibia fractures. DESIGN Repeated measures biomechanical testing. Laboratory. Composite fiberglass tibias. Using the Heidelberg and Ilizarov systems, external fixators were tested on composite fiberglass tibias with a 1-cm proximal osteotomy (OTA fracture classification 41-A3.3) in seven frame configurations: unilateral frames with 5-mm diameter half-pins and 6-mm diameter half-pins; hybrid (as described above), with and without a 6-mm anterior proximal half-pin; a "box" hybrid (additional ring group distal to the fracture connected by symmetrically spaced bars to the proximal rings) with and without an anterior, proximal half-pin; and a full, four-ring configuration. Each configuration was loaded in four positions (central, medial, posterior, and posteromedial). Displacement at point of loading of proximal fragment. The "box" hybrid was stiffer than the standard hybrid for all loading positions. The addition of an anterior half-pin stiffened the standard hybrid and the "box" hybrid. The most dramatic improvements in the stability of hybrid frames used for proximal tibial fractures result from addition of an anterior, proximal half-pin.

  2. European specialist porphyria laboratories: diagnostic strategies, analytical quality, clinical interpretation, and reporting as assessed by an external quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsand, Aasne K; Villanger, Jørild H; Støle, Egil; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Marsden, Joanne; To-Figueras, Jordi; Badminton, Mike; Elder, George H; Sandberg, Sverre

    2011-11-01

    The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders whose diagnosis depends on identification of specific patterns of porphyrin precursor and porphyrin accumulation in urine, blood, and feces. Diagnostic tests for porphyria are performed by specialized laboratories in many countries. Data regarding the analytical and diagnostic performance of these laboratories are scarce. We distributed 5 sets of multispecimen samples from different porphyria patients accompanied by clinical case histories to 18-21 European specialist porphyria laboratories/centers as part of a European Porphyria Network organized external analytical and postanalytical quality assessment (EQA) program. The laboratories stated which analyses they would normally have performed given the case histories and reported results of all porphyria-related analyses available, interpretative comments, and diagnoses. Reported diagnostic strategies initially showed considerable diversity, but the number of laboratories applying adequate diagnostic strategies increased during the study period. We found an average interlaboratory CV of 50% (range 12%-152%) for analytes in absolute concentrations. Result normalization by forming ratios to the upper reference limits did not reduce this variation. Sixty-five percent of reported results were within biological variation-based analytical quality specifications. Clinical interpretation of the obtained analytical results was accurate, and most laboratories established the correct diagnosis in all distributions. Based on a case-based EQA scheme, variations were apparent in analytical and diagnostic performance between European specialist porphyria laboratories. Our findings reinforce the use of EQA schemes as an essential tool to assess both analytical and diagnostic processes and thereby to improve patient care in rare diseases.

  3. Impact of attenuation correction strategies on the quantification of High Resolution Research Tomograph PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Floris H P van; Kloet, Reina W; Berckel, Bart N M van; Molthoff, Carla F M; Jong, Hugo W A M de; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the quantitative accuracy of different attenuation correction strategies presently available for the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) was investigated. These attenuation correction methods differ in reconstruction and processing (segmentation) algorithms used for generating a μ-image from measured 2D transmission scans, an intermediate step in the generation of 3D attenuation correction factors. Available methods are maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction (MAP-TR), unweighted OSEM (UW-OSEM) and NEC-TR, which transforms sinogram values back to their noise equivalent counts (NEC) to restore Poisson distribution. All methods can be applied with or without μ-image segmentation. However, for MAP-TR a μ-histogram is a prior during reconstruction. All possible strategies were evaluated using phantoms of various sizes, simulating preclinical and clinical situations. Furthermore, effects of emission contamination of the transmission scan on the accuracy of various attenuation correction strategies were studied. Finally, the accuracy of various attenuation corrections strategies and its relative impact on the reconstructed activity concentration (AC) were evaluated using small animal and human brain studies. For small structures, MAP-TR with human brain priors showed smaller differences in μ-values for transmission scans with and without emission contamination (<8%) than the other methods (<26%). In addition, it showed best agreement with true AC (deviation <4.5%). A specific prior designed to take into account the presence of small animal fixation devices only very slightly improved AC precision to 4.3%. All methods scaled μ-values of a large homogeneous phantom to within 4% of the water peak, but MAP-TR provided most accurate AC after reconstruction. However, for clinical data MAP-TR using the default prior settings overestimated the thickness of the skull, resulting in overestimations of μ-values in regions near the skull and thus in incorrect

  4. Gene therapy for carcinoma of the breast: Therapeutic genetic correction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermiller, Patrice S; Tait, David L; Holt, Jeffrey T

    2000-01-01

    Gene therapy is a therapeutic approach that is designed to correct specific molecular defects that contribute to the cause or progression of cancer. Genes that are mutated or deleted in cancers include the cancer susceptibility genes p53 and BRCA1. Because mutational inactivation of gene function is specific to tumor cells in these settings, cancer gene correction strategies may provide an opportunity for selective targeting without significant toxicity for normal nontumor cells. Both p53 and BRCA1 appear to inhibit cancer cells that lack mutations in these genes, suggesting that the so-called gene correction strategies may have broader potential than initially believed. Increasing knowledge of cancer genetics has identified these and other genes as potential targets for gene replacement therapy. Initial patient trials of p53 and BRCA1 gene therapy have provided some indications of potential efficacy, but have also identified areas of basic and clinical research that are needed before these approaches may be widely used in patient care

  5. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Valli, Lorella [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Aluwini, Shafak [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V{sub 100%}) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3

  6. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Steven van de; Valli, Lorella; Aluwini, Shafak; Lanconelli, Nico; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V 100% ) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3-mm

  7. Managing search strategies for open innovation : the role of environmental munificence as well as internal and external R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Firms compete increasingly in an open innovation environment. Search strategies for external knowledge become therefore crucial for firm success. Existing research differentiates between the breadth (diversity) and depth (intensity) with which firms pursue external knowledge source. A consensus exists that resource constrains force firms to balance both dimensions. However, relatively little is known on how managers can selectively strengthen one of these dimensions. We argue conceptually tha...

  8. Bias of shear wave elasticity measurements in thin layer samples and a simple correction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianqiang; Xu, Hao; Qiang, Bo; Giambini, Hugo; Kinnick, Randall; An, Kai-Nan; Chen, Shigao; Luo, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is an emerging technique for measuring biological tissue stiffness. However, the application of SWE in thin layer tissues is limited by bias due to the influence of geometry on measured shear wave speed. In this study, we investigated the bias of Young's modulus measured by SWE in thin layer gelatin-agar phantoms, and compared the result with finite element method and Lamb wave model simulation. The result indicated that the Young's modulus measured by SWE decreased continuously when the sample thickness decreased, and this effect was more significant for smaller thickness. We proposed a new empirical formula which can conveniently correct the bias without the need of using complicated mathematical modeling. In summary, we confirmed the nonlinear relation between thickness and Young's modulus measured by SWE in thin layer samples, and offered a simple and practical correction strategy which is convenient for clinicians to use.

  9. Gradual digital lengthening with autologous bone graft and external fixation for correction of flail toe in a patient with Raynaud's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Bradley M; Ades, Joe K

    2009-01-01

    Iatrogenic flail toe is a complication of hammertoe surgery that occurs when an overaggressive resection of the proximal phalanx occurs. This can cause both functional and cosmetic concerns for the patient. We present a case report of the correction of a flail second toe in a patient with Raynaud's disease. The correction was achieved by means of gradual soft tissue lengthening with external fixation and an interposition autologous bone graft digital arthrodesis. After 5 months, this 2-stage procedure lengthened, stabilized, and restored the function of the toe. 4.

  10. Implementation of client versus care-provider strategies to improve external cephalic version rates: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemmix, Floortje; Rosman, Ageeth N; Rijnders, Marlies E; Beuckens, Antje; Opmeer, Brent C; Mol, Ben W J; Kok, Marjolein; Fleuren, Margot A H

    2015-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a client or care-provider strategy to improve the implementation of external cephalic version. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twenty-five clusters; hospitals and their referring midwifery practices randomly selected in the Netherlands. Singleton breech presentation from 32 weeks of gestation onwards. We randomized clusters to a client strategy (written information leaflets and decision aid), a care-provider strategy (1-day counseling course focused on knowledge and counseling skills), a combined client and care-provider strategy and care-as-usual strategy. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis. Rate of external cephalic version in various strategies. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of women counseled and opting for a version attempt. The overall implementation rate of external cephalic version was 72% (1169 of 1613 eligible clients) with a range between clusters of 8-95%. Neither the client strategy (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.5) nor the care-provider strategy (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.3) showed significant improvements. Results were comparable when we limited the analysis to those women who were actually offered intervention (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.4 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.7-4.5). Neither a client nor a care-provider strategy improved the external cephalic version implementation rate for breech presentation, neither with regard to the number of version attempts offered nor the number of women accepting the procedure. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. A strategy to correct for intrafraction target translation in conformal prostate radiotherapy: Simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P. J.; Lauve, A. D.; Hagan, M. P.; Siebers, J. V.

    2007-01-01

    A strategy is proposed in which intrafraction internal target translation is corrected for by repositioning the multileaf collimator position aperture to conform to the new target pose in the beam projection, and the beam monitor units are adjusted to account for the change in the geometric relationship between the target and the beam. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric stability of the prostate and critical structures in the presence of internal target translation using the dynamic compensation strategy. Twenty-five previously treated prostate cancer patients were replanned using a four-field conformal technique to deliver 72 Gy to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). Internal translation was introduced by displacing the prostate PTV (no rotation or deformation was considered). Thirty-six randomly selected isotropic displacements of magnitude 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 cm were sampled for each patient, for a total of 3600 errors. Due to their anatomic relation to the prostate, the rectum and bladder contours were also moved with the same magnitude and direction as the prostate. The dynamic compensation strategy was used to correct each of these errors by conforming the beam apertures to the new target pose and adjusting the monitor units using inverse-square and off-axis factor corrections. The dynamic compensation strategy plans were then compared to the original treatment plans via dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Changes of more than 5% of the prescription dose (3.6 Gy) were deemed clinically significant. Compared to the original treatment plans, the dynamic compensation strategy produced small discrepancies in isodose distributions and DVH analyses for all structures considered apart from the femoral heads. These differences increased with the magnitude of the internal motion. Coverage of the PTV was excellent: D 5 , D 95 , and D mean were not increased or decreased by more than 5% of the prescription dose for any of the 3600

  12. Nonrandom Intrafraction Target Motions and General Strategy for Correction of Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Hossain, Sabbir; Chuang, Cynthia; Descovich, Martina; Huang, Kim; Gottschalk, Alex; Larson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize nonrandom intrafraction target motions for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy and to develop a method of correction via image guidance. The dependence of target motions, as well as the effectiveness of the correction strategy for lesions of different locations within the spine, was analyzed. Methods and Materials: Intrafraction target motions for 64 targets in 64 patients treated with a total of 233 fractions were analyzed. Based on the target location, the cases were divided into three groups, i.e., cervical (n = 20 patients), thoracic (n = 20 patients), or lumbar-sacrum (n = 24 patients) lesions. For each case, time-lag autocorrelation analysis was performed for each degree of freedom of motion that included both translations (x, y, and z shifts) and rotations (roll, yaw, and pitch). A general correction strategy based on periodic interventions was derived to determine the time interval required between two adjacent interventions, to overcome the patient-specific target motions. Results: Nonrandom target motions were detected for 100% of cases regardless of target locations. Cervical spine targets were found to possess the highest incidence of nonrandom target motion compared with thoracic and lumbar-sacral lesions (p < 0.001). The average time needed to maintain the target motion to within 1 mm of translation or 1 deg. of rotational deviation was 5.5 min, 5.9 min, and 7.1 min for cervical, thoracic, and lumbar-sacrum locations, respectively (at 95% confidence level). Conclusions: A high incidence of nonrandom intrafraction target motions was found for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments. Periodic interventions at approximately every 5 minutes or less were needed to overcome such motions.

  13. Impact of external knowledge acquisition strategies on innovation: a comparative study based on Dutch and Swiss panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitis, S.; Lokshin, B.; Mohnen, P.; Wörter, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that firms increasingly adopt open innovation practices. In this paper we investigate the impact of two such external knowledge acquisition strategies, ‘buy’ and ‘cooperate’, on firm’s product innovation performance. Taking a direct (productivity)approach, we test for complementarity effects in the simultaneous use of the two strategies, and in the intensity of their use. Our results based on large panels of Dutch and Swiss innovating firms, suggest that while both ‘...

  14. Implementation of client versus care-provider strategies to improve external cephalic version rates: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, Floortje; Rosman, Ageeth N.; Rijnders, Marlies E.; Beuckens, Antje; Opmeer, Brent C.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Kok, Marjolein; Fleuren, Margot A. H.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a client or care-provider strategy to improve the implementation of external cephalic version. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twenty-five clusters; hospitals and their referring midwifery practices randomly selected in the Netherlands. Singleton breech

  15. Implementation of client versus care-provider strategies to improve external cephalic version rates: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, F.; Rosman, A.N.; Rijnders, M.E.; Beuckens, A.; Opmeer, B.C.; Mol, B.W.J.; Kok, M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Onjective: To determine the effectiveness of a client or care-provider strategy to improve the implementation of external cephalic version. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial.Setting: Twenty-five clusters; hospitals and their referring midwifery practices randomly selected in the

  16. External cooling: The SWR 1000 severe accident management strategy. Part 1: motivation, strategy, analysis: melt phase, vessel integrity during melt-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides the description of the basics behind design features for the severe accident management strategy of the SWR 1000. The hydrogen detonation/deflagration problem is avoided by containment inertization. In-vessel retention of molten core debris via water cooling of the external surface of the reactor vessel is the severe accident management concept of the SWR 1000 passive plant. During postulated bounding severe accidents, the accident management strategy is to flood the reactor cavity with Core Flooding Pool water and to submerge the reactor vessel, thus preventing vessel failure in the SWR 1000. Considerable safety margins have determined by using state of the art experiment and analysis: regarding (a) strength of the vessel during the melt relocation and its interaction with water; (b) the heat flux at the external vessel wall; (c) the structural resistance of the hot structures during the long term period. Ex-vessel events are prevented by preserving the integrity of the vessel and its penetrations and by assuring positive external pressure at the predominant part of the external vessel in the region of the molten corium pool. Part 1 describes the motivation for selecting this strategy, the general description of the strategy and the part of the analysis associated with the vessel integrity during the melt-water interaction. (author)

  17. HU deviation in lung and bone tissues: Characterization and a corrective strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hua A; Meier, Joseph G; Wendt, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    In the era of precision medicine, quantitative applications of x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) are on the rise. These require accurate measurement of the CT number, also known as the Hounsfield Unit. In this study, we evaluated the effect of patient attenuation-induced beam hardening of the x-ray spectrum on the accuracy of the HU values and a strategy to correct for the resulting deviations in the measured HU values. A CIRS electron density phantom was scanned on a Siemens Biograph mCT Flow CT scanner and a GE Discovery 710 CT scanner using standard techniques that are employed in the clinic to assess the HU deviation caused by beam hardening in different tissue types. In addition, an anthropomorphic ATOM adult male upper torso phantom was scanned on the GE Discovery 710 scanner. Various amounts of Superflab bolus material were wrapped around the phantoms to simulate different patient sizes. The mean HU values that were measured in the phantoms were evaluated as a function of the water-equivalent area (A w ), a parameter that is described in the report of AAPM Task Group 220. A strategy by which to correct the HU values was developed and tested. The variation in the HU values in the anthropomorphic ATOM phantom under different simulated body sizes, both before and after correction, were compared, with a focus on the lung and bone tissues. Significant HU deviations that depended on the simulated patient size were observed. A positive correlation between HU and A w was observed for tissue types that have an HU of less than zero, while a negative correlation was observed for tissue types with HU values that are greater than zero. The magnitude of the difference increases as the underlying attenuation property deviates further away from that of water. In the electron density phantom study, the maximum observed HU differences between the measured and reference values in the cortical bone and lung materials were 426 and 94 HU, respectively. In the anthropomorphic phantom

  18. Correction to: Multiple Score Comparison: a network meta-analysis approach to comparison and external validation of prognostic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Haile

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Correction Following publication of the original article [1], a member of the writing group reported that his name is misspelt. The paper should appear in Pubmed under “Ter Riet G”, bot as “Riet GT”.

  19. Strategies for Online Organ Motion Correction for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer: Prostate, Rectum, and Bladder Dose Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijkhorst, Erik-Jan; Lakeman, Annemarie; Nijkamp, Jasper; Bois, Josien de; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify and evaluate the accumulated prostate, rectum, and bladder dose for several strategies including rotational organ motion correction for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer using realistic organ motion data. Methods and Materials: Repeat computed tomography (CT) scans of 19 prostate patients were used. Per patient, two IMRT plans with different uniform margins were created. To quantify prostate and seminal vesicle motion, repeat CT clinical target volumes (CTVs) were matched onto the planning CTV using deformable registration. Four different strategies, from online setup to full motion correction, were simulated. Rotations were corrected for using gantry and collimator angle adjustments. Prostate, rectum, and bladder doses were accumulated for each patient, plan, and strategy. Minimum CTV dose (D min ), rectum equivalent uniform dose (EUD, n = 0.13), and bladder surface receiving ≥78 Gy (S78), were calculated. Results: With online CTV translation correction, a 7-mm margin was sufficient (i.e., D min ≥ 95% of the prescribed dose for all patients). A 4-mm margin required additional rotational correction. Margin reduction lowered the rectum EUD(n = 0.13) by ∼2.6 Gy, and the bladder S78 by ∼1.9%. Conclusions: With online correction of both translations and rotations, a 4-mm margin was sufficient for 15 of 19 patients, whereas the remaining four patients had an underdosed CTV volume <1%. Margin reduction combined with online corrections resulted in a similar or lower dose to the rectum and bladder. The more advanced the correction strategy, the better the planned and accumulated dose agreed.

  20. "Right-sourcing" or obtaining the correct balance between in-house activity and the purchase of external services

    CERN Document Server

    Ninin, P

    2003-01-01

    During the last few years, and more particularly to face the LHC construction, several Information Technology activities of the ST Division have been outsourced. This concerns various domains such as desktop support, application software development, system maintenance as well as turn-key control systems. Among other motivations, this tactical approach was seen as a way to achieve higher product quality and service rationalization. The outsourcing success of IT activities resides in the mastering of a complex process that includes amongst other specification, purchasing, negotiation, contract management skills on top of advanced technical knowledge. The perception of the success of outsourcing differs also from one stakeholder to another. Nowadays, as CERN encounters a cash-flow issue, in-sourcing is investigated as an alternative path for savings. From this experience and the survey of current practice in industry, this paper analyses various parameters that should be considered to find the correct balance b...

  1. How to correct for long-term externalities of large-scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of recent renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply: it necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development in the presence of either subsidized or market driven development scenarios. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on prices and reliability of supply. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalised for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. - Highlights: • We model power market players’ investment decisions incorporating wind power. • We examine two market designs: an energy-only market and a capacity mechanism. • We test two types of wind power development paths: subsidised and market-driven. • Capacity mechanisms compensate for the externalities of wind power developments

  2. One Strategy for Assessing the Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research: Operationalizing the External Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dana L.

    The external audit is a way of assessing the trustworthiness of a study, attesting to its dependability from a methodological standpoint and to its confirmability by reviewing the data, analysis, and interpretations and assessing whether the findings represent the data accurately. This paper discusses issues in the audit process, drawing on data…

  3. Cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans.

  4. Information asymmetries, information externalities, oil companies strategies and oil exploration information efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyouki, E.

    1998-07-01

    Both for economics (in general) and energy economics matters, it is important to reach oil exploration efficiency. To achieve this aim, a pragmatic approach is to use the concept of information efficiency which means that the different tracts have to be drilled in the decreasing order of estimated profitabilities, estimations being made on the basis of the best (in the sense of reliability) available information. What does 'best available information' mean? It corresponds either to the information held by the most experienced oil companies (due to the existence of information asymmetries to the profit of these companies), or to information revealed by the drilling and which allows to revise probabilities of success on neighboring tracts with similar geological features (due to the existence of information externalities). In consideration of these information asymmetries and externalities, we will say that exploration is information efficient when. -- on the one hand, initial exploration choices are directed by the most experienced companies, - and, on the other hand, during the drilling phase, in the face of the information externality, companies adopt a sequential drilling, i.e. excluding both over-investment and strategic under-investment. The topic we deal with in this thesis is then to know if oil companies, when they are put in normal competition conditions, are likely to make emerge a state of information efficiency in exploration, the analysis being conducted theoretically and empirically. (author)

  5. An external logic architecture for implementing traffic signal system control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The built-in logic functions in traffic controllers have very limited capability to store information, to analyze input data, to estimate performance measures, and to adopt control strategy decisions. These capabilities are imperative to support traf...

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL MIXTURE FORMATION STRATEGY IN HYDROGEN-FUELED ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Kamil; M. M. Rahman; Rosli A. Bakar

    2011-01-01

    Mohammed Kamil1, M. M. Rahman2 and Rosli A. Bakar2Hydrogen induction strategy in an internal combustion engine plays a vital role in increasing the power density and prohibiting combustion anomalies. This paper inspects the performance characteristics of cylinder hydrogen-fueled engine with port injection feeding strategy. To that end, a one-dimensional gas dynamic model has been built to represent the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine. The governing equations are introdu...

  7. Design Strategy for a Pipelined ADC Employing Digital Post-correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpe, P.J.A.; Zanikopoulos, A.; Hegt, J.A.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how the usage of digital post-correction techniques in pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) can be exploited optimally during the design-phase of the converter. It is known that post-correction algorithms reduce the influence of several cir- cuit impairments on the

  8. Evaluation of intensity drift correction strategies using MetaboDrift, a normalization tool for multi-batch metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonusin, Chanisa; IglayReger, Heidi B; Soni, Tanu; Rothberg, Amy E; Burant, Charles F; Evans, Charles R

    2017-11-10

    In recent years, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has increasingly been applied to large-scale epidemiological studies of human subjects. However, the successful use of metabolomics in this context is subject to the challenge of detecting biologically significant effects despite substantial intensity drift that often occurs when data are acquired over a long period or in multiple batches. Numerous computational strategies and software tools have been developed to aid in correcting for intensity drift in metabolomics data, but most of these techniques are implemented using command-line driven software and custom scripts which are not accessible to all end users of metabolomics data. Further, it has not yet become routine practice to assess the quantitative accuracy of drift correction against techniques which enable true absolute quantitation such as isotope dilution mass spectrometry. We developed an Excel-based tool, MetaboDrift, to visually evaluate and correct for intensity drift in a multi-batch liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics dataset. The tool enables drift correction based on either quality control (QC) samples analyzed throughout the batches or using QC-sample independent methods. We applied MetaboDrift to an original set of clinical metabolomics data from a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). The performance of the method was evaluated for multiple classes of metabolites by comparison with normalization using isotope-labeled internal standards. QC sample-based intensity drift correction significantly improved correlation with IS-normalized data, and resulted in detection of additional metabolites with significant physiological response to the MMTT. The relative merits of different QC-sample curve fitting strategies are discussed in the context of batch size and drift pattern complexity. Our drift correction tool offers a practical, simplified approach to drift correction and batch combination in large metabolomics studies

  9. Publisher Correction: Measuring progress from nationally determined contributions to mid-century strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gokul; Ledna, Catherine; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; McJeon, Haewon; Kyle, Page; Williams, James H.

    2018-03-01

    In the version of this Article previously published, technical problems led to the wrong summary appearing on the homepage, and an incorrect Supplementary Information file being uploaded. Both errors have now been corrected.

  10. Attenuation Correction Strategies for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and 4-Dimensional Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tinsu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses attenuation correction strategies in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and 4 dimensional PET/CT imaging. Average CT scan derived from averaging the high temporal resolution CT images is effective in improving the registration of the CT and the PET images and quantification of the PET data. It underscores list mode data acquisition in 4 dimensional PET and introduces 4 dimensional CT popular in thoracic treatment planning to 4 dimensional PET/CT. ...

  11. Refinement of motion correction strategies for lower-cost CT for under-resourced regions of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul; Kigongo, Christopher J. N.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a recently developed post-acquisition motion correction strategy for application to lower-cost computed tomography (LCCT) for under-resourced regions of the world. Increased awareness regarding global health and its challenges has encouraged the development of more affordable healthcare options for underserved people worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, intermediate level medical facilities may serve millions with inadequate or antiquated equipment due to financial limitations. In response, the authors have proposed a LCCT design which utilizes a standard chest x-ray examination room with a digital flat panel detector (FPD). The patient rotates on a motorized stage between the fixed cone-beam source and FPD, and images are reconstructed using a Feldkamp algorithm for cone-beam scanning. One of the most important proofs-of-concept in determining the feasibility of this system is the successful correction of undesirable motion. A 3D motion correction algorithm was developed in order to correct for potential patient motion, stage instabilities and detector misalignments which can all lead to motion artifacts in reconstructed images. Motion will be monitored by the radiographic position of fiducial markers to correct for rigid body motion in three dimensions. Based on simulation studies, projection images corrupted by motion were re-registered with average errors of 0.080 mm, 0.32 mm and 0.050 mm in the horizontal, vertical and depth dimensions, respectively. The overall absence of motion artifacts in motion-corrected reconstructions indicates that reasonable amounts of motion may be corrected using this novel technique without significant loss of image quality.

  12. Comprehensive strategy for corrective actions at the Savannah River Site General Separations Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Lewis, C.M.; Amidon, M.B.; McClain, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the United States Department of Energy, contains a number of waste disposal units that are currently in various stages of corrective action investigations, closures, and postclosure corrective actions. Many of these sites are located within a 40-square-kilometer area called the General Separations Area (GSA). The SRS has proposed to the regulatory agencies, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that groundwater investigations and corrective actions in this area be conducted under a comprehensive plan. The proposed plan would address the continuous nature of the hydrogeologic regime below the GSA and the potential for multiple sources of contamination. This paper describes the proposed approach

  13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL MIXTURE FORMATION STRATEGY IN HYDROGEN-FUELED ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kamil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Kamil1, M. M. Rahman2 and Rosli A. Bakar2Hydrogen induction strategy in an internal combustion engine plays a vital role in increasing the power density and prohibiting combustion anomalies. This paper inspects the performance characteristics of cylinder hydrogen-fueled engine with port injection feeding strategy. To that end, a one-dimensional gas dynamic model has been built to represent the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine. The governing equations are introduced followed by the performance parameters and model description. Air-fuel ratio was varied from a stoichiometric limit to a lean limit. The rotational speed of the engine was also changed from 1000 to 4500 RPM. The injector location was fixed in the mid-point of the intake port. The general behavior of the hydrogen engine was similar to that of a gasoline engine, apart from a reduction in the power density, which was due to a decrease in the volumetric efficiency. This emphasizes the ability of retrofitting traditional engines for hydrogen fuel with minor modifications. The decrease in the volumetric efficiency needs to be rectified.

  14. 75 FR 45667 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Strategies for Women Executives in Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... and an organization forward. It is an acknowledgement for their way of learning and thinking, without...: Program design, strategic processes, correctional organizational culture team dynamics, and change... proposed that will enhance the project? Organizational (30%) Do the skills, knowledge, and expertise of the...

  15. Strategies to tackle the challenges of external beam radiotherapy for liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Michael I; Klein, Jonathan; Chung, Hans T; Herman, Joseph M; Kim, Edward Y; Small, William; Mayr, Nina A; Lo, Simon S

    2017-05-18

    Primary and metastatic liver cancer is an increasingly common and difficult to control disease entity. Radiation offers a non-invasive treatment alternative for these patients who often have few options and a poor prognosis. However, the anatomy and aggressiveness of liver cancer poses significant challenges such as accurate localization at simulation and treatment, management of motion and appropriate selection of dose regimen. This article aims to review the options available and provide information for the practical implementation and/or improvement of liver cancer radiation programs within the context of stereotactic body radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy guidelines. Specific patient inclusion and exclusion criteria are presented given the significant toxicity found in certain sub-populations treated with radiation. Indeed, certain sub-populations, such as those with tumor thrombosis or those with larger lesions treated with transarterial chemoembolization, have been shown to have significant improvements in outcome with the addition of radiation and merit special consideration. Implementing a liver radiation program requires three primary challenges to be addressed: (1) immobilization and motion management; (2) localization; and (3) dose regimen and constraint selection. Strategies to deal with motion include simple internal target volume (ITV) expansions, non-gated ITV reduction strategies, breath hold methods, and surrogate marker methods to enable gating or tracking. Localization of the tumor and organs-at-risk are addressed using contrast infusion techniques to take advantage of different normal liver and cancer vascular anatomy, imaging modalities, and margin management. Finally, a dose response has been demonstrated and dose regimens appear to be converging. A more uniform approach to treatment in terms of technique, dose selection and patient selection will allow us to study liver radiation in larger and, hopefully, multicenter randomized

  16. New Developments in Error Detection and Correction Strategies for Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The presentation will cover a variety of mitigation strategies that were developed for critical applications. An emphasis is placed on strengths and weaknesses per mitigation technique as it pertains to different Field programmable gate array (FPGA) device types.

  17. Neutron lifetime experiments using magnetically trapped neutrons: optimal background correction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the first stage of each run of a neutron lifetime experiment, a magnetic trap is filled with neutrons. In the second stage of each run, decay events plus background events are observed. In a separate experiment, background is measured. The mean lifetime is estimated by fitting a two parameter exponential model to the background-corrected data. For two models of the background signal, I determine the optimal ratio of the number of 'background-only' measurements to the number of primary 'neutron decay plus background' measurements. Further, for each run, I determine the optimal allocation of time for filling and for observing decay events. For the case where the background consists of an activated material (aluminum) plus a stationary Poisson process, the asymptotic standard error of the lifetime estimate computed from the background-corrected data is lower than the asymptotic standard error computed from the uncorrected data. For the case where the background is a stationary Poisson process, background correction is desirable provided that the background intensity is sufficiently small compared to the rate at which neutrons enter the trap

  18. The effect of the nonhuman external regulator’s answer-until-correct (AUC) versus knowledge-of-result (KR) task feedback on children’s behavioral regulation during learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agina, Adel Masaud; Agina, Adel M.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Steehouder, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to shed a new light on the nonhuman’s external regulation effect on children’s behavioral regulation through investigating the effect of the computer’s task feedback answer-until-correct (AUC) versus knowledge-of-result (KR) with 40 preschool children (boys/girls)

  19. Decision Making Under Objective Risk Conditions-a Review of Cognitive and Emotional Correlates, Strategies, Feedback Processing, and External Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    While making decisions under objective risk conditions, the probabilities of the consequences of the available options are either provided or calculable. Brand et al. (Neural Networks 19:1266-1276, 2006) introduced a model describing the neuro-cognitive processes involved in such decisions. In this model, executive functions associated with activity in the fronto-striatal loop are important for developing and applying decision-making strategies, and for verifying, adapting, or revising strategies according to feedback. Emotional rewards and punishments learned from such feedback accompany these processes. In this literature review, we found support for the role of executive functions, but also found evidence for the importance of further cognitive abilities in decision making. Moreover, in addition to reflective processing (driven by cognition), decisions can be guided by impulsive processing (driven by anticipation of emotional reward and punishment). Reflective and impulsive processing may interact during decision making, affecting the evaluation of available options, as both processes are affected by feedback. Decision-making processes are furthermore modulated by individual attributes (e.g., age), and external influences (e.g., stressors). Accordingly, we suggest a revised model of decision making under objective risk conditions.

  20. Reproducibility of R-fMRI metrics on the impact of different strategies for multiple comparison correction and sample sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Lu, Bin; Yan, Chao-Gan

    2018-01-01

    Concerns regarding reproducibility of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) findings have been raised. Little is known about how to operationally define R-fMRI reproducibility and to what extent it is affected by multiple comparison correction strategies and sample size. We comprehensively assessed two aspects of reproducibility, test-retest reliability and replicability, on widely used R-fMRI metrics in both between-subject contrasts of sex differences and within-subject comparisons of eyes-open and eyes-closed (EOEC) conditions. We noted permutation test with Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement (TFCE), a strict multiple comparison correction strategy, reached the best balance between family-wise error rate (under 5%) and test-retest reliability/replicability (e.g., 0.68 for test-retest reliability and 0.25 for replicability of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) for between-subject sex differences, 0.49 for replicability of ALFF for within-subject EOEC differences). Although R-fMRI indices attained moderate reliabilities, they replicated poorly in distinct datasets (replicability < 0.3 for between-subject sex differences, < 0.5 for within-subject EOEC differences). By randomly drawing different sample sizes from a single site, we found reliability, sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) rose as sample size increased. Small sample sizes (e.g., < 80 [40 per group]) not only minimized power (sensitivity < 2%), but also decreased the likelihood that significant results reflect "true" effects (PPV < 0.26) in sex differences. Our findings have implications for how to select multiple comparison correction strategies and highlight the importance of sufficiently large sample sizes in R-fMRI studies to enhance reproducibility. Hum Brain Mapp 39:300-318, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Iranian EFL Students' Writing Strategies for Error Correction: An MI Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Dariush Nejad; Varnosfadrani, Azizollah Dabaghi

    2010-01-01

    This study tries to shed some light on the Iranian EFL students' writing strategies at the revision stage of the process of writing in relation to students' interpersonal or intrapersonal intelligences. A total of 73 students majoring in English participated in this investigation. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship…

  2. How to select the correct education strategy: when not to go online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Carol G; Johnson, Norah L; Totka, Joan P; Doyle, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Screening for intimate partner violence is an important injury prevention strategy. Nurses who develop staff education, to promote screening, need to select a method that is sensitive to learners. Online learning, although convenient, is not well suited to sensitive topics such as screening for intimate partner violence. The purpose of this article is to describe a curriculum for intimate partner violence screening based on self-efficacy theory, which includes a hospital-produced video, a role play, and a discussion.

  3. The Effect of Six Different Corrective Feedback Strategies on Iranian English Language Learners’ IELTS Writing Task 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vahdani Sanavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have long studied the effect of corrective feedback strategies on the writing ability of language learners, but few have formed designs in which more than three feedback strategies have been used. In this research, the ultimate goal was to discover how International English Language Testing System (IELTS- candidates could be helped to perform better in the writing component of the test with the feedback they get. To this end, 186 learners attending IELTS preparation classes in three different English language institutes participated in this quasi-experimental study. A one-way ANOVA was run to discover the significant difference among the six groups. The findings proposed that Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL students’ writing ability improved as a result of the employment of writing feedback strategies but that reformulation strategy was the most effective one. Teachers can, thus, benefit from the finding of this research by studying the way they should tackle the learners’ inaccurate productions as far as different writing score band descriptors are concerned.

  4. A Novel Strategy of Ambiguity Correction for the Improved Faraday Rotation Estimator in Linearly Full-Polarimetric SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR missions operating at low frequencies, such as L-band or P-band, are significantly influenced by the ionosphere. As one of the serious ionosphere effects, Faraday rotation (FR is a remarkable distortion source for the polarimetric SAR (PolSAR application. Various published FR estimators along with an improved one have been introduced to solve this issue, all of which are implemented by processing a set of PolSAR real data. The improved estimator exhibits optimal robustness based on performance analysis, especially in term of the system noise. However, all published estimators, including the improved estimator, suffer from a potential FR angle (FRA ambiguity. A novel strategy of the ambiguity correction for those FR estimators is proposed and shown as a flow process, which is divided into pixel-level and image-level correction. The former is not yet recognized and thus is considered in particular. Finally, the validation experiments show a prominent performance of the proposed strategy.

  5. A Novel Strategy of Ambiguity Correction for the Improved Faraday Rotation Estimator in Linearly Full-Polarimetric SAR Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Ji, Yifei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Qilei; Huang, Haifeng; Dong, Zhen

    2018-04-10

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) missions operating at low frequencies, such as L-band or P-band, are significantly influenced by the ionosphere. As one of the serious ionosphere effects, Faraday rotation (FR) is a remarkable distortion source for the polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) application. Various published FR estimators along with an improved one have been introduced to solve this issue, all of which are implemented by processing a set of PolSAR real data. The improved estimator exhibits optimal robustness based on performance analysis, especially in term of the system noise. However, all published estimators, including the improved estimator, suffer from a potential FR angle (FRA) ambiguity. A novel strategy of the ambiguity correction for those FR estimators is proposed and shown as a flow process, which is divided into pixel-level and image-level correction. The former is not yet recognized and thus is considered in particular. Finally, the validation experiments show a prominent performance of the proposed strategy.

  6. Successful correction of tibial bone deformity through multiple surgical procedures, liquid nitrogen-pretreated bone tumor autograft, three-dimensional external fixation, and internal fixation in a patient with primary osteosarcoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Watanabe, Koji; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-07

    In a previous report, we described a method of reconstruction using tumor-bearing autograft treated by liquid nitrogen for malignant bone tumor. Here we present the first case of bone deformity correction following a tumor-bearing frozen autograft via three-dimensional computerized reconstruction after multiple surgeries. A 16-year-old female student presented with pain in the left lower leg and was diagnosed with a low-grade central tibial osteosarcoma. Surgical bone reconstruction was performed using a tumor-bearing frozen autograft. Bone union was achieved at 7 months after the first surgical procedure. However, local tumor recurrence and lung metastases occurred 2 years later, at which time a second surgical procedure was performed. Five years later, the patient developed a 19° varus deformity and underwent a third surgical procedure, during which an osteotomy was performed using the Taylor Spatial Frame three-dimensional external fixation technique. A fourth corrective surgical procedure was performed in which internal fixation was achieved with a locking plate. Two years later, and 10 years after the initial diagnosis of tibial osteosarcoma, the bone deformity was completely corrected, and the patient's limb function was good. We present the first report in which a bone deformity due to a primary osteosarcoma was corrected using a tumor-bearing frozen autograft, followed by multiple corrective surgical procedures that included osteotomy, three-dimensional external fixation, and internal fixation.

  7. Cone beam CT-based set-up strategies with and without rotational correction for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Jenny; Worm, Esben; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per

    2017-06-01

    Accurate patient positioning is crucial in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) due to a high dose regimen. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is often used for patient positioning based on radio-opaque markers. We compared six CBCT-based set-up strategies with or without rotational correction. Twenty-nine patients with three implanted markers received 3-6 fraction liver SBRT. The markers were delineated on the mid-ventilation phase of a 4D-planning-CT. One pretreatment CBCT was acquired per fraction. Set-up strategy 1 used only translational correction based on manual marker match between the CBCT and planning CT. Set-up strategy 2 used automatic 6 degrees-of-freedom registration of the vertebrae closest to the target. The 3D marker trajectories were also extracted from the projections and the mean position of each marker was calculated and used for set-up strategies 3-6. Translational correction only was used for strategy 3. Translational and rotational corrections were used for strategies 4-6 with the rotation being either vertebrae based (strategy 4), or marker based and constrained to ±3° (strategy 5) or unconstrained (strategy 6). The resulting set-up error was calculated as the 3D root-mean-square set-up error of the three markers. The set-up error of the spinal cord was calculated for all strategies. The bony anatomy set-up (2) had the largest set-up error (5.8 mm). The marker-based set-up with unconstrained rotations (6) had the smallest set-up error (0.8 mm) but the largest spinal cord set-up error (12.1 mm). The marker-based set-up with translational correction only (3) or with bony anatomy rotational correction (4) had equivalent set-up error (1.3 mm) but rotational correction reduced the spinal cord set-up error from 4.1 mm to 3.5 mm. Marker-based set-up was substantially better than bony-anatomy set-up. Rotational correction may improve the set-up, but further investigations are required to determine the optimal correction

  8. External calibration strategy for trace element quantification in botanical samples by LA-ICP-MS using filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Matheus A.G.; Voss, Mônica; Corazza, Gabriela; Flores, Erico M.M.; Dressler, Valderi L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of reference solutions dispersed on filter paper discs is proposed for the first time as an external calibration strategy for matrix matching and determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The procedure is based on the use of filter paper discs as support for aqueous reference solutions, which are further evaporated, resulting in solid standards with concentrations up to 250 μg g −1 of each element. The use of filter paper for calibration is proposed as matrix matched standards due to the similarities of this material with botanical samples, regarding to carbon concentration and its distribution through both matrices. These characteristics allowed the use of 13 C as internal standard (IS) during the analysis by LA-ICP-MS. In this way, parameters as analyte signal normalization with 13 C, carrier gas flow rate, laser energy, spot size, and calibration range were monitored. The calibration procedure using solution deposition on filter paper discs resulted in precision improvement when 13 C was used as IS. The method precision was calculated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of botanical matrix, considering the RSD obtained for 5 line scans and was lower than 20%. Accuracy of LA-ICP-MS determinations were evaluated by analysis of four CRM pellets of botanical composition, as well as by comparison with results obtained by ICP-MS using solution nebulization after microwave assisted digestion. Plant samples of unknown elemental composition were analyzed by the proposed LA method and good agreement were obtained with results of solution analysis. Limits of detection (LOD) established for LA-ICP-MS were obtained by the ablation of 10 lines on the filter paper disc containing 40 μL of 5% HNO 3 (v v −1 ) as calibration blank. Values ranged from 0.05 to 0.81  μg g −1 . Overall, the use of filter paper as support for dried

  9. External calibration strategy for trace element quantification in botanical samples by LA-ICP-MS using filter paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Matheus A.G.; Voss, Mônica; Corazza, Gabriela; Flores, Erico M.M.; Dressler, Valderi L., E-mail: vdressler@gmail.com

    2016-01-28

    The use of reference solutions dispersed on filter paper discs is proposed for the first time as an external calibration strategy for matrix matching and determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The procedure is based on the use of filter paper discs as support for aqueous reference solutions, which are further evaporated, resulting in solid standards with concentrations up to 250 μg g{sup −1} of each element. The use of filter paper for calibration is proposed as matrix matched standards due to the similarities of this material with botanical samples, regarding to carbon concentration and its distribution through both matrices. These characteristics allowed the use of {sup 13}C as internal standard (IS) during the analysis by LA-ICP-MS. In this way, parameters as analyte signal normalization with {sup 13}C, carrier gas flow rate, laser energy, spot size, and calibration range were monitored. The calibration procedure using solution deposition on filter paper discs resulted in precision improvement when {sup 13}C was used as IS. The method precision was calculated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of botanical matrix, considering the RSD obtained for 5 line scans and was lower than 20%. Accuracy of LA-ICP-MS determinations were evaluated by analysis of four CRM pellets of botanical composition, as well as by comparison with results obtained by ICP-MS using solution nebulization after microwave assisted digestion. Plant samples of unknown elemental composition were analyzed by the proposed LA method and good agreement were obtained with results of solution analysis. Limits of detection (LOD) established for LA-ICP-MS were obtained by the ablation of 10 lines on the filter paper disc containing 40 μL of 5% HNO{sub 3} (v v{sup −1}) as calibration blank. Values ranged from 0.05 to 0.81  μg g{sup −1}. Overall, the use of filter

  10. Optimization of transmission-scan time for the FixER method: a MR-based PET attenuation correction with a weak fixed-position external radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kershaw, Jeff; Yoshida, Eiji [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shiraishi, Takahiro [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, Chiba University (Japan); Obata, Takayuki [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-29

    In recent work, we proposed an MRI-based attenuation-coefficient (μ-value) estimation method that uses a weak fixed-position external radiation source to construct an attenuation map for PET/MRI. In this presentation we refer to this method as FixER, and perform a series of simulations to investigate the duration of the transmission scan required to accurately estimate μ-values.

  11. Optimization of transmission-scan time for the FixER method: a MR-based PET attenuation correction with a weak fixed-position external radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kershaw, Jeff; Yoshida, Eiji; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Suga, Mikio; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-01-01

    In recent work, we proposed an MRI-based attenuation-coefficient (μ-value) estimation method that uses a weak fixed-position external radiation source to construct an attenuation map for PET/MRI. In this presentation we refer to this method as FixER, and perform a series of simulations to investigate the duration of the transmission scan required to accurately estimate μ-values.

  12. Combined effect of therapeutic strategies for bleeding injury on early survival, transfusion needs and correction of coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvers, K; van Dieren, S; Baksaas-Aasen, K; Gaarder, C; Brohi, K; Eaglestone, S; Stanworth, S; Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R; Stensballe, J; Maegele, M; Goslings, J C; Juffermans, N P

    2017-02-01

    The combined effects of balanced transfusion ratios and use of procoagulant and antifibrinolytic therapies on trauma-induced exsanguination are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of transfusion ratios, tranexamic acid and products containing fibrinogen on the outcome of injured patients with bleeding. A prospective multicentre observational study was performed in six level 1 trauma centres. Injured patients who received at least 4 units of red blood cells (RBCs) were analysed and divided into groups receiving a low (less than 1 : 1) or high (1 or more : 1) ratio of plasma or platelets to RBCs, and in receipt or not of tranexamic acid or fibrinogen products (fibrinogen concentrates or cryoprecipitate). Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of transfusion strategies on the outcomes 'alive and free from massive transfusion' (at least 10 units of RBCs in 24 h) and early 'normalization of coagulopathy' (defined as an international normalized ratio of 1·2 or less). A total of 385 injured patients with ongoing bleeding were included in the study. Strategies that were independently associated with an increased number of patients alive and without massive transfusion were a high platelet to RBC ratio (odds ratio (OR) 2·67, 95 per cent c.i. 1·24 to 5·77; P = 0·012), a high plasma to RBC ratio (OR 2·07, 1·03 to 4·13; P = 0·040) and treatment with tranexamic acid (OR 2·71, 1·29 to 5·71; P = 0·009). No strategies were associated with correction of coagulopathy. A high platelet or plasma to RBC ratio, and use of tranexamic acid were associated with a decreased need for massive transfusion and increased survival in injured patients with bleeding. Early normalization of coagulopathy was not seen for any transfusion ratio, or for use of tranexamic acid or fibrinogen products. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Interval, Skipped, and Key-vertebral Pedicle Screw Strategies for Correction in Patients With Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies.The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies.Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery.There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P SPSS group was significantly higher than those in the IPSS (P SPSS and KVPSS groups (P SPSS, it can achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome and is more cost-effective.

  14. Purification of correctly oxidized MHC class I heavy-chain molecules under denaturing conditions: A novel strategy exploiting disulfide assisted protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Henrik; Ruffet, E.; Blicher, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to develop a strategy for purifying correctly oxidized denatured major histocompability complex class I (MHC-I) heavy-chain molecules, which on dilution, fold efficiently and become functional. Expression of heavy-chain molecules in bacteria results in the formation...... of insoluble cellular inclusion bodies, which must be solubilized under denaturing conditions. Their subsequent purification and refolding is complicated by the fact that (1) correct folding can only take place in combined presence of beta(2)-microglobulin and a binding peptide; and (2) optimal in vitro...... conditions for disulfide bond formation (similar topH 8) and peptide binding (similar topH 6.6) are far from complementary. Here we present a two-step strategy, which relies on uncoupling the events of disulfide bond formation and peptide binding. In the first phase, heavy-chain molecules with correct...

  15. A proposal to correct external effects in the coffee market: a tax on regular coffee and tea to subsidise the fair trade coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Galarraga, Ibon; Markandya, Anil

    2006-01-01

    This paper justifies the need to introduce a tax on regular coffee drinkers in the UK to subsidise the fair trade/organic coffee production. This policy will allow to take full account of the negative external effect of regular coffee production while internalising the positive effect of fair trade initiatives. Designing such a policy is possible and the benefits of it can be calculated. This paper shows how. Propuesta para corregir las externalidades en el mercado de café: un impuesto sobre ...

  16. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  17. First corrections to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift induced by diagrams with two external photons and second-order radiative insertions in the electron line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Contributions to hyperfine splitting (HFS) and to the Lamb shift on the order of α 2 (Zα) 5 induced by graphs with two radiative photons inserted into the electron line are considered. It is shown that this gauge-invariant set of diagrams, which give corrections of the considered order, consists of nineteen topologically different diagrams. Contributions to both HFS and the Lamb shift induced by graphs containing the one-loop electron self-energy as a subgraph and by the graph containing two one-loop vertices are obtained. 15 refs., 3 figs

  18. Dialogue and collaboration for Energy Efficient Facilities Management: municipal sector strategies and the role of external service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenqvist, Christian; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Bengtsson, Per-Otto

    2015-01-01

    and public-private partnership in FM. The paper covers the empirical case of a Swedish policy that stimulates energy efficiency strategies on municipal level. A dialogue-oriented interview methodology is used to assess the current strategies and practices for buildings owned and managed by municipal FM...... organisations. Findings . Silo mentality can hinder strategies and practices from becoming as comprehensive as intended by policy regulation, e.g. focus on non-residential rather than residential buildings is demonstrated by reported activities and impact on specific energy use. Findings also confirm...

  19. Correction of tibial malunion in a patient with ipsilateral total knee and ankle prostheses using external ring fixation and the ilizarov method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Smith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Total ankle replacement (TAR aims at reestablishing a functional and painless ankle joint while maintaining motion and preventing adjacent joint arthritis. TAR can be complicated by comorbidities such as ipsilateral knee arthritis and deformity with subsequent arthroplasty and/or other lower extremity malalignment issues. We present a case of a 67-year-old female with severe right ankle pain and a history of ipsilateral subtalar and calcaneocuboid fusion, bilateral total knee arthroplasty, and a malunion of a conservatively treated ipsilateral segmental tibial fracture. Following TAR, there was recurrent lateral hindfoot pain due to subtle malalignment from the tibial malunion which resulted in persistent hindfoot valgus. This caused symptomatic subfibular impingement in addition to limb length discrepancy. To address that, a circular external fixator was applied to realign the ankle and lengthen the tibia, eliminating pain and avoiding complications with either implant.

  20. Tuning dispersion correction in DFT-D2 for metal-molecule interactions: A tailored reparameterization strategy for the adsorption of aromatic systems on Ag(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, Eduardo; Muñoz-García, Ana B.; Barone, Vincenzo; Vittadini, Andrea; Casarin, Maurizio; Forrer, Daniel; Pavone, Michele

    2018-02-01

    Common local and semi-local density functionals poorly describe the molecular physisorption on metal surfaces due to the lack of dispersion interactions. In the last decade, several correction schemes have been proposed to amend this fundamental flaw of Density Functional Theory. Using the prototypical case of aromatic molecules adsorbed on Ag(1 1 1), we discuss the accuracy of different dispersion-correction methods and present a reparameterization strategy for the simple and effective DFT-D2. For the adsorption of different aromatic systems on the same metallic substrate, good results at feasible computational costs are achieved by means of a fitting procedure against MP2 data.

  1. External Peer Review Team Report for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, Sam J. [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Andrews, Robert [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The peer review team commends the Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), team for its efforts in using limited data to model the fate of radionuclides in groundwater at Yucca Flat. Recognizing the key uncertainties and related recommendations discussed in Section 6.0 of this report, the peer review team has concluded that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is ready for a transition to model evaluation studies in the corrective action decision document (CADD)/corrective action plan (CAP) stage. The DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) clarified the charge to the peer review team in a letter dated October 9, 2014, from Bill R. Wilborn, NNSA/NFO Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity Lead, to Sam J. Marutzky, N-I UGTA Project Manager: “The model and supporting information should be sufficiently complete that the key uncertainties can be adequately identified such that they can be addressed by appropriate model evaluation studies. The model evaluation studies may include data collection and model refinements conducted during the CADD/CAP stage. One major input to identifying ‘key uncertainties’ is the detailed peer review provided by independent qualified peers.” The key uncertainties that the peer review team recognized and potential concerns associated with each are outlined in Section 6.0, along with recommendations corresponding to each uncertainty. The uncertainties, concerns, and recommendations are summarized in Table ES-1. The number associated with each concern refers to the section in this report where the concern is discussed in detail.

  2. Development of Emergency Operating Strategies for Beyond Design Basis External Event(BDBEE)s in Korean WH Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Joon; Hwang, Su-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Chul; Park, Kang-Min [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Westinghouse developed and connected emergency operating procedures into a set of FLEX Support Guidelines(FSGs). This paper explains that Korean WH(Westinghouse) type nuclear power plants develop emergency operating strategies for ELAP(extended loss of all AC power), which include guidelines to use permanent and portable equipment as necessary to prevent core damage until AC power is restored from a reliable alternate source of AC power. The Korean emergency operating response strategies were developed to cope with a ELAP such as Fukushima event. The strategies include guidelines to prevent fuel damage using the FLEX equipment. Operators should take actions to prepare FLEX equipment within license basis SBO coping time. The loss of all AC power has been analyzed to identify the behavior of major NSSS process variables using RELAP computer code. The accident analysis showed that the plant does not result in fuel damage in 72 hours after an ELAP if operators take actions to cool RCS with opening of SG ADV in 5 gpm seal leak case. In this scenario, because ELAP is in process and all power cannot be used, operator should operate the FLEX equipment in order to actuate active equipment using the EOP fo SBO response. This strategy will prevent entering SAMG because this actions result in core cooling and stay in core exit temperature less than 650 .deg. C. Korean emergency operating guidelines(EOGs) will be developed using this strategies for response to the BDBEE.

  3. 1 D Additive correction strategy for solving tow dimensional problem of heat and mas transfer in porous media with non-rectangular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mers, A.; Mimet, A.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new procedure using 1 D additive correction strategy (AC), for resolution of tow dimensional problem of heat and mass transfer in field reactor of adsorption cooling machine. The reactor contains a porous medium constituted of activated carbon reacting by adsorption with ammonia. The present paper demonstrated how the new procedure of the (AC) propose here can be used, in the case of non-rectangular domain and strongly anisotropic coefficients, to improve the convergence rate of different iterative solvers currently used: Point Gauss-Seidel (GS), the line Gauss-Seidel (LGS), strongly implicit procedure (SIP) and the strongly implicit solver (SIS). Results shows that for different solvers, the performance of the additive correction strategy is efficiently improved by using the new procedure.(Author)

  4. Purification of correctly oxidized MHC class I heavy-chain molecules under denaturing conditions: a novel strategy exploiting disulfide assisted protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Henrik; Ruffet, Emmanuel; Blicher, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to develop a strategy for purifying correctly oxidized denatured major histocompability complex class I (MHC-I) heavy-chain molecules, which on dilution, fold efficiently and become functional. Expression of heavy-chain molecules in bacteria results in the formation...... of insoluble cellular inclusion bodies, which must be solubilized under denaturing conditions. Their subsequent purification and refolding is complicated by the fact that (1). correct folding can only take place in combined presence of beta(2)-microglobulin and a binding peptide; and (2). optimal in vitro...... conditions for disulfide bond formation ( approximately pH 8) and peptide binding ( approximately pH 6.6) are far from complementary. Here we present a two-step strategy, which relies on uncoupling the events of disulfide bond formation and peptide binding. In the first phase, heavy-chain molecules...

  5. Digital multimeter-based immunosensing strategy for sensitive monitoring of biomarker by coupling an external capacitor with an enzymatic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Guonan; Lu, Minghua

    2014-05-15

    A new digital multimeter (DMM)-based immunosensing system was designed for quantitative monitoring of biomarker (prostate-specific antigen, PSA used in this case) by coupling with an external capacitor and an enzymatic catalytic reaction. The system consisted of a salt bridge-linked reaction cell and a capacitor/DMM-joined electronic circuit. A sandwich-type immunoreaction with target PSA between the immobilized primary antibody and glucose oxidase (GOx)-labeled detection antibody was initially carried out in one of the two half-cells. Accompanying the sandwiched immunocomplex, the conjugated GOx could catalyze the oxidation of glucose, simultaneously resulting in the conversion of [Fe(CN)6](3-) to [Fe(CN)6](4-). The difference in the concentrations of [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-) in two half-cells automatically produced a voltage that was utilized to charge an external capacitor. With the closing circuit switch, the capacitor discharged through the DMM, which could provide a high instantaneous current. Under the optimal conditions, the resulting currents was indirectly proportional to the concentration of target PSA in the dynamic range of 0.05-7 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 6 pg mL(-1). The reproducibility, precision, and selectivity were acceptable. In addition, the methodology was validated by analyzing 12 clinical serum specimens, receiving a good accordance with the referenced values for the detection of PSA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. External and Internal Citation Analyses Can Provide Insight into Serial/Monograph Ratios when Refining Collection Development Strategies in Selected STEM Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Krueger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Kelly, M. (2015. Citation patterns of engineering, statistics, and computer science researchers: An internal and external citation analysis across multiple engineering subfields. College and Research Libraries, 76(7, 859-882. http://doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.859 Objective – To determine internal and external citation analysis methods and their potential applicability to the refinement of collection development strategies at both the institutional and cross-institutional levels for selected science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM subfields. Design – Multidimensional citation analysis; specifically, analysis of citations from 1 key scholarly journals in selected STEM subfields (external analysis compared to those from 2 local doctoral dissertations in similar subfields (internal analysis. Setting – Medium-sized, STEM-dominant public research university in the United States of America. Subjects – Two citation datasets: 1 14,149 external citations from16 journals (i.e., 2 journals per subfield; citations from 2012 volumes representing bioengineering, civil engineering, computer science (CS, electrical engineering, environmental engineering, operations research, statistics (STAT, and systems engineering; and 2 8,494 internal citations from 99 doctoral dissertations (18-22 per subfield published between 2008-–2012 from CS, electrical and computer engineering (ECE, and applied information technology (AIT and published between 2005-–2012 for systems engineering and operations research (SEOR and STAT. Methods – Citations, including titles and publication dates, were harvested from source materials and stored in Excel and then manually categorized according to format (book, book chapter, journal, conference proceeding, website, and several others. To analyze citations, percentages of occurrence by subfield were calculated for variables including format, age (years since date cited, journal distribution, and the

  7. Innovative products and services with environmental benefits: design of search strategies for external knowledge and absorptive capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mothe, Caroline; NGuyen-Thi, Uyen; Triguero-Cano, Angela

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Although the antecedents of environmental innovation and open innovation strategies have been well studied separately, the relationship between a firm's openness and environmental technological innovation still remains an interesting topic to research, especially in terms of the various modes of openness on the one hand and the product–process distinction on the other. This study relies on data from the French Community Innovation Survey to differentiate the associatio...

  8. The strategy of spectral shifts and the sets of correct methods for calculating eigenvalues of general tridiagonal matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, G.A.; Sek, I.E.

    1988-01-01

    Many correctable unknown methods for eigenvalue calculation of general tridiagonal matrices with real elements; criteria of singular tridiagonal matrices; necessary and sufficient conditions of tridiagonal matrix degeneracy; process with boundary conditions according to calculation processes of general upper and lower tridiagonal matrix minors are obtained. 6 refs

  9. Problems in Operating a Drug Rehabilitation Center in an Adult Correctional Setting and Some Preventive Guidelines or Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Mae; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Some of the problems include differences in philosophy, nontherapeutic aspects of the prison environment, dependency on the prison environment, and unique staff problems. The authors conclude that changes can be made and effective treatment can exist within the correctional setting. (Author)

  10. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. External phenome analysis enables a rational federated query strategy to detect changing rates of treatment-related complications associated with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy L; Alterovitz, Gil; Bodio, Kelly; Joyce, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are increasingly useful for health services research. For relatively uncommon conditions, such as multiple myeloma (MM) and its treatment-related complications, a combination of multiple EHR sources is essential for such research. The Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) enables queries for aggregate results across participating institutions. Development of a rational search strategy in SHRINE may be augmented through analysis of pre-existing databases. We developed a SHRINE query for likely non-infectious treatment-related complications of MM, based upon an analysis of the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC II) database. Using this query strategy, we found that the rate of likely treatment-related complications significantly increased from 2001 to 2007, by an average of 6% a year (p=0.01), across the participating SHRINE institutions. This finding is in keeping with increasingly aggressive strategies in the treatment of MM. This proof of concept demonstrates that a staged approach to federated queries, using external EHR data, can yield potentially clinically meaningful results.

  12. Impact of residual and intrafractional errors on strategy of correction for image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiao-Mao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cone beam CT (CBCT guided radiation can reduce the systematic and random setup errors as compared to the skin-mark setup. However, the residual and intrafractional (RAIF errors are still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the magnitude of RAIF errors and correction action levels needed in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI. Methods Ten patients were enrolled in the prospective study of CBCT guided APBI. The postoperative tumor bed was irradiated with 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions over 5 days. Two cone-beam CT data sets were obtained with one before and one after the treatment delivery. The CBCT images were registered online to the planning CT images using the automatic algorithm followed by a fine manual adjustment. An action level of 3 mm, meaning that corrections were performed for translations exceeding 3 mm, was implemented in clinical treatments. Based on the acquired data, different correction action levels were simulated, and random RAIF errors, systematic RAIF errors and related margins before and after the treatments were determined for varying correction action levels. Results A total of 75 pairs of CBCT data sets were analyzed. The systematic and random setup errors based on skin-mark setup prior to treatment delivery were 2.1 mm and 1.8 mm in the lateral (LR, 3.1 mm and 2.3 mm in the superior-inferior (SI, and 2.3 mm and 2.0 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP directions. With the 3 mm correction action level, the systematic and random RAIF errors were 2.5 mm and 2.3 mm in the LR direction, 2.3 mm and 2.3 mm in the SI direction, and 2.3 mm and 2.2 mm in the AP direction after treatments delivery. Accordingly, the margins for correction action levels of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, 6 mm and no correction were 7.9 mm, 8.0 mm, 8.0 mm, 7.9 mm and 8.0 mm in the LR direction; 6.4 mm, 7.1 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.2 mm and 10.5 mm in the SI direction; 7.6 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.4 mm, 10

  13. Impact of residual and intrafractional errors on strategy of correction for image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Gang; Hu, Wei-Gang; Chen, Jia-Yi; Yu, Xiao-Li; Pan, Zi-Qiang; Yang, Zhao-Zhi; Guo, Xiao-Mao; Shao, Zhi-Min; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The cone beam CT (CBCT) guided radiation can reduce the systematic and random setup errors as compared to the skin-mark setup. However, the residual and intrafractional (RAIF) errors are still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the magnitude of RAIF errors and correction action levels needed in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Ten patients were enrolled in the prospective study of CBCT guided APBI. The postoperative tumor bed was irradiated with 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions over 5 days. Two cone-beam CT data sets were obtained with one before and one after the treatment delivery. The CBCT images were registered online to the planning CT images using the automatic algorithm followed by a fine manual adjustment. An action level of 3 mm, meaning that corrections were performed for translations exceeding 3 mm, was implemented in clinical treatments. Based on the acquired data, different correction action levels were simulated, and random RAIF errors, systematic RAIF errors and related margins before and after the treatments were determined for varying correction action levels. A total of 75 pairs of CBCT data sets were analyzed. The systematic and random setup errors based on skin-mark setup prior to treatment delivery were 2.1 mm and 1.8 mm in the lateral (LR), 3.1 mm and 2.3 mm in the superior-inferior (SI), and 2.3 mm and 2.0 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) directions. With the 3 mm correction action level, the systematic and random RAIF errors were 2.5 mm and 2.3 mm in the LR direction, 2.3 mm and 2.3 mm in the SI direction, and 2.3 mm and 2.2 mm in the AP direction after treatments delivery. Accordingly, the margins for correction action levels of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, 6 mm and no correction were 7.9 mm, 8.0 mm, 8.0 mm, 7.9 mm and 8.0 mm in the LR direction; 6.4 mm, 7.1 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.2 mm and 10.5 mm in the SI direction; 7.6 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.4 mm, 10.1 mm and 12.7 mm in the AP direction

  14. A moving blocker-based strategy for simultaneous megavoltage and kilovoltage scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography image acquired during volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Luo; Lee, Huichen Pam; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a moving blocker-based approach in estimating and correcting megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) scatter contamination in kV cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquired during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods and materials: During the concurrent CBCT/VMAT acquisition, a physical attenuator (i.e., “blocker”) consisting of equally spaced lead strips was mounted and moved constantly between the CBCT source and patient. Both kV and MV scatter signals were estimated from the blocked region of the imaging panel, and interpolated into the unblocked region. A scatter corrected CBCT was then reconstructed from the unblocked projections after scatter subtraction using an iterative image reconstruction algorithm based on constraint optimization. Experimental studies were performed on a Catphan® phantom and an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom to demonstrate the feasibility of using a moving blocker for kV–MV scatter correction. Results: Scatter induced cupping artifacts were substantially reduced in the moving blocker corrected CBCT images. Quantitatively, the root mean square error of Hounsfield units (HU) in seven density inserts of the Catphan phantom was reduced from 395 to 40. Conclusions: The proposed moving blocker strategy greatly improves the image quality of CBCT acquired with concurrent VMAT by reducing the kV–MV scatter induced HU inaccuracy and cupping artifacts

  15. Simple motion correction strategy reduces respiratory-induced motion artifacts for k-t accelerated and compressed-sensing cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruixi; Huang, Wei; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xiao; Weller, Daniel S; Kramer, Christopher M; Kozerke, Sebastian; Salerno, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) stress perfusion imaging provides important diagnostic and prognostic information in coronary artery disease (CAD). Current clinical sequences have limited temporal and/or spatial resolution, and incomplete heart coverage. Techniques such as k-t principal component analysis (PCA) or k-t sparcity and low rank structure (SLR), which rely on the high degree of spatiotemporal correlation in first-pass perfusion data, can significantly accelerate image acquisition mitigating these problems. However, in the presence of respiratory motion, these techniques can suffer from significant degradation of image quality. A number of techniques based on non-rigid registration have been developed. However, to first approximation, breathing motion predominantly results in rigid motion of the heart. To this end, a simple robust motion correction strategy is proposed for k-t accelerated and compressed sensing (CS) perfusion imaging. A simple respiratory motion compensation (MC) strategy for k-t accelerated and compressed-sensing CMR perfusion imaging to selectively correct respiratory motion of the heart was implemented based on linear k-space phase shifts derived from rigid motion registration of a region-of-interest (ROI) encompassing the heart. A variable density Poisson disk acquisition strategy was used to minimize coherent aliasing in the presence of respiratory motion, and images were reconstructed using k-t PCA and k-t SLR with or without motion correction. The strategy was evaluated in a CMR-extended cardiac torso digital (XCAT) phantom and in prospectively acquired first-pass perfusion studies in 12 subjects undergoing clinically ordered CMR studies. Phantom studies were assessed using the Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In patient studies, image quality was scored in a blinded fashion by two experienced cardiologists. In the phantom experiments, images reconstructed with the MC strategy had higher

  16. Multiple Δt strategy for particle image velocimetry (PIV) error correction, applied to a hot propulsive jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, J; Lecuona, A; Nauri, S; Legrand, M; Rodríguez, P A

    2009-01-01

    PIV (particle image velocimetry) is a measurement technique with growing application to the study of complex flows with relevance to industry. This work is focused on the assessment of some significant PIV measurement errors. In particular, procedures are proposed for estimating, and sometimes correcting, errors coming from the sensor geometry and performance, namely peak-locking and contemporary CCD camera read-out errors. Although the procedures are of general application to PIV, they are applied to a particular real case, giving an example of the methodology steps and the improvement in results that can be obtained. This real case corresponds to an ensemble of hot high-speed coaxial jets, representative of the civil transport aircraft propulsion system using turbofan engines. Errors of ∼0.1 pixels displacements have been assessed. This means 10% of the measured magnitude at many points. These results allow the uncertainty interval associated with the measurement to be provided and, under some circumstances, the correction of some of the bias components of the errors. The detection of conditions where the peak-locking error has a period of 2 pixels instead of the classical 1 pixel has been made possible using these procedures. In addition to the increased worth of the measurement, the uncertainty assessment is of interest for the validation of CFD codes

  17. Multiple Δt strategy for particle image velocimetry (PIV) error correction, applied to a hot propulsive jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J.; Lecuona, A.; Nauri, S.; Legrand, M.; Rodríguez, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    PIV (particle image velocimetry) is a measurement technique with growing application to the study of complex flows with relevance to industry. This work is focused on the assessment of some significant PIV measurement errors. In particular, procedures are proposed for estimating, and sometimes correcting, errors coming from the sensor geometry and performance, namely peak-locking and contemporary CCD camera read-out errors. Although the procedures are of general application to PIV, they are applied to a particular real case, giving an example of the methodology steps and the improvement in results that can be obtained. This real case corresponds to an ensemble of hot high-speed coaxial jets, representative of the civil transport aircraft propulsion system using turbofan engines. Errors of ~0.1 pixels displacements have been assessed. This means 10% of the measured magnitude at many points. These results allow the uncertainty interval associated with the measurement to be provided and, under some circumstances, the correction of some of the bias components of the errors. The detection of conditions where the peak-locking error has a period of 2 pixels instead of the classical 1 pixel has been made possible using these procedures. In addition to the increased worth of the measurement, the uncertainty assessment is of interest for the validation of CFD codes.

  18. Speech perception for adult cochlear implant recipients in a realistic background noise: effectiveness of preprocessing strategies and external options for improving speech recognition in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, René H; Revit, Lawrence J

    2010-01-01

    Although cochlear implant patients are achieving increasingly higher levels of performance, speech perception in noise continues to be problematic. The newest generations of implant speech processors are equipped with preprocessing and/or external accessories that are purported to improve listening in noise. Most speech perception measures in the clinical setting, however, do not provide a close approximation to real-world listening environments. To assess speech perception for adult cochlear implant recipients in the presence of a realistic restaurant simulation generated by an eight-loudspeaker (R-SPACE) array in order to determine whether commercially available preprocessing strategies and/or external accessories yield improved sentence recognition in noise. Single-subject, repeated-measures design with two groups of participants: Advanced Bionics and Cochlear Corporation recipients. Thirty-four subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 90 yr (mean 54.5 yr), participated in this prospective study. Fourteen subjects were Advanced Bionics recipients, and 20 subjects were Cochlear Corporation recipients. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in semidiffuse restaurant noise originating from an eight-loudspeaker array were assessed with the subjects' preferred listening programs as well as with the addition of either Beam preprocessing (Cochlear Corporation) or the T-Mic accessory option (Advanced Bionics). In Experiment 1, adaptive SRTs with the Hearing in Noise Test sentences were obtained for all 34 subjects. For Cochlear Corporation recipients, SRTs were obtained with their preferred everyday listening program as well as with the addition of Focus preprocessing. For Advanced Bionics recipients, SRTs were obtained with the integrated behind-the-ear (BTE) mic as well as with the T-Mic. Statistical analysis using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated the effects of the preprocessing strategy or external accessory in reducing the SRT in noise. In addition

  19. Combined effect of therapeutic strategies for bleeding injury on early survival, transfusion needs and correction of coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balvers, K.; van Dieren, S.; Baksaas-Aasen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The combined effects of balanced transfusion ratios and use of procoagulant and antifibrinolytic therapies on trauma-induced exsanguination are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of transfusion ratios, tranexamic acid and products containing......) or high (1 or more : 1) ratio of plasma or platelets to RBCs, and in receipt or not of tranexamic acid or fibrinogen products (fibrinogen concentrates or cryoprecipitate). Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of transfusion strategies on the outcomes ‘alive and free from massive...... number of patients alive and without massive transfusion were a high platelet to RBC ratio (odds ratio (OR) 2·67, 95 per cent c.i. 1·24 to 5·77; P = 0·012), a high plasma to RBC ratio (OR 2·07, 1·03 to 4·13; P = 0·040) and treatment with tranexamic acid (OR 2·71, 1·29 to 5·71; P = 0·009). No strategies...

  20. A novel strategy involved in [corrected] anti-oxidative defense: the conversion of NADH into NADPH by a metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranji Singh

    Full Text Available The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well-studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, a pro-oxidant into NADPH has been uncovered in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to oxidative stress. Enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase (PC, malic enzyme (ME, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, malate synthase (MS, and isocitrate lyase (ICL that are involved in disparate metabolic modules, converged to create a metabolic network aimed at the transformation of NADH into NADPH. The downregulation of phosphoenol carboxykinase (PEPCK and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase (PK ensured that this metabolic cycle fixed NADH into NADPH to combat the oxidative stress triggered by the menadione insult. This is the first demonstration of a metabolic network invoked to generate NADPH from NADH, a process that may be very effective in combating oxidative stress as the increase of an anti-oxidant is coupled to the decrease of a pro-oxidant.

  1. Framework for a Risk-Informed Groundwater Compliance Strategy for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, Sam

    2010-09-01

    Note: This document was prepared before the NTS was renamed the Nevada National Security Site (August 23, 2010); thus, all references to the site herein remain NTS. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, Frenchman Flat, at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was the location of ten underground nuclear tests between 1965 and 1971. As a result, radionuclides were released in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. Corrective Action Unit 98 and other CAUs at the NTS and offsite locations are being investigated. The Frenchman Flat CAU is one of five Underground Test Area (UGTA) CAUs at the NTS that are being evaluated as potential sources of local or regional impact to groundwater resources. For UGTA sites, including Frenchman Flat, contamination in and around the test cavities will not be remediated because it is technologically infeasible due to the depth of the test cavities (150 to 2,000 feet [ft] below ground surface) and the volume of contaminated groundwater at widely dispersed locations on the NTS. Instead, the compliance strategy for these sites is to model contaminant flow and transport, estimate the maximum spatial extent and volume of contaminated groundwater (over a period of 1,000 years), maintain institutional controls, and restrict access to potentially contaminated groundwater at areas where contaminants could migrate beyond the NTS boundaries.

  2. "Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics": Correction to Sun and Chen (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Reports an error in "Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics" by Shuhua Sun and Huaizhong Chen ( Journal of Applied Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, May 22, 2017, np). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-22542-001.) We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Enhancing condom use experiences among young men to improve correct and consistent condom use: feasibility of a home-based intervention strategy (HIS-UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicole; Graham, Cynthia; Anstee, Sydney; Brown, Katherine; Newby, Katie; Ingham, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Condoms remain the main protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) when used correctly and consistently. Yet, there are many reported barriers to their use such as negative attitudes, reduced sexual pleasure, fit-and-feel problems and erection difficulties. The UK home-based intervention strategy (HIS-UK) is a behaviour change condom promotion intervention for use among young men (aged 16-25 years) designed to increase condom use by enhancing enjoyment of condom-protected intercourse. The objective of this feasibility study was to test HIS-UK for viability, operability and acceptability. Along with an assessment of the recruitment strategy and adherence to the intervention protocol, the study tested the reliability and suitability of a series of behavioural and condom use outcome measures to assess condom use attitudes, motivations, self-efficacy, use experience, errors and problems and fit and feel. The HIS-UK intervention and associated assessment instruments were tested for feasibility using a single-arm, repeated measures design with baseline measurement and two follow-up measurements over 3 months. A 3-month target of 50 young men completing the baseline questionnaire was set. Twenty process and acceptability evaluation interviews with participants and health promotion professionals were conducted post trial. Of the 61 young men who registered for the study, 57 completed the baseline questionnaire and 33 met with the study researcher to receive the HIS-UK condom kit. Twenty-one young men remained for the duration of the study (64% retention). The Cronbach's alpha scores for the condom use outcome measures were 0.84 attitudes, 0.78 self-efficacy, 0.83 use experience, 0.69 errors and problems and 0.75 fit and feel. Participant and health professional feedback indicated strong acceptability of the intervention. The feasibility study demonstrated that our recruitment strategy was appropriate and the target sample size was achieved. Adherence was

  4. The Causality Study of External Environment Analysis (EEA), Internal Environment Analysis (IEA), Strategy Implementation on Study Program Performance at Vocational High School (VHS) in Nias Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waruwu, Binahati; Sitompul, Harun; Manullang, Belferik

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to find out the significant effect of: (1) EEA on strategy implementation, (2) IEA on strategy implementation, (3) EEA on study program performance, (4) IEA on study program performance, and (5) strategy implementation on study program performance of Vocational High School (VHS) in Nias Archipelago. The population of…

  5. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  6. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.......In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article....

  7. Author Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D S; Löscher, C R; Krahmann, G

    2018-01-01

    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.......A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper....

  8. Towards self-correcting quantum memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michnicki, Kamil

    This thesis presents a model of self-correcting quantum memories where quantum states are encoded using topological stabilizer codes and error correction is done using local measurements and local dynamics. Quantum noise poses a practical barrier to developing quantum memories. This thesis explores two types of models for suppressing noise. One model suppresses thermalizing noise energetically by engineering a Hamiltonian with a high energy barrier between code states. Thermalizing dynamics are modeled phenomenologically as a Markovian quantum master equation with only local generators. The second model suppresses stochastic noise with a cellular automaton that performs error correction using syndrome measurements and a local update rule. Several ways of visualizing and thinking about stabilizer codes are presented in order to design ones that have a high energy barrier: the non-local Ising model, the quasi-particle graph and the theory of welded stabilizer codes. I develop the theory of welded stabilizer codes and use it to construct a code with the highest known energy barrier in 3-d for spin Hamiltonians: the welded solid code. Although the welded solid code is not fully self correcting, it has some self correcting properties. It has an increased memory lifetime for an increased system size up to a temperature dependent maximum. One strategy for increasing the energy barrier is by mediating an interaction with an external system. I prove a no-go theorem for a class of Hamiltonians where the interaction terms are local, of bounded strength and commute with the stabilizer group. Under these conditions the energy barrier can only be increased by a multiplicative constant. I develop cellular automaton to do error correction on a state encoded using the toric code. The numerical evidence indicates that while there is no threshold, the model can extend the memory lifetime significantly. While of less theoretical importance, this could be practical for real

  9. Lay beliefs about the efficacy of self-reliance, seeking help and external control as strategies for overcoming obesity, drug addiction, marital problems, stuttering and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; McDermott, Mark R

    1994-07-01

    This study was concerned with peoples' beliefs about the importance of twenty-four different contributors towards overcoming five relatively common personal health problems, namely: obesity, drug addiction, marital difficulties, stuttering and insomnia. One hundred and twenty-two subjects completed a five-page questionnaire indicating how effective each of these contributors were to overcoming the problems as specified. Factor analysis revealed an interpretable structure similar to previous studies (Luk and Bond, 1992): the emerging three factors were labelled ' self-reliance", "seeking help" and "external control". Multiple regression showed that few individual difference variables as measured were related to perceived relevance of the different contributors. The results were discussed in terms of subjects' beliefs concerning the value of self-reliance as opposed to seeking help, and in relation to the importance of understanding lay beliefs about the efficacy of different forms of intervention.

  10. Effects of MRI Protocol Parameters, Preload Injection Dose, Fractionation Strategies, and Leakage Correction Algorithms on the Fidelity of Dynamic-Susceptibility Contrast MRI Estimates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume in Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, K; Boxerman, J L; Ellingson, B M

    2017-03-01

    DSC perfusion MR imaging assumes that the contrast agent remains intravascular; thus, disruptions in the blood-brain barrier common in brain tumors can lead to errors in the estimation of relative CBV. Acquisition strategies, including the choice of flip angle, TE, TR, and preload dose and incubation time, along with post hoc leakage-correction algorithms, have been proposed as means for combating these leakage effects. In the current study, we used DSC-MR imaging simulations to examine the influence of these various acquisition parameters and leakage-correction strategies on the faithful estimation of CBV. DSC-MR imaging simulations were performed in 250 tumors with perfusion characteristics randomly generated from the distributions of real tumor population data, and comparison of leakage-corrected CBV was performed with a theoretic curve with no permeability. Optimal strategies were determined by protocol with the lowest mean error. The following acquisition strategies (flip angle/TE/TR and contrast dose allocation for preload and bolus) produced high CBV fidelity, as measured by the percentage difference from a hypothetic tumor with no leakage: 1) 35°/35 ms/1.5 seconds with no preload and full dose for DSC-MR imaging, 2) 35°/25 ms/1.5 seconds with ¼ dose preload and ¾ dose bolus, 3) 60°/35 ms/2.0 seconds with ½ dose preload and ½ dose bolus, and 4) 60°/35 ms/1.0 second with 1 dose preload and 1 dose bolus. Results suggest that a variety of strategies can yield similarly high fidelity in CBV estimation, namely those that balance T1- and T2*-relaxation effects due to contrast agent extravasation. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. External costs of energy - do the answers match the questions? Looking back at 10 years of ExternE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, W.

    2002-01-01

    While the claim for 'getting prices right' is quite popular in conceptual policy papers, the implementation of appropriate internalisation strategies is still hampered by a lack of reliable external cost data. Great expectations were set into the ExternE project, a major research programme launched by the European Commission at the beginning of the 1990s to provide a scientific basis for the quantification of energy related externalities and to give guidance supporting the design of internalisation measures. After more than a decade of research, the ExternE label became a well recognised standard source for external cost data. Looking back into the ExternE history, the paper pursues how emerging new scientific insights and changing background assumptions affected external cost estimates and related recommendations to policy over time. Based on ExternE results, the usefulness and inherent limitations of external cost estimates for impact categories like climate change or nuclear waste disposal is discussed. The paper also gives examples on how external costs in spite of remaining uncertainties are successfully used to support environmental policy. (Author)

  12. Final guidance document for extended Level 2 PSA Volume 1. Summary report for external hazards implementation in extended L2 PSA, validation of SAMG strategy and complement of ASAMPSA2 L2PSA guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, H.; Raimond, E.

    2016-01-01

    The present document is a summary of the deliverables produced within the ASAMPSA-E project for extended L2 PSA. These deliverables are: D30.7 vol. 2, 'Implementing external Events modelling in Level 2 PSA': D30.7 vol. 3: 'Verification and improvement of SAM strategy: D30.7 vol. 4: 'Consideration of shutdown states, spent fuel pools and recent R and D results'. Among many others, the following summary statements are provided: Analyses of external events: - No need for new methodology, - It is necessary to develop L1 PSA first and then clearly defined boundary conditions for the L2 PSA must be generated, - The remaining challenge is how to address adverse environmental conditions due to external hazards. Multi units: - No practical methodology exists to treat the problem, - A new methodology is necessary to be developed first for the L1 PSA. This should, from the beginning, take into account the specific needs of L2 PSA so that the boundary conditions for subsequent level 2 analysis can be generated adequately. SAM strategies verification and improvement: - L2 PSA methodology can usefully by applied and experience exists for internal initiating events L2 PSA, - How to address adverse environmental conditions due to external hazards - needs for new methodology or examples of experience, - How to model the decision process when there is a conflict of interest - needs for new methodology or examples of experience. For L2 PSA in shutdown states with open RPV, some new technical issues (fission product release, thermal load to structures above RPV) have to be addressed. Spent fuel pool issues have been developed, in particular: - Heat load from the melting spent fuel to structures above (e.g. to the containment roof) is a severe challenge for the plant and for the present-day, methodology is missing. Recent R and D achievements with relevance for L2 PSA: - Basic research has been continued in the radiochemistry (iodine and ruthenium chemistry) field, but the existing

  13. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Blaser, Martin J.; Thorsen, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The originally published version of this Article contained an incorrect version of Figure 3 that was introduced following peer review and inadvertently not corrected during the production process. Both versions contain the same set of abundance data, but the incorrect version has the children...

  14. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Dose, Janina; Gentschew, Liljana

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Robert Häsler, which was incorrectly given as Robert Häesler. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article....

  15. Correction to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roehle, Robert; Wieske, Viktoria; Schuetz, Georg M

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this article, published on 19 March 2018, unfortunately contained a mistake. The following correction has therefore been made in the original: The names of the authors Philipp A. Kaufmann, Ronny Ralf Buechel and Bernhard A. Herzog were presented incorrectly....

  16. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  17. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  18. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  19. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  20. Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuchao; Giovanoulis, Georgios; van Waes, Sofie; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Magnér, Jorgen; Haug, Line Småstuen; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-07-19

    We compared the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption using different sampling and assessment strategies. Air (indoor stationary air and personal ambient air), dust (floor dust and surface dust), and hand wipes were sampled from 61 participants and their houses. We found that stationary air contains higher levels of ΣPFRs (median = 163 ng/m(3), IQR = 161 ng/m(3)) than personal air (median = 44 ng/m(3), IQR = 55 ng/m(3)), suggesting that the stationary air sample could generate a larger bias for inhalation exposure assessment. Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate isomers (ΣTCPP) accounted for over 80% of ΣPFRs in both stationary and personal air. PFRs were frequently detected in both surface dust (ΣPFRs median = 33 100 ng/g, IQR = 62 300 ng/g) and floor dust (ΣPFRs median = 20 500 ng/g, IQR = 30 300 ng/g). Tris(2-butoxylethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) accounted for 40% and 60% of ΣPFRs in surface and floor dust, respectively, followed by ΣTCPP (30% and 20%, respectively). TBOEP (median = 46 ng, IQR = 69 ng) and ΣTCPP (median = 37 ng, IQR = 49 ng) were also frequently detected in hand wipe samples. For the first time, a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to PFRs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption was conducted with individual personal data rather than reference factors of the general population. Inhalation seems to be the major exposure pathway for ΣTCPP and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), while participants had higher exposure to TBOEP and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) via dust ingestion. Estimated exposure to ΣPFRs was the highest with stationary air inhalation (median =34 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 38 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), followed by surface dust ingestion (median = 13 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 28 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), floor dust ingestion and personal air inhalation. The median dermal exposure on hand wipes was 0.32 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1) (IQR

  1. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ...

  2. Analysis on the Operation Strategy of the 220kV External Transmission Channel for the Nujiang Power Grid after the Installation of Series Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxin; Feng, Peilei; Jan, Lisheng; Dai, Xiaozhong; Cai, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, Nujiang Prefecture vigorously develop hydropower, the grid structure in the northwest of Yunnan Province is not perfect, which leads to the research and construction of the power grid lags behind the development of the hydropower. In 2015, the company in view of the nu river hydropower dilemma decided to change outside the nu river to send out a passage with series compensation device in order to improve the transmission capacity, the company to the main problems related to the system plan, but not too much in the region distribution network and detailed study. Nujiang power grid has unique structure and properties of the nujiang power grid after respectively, a whole rack respectively into two parts, namely power delivery channels, load power supply, the whole grid occurred fundamental changes, the original strategy of power network is not applicable, especially noteworthy is the main failure after network of independent operation problem, how to avoid the local series, emergency problem is more urgent, very tolerance test area power grid, this paper aims at the analysis of existing data, simulation, provide a reference for respectively after the operation for the stable operation of the power grid.

  3. 'More is less'. The tax effects of ignoring flow externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein Ivar; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2003-01-01

    Using a model of non-linear, non-monotone decay of the stock pollutant, and starting from the same initial conditions, the paper shows that an optimal tax that corrects for both stock and flow externalities may result in a lower tax, fewer cumulative emissions (less decay in emissions) and higher output at the steady state than a corrective tax that ignores the flow externality. This 'more is less' result emphasizes that setting a corrective tax that ignores the flow externality, or imposing a corrective tax at too low a level where there exists only a stock externality, may affect both transitory and steady-state output, tax payments and cumulative emissions. The result has important policy implications for decision makers setting optimal corrective taxes and targeted emission limits whenever stock externalities exist

  4. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    In everyday environments, listeners perceive sound sources as externalized. In listening conditions where the spatial cues that are relevant for externalization are not represented correctly, such as when listening through headphones or hearing aids, a degraded perception of externalization may...... occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... were simulated via headphones using individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs). An investigation of the influence of spectral content of a sound source on externalization showed that effective externalization cues are present across the entire frequency range. The fluctuation of interaural...

  5. Electroweak corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, W.J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of high accuracy measurements investigating the weak interactions, which are expected to take place at the electron-positron storage ring LEP at CERN and the linear collider SCL at SLAC, offers the possibility to study also the weak quantum effects. In order to distinguish if the measured weak quantum effects lie within the margins set by the standard model and those bearing traces of new physics one had to go beyond the lowest order and also include electroweak radiative corrections (EWRC) in theoretical calculations. These higher-order corrections also can offer the possibility of getting information about two particles present in the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model (GSW), but not discovered up till now, the top quark and the Higgs boson. In ch. 2 the GSW standard model of electroweak interactions is described. In ch. 3 some special techniques are described for determination of integrals which are responsible for numerical instabilities caused by large canceling terms encountered in the calculation of EWRC effects, and methods necessary to get hold of the extensive algebra typical for EWRC. In ch. 4 various aspects related to EWRC effects are discussed, in particular the dependence of the unknown model parameters which are the masses of the top quark and the Higgs boson. The processes which are discussed are production of heavy fermions from electron-positron annihilation and those of the fermionic decay of the Z gauge boson. (H.W.). 106 refs.; 30 figs.; 6 tabs.; schemes

  6. Modeling Approach/Strategy for Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1, with ROTC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2008-06-01

    This document describes an approach for preliminary (Phase I) flow and transport modeling for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU). This modeling will take place before the planned Phase II round of data collection to better identify the remaining data gaps before the fieldwork begins. Because of the geologic complexity, limited number of borings, and large vertical gradients, there is considerable uncertainty in the conceptual model for flow; thus different conceptual models will be evaluated, in addition to different framework and recharge models. The transport simulations will not be used to formally calculate the Contaminant Boundary at this time. The modeling (Phase II) will occur only after the available data are considered sufficient in scope and quality.

  7. Integrating Gene Correction in the Reprogramming and Transdifferentiation Processes: A One-Step Strategy to Overcome Stem Cell-Based Gene Therapy Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo-Young Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and gene therapy tools has raised the possibility of autologous cell therapy for rare genetic diseases. However, cellular reprogramming is inefficient in certain diseases such as ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi anemia, LIG4 syndrome, and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva syndrome, owing to interference of the disease-related genes. To overcome these therapeutic limitations, it is necessary to fundamentally correct the abnormal gene during or prior to the reprogramming process. In addition, as genetic etiology of Parkinson’s disease, it has been well known that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs were progressively depleted by LRRK2 gene mutation, LRRK2 (G2019S. Thus, to maintain the induced NSCs directly derived from PD patient cells harboring LRRK2 (G2019S, it would be ideal to simultaneously treat the LRRK2 (G2019S fibroblast during the process of TD. Therefore, simultaneous reprogramming (or TD and gene therapy would provide the solution for therapeutic limitation caused by vulnerability of reprogramming or TD, in addition to being suitable for general application to the generation of autologous cell-therapy products for patients with genetic defects, thereby obviating the need for the arduous processes currently required.

  8. Statistical-learning strategies generate only modestly performing predictive models for urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate: A comparison of conventional and machine-learning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Noorazrul; Ebert, Martin A.; Bulsara, Max; House, Michael J.; Kennedy, Angel; Joseph, David J.; Denham, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Given the paucity of available data concerning radiotherapy-induced urinary toxicity, it is important to ensure derivation of the most robust models with superior predictive performance. This work explores multiple statistical-learning strategies for prediction of urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate. Methods: The performance of logistic regression, elastic-net, support-vector machine, random forest, neural network, and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to predict urinary symptoms was analyzed using data from 754 participants accrued by TROG03.04-RADAR. Predictive features included dose-surface data, comorbidities, and medication-intake. Four symptoms were analyzed: dysuria, haematuria, incontinence, and frequency, each with three definitions (grade ≥ 1, grade ≥ 2 and longitudinal) with event rate between 2.3% and 76.1%. Repeated cross-validations producing matched models were implemented. A synthetic minority oversampling technique was utilized in endpoints with rare events. Parameter optimization was performed on the training data. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to compare performance using sample size to detect differences of ≥0.05 at the 95% confidence level. Results: Logistic regression, elastic-net, random forest, MARS, and support-vector machine were the highest-performing statistical-learning strategies in 3, 3, 3, 2, and 1 endpoints, respectively. Logistic regression, MARS, elastic-net, random forest, neural network, and support-vector machine were the best, or were not significantly worse than the best, in 7, 7, 5, 5, 3, and 1 endpoints. The best-performing statistical model was for dysuria grade ≥ 1 with AUROC ± standard deviation of 0.649 ± 0.074 using MARS. For longitudinal frequency and dysuria grade ≥ 1, all strategies produced AUROC>0.6 while all haematuria endpoints and longitudinal incontinence models produced AUROC<0.6. Conclusions

  9. Statistical-learning strategies generate only modestly performing predictive models for urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate: A comparison of conventional and machine-learning methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorazrul, E-mail: noorazrul.yahya@research.uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Australia and School of Health Sciences, National University of Malaysia, Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Ebert, Martin A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008 (Australia); Bulsara, Max [Institute for Health Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia 6959 (Australia); House, Michael J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Kennedy, Angel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008 (Australia); Joseph, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia 6008, Australia and School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Denham, James W. [School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Given the paucity of available data concerning radiotherapy-induced urinary toxicity, it is important to ensure derivation of the most robust models with superior predictive performance. This work explores multiple statistical-learning strategies for prediction of urinary symptoms following external beam radiotherapy of the prostate. Methods: The performance of logistic regression, elastic-net, support-vector machine, random forest, neural network, and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to predict urinary symptoms was analyzed using data from 754 participants accrued by TROG03.04-RADAR. Predictive features included dose-surface data, comorbidities, and medication-intake. Four symptoms were analyzed: dysuria, haematuria, incontinence, and frequency, each with three definitions (grade ≥ 1, grade ≥ 2 and longitudinal) with event rate between 2.3% and 76.1%. Repeated cross-validations producing matched models were implemented. A synthetic minority oversampling technique was utilized in endpoints with rare events. Parameter optimization was performed on the training data. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to compare performance using sample size to detect differences of ≥0.05 at the 95% confidence level. Results: Logistic regression, elastic-net, random forest, MARS, and support-vector machine were the highest-performing statistical-learning strategies in 3, 3, 3, 2, and 1 endpoints, respectively. Logistic regression, MARS, elastic-net, random forest, neural network, and support-vector machine were the best, or were not significantly worse than the best, in 7, 7, 5, 5, 3, and 1 endpoints. The best-performing statistical model was for dysuria grade ≥ 1 with AUROC ± standard deviation of 0.649 ± 0.074 using MARS. For longitudinal frequency and dysuria grade ≥ 1, all strategies produced AUROC>0.6 while all haematuria endpoints and longitudinal incontinence models produced AUROC<0.6. Conclusions

  10. PS Booster Orbit Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chanel, M; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 run, orbit measurements were carried out in the 4 rings of the PS Booster (PSB) for different working points and beam energies. The aim of these measurements was to provide the necessary input data for a PSB realignment campaign during the 2007/2008 shutdown. Currently, only very few corrector magnets can be operated reliably in the PSB; therefore the orbit correction has to be achieved by displacing (horizontally and vertically) and/or tilting some of the defocusing quadrupoles (QDs). In this report we first describe the orbit measurements, followed by a detailed explanation of the orbit correction strategy. Results and conclusions are presented in the last section.

  11. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  12. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  13. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  14. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  15. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  16. PERSEE: a nulling interferometer with dynamic correction of external perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquinod, S.; Houairi, K.; Le Duigou, J.-M.; Barillot, M.; Cassaing, F.; Réess, J.-M.; Hénault, F.; Sorrente, B.; Morinaud, G.; Amans, J.-P.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Ollivier, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nulling interferometry is one of the direct detection methods assessed to find and characterize extrasolar planets and particularly telluric ones. Several projects such as Darwin [1;2], TPF-I [3;4], PEGASE [5;6] or FKSI [7], are currently considered. One of the main issues is the feasibility of a stable polychromatic null despite the presence of significant disturbances, induced by vibrations, atmospheric turbulence on the ground or satellite drift. Satisfying all these requirements is a great challenge and a key issue of these missions. In the context of the PEGASE mission, it was decided (in 2006), to build a laboratory demonstrator named PERSEE. It is the first laboratory setup which couples deep nulling interferometry with a free flying GNC simulator [8]. It is developed by a consortium composed of CNES, IAS, LESIA, OCA, ONERA, and TAS. In this paper, we detail the main objectives, the set-up and the function of the bench. We describe all the subsystems and we focus particularly on two key points of PERSEE: the beam combiner and the Fringe tracker.

  17. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  18. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  19. [Corrected count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  20. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-04-01

    A number of correction magnets are required for the advanced photon source (APS) machine to correct the beam. There are five kinds of correction magnets for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring (PAR). Table I shoes a summary of the correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. For the storage ring, the displacement of the quadrupole magnets due to the low frequency vibration below 25 Hz has the most significant effect on the stability of the positron closed orbit. The primary external source of the low frequency vibration is the ground motion of approximately 20 μm amplitude, with frequency components concentrated below 10 Hz. These low frequency vibrations can be corrected by using the correction magnets, whose field strengths are controlled individually through the feedback loop comprising the beam position monitoring system. The correction field require could be either positive or negative. Thus for all the correction magnets, bipolar power supplies (BPSs) are required to produce both polarities of correction fields. Three different types of BPS are used for all the correction magnets. Type I BPSs cover all the correction magnets for the storage ring, except for the trim dipoles. The maximum output current of the Type I BPS is 140 Adc. A Type II BPS powers a trim dipole, and its maximum output current is 60 Adc. The injector synchrotron and PAR correction magnets are powered form Type III BPSs, whose maximum output current is 25 Adc

  1. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  2. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  3. External stent for repair of secondary tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M R; Loeber, N; Hillyer, P; Stephenson, L W; Edmunds, L H

    1980-09-01

    Tracheomalacia was created in anesthetized piglets by submucosal resection of 3 to 5 tracheal cartilages. Measurements of airway pressure and flow showed that expiratory airway resistance is maximal at low lung volumes and is significantly increased by creation of the malacic segment. Cervical flexion increases expiratory airway resistance, whereas hyperextension of the neck reduces resistance toward normal. External stenting of the malacic segment reduces expiratory airway resistance, and the combination of external stenting and hyperextension restores airway resistance to normal except at low lung volume. Two patients with secondary tracheomalacia required tracheostomy and could not be decannulated after the indication for the tracheostomy was corrected. Both were successfully decannulated after external stenting of the malacic segment with rib grafts. Postoperative measurements of expiratory pulmonary resistance show a marked decrease from preoperative measurements. External stenting of symptomatic tracheomalacia reduces expiratory airway resistance by supporting and stretching the malacic segment and is preferable to prolonged internal stenting or tracheal resection.

  4. First Clinical Release of an Online, Adaptive, Aperture-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy Strategy in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy to Correct for Inter- and Intrafractional Rotations of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, Heinz; Kametriser, Gerhard; Steininger, Philipp; Scherer, Philipp; Schöller, Helmut; Gaisberger, Christoph; Mooslechner, Michaela; Mitterlechner, Bernhard; Weichenberger, Harald; Fastner, Gert; Wurstbauer, Karl; Jeschke, Stephan; Forstner, Rosemarie; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We developed and evaluated a correction strategy for prostate rotations using direct adaptation of segments in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Method and Materials: Implanted fiducials (four gold markers) were used to determine interfractional translations, rotations, and dilations of the prostate. We used hybrid imaging: The markers were automatically detected in two pretreatment planar X-ray projections; their actual position in three-dimensional space was reconstructed from these images at first. The structure set comprising prostate, seminal vesicles, and adjacent rectum wall was transformed accordingly in 6 degrees of freedom. Shapes of IMRT segments were geometrically adapted in a class solution forward-planning approach, derived within seconds on-site and treated immediately. Intrafractional movements were followed in MV electronic portal images captured on the fly. Results: In 31 of 39 patients, for 833 of 1013 fractions (supine, flat couch, knee support, comfortably full bladder, empty rectum, no intraprostatic marker migrations >2 mm of more than one marker), the online aperture adaptation allowed safe reduction of margins clinical target volume–planning target volume (prostate) down to 5 mm when only interfractional corrections were applied: Dominant L-R rotations were found to be 5.3° (mean of means), standard deviation of means ±4.9°, maximum at 30.7°. Three-dimensional vector translations relative to skin markings were 9.3 ± 4.4 mm (maximum, 23.6 mm). Intrafractional movements in 7.7 ± 1.5 min (maximum, 15.1 min) between kV imaging and last beam’s electronic portal images showed further L-R rotations of 2.5° ± 2.3° (maximum, 26.9°), and three-dimensional vector translations of 3.0 ±3.7 mm (maximum, 10.2 mm). Addressing intrafractional errors could further reduce margins to 3 mm. Conclusion: We demonstrated the clinical feasibility of an online adaptive image-guided, intensity-modulated prostate protocol on a standard

  5. First clinical release of an online, adaptive, aperture-based image-guided radiotherapy strategy in intensity-modulated radiotherapy to correct for inter- and intrafractional rotations of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Heinz; Kametriser, Gerhard; Steininger, Philipp; Scherer, Philipp; Schöller, Helmut; Gaisberger, Christoph; Mooslechner, Michaela; Mitterlechner, Bernhard; Weichenberger, Harald; Fastner, Gert; Wurstbauer, Karl; Jeschke, Stephan; Forstner, Rosemarie; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2012-08-01

    We developed and evaluated a correction strategy for prostate rotations using direct adaptation of segments in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Implanted fiducials (four gold markers) were used to determine interfractional translations, rotations, and dilations of the prostate. We used hybrid imaging: The markers were automatically detected in two pretreatment planar X-ray projections; their actual position in three-dimensional space was reconstructed from these images at first. The structure set comprising prostate, seminal vesicles, and adjacent rectum wall was transformed accordingly in 6 degrees of freedom. Shapes of IMRT segments were geometrically adapted in a class solution forward-planning approach, derived within seconds on-site and treated immediately. Intrafractional movements were followed in MV electronic portal images captured on the fly. In 31 of 39 patients, for 833 of 1013 fractions (supine, flat couch, knee support, comfortably full bladder, empty rectum, no intraprostatic marker migrations >2 mm of more than one marker), the online aperture adaptation allowed safe reduction of margins clinical target volume-planning target volume (prostate) down to 5 mm when only interfractional corrections were applied: Dominant L-R rotations were found to be 5.3° (mean of means), standard deviation of means ±4.9°, maximum at 30.7°. Three-dimensional vector translations relative to skin markings were 9.3 ± 4.4 mm (maximum, 23.6 mm). Intrafractional movements in 7.7 ± 1.5 min (maximum, 15.1 min) between kV imaging and last beam's electronic portal images showed further L-R rotations of 2.5° ± 2.3° (maximum, 26.9°), and three-dimensional vector translations of 3.0 ±3.7 mm (maximum, 10.2 mm). Addressing intrafractional errors could further reduce margins to 3 mm. We demonstrated the clinical feasibility of an online adaptive image-guided, intensity-modulated prostate protocol on a standard linear accelerator to correct 6 degrees of freedom of

  6. Strategies for Determining Correct Cytochrome P450 Contributions in Hepatic Clearance Predictions: In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation as Modelling Approach and Tramadol as Proof-of Concept Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'jollyn, Huybrecht; Snoeys, Jan; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Bock, Lies; Annaert, Pieter; Van Peer, Achiel; Allegaert, Karel; Mannens, Geert; Vermeulen, An; Boussery, Koen

    2017-06-01

    Although the measurement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) contributions in metabolism assays is straightforward, determination of actual in vivo contributions might be challenging. How representative are in vitro for in vivo CYP contributions? This article proposes an improved strategy for the determination of in vivo CYP enzyme-specific metabolic contributions, based on in vitro data, using an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach. Approaches are exemplified using tramadol as model compound, and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 as involved enzymes. Metabolism data for tramadol and for the probe substrates midazolam (CYP3A4) and dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) were gathered in human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant human enzyme systems (rhCYP). From these probe substrates, an activity-adjustment factor (AAF) was calculated per CYP enzyme, for the determination of correct hepatic clearance contributions. As a reference, tramadol CYP contributions were scaled-back from in vivo data (retrograde approach) and were compared with the ones derived in vitro. In this view, the AAF is an enzyme-specific factor, calculated from reference probe activity measurements in vitro and in vivo, that allows appropriate scaling of a test drug's in vitro activity to the 'healthy volunteer' population level. Calculation of an AAF, thus accounts for any 'experimental' or 'batch-specific' activity difference between in vitro HLM and in vivo derived activity. In this specific HLM batch, for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, an AAF of 0.91 and 1.97 was calculated, respectively. This implies that, in this batch, the in vitro CYP3A4 activity is 1.10-fold higher and the CYP2D6 activity 1.97-fold lower, compared to in vivo derived CYP activities. This study shows that, in cases where the HLM pool does not represent the typical mean population CYP activities, AAF correction of in vitro metabolism data, optimizes CYP contributions in the prediction of hepatic clearance. Therefore, in vitro parameters for any test compound

  7. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  8. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  9. Vehicle Fuel-Efficiency Choices, Emission Externalities, and Urban Sprawl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon

    This paper shows that the city where both congestion externalities and externalities from greenhouse gas emissions are corrected by efficient policies is more compact than the laissez-faire equilibrium city. Motivated by recent empirical studies showing a positive relationship between population...

  10. Environment and externalization; Environnement et externalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremlis, G.; Renaud, R. [Association francaise des ingenieurs et techniciens de l' environnement, AFITE, 75 - Paris (France); Touron, M. [Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the discussions of the 16 may 2000, concerning the externalization and the environment and proposes to answer the following questions: is the externalization a new strategy to better perceive, hopeful engineering department, the technological risks problems, the environment or the land pollution? Does the externalization allow a better organization of the enterprise? To analyse the situation, the document presents the white book of the environmental liability, the administration point of view, some enterprises examples and the importance of the environmental management. (A.L.B.)

  11. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  12. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  13. Corrective action program reengineering project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernick, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    A series of similar refueling floor events that occurred during the early 1990s prompted Susquehanna steam electric station (SSES) management to launch a broad-based review of how the Nuclear Department conducts business. This was accomplished through the formation of several improvement initiative teams. Clearly, one of the key areas that benefited from this management initiative was the corrective action program. The corrective action improvement team was charged with taking a comprehensive look at how the Nuclear Department identified and resolved problems. The 10-member team included management and bargaining unit personnel as well as an external management consultant. This paper provides a summary of this self-assessment initiative, including a discussion of the issues identified, opportunities for improvement, and subsequent completed or planned actions

  14. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  15. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  16. In Our Lifetime: A Reformist View of Correctional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbenz, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Effective correctional education strategies should be used as models for comprehensive prison reform: prisons should become schools. Cognitive-democratic educational theory has been successfully applied in correctional education, demonstrating belief in people's intrinsic worth and ability to change. (SK)

  17. External RNA Controls Consortium Beta Version Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangnoh; Pine, P Scott; McDaniel, Jennifer; Salit, Marc; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Spike-in RNAs are valuable controls for a variety of gene expression measurements. The External RNA Controls Consortium developed test sets that were used in a number of published reports. Here we provide an authoritative table that summarizes, updates, and corrects errors in the test version that ultimately resulted in the certified Standard Reference Material 2374. We have noted existence of anti-sense RNA controls in the material, corrected sub-pool memberships, and commented on control RNAs that displayed inconsistent behavior.

  18. Environmental externalities and renewables: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    New York state electric utilities are required to incorporate the consideration of environmental externality costs in their bidding programs for new capacity. A natural extension of this policy would be to consider environmental externality costs in the state's implementation of federal regulations under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). A more direct but more politically difficult approach would be the use of environmental taxes. These two approaches are discussed for more fully incorporating environmental externalities in New York's energy planning process. Under PURPA, utilities have a general obligation to purchase energy from interconnected qualifying facilities on the basis of long-run avoided cost (LRAC) estimates. The New York State Public Service Commission is currently updating the LRAC estimates, which do not account for the costs of complying with the 1990 amendments of the Clean Air Act (CAA) or for environmental externality costs associated with underlying generation sources. Environmental externality LRACs are estimated based on SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 emissions; estimates of CAA compliance are relatively small in comparison. The use of taxes to reduce emissions by making pollution more expensive than abatement is analyzed, with reference to both general revenue and trust fund types of tax mechanisms. The ways the two mechanisms affect development of wind power resources is illustrated to provide further insight into the correct application of environmental externalities in energy planning. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  20. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  1. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  2. Strategies for the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts with low crest factor; Estrategias para la correccion del factor de potencia en balastros electronicos con bajo factor de cresta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Mata, Arturo Javier

    2002-07-15

    The goal in this work is to develop electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps with high power factor with the smaller number of components. With this aim it is looked for 1) to study the impact of the value of the filtrating capacitor used in a conventional rectifier on the harmonic content of the line current and the crest factor in the lamp, 2) to study resonant tanks commonly used in electronic ballasts with the purpose of observing the feasibility of implementing a control in frequency to vary the gain of the resonant tank and 3) to propose a strategy of frequency modulation that allows to reach low harmonic distortion of the line current maintaining a low crest factor. In chapter one the used theoretical concepts in illumination systems are presented, the justification for the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lamps, a revision of the state-of-the-art in the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts and two strategies for the correction of this factor. In the next chapter the conventional resonant topologies used in the literature are presented, together with the analysis of resonant structures with high gain in steady state to compensate the variations of the instantaneous voltage of the DC bus that feeds the resonant inverter. Also simulations in PSpice are included to know the behavior of each one of the resonant structures and to be able to select, in that way, the most adequate resonant topology for this work. In the third chapter the strategy is presented for the correction of the power factor, eliminating the filtering capacitor. The effects of this elimination as far as the line current and the lamp current are shown. The characterization of the resonant tank in open loop and closed loop is presented. The method is described to control the gain of the resonant investor and its implementation. Experimental results obtained when reducing the filtering capacitor are included and the implementation of the proposed control loop to reduce

  3. Operator quantum error-correcting subsystems for self-correcting quantum memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The most general method for encoding quantum information is not to encode the information into a subspace of a Hilbert space, but to encode information into a subsystem of a Hilbert space. Recently this notion has led to a more general notion of quantum error correction known as operator quantum error correction. In standard quantum error-correcting codes, one requires the ability to apply a procedure which exactly reverses on the error-correcting subspace any correctable error. In contrast, for operator error-correcting subsystems, the correction procedure need not undo the error which has occurred, but instead one must perform corrections only modulo the subsystem structure. This does not lead to codes which differ from subspace codes, but does lead to recovery routines which explicitly make use of the subsystem structure. Here we present two examples of such operator error-correcting subsystems. These examples are motivated by simple spatially local Hamiltonians on square and cubic lattices. In three dimensions we provide evidence, in the form a simple mean field theory, that our Hamiltonian gives rise to a system which is self-correcting. Such a system will be a natural high-temperature quantum memory, robust to noise without external intervening quantum error-correction procedures

  4. Adaptive testing with equated number-correct scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained CAT algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived

  5. Corrections to the box diagram amplitude due to kaon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.; Kumbhakar, D.

    1985-08-01

    The K 0 -anti-K 0 mixing amplitude is calculated without using the standard zero external momentum approximation. The resulting corrections are numerically significant for the real part of the amplitude. In the imaginary part of the amplitude the effects of similar corrections are less important. Implications for Δmsub(k) and epsilon are discussed. (author)

  6. Malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuch, K.M.; Iryboz, T.; Firat, M.; Levy, C.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper illustrates the value of CT and MR in early diagnosis and spread of malignant external otitis. The authors retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with proved malignant external otitis examined with postcontrast high-resolution CT (15/15) and MR (6/15) (T1- and T2-weighting). Gallium studies were done in 6/15 patients. Early diagnosis was made when CT demonstrated a soft-tissue mass of the external auditory canal associated with scattered zones of cortical bone erosions (13/15). Spread of the disease was better delineated by MR than CT, especially skull base extension (6/15). Temporomandibular joint involvement with extension into parotid or/and masticator spaces 6/15 was as well detected with CT as with MR. If CT remains the first and best procedure for diagnosis, MR - despite its cost - appears a good procedure to depict exact anatomic spread, allowing therapeutic management

  7. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  8. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  9. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  10. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  11. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ...

  12. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jaw Surgery Download Download the ebook for further information Corrective jaw, or orthognathic surgery is performed by ... your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  13. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, Eric S.; Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  14. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Eric S., E-mail: epaulson@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 and Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  15. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building......The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  16. An externally and internally deformable, programmable lung motion phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit, E-mail: amit.sawant@utsouthwestern.edu [UT Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Most clinically deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating and tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are based on a rigid exterior and a rigid or a deformable-interior. Such designs do not adequately represent respiration because the thoracic anatomy deforms internally as well as externally. In order to create a closer approximation of respiratory motion, the authors describe the construction and experimental testing of an externally as well as internally deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially available lung phantom (RS-1500, RSD, Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A custom-made insert was designed using a piece of natural latex foam block. A motion platform was programmed with sinusoidal and ten patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam “diaphragm” that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of determining the reproducibility and the external–internal correlation of external and internal marker trajectories extracted from kV x-ray fluoroscopy. Experiments were conducted to illustrate three example applications of the phantom—(i) validating the geometric accuracy of the VisionRT surface photogrammetry system; (ii) validating an image registration tool, NiftyReg; and (iii) quantifying the geometric error due to irregular motion in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Results: The phantom correctly reproduced sinusoidal and patient-derived motion, as well as realistic respiratory motion-related effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0

  17. Correction to toporek (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reports an error in "Pedagogy of the privileged: Review of Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom" by Rebecca L. Toporek (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2014[Oct], Vol 20[4], 621-622). This article was originally published online incorrectly as a Brief Report. The article authored by Rebecca L. Toporek has been published correctly as a Book Review in the October 2014 print publication (Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 621-622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036529). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-42484-006.) Reviews the book, Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom edited by Kim A. Case (2013). The purpose of this book is to provide a collection of resources for those teaching about privilege directly, much of this volume may be useful for expanding the context within which educators teach all aspects of psychology. Understanding the history and systems of psychology, clinical practice, research methods, assessment, and all the core areas of psychology could be enhanced by consideration of the structural framework through which psychology has developed and is maintained. The book presents a useful guide for educators, and in particular, those who teach about systems of oppression and privilege directly. For psychologists, this guide provides scholarship and concrete strategies for facilitating students' awareness of multiple dimensions of privilege across content areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  19. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  20. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  1. Corrective feedback via e-mail on the correct use of past tense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the differential effect of two types of corrective feedback strategies – explicit and implicit – on the acquisition and retention of correct past form of irregular verbs by Iranian English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Sixty out of 80 pre-intermediate EFL learners were selected as the participants, based ...

  2. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  3. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  4. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  5. Accessing external innovation in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufféry, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    A decline in the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry research and development (R&D) pipeline has highlighted the need to reconsider the classical strategies of drug discovery and development, which are based on internal resources, and to identify new means to improve the drug discovery process. Accepting that the combination of internal and external ideas can improve innovation, ways to access external innovation, that is, opening projects to external contributions, have recently been sought. In this review, the authors look at a number of external innovation opportunities. These include increased interactions with academia via academic centers of excellence/innovation centers, better communication on projects using crowdsourcing or social media and new models centered on external providers such as built-to-buy startups or virtual pharmaceutical companies. The buzz for accessing external innovation relies on the pharmaceutical industry's major challenge to improve R&D productivity, a conjuncture favorable to increase interactions with academia and new business models supporting access to external innovation. So far, access to external innovation has mostly been considered during early stages of drug development, and there is room for enhancement. First outcomes suggest that external innovation should become part of drug development in the long term. However, the balance between internal and external developments in drug discovery can vary largely depending on the company strategies.

  6. Determinants of External Debt: The Case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafik, Rabiatul Adawiyah Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Malaysia‘s external debt has been on an increase, with the increase closely linked to a number of economic factors. The changing quantities and qualities of external debt have become a national concern. Data related to the changes in dependent and independent variables between 1970 and 2013 was used in the study. The model was tested for unit root tests, cointegration test, vector error correction model, and Granger causality test. The cointegration test indicates ther...

  7. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  8. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  9. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...... of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were included...

  10. Corrections to primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Kolb, E.W.; Gleeson, A.M.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Teplitz, V.L.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The changes in primordial nucleosynthesis resulting from small corrections to rates for weak processes that connect neutrons and protons are discussed. The weak rates are corrected by improved treatment of Coulomb and radiative corrections, and by inclusion of plasma effects. The calculations lead to a systematic decrease in the predicted 4 He abundance of about ΔY = 0.0025. The relative changes in other primoridal abundances are also 1 to 2%

  11. Correction of Depolarizing Resonances in ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, C.; Husmann, D.

    1997-05-01

    The 3.5 GeV electron stretcherring ELSA (ELectron Stretcher Accelerator) at Bonn University is operational since 1987, both as a continuous beam facility for external fixed target experiments and as a partially dedicated synchrotron light source. For the external experiments an upgrade to polarized electrons is under way. One source of polarized electrons (GaAs crystal, photoeffect using circular polarized laser light) is operational. The studies of minimizing the losses in polarization degree due to crossing of depolarizing resonances that necessarily exist in circular accelerators (storagerings) just started recently. Calculations concerning different correction schemes for the depolarizing resonances in ELSA are presented, and first results of measurements are shown (done by means of a Møller polarimeter in one of the external beamlines).

  12. External shading devices for energy efficient building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, M. S.; Ahmad, S. S.; Hussin, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    External shading devices on a building façade is an important passive design strategy as they reduce solar radiation. Although studies have proven the benefits of external shading devices, many are designed solely for aesthetic purposes without fully considering its high potential to reduce solar radiation and glare. Furthermore, explorations into shading devices by the design team are mostly left too late in the design development phases. Hence, the paper looks into the effectiveness of external shading devices on a building towards more energy efficient building. The study aims to analyse the effects of various configurations of external shading devices towards the energy consumption of a case study building based on computer simulations. This study uses Building Information Modelling (BIM) through Autodesk Revit software as simulation tool. The constant variables for the simulation are the orientation of the building, types of glazing used by the building and the internal loads of the building. Whereas, the manipulated variable is the types of shading device used. The data were sorted according to the categories and translated into a chart. Analysis of the findings indicate that shading devices with different configurations show significant results in the energy consumption and the best configuration is the egg-crate shading devices. The study recommends that the consideration for shading device as a passive design strategy needs to be developed at the early stage of the building design.

  13. An introduction to Bartlett correction and bias reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cordeiro, Gauss M

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a concise introduction to Bartlett and Bartlett-type corrections of statistical tests and bias correction of point estimators. The underlying idea behind both groups of corrections is to obtain higher accuracy in small samples. While the main focus is on corrections that can be analytically derived, the authors also present alternative strategies for improving estimators and tests based on bootstrap, a data resampling technique, and discuss concrete applications to several important statistical models.

  14. Advertising in Markets with Consumption Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Adele

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the entry deterrence literature by examining coordinating advertising in markets with consumption externalities using a stochastic success function. Optimal advertising and pricing strategies are analysed when an incumbent firm faces a challenger with a product of equal quality. I show that strategic entry deterrence using advertising is possible and optimal entry deterrence involves strategic pre-commitment to over-investment relative to the non-strategic simultaneous adve...

  15. Weighing environmental externalities: Let's do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Should we as a society adopt policies to internalize external environmental costs? Of course we should. But we should do it correctly. State public utility commissions (PUCs) that are using numerical 'externality adders' reflecting global and regional environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental quality. Alternative approaches for dealing with environmental damages or externalities exist that can lead utilities to take account of the environmental costs associated with the generation of electricity more effectively and at lower cost. This article discusses what an externality is and why the use of environmental adders by PUCs in the resource selection process, while well intentioned, is a bad idea. The author discusses how the most egregious errors associated with the use of adders can be corrected if PUCs insist on using them. Finally, he outlines an alternative approach that state PUCs can pursue which will better serve the electricity customers they are supposed to protect and promote a cleaner environment at the lowest reasonable cost. The author emphasizes that this is not a debate about whether or not environmental costs should be factored into the investment and operating decisions of firms that produce pollution. Rather, it is about how it should be done and whether state PUCs are in a particularly good position to do it well, given their expertise, legal authorities, other responsibilities and scarce resources

  16. Publisher Correction: Predicting unpredictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.

    2018-06-01

    In this News & Views article originally published, the wrong graph was used for panel b of Fig. 1, and the numbers on the y axes of panels a and c were incorrect; the original and corrected Fig. 1 is shown below. This has now been corrected in all versions of the News & Views.

  17. Markov model of the loan portfolio dynamics considering influence of management and external economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhalkina, Yana; Timofeeva, Galina

    2016-12-01

    Mathematical model of loan portfolio in the form of a controlled Markov chain with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that coefficients of migration matrix depend on corrective actions and external factors. Corrective actions include process of receiving applications, interaction with existing solvent and insolvent clients. External factors are macroeconomic indicators, such as inflation and unemployment rates, exchange rates, consumer price indices, etc. Changes in corrective actions adjust the intensity of transitions in the migration matrix. The mathematical model for forecasting the credit portfolio structure taking into account a cumulative impact of internal and external changes is obtained.

  18. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  19. External corners as heat bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1984-08-01

    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  20. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  1. PET attenuation correction for rigid MR Tx/Rx coils from 176Lu background activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Christoph W.; Kaltsas, Theodoris; Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Jürgen; Rota Kops, Elena; Tellmann, Lutz; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Herzog, Hans; Shah, N. Jon

    2018-02-01

    One challenge for PET-MR hybrid imaging is the correction for attenuation of the 511 keV annihilation radiation by the required RF transmit and/or RF receive coils. Although there are strategies for building PET transparent Tx/Rx coils, such optimised coils still cause significant attenuation of the annihilation radiation leading to artefacts and biases in the reconstructed activity concentrations. We present a straightforward method to measure the attenuation of Tx/Rx coils in simultaneous MR-PET imaging based on the natural 176Lu background contained in the scintillator of the PET detector without the requirement of an external CT scanner or PET scanner with transmission source. The method was evaluated on a prototype 3T MR-BrainPET produced by Siemens Healthcare GmbH, both with phantom studies and with true emission images from patient/volunteer examinations. Furthermore, the count rate stability of the PET scanner and the x-ray properties of the Tx/Rx head coil were investigated. Even without energy extrapolation from the two dominant γ energies of 176Lu to 511 keV, the presented method for attenuation correction, based on the measurement of 176Lu background attenuation, shows slightly better performance than the coil attenuation correction currently used. The coil attenuation correction currently used is based on an external transmission scan with rotating 68Ge sources acquired on a Siemens ECAT HR  +  PET scanner. However, the main advantage of the presented approach is its straightforwardness and ready availability without the need for additional accessories.

  2. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  3. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Bevalac external beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  5. Bevalac external beamline optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested

  6. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  7. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surgery. It is important to understand that your treatment, which will probably include orthodontics before and after ... to realistically estimate the time required for your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided ...

  8. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... misalignment of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may ... indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or ...

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  10. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) to correct a wide range of minor and ... when sleeping, including snoring) Your dentist, orthodontist and OMS will work together to determine whether you are ...

  11. Strategi Bisnis pada PT CTL Dengan Pendekatan Metode Tows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjia Fie Tjoe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is determining direction of the correct business strategy to be applied by PT CTL, a garment company producing cloth for men. Research method used by the author is descriptive analysis with a case study research method. Research is conducted by collecting data obtained through survey by interview and giving questionnaire to all staff and head and also observation by evaluating directly the research object and also through literature study. Data analysis is conducted through input phase by using IFAS and EFAS matrix, adaptation phase with TOWS diagram, TOWS matrix and Internal-External matrix, and also uses SPACE matrix and also BCG matrix to analyse company's finance situation. Based on the conducted analysist the recommended corporation level strategy to be used by the company is diversification strategy direct to growth and stability. 

  12. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  13. External auditory canal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Ueda, Yoshihisa; Kurita, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) carcinomas are relatively rare conditions lack on established treatment strategy. We analyzed a treatment modalities and outcome in 32 cases of EAC squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1980 and 2008. Subjects-17 men and 15 women ranging from 33 to 92 years old (average: 66) were divided by Arriaga's tumor staging into 12 T1, 5 T2, 6 T3, and 9 T4. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100% for T1, T2, 44% for T3, and 33% for T4. In contrast to 100% 5-year survival for T1+T2 cancer, the 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer was 37% with high recurrence due to positive surgical margins. The first 22 years of the 29 years surveyed, we performed surgery mainly, and irradiation or chemotherapy was selected for early disease or cases with positive surgical margins as postoperative therapy. During the 22-years, 5-year survival with T3+T4 cancer was 20%. After we started superselective intra-arterial (IA) rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy in 2003, we achieved negative surgical margins for advanced disease, and 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer rise to 80%. (author)

  14. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. from strategy formulation to strategy formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerhard Louw;Abel Esterhuyse

    ultimately its weakness in accounting for the external environment in realised ..... implements and then controls a strategy that it deems appropriate to achieve an .... Every social system (such as the SANDF) seems to employ information ..... to favour rational analysis over this type of internal debate – in effect, it would.

  16. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  17. English Learners Perception on Lecturers’ Corrective Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titien Fatmawaty Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of written corrective feedback (CF has been an issue of substantial debate in the literature and this controversial issue has led to a development in latest studies to draw on foreign language acquisition (FLA research as a way to further comprehend the complexities of this issue particularly how students and teachers perceive the effectiveness of written corrective feedback. This research has largely focused on students’ perception on Lecturers’ corrective feedback, perceives the usefulness of different types of corrective feedback and the reasons they have for their preferences. Qualitative data was collected from 40 EFL students in 6th semester, by means of written questionnaires, interview and observation. Four feedback strategies were employed in this research and ranked each statement by using five-point Likert scale. Findings showed that almost all students 81.43 % want correction or feedback from lecturers for the mistakes on their writing. For the type of written corrective feedback, students prefer lecturers mark their mistakes and give comment on their work with the percentage as follows: 93% students found that giving clues or comment about how to fix errors can improve their writing ability, 76.69% of the students found that error identification is the most useful type of feedback, and 57.50% of students have a positive opinion for the provision of correction which is accompanied by comment. Those percentages of students perspective is supported by students’ explanation in an open ended question of questionnaire. Pedagogical implications of the study are also discussed.

  18. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  19. A comparative perspective on external technology sourcing modalities: The role of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabidussi, A.; Lokshin, B.; Leeuw, de T.; Duysters, G.M.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on innovative performance of alternative external sourcing strategies. In particular, the study under discussion compared external sourcing strategies based on specialization to those based on integrating various sourcing modalities (e.g., alliances and M&As).

  20. A comparative perspective on external technology sourcing modalities : The role of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabidussi, A.; Lokshin, B.; de Leeuw, T.; Duijsters, G.M.; Bremmers, H.; Omta, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on innovative performance of alternative external sourcing strategies. In particular, the study under discussion compared external sourcing strategies based on specialization to those based on integrating various sourcing modalities (e.g., alliances and M&As). Survey

  1. The Implementation of Marginal External Cost Pricing in Road Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of issues that will become increasingly important nowthat the concept of marginal external cost pricing becomes more likely to be implementedas a policy strategy in transport in reality. The first part of the paper deals with thelong-run efficiency of marginal external cost pricing. It is shown that such prices notonly optimize short-run mobility, given the shape and position of the relevant demandand cost curves, but even more importantly, also optimally affect ...

  2. Generalised Batho correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddon, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    There are various approximate algorithms available to calculate the radiation dose in the presence of a heterogeneous medium. The Webb and Fox product over layers formulation of the generalised Batho correction factor requires determination of the number of layers and the layer densities for each ray path. It has been shown that the Webb and Fox expression is inefficient for the heterogeneous medium which is expressed as regions of inhomogeneity rather than layers. The inefficiency of the layer formulation is identified as the repeated problem of determining for each ray path which inhomogeneity region corresponds to a particular layer. It has been shown that the formulation of the Batho correction factor as a product over inhomogeneity regions avoids that topological problem entirely. The formulation in terms of a product over regions simplifies the computer code and reduces the time required to calculate the Batho correction factor for the general heterogeneous medium. (U.K.)

  3. THE SECONDARY EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1963-03-15

    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  4. Knowledge Complementarity of a Firm’s Internal and External R&D Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Koski, Heli; Svento, Rauli

    2014-01-01

    We use data from over 1500 Finnish companies for the years 2006-2008 and 2008-2010 to explore complementarity of a firm’s R&D strategy with its external knowledge acquisition and innovation collaboration strategies. We define knowledge complementarity (tacit knowledge complementarity) of R&D capabilities to exist when increase in investments in R&D also increases marginal returns from broader external knowledge search (deeper innovation collaboration with external partners). Our estimation re...

  5. Management of A Rare Case of Communicating Internal-External Inflammatory Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Suraj; Gill, Gurdeep Singh; Saluja, Priyanka; Setia, Vikas

    2015-05-01

    The present case describes the successful management of a rare case of communicating internal-external resorption in which both internal and external resorption seem to develop independent of each other. The case report highlights the importance of correct diagnosis and need of revision of classification system of resorptive defects.

  6. Bryant J. correction formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1990-03-01

    For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)

  7. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  8. The ExternE project: methodology, objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent studies on external costs of energy systems, in particular the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. To evaluate the impact and damage cost of a pollutant, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis; this involves the calculation of increased pollutant concentrations in all affected regions due to an incremental emission (e.g. μg/m 3 of particles, using models of atmospheric dispersion and chemistry), followed by the calculation of physical impacts (e.g. number of cases of asthma due to these particles, using a dose-response function). The entire so-called fuel chain (or fuel cycle) is evaluated and compared on the basis of delivered end use energy. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, NO x and SO x ) from the combustion of fossil fuels impose a heavy toll, in addition to the cost of global warming. The external costs are especially large for coal; even for 'good current technology' they may be comparable to the price of electricity. For natural gas the external costs are about a third to a half of coal. The external costs of nuclear are small compared to the price of electricity (at most a few %), and so are the external costs of most renewable energy systems. (authors)

  9. Search Strategy of Detector Position For Neutron Source Multiplication Method by Using Detected-Neutron Multiplication Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative definition of a neutron multiplication factor, detected-neutron multiplication factor kdet, is produced for the neutron source multiplication method..(NSM). By using kdet, a search strategy of appropriate detector position for NSM is also proposed. The NSM is one of the practical subcritical measurement techniques, i.e., the NSM does not require any special equipment other than a stationary external neutron source and an ordinary neutron detector. Additionally, the NSM method is based on steady-state analysis, so that this technique is very suitable for quasi real-time measurement. It is noted that the correction factors play important roles in order to accurately estimate subcriticality from the measured neutron count rates. The present paper aims to clarify how to correct the subcriticality measured by the NSM method, the physical meaning of the correction factors, and how to reduce the impact of correction factors by setting a neutron detector at an appropriate detector position

  10. Attenuation correction for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoba, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Text Induced Spelling Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word

  12. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  13. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  14. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information and coding theory. A large scale relay computer had failed to deliver the expected results due to a hardware fault. Hamming, one of the active proponents of computer usage, was determined to find an efficient means by which computers could detect and correct their own faults. A mathematician by train-.

  15. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on many aspects of life. Following are some of the conditions that may ... front, or side Facial injury Birth defects Receding lower jaw and ...

  16. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    successful consumer products of all time - the Compact Disc. (CD) digital audio .... We can make ... only 2 t additional parity check symbols are required, to be able to correct t .... display information (contah'ling music related data and a table.

  17. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  18. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  19. 10. Correctness of Programs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 4. Algorithms - Correctness of Programs. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 3 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India.

  20. Attenuation correction using simultaneous emission - transmission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Marinkovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce degrading influence of attenuation on SPECT image quality, possibility for correction, based on simultaneous emission / transmission measurements, is discussed. Numerical photon transport simulations through the phantom and acquisition of of tomographic projections are performed by using Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. Amount of contamination in transmission data due to photon Compton scattering for emission energy window is specially analyzed and appropriate spatial depending 'noise / signal' factors for three different external sources, applied with Tc-99m, are determined (author)

  1. Real Time MRI Motion Correction with Markerless Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Claus; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Wighton, Paul

    Prospective motion correction for MRI neuroimaging has been demonstrated using MR navigators and external tracking systems using markers. The drawbacks of these two motion estimation methods include prolonged scan time plus lack of compatibility with all image acquisitions, and difficulties...... validating marker attachment resulting in uncertain estimation of the brain motion respectively. We have developed a markerless tracking system, and in this work we demonstrate the use of our system for prospective motion correction, and show that despite being computationally demanding, markerless tracking...... can be implemented for real time motion correction....

  2. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  3. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  4. Surgical treatment of neglected clubfoot using external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mota Pacheco Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The definition of neglected clubfoot (NC includes a variable range of complex deformities of the foot that are refractory to conventional treatments or are treated inappropriately. Several etiologies may be related to this. The Ilizarov method has become established as a tool for treating these deformities. It minimizes soft-tissue damage through gradual correction of the deformity, with a high success rate in relation to achieving a plantigrade foot, with low incidence of recurrence. The indications for treatment include severe rigid deformities (Dimeglio III and IV, or adverse skin conditions. Careful clinical and radiological examination is fundamental for proper planning and installation of the external fixator. The techniques used include selection of external fixation assemblies, which can be closed when there is a connection between the leg, hindfoot and forefoot. This closed assembly may or may not be constricted, according to whether hinges are provided or whether use of the natural anatomical hinges during correction of the deformity is envisaged. An open assembly makes it possible to add flexibility to the foot through histogenesis, while allowing closed corrections of greater precision later on. Hexapod fixators are an innovation with high potential for accuracy in correcting deformities. Procedures associated with external fixation include soft-tissue release and bone procedures. These procedures enable corrections that are more anatomical, for different degrees of severity and stiffness of deformity. It can be concluded from analyzing this case series that treatment of neglected clubfoot using an external fixator has a high rate of good and excellent results, with low frequency of complications.

  5. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...

  6. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull

  7. Liquid scintillation counting system with automatic gain correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic liquid scintillation counting apparatus is described including a scintillating medium in the elevator ram of the sample changing apparatus. An appropriate source of radiation, which may be the external source for standardizing samples, produces reference scintillations in the scintillating medium which may be used for correction of the gain of the counting system

  8. Corrective measures and actions in response to defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guideline presents a number of corrective measures which can be taken when the derived limits in the Code or the relevant action levels are exceeded. Appropriate actions to be taken for external β and γ radiation, airborne contamination, surface contamination and uranium or thorium concentrate spillage are specified

  9. Hybrid Force and Position Control Strategy of Robonaut Performing Object Transfer Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a coordinated hybrid force/position control strategy of robonaut performing object transfer operation. Firstly, the constraint relationships between robonaut and object are presented. Base on them, the unified dynamic model of the robonaut and object is established to design the hybrid force/position control method. The movement, the internal force and the external constraint force of the object are considered as the control targets of the control system. Finally, a MATLAB simulation of the robonaut performing object transfer task verifies the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that all the targets can be control accurately by using the method proposed in this paper. The presented control method can control both internal and external forces while maintaining control accuracy, which is a common control strategy.

  10. Structuring Interactive Correctness Proofs by Formalizing Coding Idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Gast, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a novel strategy for developing correctness proofs in interactive software verification for C programs. Rather than proceeding backwards from the generated verification conditions, we start by developing a library of the employed data structures and related coding idioms. The application of that library then leads to correctness proofs that reflect informal arguments about the idioms. We apply this strategy to the low-level memory allocator of the L4 microkernel, a case st...

  11. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R.; Yates, Esben Svitzer; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized...... and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. Conclusions ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco...

  12. An analysis of the CERCLA response program and the RCRA corrective action program in determining cleanup strategies for federal facilities which have been proposed for listing on the National Priorities List

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, P.; Vinson, R.

    1994-01-01

    This document was prepared as an issue paper for the Department of Energy to serve in the decision-making process for environmental restoration activities. The paper compares cleanup requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and those currently proposed under Subpart S of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The history and regulatory framework for both laws is discussed, and the process for environmental restoration actions under both regulatory programs is compared and contrasted. Contaminants regulated under CERCLA and RCRA differ significantly in that radioactive contaminants are subject to Environmental Protection Agency jurisdiction only under CERCLA. The DOE has the jurisdiction to implement radioactive waste management and cleanup levels under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) at nuclear weapons facilities. For sites with significant amounts of contaminants which are radioactive only, cleanup under RCRA can present significant advantages, since the DOE can then manage restoration activities under its own authority. There are, conversely several significant advantages for a remedial action being conducted at a CERCLA site recognized on the National Priorities List (NPL). Other provisions in the CERCLA remediation and the RCRA corrective action process offer both advantages and disadvantages related to DOE environmental restoration programs. This paper presents a discussion of significant issues which should be considered in such negotiations

  13. Higher-order corrected Higgs bosons in FeynHiggs2.4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    treatment of loop-corrected Higgs-boson mass eigenstates as external (on-shell) or internal .... This gives rise to finite wave function normalization factors. [22]. .... The elements of Un can be interpreted as effective couplings of internal Higgs.

  14. SU-C-BRF-05: Design and Geometric Validation of An Externally and Internally Deformable, Programmable Lung Motion Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Y; Sawant, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Most clinically-deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating, tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are rigid-exterior+rigid-interior or rigid-exterior+deformable-interior. Neither class adequately represents the human anatomy, which is deformable internally as well as externally. We describe the construction and experimental validation of a more realistic, externally- and internally-deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available lung phantom (RS- 1500, RSD Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A 3-axis platform was programmed with sinusoidal and six patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam ‘diaphragm’ that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of mapping the superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) trajectories of external and internal radioopaque markers with kV x-ray fluoroscopy and correlating these with optical surface monitoring using the in-room VisionRT system. Results: The phantom correctly reproduced the programmed motion as well as realistic effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0.4 mm RMS error for internal as well as external markers. The motion trajectories of internal and external markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R=0.97). Furthermore, motion trajectories of arbitrary points on the deforming phantom surface, as recorded by the VisionRT system also showed a high correlation with respect to the fluoroscopically-measured trajectories of internal markers (R=0.92). Conclusion: We have

  15. A Strategy for Ensuring Enterprise Competitiveness in the Sphere of Hotel Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavidna Liudmyla D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the process of forming a strategy to ensure competitiveness of an enterprise in the sphere of hotel services. The content of the concepts “competitiveness of an enterprise in the hotel industry”, “competitive advantage” and “competitive strategy” is defined. Factors influencing the level of competitiveness of enterprises in the hotel industry are grouped. Taking into account the analysis of the internal and external environment of hotel facilities, a matrix of SWOT analysis is built, and variants of corporate strategies for enterprises in the sphere of hotel services are proposed. Within the framework of the study, 21 hotel facilities from 10 regions of Ukraine (Vinnytsia, Volyn, Dnipropetrovsk, Zakarpattia, Lviv, Ternopil, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmelnytsky, Chernihiv and Kiev are analyzed. From the positions of the system approach to enterprise competitiveness, a system of factors that influence the process of forming the strategy of enterprises in the sphere of hotel services is proposed. Taking into account the analysis of the internal and external environment of the hotels, potential threats and opportunities from the external environment are revealed, and the weak and strong sides of each of the hotel facilities are detailed, as well as the basic matrix of SWOT analysis is formed. Based on the results of the study, the following options for corporate strategies are proposed: the Maxi-Maxi strategy, the Mini-Maxi strategy, the Maxi-Mini strategy, and the Mini-Mini strategy. The correct choice of the strategy will ensure its full implementation, have a positive effect for the further development and retention of the leading positions of the hotel industry in the market.

  16. Correction of refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectacles and contact lenses are the most frequently used, the safest and the cheapest way to correct refractive errors. The development of keratorefractive surgery has brought new opportunities for correction of refractive errors in patients who have the need to be less dependent of spectacles or contact lenses. Until recently, RK was the most commonly performed refractive procedure for nearsighted patients.Conclusions: The introduction of excimer laser in refractive surgery has given the new opportunities of remodelling the cornea. The laser energy can be delivered on the stromal surface like in PRK or deeper on the corneal stroma by means of lamellar surgery. In LASIK flap is created with microkeratome in LASEK with ethanol and in epi-LASIK the ultra thin flap is created mechanically.

  17. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  18. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs

  19. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  20. Early and intensive nutritional strategy combining parenteral and enteral feeding promotes neurodevelopment and growth at 18months of corrected age and 3years of age in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Satoshi; Ichiba, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yuko; Harada, Sayaka; Matsumura, Hisako; Kan, Ayako; Asada, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate whether aggressive nutrition can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes and growth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). This single-center cohort study included 137 ELBW AGA infants born in two epochs. The first group received standard nutrition (SN; n=79) consisting of amino acids started at 0.5g/kg/day on Day 4 of life and increased to 1.0g/kg/day. The second aggressive nutrition (AN) group received amino acids started at 1.5-2.0g/kg/day within 24h of life and increased to 3.5g/kg/day. Parenteral and enteral feedings were combined in both groups. Neurodevelopmental outcomes by the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development and growth were followed up to 18months of corrected age or 3years of age and compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. At 3years of age, AN children had a significantly greater mean value of head circumference, but not length or weight, than SN children (49.1 vs 48.0cm, p=0.014). The cognitive-adaptive (C-A) score in the AN group was also significantly higher than that in the SN group (98.3 vs 91.9 at 18months, p=0.039 and 89.5 vs 83.1 at 3years, p=0.047). AN infants born ≥26weeks of gestation were less likely to develop borderline disability in C-A, language-social and overall developmental scores compared to gestational age-matched SN infants. Parenteral and enteral AN after birth improved the long-term cognitive neurodevelopment in ELBW AGA infants, especially in those born ≥26weeks of gestational age, however results need to be confirmed in a larger, multi-site randomized trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  2. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of control strategies using the benchmark simulation model No1 (BSM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the predictions of the Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM) No. 1, when comparing four activated sludge control strategies. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to evaluate the uncertainty in the BSM1 predictions, considering the ASM1 bio-kinetic parameters and influent fractions as input uncertainties while the Effluent Quality Index (EQI) and the Operating Cost Index (OCI) are focused on as model outputs. The resulting Monte Carlo simulations are presented using descriptive statistics indicating the degree of uncertainty in the predicted EQI and OCI. Next, the Standard Regression Coefficients (SRC) method is used for sensitivity analysis to identify which input parameters influence the uncertainty in the EQI predictions the most. The results show that control strategies including an ammonium (S(NH)) controller reduce uncertainty in both overall pollution removal and effluent total Kjeldahl nitrogen. Also, control strategies with an external carbon source reduce the effluent nitrate (S(NO)) uncertainty increasing both their economical cost and variability as a trade-off. Finally, the maximum specific autotrophic growth rate (micro(A)) causes most of the variance in the effluent for all the evaluated control strategies. The influence of denitrification related parameters, e.g. eta(g) (anoxic growth rate correction factor) and eta(h) (anoxic hydrolysis rate correction factor), becomes less important when a S(NO) controller manipulating an external carbon source addition is implemented.

  3. Gender differences in the use of external landmarks versus spatial representations updated by self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrey, Simon; Berthoz, Alain

    2007-09-01

    Numerous data in the literature provide evidence for gender differences in spatial orientation. In particular, it has been suggested that spatial representations of large-scale environments are more accurate in terms of metric information in men than in women but are richer in landmark information in women than in men. One explanatory hypothesis is that men and women differ in terms of navigational processes they used in daily life. The present study investigated this hypothesis by distinguishing two navigational processes: spatial updating by self-motion and landmark-based orientation. Subjects were asked to perform a pointing task in three experimental conditions, which differed in terms of reliability of the external landmarks that could be used. Two groups of subjects were distinguished, a mobile group and an immobile group, in which spatial updating of environmental locations did not have the same degree of importance for the correct performance of the pointing task. We found that men readily relied on an internal egocentric representation of where landmarks were expected to be in order to perform the pointing task, a representation that could be updated during self-motion (spatial updating). In contrast, women seemed to take their bearings more readily on the basis of the stable landmarks of the external world. We suggest that this gender difference in spatial orientation is not due to differences in information processing abilities but rather due to the differences in higher level strategies.

  4. Diffusion in the kicked quantum rotator by random corrections to a linear and sine field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilke, M.; Flores, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the diffusion in momentum space, of the kicked quantum rotator, by introducing random corrections to a linear and sine external field. For the linear field we obtain a linear diffusion behavior identical to the case with zero average in the external field. But for the sine field, accelerator modes with quadratic diffusion are found for particular values of the kicking period. (orig.)

  5. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  6. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs

  7. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  8. Profiting from external knowledge: the impact of different external knowledge acquisition strategies on innovation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Kolympiris, C.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is key to company growth, but hinges on timely access to new knowledge. Individual companies have difficulty pursuing innovation and acquiring the knowledge they need on their own. Companies therefore resort to various governance modes (licensing-in, collaborations, mergers and

  9. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET WISATA FULL DAY DI PT. TOUR EAST INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Geni Jaya Ksamawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he development of increasing tourist arrivals to Bali led to the development of business and tourism in the world of business, one business trip in Bali. PT. Tour East Tours and Travel is the one of the travel agents in Bali in this to win the competition with other companies, the need for proper marketing strategy and correct. This study aims to determine the marketing strategy Full Day tour packages PT. Tour East Indonesia and what strategies can be implemented in the PT. Tour East Tours and Travel to boost sales of tour packages to tourists as well as winning the competition with other companies. In this study using Qualitative descriptive data analysis techniques combined with a SWOT analysis to figure out what the right strategy is used to market tour packages Full Day of PT. Tour East Indonesia. Based on the SWOT matrix analysis obtained a marketing strategy that can be applied to PT. Tour East Tours and Travel is a strategy creation and development of tourism products, increased promotion strategies, human resource development strategy, market segmentation strategy development, and strategies for improving the quality of products and services. From the results of this study can be given advice to the PT. Tour East Tours and Travel is improving service process management and define market segments and maintain the image of the internal and external environment, while maintaining a cooperative relationship, and held training to staff meetings.

  10. Externalities of energy. Swedish implementation of the ExternE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Gullberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The growing interest for developing economic instruments for efficient environmental policies has opened up a large area of multi-disciplinary research. ExternE is an example of this research, combining disciplines such as engineering, ecology, immunology and economics expertise to create new knowledge about how environmental pressures from energy production affect our nature and society. The ExternE Project aims to identify and, as far as possible quantify the externalities of energy production in Europe. The Stockholm Environment Institute has carried out a preliminary aggregation: -Coal Fuel Cycle: centred around Vaesteraas Kraftvaermeverk, Vaesteraas. This is the largest co-generation plant in Sweden, with four blocks and a maximum co-generation output of 520 MW electricity and 950 MW heat. The analysis is carried out on boiler B4. -Biomass Fuel Cycle: centred around Haendeloeverket, Norrkoeping. This plant predominately burns forestry residues, but a variety of fuels are combusted. Haendeloeverket has an installed capacity of 100 MW electricity and 375 MW heat, in a total of three boilers and two back-pressure turbines. The analysis is carried out on boiler P13. -Hydro Fuel Cycle: Klippens Kraftstation, Storuman. Built in 1990-1994, it is the youngest hydro power station in Sweden. It has been designed and built with significant efforts to account for and protect environmental values. Installed capacity is 28 MW. The environmental impact assessment from the construction of this plant is carried out, but the evaluation is still not finalized. The preliminary aggregation aimed to test whether ExternE results could be used to make estimates for the entire Swedish electricity production system. Hence, national results as well as results from other partner countries in ExternE has been applied

  11. Urban Sprawl and Transportation Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Holcombe, Randall G.; Williams, DeEdgra W.

    2010-01-01

    One argument in support of minimizing urban sprawl is that sprawl creates transportation externalities. A problem with empirically examining the relationship between sprawl and transportation externalities is that sprawl is a difficult concept to quantify. This paper uses a measure of sprawl designed by Ewing, Pendall, and Chen (2002) to examine the relationship between sprawl and commute times, automobile ownership, miles driven, fatal auto accidents, air pollution, and highway expenditures....

  12. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  13. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  14. Internal hiring or external recruitment?

    OpenAIRE

    DeVaro, Jed

    2016-01-01

    Hiring is one of a firm’s most important decisions. When an employer fills a vacancy with one of its own workers (through promotion or lateral transfer), it forgoes the opportunity to fill the position with a new hire from outside the firm. Although both internal and external hiring methods are used, firms frequently have a bias favoring insiders. Internal and external hires differ in observable characteristics (such as skill levels), as do the employers making each type of hiring decision. U...

  15. Corporate environmental strategy and responsiveness to external stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Geerten

    1997-01-01

    Paper to be presented at the 13th EGOS Colloquium "Organisational Responses to Radical Environmental Changes", Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Budapest, July 3-5, 1997. Sub-theme 6: Responses to the Environmental Challenge in Organisation Studies.

  16. Radiative decay of coupled states in an external dc field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'chikov, V.; Sokolov, Y.; Yakovlev, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines two theoretical aspects of the interference of atomic states in hydrogen which comes from the application of an external electric field F to the 2s metastable state. The radiative corrections to the Bethe-Lamb formula and anisotropy contribution to the angular distribution, which arises from interference between electric-field-induced E1-radiation and forbidden M1-radiation, are analysed

  17. Radiative decay of coupled states in an external dc field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal' chikov, V. [National Research Inst. for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Mendeleevo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Y. [Kurchatov Inst., Russian Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    This paper examines two theoretical aspects of the interference of atomic states in hydrogen which comes from the application of an external electric field F to the 2s metastable state. The radiative corrections to the Bethe-Lamb formula and anisotropy contribution to the angular distribution, which arises from interference between electric-field-induced E1-radiation and forbidden M1-radiation, are analysed.

  18. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  19. ROLE OF INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING IN DEFORMITY CORRECTION OF LONG BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Correction of multi-apical long bone deformities in lower limbs is a challenging task. Correction of these deformities with Ilizarov–type external fixators, treating one segment at a time increases the total time of correction and decreases the patients’ compliance with considerable discomfort. Hence we preferred intramedullary nail devices which combines accuracy, minimal invasiveness, with patient compliance and with excellent functional outcome. Temporary external fixator used per-operatively in some cases to retain the correction till the insertion of the nail. Eight patients in the age group of 12-35 yrs. presented to us over the last 1 year with multi-apical lower limb deformities. The radiological parameters described by Paley et al 1 were used to assess the pre and post–operative radiographs. With the help of anatomical axes the CORA was identified. Percutaneous osteotomy and stabilization with intramedullary nail was done to correct the deformity. 13 Femora and 7 Tibiae were subjected to correction by this technique and followed up over a period of 1 year (Nov-2014 to Nov-2015 at MIMS Vizianagaram hospital.

  20. Scanning the Business External Environment for Information: Evidence from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourteli, Liana

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment,…

  1. Rigid external maxillary distraction and rhinoplasty for pyknodysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Altan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Sencimen, Metin; Akcam, Timur; Olmez, Hüseyin; Basa, Selçuk

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the treatment of an 33-year-old female patient with pyknodysostosis by rigid external distraction II midface distraction system. The patient with pyknodysostosis described in this report had severe midfacial hypoplasia. Correction of this by use of routine orthognathic surgery would require osteosynthesis and bone grafting. Risk of infection and/or nonunion after such a surgical procedure was considered too great, and therefore the possibility of treatment by distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla was evaluated. The rigid external distraction II midface distraction system was used to relocate the hypoplastic maxilla at anterior-inferior projection. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as the primary reconstructive method for maxillofacial deformities in patients with sclerosing bone dysplasias, since this is the second reported case treated successfully with rigid external distraction.

  2. Internal or external whistleblowing: nurses' willingness to report wrongdoing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Abraham; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2010-07-01

    In Israel, whistleblowing in the nursing profession has been largely ignored. This topic is neither part of the professional-ethical discourse nor a subject for research. Focusing on the divide between internal and external whistleblowing, this article presents a study that explores nurses' willingness to disclose an act that could jeopardize the rights or safety of patients. Internal disclosure entails reporting wrongdoing to an authority within the organization. External disclosure involves reporting the offense to an outside agency, such as a professional organization or the press. The study's findings indicate that the nurse respondents viewed both the harmful misconduct of a colleague and that of a manager as being very serious. In such dilemmas the nurses reported a desire to correct the wrongdoing and a concomitant willingness to act. They were, however, much more likely to whistleblow internally rather than externally. This study revealed a pattern of nurses' progressive retraction as the circle of disclosure widened.

  3. Agrosearch 2015. Corrected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dissemination capacity thus, making their control rather difficult (Hassan etal., 2013). ... the need to search for safer and inexpensive alternative control strategies. ... employed in the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal infections, indigestion, colds, fever and ... The oil was a pale yellow clear liquid which was acidic to. 2.

  4. Hollow mandrin facilitates external ventricular drainage placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heese, O; Regelsberger, J; Kehler, U; Westphal, M

    2005-07-01

    Placement of ventricular catheters is a routine procedure in neurosurgery. Ventricle puncture is done using a flexible ventricular catheter stabilised by a solid steel mandrin in order to improve stability during brain penetration. A correct catheter placement is confirmed after removing the solid steel mandrin by observation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow out of the flexible catheter. Incorrect placement makes further punctures necessary. The newly developed device allows CSF flow observation during the puncture procedure and in addition precise intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement. The developed mandrin is hollow with a blunt tip. On one side 4-5 small holes with a diameter of 0.8 mm are drilled corresponding exactly with the holes in the ventricular catheter, allowing CSF to pass into the hollow mandrin as soon as the ventricle is reached. By connecting a small translucent tube at the distal portion of the hollow mandrin ICP can be measured without loss of CSF. The system has been used in 15 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) or intraventricular haemeorrhage (IVH) and subsequent hydrocephalus. The new system improved the external ventricular drainage implantation procedure. In all 15 patients catheter placement was correct. ICP measurement was easy to perform immediately at ventricle puncture. In 4 patients at puncture no spontaneous CSF flow was observed, therefore by connecting a syringe and gentle aspiration of CSF correct placement was confirmed in this unexpected low pressure hydrocephalus. Otherwise by using the conventional technique further punctures would have been necessary. Advantages of the new technique are less puncture procedures with a lower risk of damage to neural structures and reduced risk of intracranial haemorrhages. Implantation of the ventricular catheter to far into the brain can be monitored and this complication can be overcome. Using the connected pressure monitoring tube an exact measurement of the opening

  5. Approaches in estimation of external cost for fuel cycles in the ExternE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.A.; Maksimenko, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes, content and main results of studies realized within the frameworks of the International Project ExternE which is the first comprehensive attempt to develop general approach to estimation of external cost for different fuel cycles based on utilization of nuclear and fossil fuels, as well as on renewable power sources are discussed. The external cost of a fuel cycle is treated as social and environmental expenditures which are not taken into account by energy producers and consumers, i.e. these are expenditures not included into commercial cost nowadays. The conclusion on applicability of the approach suggested for estimation of population health hazards and environmental impacts connected with electric power generation growth (expressed in money or some other form) is made

  6. The welfare comparison of corrective ad valorem and unit taxes under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dröge, Susanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    such as environmental, health, and trade economics, policy makers use taxes to reduce the production/consumption volume in an industry, i.e., to correct an externality rather than to improve tax yield. This paper compares the two tax instruments with respect to equal corrective effect in a Dixit--Stiglitz setting...

  7. two strategies to be integrated into globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis work intends to investigate internal and external factors determining the type of strategy of foreign policy used by Argentina and Chile in order to be part of globalization. In both cases, it is a strategy where the emphasis on the management of foreign policy, more economic than political, prevails. However, under the same external context and similar formal institutional frameworks, the main difference of both strategies may be found in the conceptual approach, which is ...

  8. RCRA corrective action and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This information brief explains how RCRA corrective action and closure processes affect one another. It examines the similarities and differences between corrective action and closure, regulators' interests in RCRA facilities undergoing closure, and how the need to perform corrective action affects the closure of DOE's permitted facilities and interim status facilities

  9. Rethinking political correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  10. Lessons learned from external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

  11. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  12. External dosimetry sources and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    A definition of external dosimetry r external sources dosimetry,physical and mathematical treatment of the interaction of gamma radiation with a minimal area in that direction. Concept of attenuation coefficient, cumulated effect by polyenergetic sources, exposition rate, units, cumulated dose,shielding, foton shielding, depth calculation, materials used for shielding.Beta shielding, consideration of range and maximum β energy , low stopping radiation by use of low Z shielding. Tables for β energy of β emitters, I (tau) factor, energy-range curves for β emitters in aqueous media, gamma attenuation factors for U, W and Pb. Y factor for bone tissue,muscle and air, build-up factors

  13. Strategy Assessment of Company ECOPOSTES

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar Sanabria, Javier Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing a research on the different types of strategies a company can implement depending on their situation and the various analyses that must be completed before making the strategy decision. External and internal environment methods are described together with the various forms of corporate restructure methods a company can use if needed. The whole process is followed step by step to provide a strategy assessment to company Ecopostes, a Colombian company focused o...

  14. Operating experience and corrective action program at Ontario Hydro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, Barry; Turner, David

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide-based talk given at the COG/IAEA: 5. Technical Committee Meeting on 'Exchange of operating experience of pressurized heavy water reactors'. In the introduction there are presented the operating experience (OPEX) program of OHN, and the OPEX Program Mission, ensuring that the right information gets to the right staff at the right time. The OPEX Processes are analysed. These are: - Internal Corrective Action; - Inter-site Lesson Transfer; - External Lesson Transfer; - External Posting of OHN Events; - Internalizing Operating Experience. Steps in solving the Corrective Action Program are described: - Identify the Problem; - Notify Immediate Supervision/Manager; - Evaluate the Problem; - Correct the Problem; Monitor/Report Status. The Internal Corrective Action is then presented as a flowchart. The internalizing operating experience is presented under three aspects: - Communication; - Interface; - Training. The following items are discussed, respectively: peer meetings, department/section meetings, safety meetings, e-mail folders, newsletters and bulletin boards; work planning, pre-job briefings, supervisors' briefing cards; classroom initial and refresher (case studies), simulator, management courses. A diagram is presented showing the flow and treatment of information within OHN, centered on the weekly screening meetings. Finally, the corrective action processes are depicted in a flowchart and analysed in details

  15. Image denoising by exploring external and internal correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Huanjing; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Single image denoising suffers from limited data collection within a noisy image. In this paper, we propose a novel image denoising scheme, which explores both internal and external correlations with the help of web images. For each noisy patch, we build internal and external data cubes by finding similar patches from the noisy and web images, respectively. We then propose reducing noise by a two-stage strategy using different filtering approaches. In the first stage, since the noisy patch may lead to inaccurate patch selection, we propose a graph based optimization method to improve patch matching accuracy in external denoising. The internal denoising is frequency truncation on internal cubes. By combining the internal and external denoising patches, we obtain a preliminary denoising result. In the second stage, we propose reducing noise by filtering of external and internal cubes, respectively, on transform domain. In this stage, the preliminary denoising result not only enhances the patch matching accuracy but also provides reliable estimates of filtering parameters. The final denoising image is obtained by fusing the external and internal filtering results. Experimental results show that our method constantly outperforms state-of-the-art denoising schemes in both subjective and objective quality measurements, e.g., it achieves >2 dB gain compared with BM3D at a wide range of noise levels.

  16. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western...... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irene Farnham and Sam Marutzky

    2011-07-01

    This CADD/CAP follows the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) stage, which results in development of a set of contaminant boundary forecasts produced from groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling of the Frenchman Flat CAU. The Frenchman Flat CAU is located in the southeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 10 underground nuclear tests. The tests were conducted between 1965 and 1971 and resulted in the release of radionuclides in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. Two important aspects of the corrective action process are presented within this CADD/CAP. The CADD portion describes the results of the Frenchman Flat CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the CAI stage. The corrective action objectives and the actions recommended to meet the objectives are also described. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP begins with the presentation of CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use restriction boundaries that are identified and negotiated by NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The first two stages of the strategy have been completed for the Frenchman Flat CAU. A value of information analysis and a CAIP were developed during the CAIP stage. During the CAI stage, a CAIP addendum was developed, and the activities proposed in the CAIP and addendum were completed. These activities included hydrogeologic investigation of the underground testing areas, aquifer testing, isotopic and geochemistry-based investigations, and integrated geophysical investigations. After these investigations, a groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed to forecast contaminant boundaries that enclose areas potentially exceeding the Safe Drinking

  18. Human Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kristine J; Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Grant, DeMond M; Sng, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime), health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety), modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  19. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  20. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Zhang et al., 2005). For instance, in strongly acidic soils with pH<5.5 and high P sorbing soils, application of rock phosphate is more effective and cheaper than using TSP (Bationo et al., 2011). Moreover, it enables determination of the external P.

  1. Hydropower externalities: a meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to

  2. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  3. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings o...

  4. Externally studentized normal midrange distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dêivide de Oliveira Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of externally studentized midrange was created based on the original studentization procedures of Student and was inspired in the distribution of the externally studentized range. The large use of the externally studentized range in multiple comparisons was also a motivation for developing this new distribution. This work aimed to derive analytic equations to distribution of the externally studentized midrange, obtaining the cumulative distribution, probability density and quantile functions and generating random values. This is a new distribution that the authors could not find any report in the literature. A second objective was to build an R package for obtaining numerically the probability density, cumulative distribution and quantile functions and make it available to the scientific community. The algorithms were proposed and implemented using Gauss-Legendre quadrature and the Newton-Raphson method in R software, resulting in the SMR package, available for download in the CRAN site. The implemented routines showed high accuracy proved by using Monte Carlo simulations and by comparing results with different number of quadrature points. Regarding to the precision to obtain the quantiles for cases where the degrees of freedom are close to 1 and the percentiles are close to 100%, it is recommended to use more than 64 quadrature points.

  5. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  6. Radiation protection: A correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    An error in translation inadvertently distorted the sense of a paragraph in the article entitled 'Ecological Aspects of Radiation Protection', by Dr. P. Recht, which appeared in the Bulletin, Volume 14, No. 2 earlier this year. In the English text the error appears on Page 28, second paragraph, which reads, as published: 'An instance familiar to radiation protection specialists, which has since come to be regarded as a classic illustration of this approach, is the accidental release at the Windscale nuclear centre in the north of England.' In the French original of this text no reference was made, or intended, to the accidental release which took place in 1957; the reference was to the study of the critical population group exposed to routine releases from the centre, as the footnote made clear. A more correct translation of the relevant sentence reads: 'A classic example of this approach, well-known to radiation protection specialists, is that of releases from the Windscale nuclear centre, in the north of England.' A second error appeared in the footnote already referred to. In all languages, the critical population group studied in respect of the Windscale releases is named as that of Cornwall; the reference should be, of course, to that part of the population of Wales who eat laver bread. (author)

  7. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  8. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  9. External knowledge sourcing in the Spanish archaeological sector: Mapping the emergent stage of a business activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Parga-Dans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of innovation highlight the importance of external knowledge sourcing. Existing empirical works are based on national surveys and specific industries. The present study contributes to the analysis of strategies for sourcing external knowledge, based on a specific case study and moment in time: the Spanish archaeological sector and its emergence as a new business activity. Our results show that external knowledge sourcing involves diverse mechanisms, agents and two main strategies: cooperation and knowledge acquisition. In an expanding knowledge-based sector emerging in an uncertain context and whose sources of knowledge are scattered, innovation strategy should focus on the search for external knowledge –cooperation and acquisition strategies-, rather than on internal sources.

  10. Strategy Use and Strategy Choice in Fraction Magnitude Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; DeWolf, Melissa; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined, on a trial-by-trial basis, fraction magnitude comparison strategies of adults with more and less mathematical knowledge. College students with high mathematical proficiency used a large variety of strategies that were well tailored to the characteristics of the problems and that were guaranteed to yield correct performance if executed…

  11. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  12. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux implant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jungkim, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of T-Flux implant in nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. METHODS: This clinical interventional case series study included 35 eyes of 35 patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux (ETTF) is a technique of nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery, in which after removing deep scleral tissue and un-roofing the canal of Schlemn (CS) the external trabecular tissue is peeled off to enhance the aqueous drainage without opening the anterior chamber. A non-absorbable T-Flux implant (IOL TECH Laboratories, France) was sutured in deep intrascleral space to keep it patent. Snellen\\'s best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, funduscopy, and optic disc assessment were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3 , 6, and 12 months. Visual field testing was performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: For three eyes, surgery was converted to standard trabeculectomy owing to the perforation of trabeculo-Descemet\\'s membrane and iris prolapse and excluded from the study. The results of the remaining 32 eyes were included in the study. Preoperative IOP (mean +\\/- SD) of 32.88 +\\/- 5.7 mmHg decreased to 15.44 +\\/- 1.6 mmHg after 12 months. Ten eyes (28.6%) had microhyphema that resolved spontaneously; 3 eyes (8.6%) had microperforation without iris prolapse so ETTF was proceeded routinely. The preoperative number of antiglaucoma medications per patient reduced from (mean +\\/- SD) 2.74 +\\/- 0.61 to 0.11 +\\/- 0.32 postoperatively at 12 months. Visual acuity and visual fields remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: ETTF appears to provide significant control of IOP and have low incidence of complications.

  13. Technical basis document for external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the FR-equencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident

  14. Corrección de errores en comprensión lectora en inglés: Una instrucción teóricamente fundamentada basada en estrategias macroestructurales / Correction of reading comprehension errors in English: a theoretical-based instructional approach focused on macrostructural strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se presenta y valida un diseño instruccional basado en el modelo de comprensión de textos de Kintsch y Van Dijk que mejora sustancialmente la comprensión lectora en inglés y corrige muchos de los errores que los estudiantes universitarios cometen en tareas como la elaboración de resúmenes. Un grupo piloto sirvió para desarrollar las estrategias didácticas, diseñar los materiales y definir las categorías de análisis. Otro grupo de estudiantes se constituyó en el grupo de tratamiento. Tras la instrucción, los estudiantes mejoraron su comprensión lectora en inglés, corrigieron casi todos los errores de comprensión y se percibió un cambio de nivel de procesamiento.Abstract: We present and validate an instructional design based on Kintsch and Van Dijk’s model of text comprehension which is able to significantly improve reading comprehension in English, and correct many of the errors committed by university students in tasks such as summarization tasks. A pilot group of students was used to develop instructional strategies, to improve the materials and to define the categories for further analyses. Another group of students formed the treatment group. After the instruction, students improved their reading comprehension in English, corrected almost all the comprehension errors, and a change in the level of processing of information was observed.

  15. Motion correction options in PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian

    2015-05-01

    Subject motion is unavoidable in clinical and research imaging studies. Breathing is the most important source of motion in whole-body PET and MRI studies, affecting not only thoracic organs but also those in the upper and even lower abdomen. The motion related to the pumping action of the heart is obviously relevant in high-resolution cardiac studies. These two sources of motion are periodic and predictable, at least to a first approximation, which means certain techniques can be used to control the motion (eg, by acquiring the data when the organ of interest is relatively at rest). Additionally, nonperiodic and unpredictable motion can also occur during the scan. One obvious limitation of methods relying on external devices (eg, respiratory bellows or the electrocardiogram signal to monitor the respiratory or cardiac cycle, respectively) to trigger or gate the data acquisition is that the complex motion of internal organs cannot be fully characterized. However, detailed information can be obtained using either the PET or MRI data (or both) allowing the more complete characterization of the motion field so that a motion model can be built. Such a model and the information derived from simple external devices can be used to minimize the effects of motion on the collected data. In the ideal case, all the events recorded during the PET scan would be used to generate a motion-free or corrected PET image. The detailed motion field can be used for this purpose by applying it to the PET data before, during, or after the image reconstruction. Integrating all these methods for motion control, characterization, and correction into a workflow that can be used for routine clinical studies is challenging but could potentially be extremely valuable given the improvement in image quality and reduction of motion-related image artifacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    management of food systems may improve outcomes for incarcerated people and help correctional administrators to maximize their health and safety. This report summarizes existing research on food systems in correctional settings and provides examples of food programmes in prison and remand facilities......Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This corrective action decision document (CADD)/corrective action plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU is located in the northeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 720 corrective action sites. A total of 747 underground nuclear detonations took place within this CAU between 1957 and 1992 and resulted in the release of radionuclides (RNs) in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. The CADD portion describes the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the corrective action investigation (CAI) stage, presents the corrective action objectives, and describes the actions recommended to meet the objectives. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP presents CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use-restriction boundaries identified and negotiated by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The UGTA strategy assumes that active remediation of subsurface RN contamination is not feasible with current technology. As a result, the corrective action is based on a combination of characterization and modeling studies, monitoring, and institutional controls. The strategy is implemented through a four-stage approach that comprises the following: (1) corrective action investigation plan (CAIP), (2) CAI, (3) CADD/CAP, and (4) closure report (CR) stages.

  18. Bulk sample self-attenuation correction by transmission measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.; Reilly, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Various methods used in either finding or avoiding the attenuation correction in the passive γ-ray assay of bulk samples are reviewed. Detailed consideration is given to the transmission method, which involves experimental determination of the sample linear attenuation coefficient by measuring the transmission through the sample of a beam of gamma rays from an external source. The method was applied to box- and cylindrically-shaped samples

  19. Environmental and economic impacts of feeding strategies in Costa Rican dairy farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Iñamagua-Uyaguari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze feeding practices in Costa Rica’s dairy farms and their influence on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG. Methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and income over feed cost (IOFC were evaluated. This study was carried out at 104 dairy farms, which were distributed within a range of altitude from 1000 to 2400 meters above sea level. Using cluster analysis based on type of feed, grazing period, areas of forage and pastures; four feeding strategies were identified, which included different proportions of feed categories in daily rations. Emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent per kilo of fat and protein corrected milk (CO2eq/FPCM were higher for forage feeding strategies and lower for farms found in higher altitudes. Concentrate feed accounted for the higher cost in all feeding strategies, and represented more than 50% in the intensive concentrate based production system, whereas the costs of fertilizers were higher in pasture based feeding strategies. Income from milk sales was higher for the concentrate based feeding strategy. However, IOFC was the same for all feeding strategies in spite of the large differences in daily milk production. Feeding strategies influenced GHG emissions and feeding costs. Feeding strategies associated with lower GHG emissions within the farm were more dependent from external inputs.

  20. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  1. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  2. What motivates money donation? A study on external motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Coelho Degasperi

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study is to identify external motivating factors that favor individual money donation. Methodologically, we adopted a descriptive and quantitative cross-sectional study. In order to collect data, we prepared a questionnaire containing 49 statements based on external motivating variables of regular individual money donation found in the literature on the subject. After testing the questionnaire, we applied it to 1073 Brazilians, regular money donors and we performed an exploratory factor analysis. Conclusively, we identified 8 external factors that motivate individual money donation: Trust, Reward, Leadership influences, Characteristics of the organization, Environmental influences, Personal benefits, Characteristics of beneficiaries and Future Interests. We expect that these 8 factors combined, could become a useful tool to improve the management of charitable organizations, especially in defining campaigns or other marketing strategies to attract new donors and raise funds on occasions that are favorable to individual money donation.

  3. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  4. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin......The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  5. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  6. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    , it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear process—(1) obtaining, (2) integrating, and (3) commercializing external innovations—is combined with (4) interaction between the firm and its collaborators. This model is used to classify papers taken from the top 25 innovation journals, complemented by highly...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  7. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document

  9. External fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-10-10

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with "intertrochanteric" fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years) with "intertrochanteric" fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.This study demonstrated that external fixation of "intertrochantric" fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  10. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 4. Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  11. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH EXTERNAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vasile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A country’s economic growth is directly influenced by the external trade activity, which is considered by the majority of economists as one of the main engines of a country. How international trade can contributes to a sustainable development of a country depends broadly on the economic policies as well as on global and regional strategies to support the actions for this objective. The high level political meeting of United Nations Organization’s Member States in September 2015 has as aim the adoption of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes global economic, social and environmental goals. Any strategy or global policy influences, of course, in a direct way the international trade activities, by how these measures affect or determine relations between states to achieve the sustainable development objectives. Being involved in all sectors of economic and social life to achieve these noble goals, foreign trade is of course on the list of key areas as well as on the list of the domains being influenced by the global strategy adopted in the framework of the largest summit of its kind in the history of the United Nations. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of external trade activity of Romania, taking into account the characteristics of companies involved in exports and imports of goods in Romania as well as to identify the key areas to be further developed for a sustainable development of national economy based on export activity. Romania's sustainable development can be achieved in the medium and long term by complementary and converging actions such as increased expenditure on research and development field, attracting as a priority the Greenfield investments, increasing productivity of national capital (human, natural, technological or ensure the efficiency at microeconomic and macroeconomic level. Increasing the share of products and activities using a small amount of energy and material resources but which

  12. External dosimetry - Applications to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussot, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry is the essential component of radiation protection. It allows to determine by calculation and measurement the absorbed dose value, i.e. the energy amounts deposited in matter by ionizing radiations. It deals also with the irradiation effects on living organisms and with their biological consequences. This reference book gathers all the necessary information to understand and master the external dosimetry and the metrology of ionizing radiations, from the effects of radiations to the calibration of radiation protection devices. The first part is devoted to physical dosimetry and allows to obtain in a rigorous manner the mathematical formalisms leading to the absorbed dose for different ionizing radiation fields. The second part presents the biological effects of ionizing radiations on living matter and the determination of a set of specific radiation protection concepts and data to express the 'risk' to develop a radio-induced cancer. The third part deals with the metrology of ionizing radiations through the standardized study of the methods used for the calibration of radiation protection equipments. Some practical exercises with their corrections are proposed at the end of each chapter

  13. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data

  14. [Emergencies of the external genital area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Sperling, H

    2016-04-01

    In addition to epididymitis and testicular torsion, emergencies of the external genital are rare. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are essential so that immediate therapy can be provided, which is important for survival (Fournier gangrene) of the patient or for the preservation of erectile function (priapism and penile fracture). A detailed patient history and clinical examination are generally sufficient for correct diagnosis. Under certain circumstances, it might be useful to perform ultrasound, computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging or retrograde urethrography. A urine analysis is obligatory. In case of penetrating injuries and genital trauma in females, additional imaging should be performed because these are often associated with concomitant injuries of the rectum, vagina, or bladder. Special cases are gunshot wounds, in which caliber and type of weapon play an important role for the degree of damage, and animal or human bites. For animal bites, the risk for rabies infection and in case of a human bite the risk for transmission of HIV and hepatitis should be taken into consideration and post-exposure prophylaxis should possibly be offered.

  15. Improving TL dosimetry for external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, S.R.; Velez, G.; Rubio, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In vivo thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) has always been one of the most accurate dosimetry method for external radiotherapy control, but the delay in the response is a well know drawback when it is applied. In this work we show some improvements and demonstrate that keeping the precision and accuracy of this technique, it is possible to obtain a response in few hours. Harshaw 4000 TL reader and LiF TLD-100 dosimeters, chips (3,1 x 3,1 x 0,9 mm 3 ) and rods (1 x 1 x 6 mm 3 ) have been used. The thermal treatment necessary to reuse the TLD is only 1h at 400 degree C, by using a glow curve analyser developed at the Ciemat (Spain), that allows a complete, prompt and precise identification of the individuals peaks. The dosimeters are periodically and individually calibrated. We also have study the factors contributing to the relation TL-dose like linearity, energy correction, directional response and fading. All those results are included into an Excel worksheet which automatically give us the dose resulting from the TL reading (peaks areas 4 and 5). The obtained uncertainty is better than 5%. The TLD already irradiated in radiotherapy institutions distant 30-40 Km from our centre can be read and analysed in about 3-4 hours. These facts render our methods rapid and allow a better control of radiotherapy treatment even if it is bi-fractionated. (author) [es

  16. Temperature corrected-calibration of GRACE's accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacao, J.; Save, H.; Siemes, C.; Doornbos, E.; Tapley, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    Since April 2011, the thermal control of the accelerometers on board the GRACE satellites has been turned off. The time series of along-track bias clearly show a drastic change in the behaviour of this parameter, while the calibration model has remained unchanged throughout the entire mission lifetime. In an effort to improve the quality of the gravity field models produced at CSR in future mission-long re-processing of GRACE data, we quantify the added value of different calibration strategies. In one approach, the temperature effects that distort the raw accelerometer measurements collected without thermal control are corrected considering the housekeeping temperature readings. In this way, one single calibration strategy can be consistently applied during the whole mission lifetime, since it is valid to thermal the conditions before and after April 2011. Finally, we illustrate that the resulting calibrated accelerations are suitable for neutral thermospheric density studies.

  17. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  18. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  19. Stress Management in Correctional Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jaclyn A.

    Current economic conditions have created additional sources of stress in the correctional setting. Often, recreation professionals employed in these settings also add to inmate stress. One of the major factors limiting stress management in correctional settings is a lack of understanding of the value, importance, and perceived freedom, of leisure.…

  20. ExternE - valuation of hydro power in Klippen. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans

    1998-08-01

    ExternE is a pan E uropean project aimed at identifying and quantifying external effects from different energy production technologies around Europe. The Swedish implementation carried out case studies on a biomass plant, a coal plant and a hydro power plant. The conventional approach within the ExternE project is to estimate impacts for each priority pathway associated with the fuel cycle, and then economic methods to obtain estimates for the economic damage of each particular impact pathway. However, in the case of hydro power, it is generally not possible to estimate the most important impacts quantitatively. Therefore, a contingent valuation (CV) study was initiated. In a typical CV-study, a selection of individuals are asked to state their willingness to pay for a certain environmental improvement or to avoid an environmental damage. Welfare economic theory suggests that the well-being effects on people from a change from one situation to another can be measured as their willingness to pay or to accept an economic transaction for this change. Environmental services, such as those provided by a river system, are public services and have generally no market price, but the analyst can use people's stated preferences to determine the correct prices of environmental goods and services. The CV study was initiated to obtain an externality value for Klippens Kraftstation. The performed study was of Ex Ante type, which means estimating the values before the exploitation. For this purpose, a site similar to Klippen but without exploitation, was selected: Vojmaan. Three groups of respondents; the local population, the tourists, and the average Swede, were asked to state their perspective on hydro power development their WTP for preserving Vojmaan in its current condition. The results indicate that Locals and Tourists differ significantly from Swedes. The average willingness to pay is calculated from the respondents who absolutely will pay, and those who maybe pay. The

  1. Public Relations Strategies for Scholastic Publication Staffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance to scholastic publications staffs of four public relations strategies: meticulous research, systematic planning, strengthening communication efforts, and evaluation. Notes internal and external factors crucial to good public relations. Lists activities to consider. (SR)

  2. Parental knowledge is an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents' characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should also focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Myxoid intraneural cysts of external popliteal ischiadic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, Carlo; Innacoli, Michele; Cisternino, Salvatore; Barile, Antonio; Rossi, Folco; Passariello, Roberto.

    1992-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy of the external popliteal ischiadic nerve caused by intraneural cysts is a very rare and peculiar pathological phenomenon compared with diseases associated with extraneural cysts or colliquative phenomena of solid nervous lesions. Two cases of peripheral neuropathy of the external poplitheal ischiadic nerve caused by intra-neural cysts and evaluated with ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are described. The diagnostic efficacy of these imaging modalities is also evaluated with particular reference to MR capability to define the morphology of such lesions and their relation-ships to the surrounding structures. It is not yet possible to obtain a correct diagnosis about histopathologic features by means of the imaging techniques currently available. Nevertheless, they provide information about the involvement of the neighboring areas, which are useful indications for possible surgical treatment of the disease. (author). 9 refs.; 2 figs

  4. How can firms benefit from external and internal crowdsoursing

    OpenAIRE

    Nijs, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis shows my research on the ultimate benefits of crowdsourcing and most importantly what the key elements are to develop a beneficial crowdsourcing strategy within the company. I made a clear distinction between the key elements for internal and external crowdsourcing. Furthermore, I thoroughly analysed the possible managerial challenges and struggles in setting up a crowdsourcing program in a firm. Then I determined how these can be avoided. I end with a managerial guideline...

  5. Higher-curvature corrections to holographic entanglement with momentum dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhayi, M.R. [Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vazirian, R. [Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    We study the effects of Gauss-Bonnet corrections on some nonlocal probes (entanglement entropy, n-partite information and Wilson loop) in the holographic model with momentum relaxation. Higher-curvature terms as well as scalar fields make in fact nontrivial corrections to the coefficient of the universal term in entanglement entropy. We use holographic methods to study such corrections. Moreover, holographic calculation indicates that mutual and tripartite information undergo a transition beyond which they identically change their values. We find that the behavior of the transition curves depends on the sign of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling λ. The transition for λ > 0 takes place in larger separation of subsystems than that of λ < 0. Finally, we examine the behavior of modified part of the force between external point-like objects as a function of Gauss-Bonnet coupling and its sign. (orig.)

  6. Supersymmetry breaking and α'-corrections to flux induced potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Haack, Michael; Louis, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We obtain the vacuum solutions for M-theory compactified on eight-manifolds with non-vanishing four-form flux by analyzing the scalar potential appearing in the three-dimensional theory. Many of these vacua are not supersymmetric and yet have a vanishing three-dimensional cosmological constant.We show that in the context of type-IIB compactifications on Calabi-Yau threefolds with fluxes and external brane sources α'-corrections generate a correction to the supergravity potential proportional to the Euler number of the internal manifold which spoils the no-scale structure appearing in the classical potential. This indicates that α'-corrections may indeed lead to a stabilization of the radial modulus appearing in these compactifications. (author)

  7. Assessing Discriminative Performance at External Validation of Clinical Prediction Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan Nieboer

    Full Text Available External validation studies are essential to study the generalizability of prediction models. Recently a permutation test, focusing on discrimination as quantified by the c-statistic, was proposed to judge whether a prediction model is transportable to a new setting. We aimed to evaluate this test and compare it to previously proposed procedures to judge any changes in c-statistic from development to external validation setting.We compared the use of the permutation test to the use of benchmark values of the c-statistic following from a previously proposed framework to judge transportability of a prediction model. In a simulation study we developed a prediction model with logistic regression on a development set and validated them in the validation set. We concentrated on two scenarios: 1 the case-mix was more heterogeneous and predictor effects were weaker in the validation set compared to the development set, and 2 the case-mix was less heterogeneous in the validation set and predictor effects were identical in the validation and development set. Furthermore we illustrated the methods in a case study using 15 datasets of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury.The permutation test indicated that the validation and development set were homogenous in scenario 1 (in almost all simulated samples and heterogeneous in scenario 2 (in 17%-39% of simulated samples. Previously proposed benchmark values of the c-statistic and the standard deviation of the linear predictors correctly pointed at the more heterogeneous case-mix in scenario 1 and the less heterogeneous case-mix in scenario 2.The recently proposed permutation test may provide misleading results when externally validating prediction models in the presence of case-mix differences between the development and validation population. To correctly interpret the c-statistic found at external validation it is crucial to disentangle case-mix differences from incorrect regression coefficients.

  8. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT).

  9. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT)

  10. Estimating location without external cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Cheung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  11. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  12. Nuclear energy and external constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, R.; Thiriet, L.

    1983-01-01

    The structural factors of this crisis probably predominate over factors arising out the economic situation, even if explanations vary in this respect. In this article devoted to nuclear energy, a possible means of Loosering external constraints the current international economic environment is firstly outlined; the context in which the policies of industrialized countries, and therefore that of France, must be developed. An examination of the possible role of energy policies in general and nuclear policies in particular as an instrument of economic policy in providing a partial solution to this crisis, will then enable to quantitatively evaluate the effects of such policies at a national level [fr

  13. The Strategy Blueprint: A Strategy Process Computer-Aided Design Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Aldea, Adina Ioana; Febriani, Tania Rizki; Daneva, Maya; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Strategy has always been a main concern of organizations because it dictates their direction, and therefore determines their success. Thus, organizations need to have adequate support to guide them through their strategy formulation process. The goal of this research is to develop a computer-based tool, known as ‘the Strategy Blueprint’, consisting of a combination of nine strategy techniques, which can help organizations define the most suitable strategy, based on the internal and external f...

  14. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  15. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  16. Life Cycle Assessment, ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis for an integrated evaluation of the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The implementation of resource management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the anthropogenic activities system requires a comprehensive approach to evaluate on the whole the environmental burdens of productive processes and to identify the best recovery strategies from both an environmental and an economic point of view. In this framework, an analytical methodology based on the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis was developed to perform an in-depth investigation of energy systems. The LCA methodology, largely utilised by the international scientific community for the assessment of the environmental performances of technologies, combined with Comprehensive Analysis allows modelling the overall system of anthropogenic activities, as well as sub-systems, the economic consequences of the whole set of environmental damages. Moreover, internalising external costs into partial equilibrium models, as those utilised by Comprehensive Analysis, can be useful to identify the best paths for implementing technology innovation and strategies aimed to a more sustainable energy supply and use. This paper presents an integrated application of these three methodologies to a local scale case study (the Val D'Agri area in Basilicata, Southern Italy), aimed to better characterise the environmental impacts of the energy system, with particular reference to extraction activities. The innovative methodological approach utilised takes advantage from the strength points of each methodology with an added value coming from their integration as emphasised by the main results obtained by the scenario analysis. (author)

  17. Externalized ileocolic anastomosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, James; Kuntz, Charles A; Newman, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    A 6-year-old, spayed female Labrador retriever was presented 48 hours after an intestinal resection and anastomosis for management of a small intestinal foreign body. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed the presence of peritoneal effusion. Cytology of fluid collected by abdominocentesis revealed a large number of degenerate neutrophils with intracellular cocci. A diagnosis of septic peritonitis was made, presumably because of dehiscence of the anastomosis. Upon repeat exploratory celiotomy, the intestinal anastomosis (located 4 cm orad to the cecum) was found to be leaking intestinal contents into the abdomen. The distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon were resected. An end-to-end, ileocolic anastomosis was performed and subsequently exteriorized into the subcutaneous space via a paramedian incision through the abdominal wall. The anastomosis was inspected daily for 4 days before it was returned to the abdomen and the subcutaneous defect was closed. Serial cytology of the peritoneal fluid, which was performed during this 4-day postoperative period, confirmed progressive resolution of peritonitis. The dog was discharged from the hospital 2 days following return of the anastomosis into the abdomen. Externalized intestinal anastomosis is used with good success in human medicine for repair of colonic injuries. In this case, externalization of the anastomosis permitted healing of the intestinal anastomosis in an environment isolated from the detrimental effects created by septic peritonitis. In addition, direct visualization of the anastomosis allowed assessment of healing. To our knowledge, this procedure has not been previously reported in companion animals.

  18. Marketingová strategie penzionu

    OpenAIRE

    Fišerová, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with suggestion of marketing strategy for particular business subject. First part concentrates on marketing strategy, marketing of services, marketing mix and tourism together with accommodation sector. In the second part of thesis is effected description of the pension and its marketing mix, internal and external analysis and resulting SWOT analysis. Marketing research is another source for creation suggestion. Final part summarises all pieces of knowledge and pres...

  19. Effects of Externalities on Patterns of Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    Many real−life examples of exchanges with externalities exist. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct consequences of exchanges for the payoff of actors who are not involved in the exchange. This paper focuses on how externalities influence the partner choice in exchange networks. In an

  20. The external cruising costs of parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inci, E.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Kobus, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Existing work emphasizes the importance of traffic congestion externalities, but typically ignores cruising-for-parking externalities. We estimate the marginal external cruising costs of parking—that is, the time costs that an additional parked car imposes on drivers by inducing them to cruise for

  1. Weighing environmental externalities: How to do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.M. III; Burtraw, D.; Harrington, W.; Krupnick, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on the procedure of incorporating monetary measures of external damages as address to private bids and ranking alternatives on the basis of their social costs. They assume that it will be possible to develop methods and models to calculate environmental damages for specific electricity supply options. They reject the use of marginal control cost as a proxy for marginal damages. The question they address here is whether the marginal damage from an increase in electricity supply is the correct adjustment or adder to private cost for least-cost utility planning. They show that arriving at the correct adder depends on both the form that the existing environmental regulations take - that is, whether pollution is controlled by taxation, tradable emissions permits, or direct regulation - and, in the case of an emissions tax, whether the degree of control of pollution is optimal, too strict, or not strict enough according to the criterion of economic efficiency. They make explicit the circumstances under which the correct adder will be equal to marginal damages, will be some other positive number, or zero, or even negative. If emissions reductions are achieved by direct regulation or command and control policies (CAC), then the correct adder is always just equal to marginal damages

  2. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 3. Coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Lee, D.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy; the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  3. Automatic computation of radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.

    1997-01-01

    Automated systems are reviewed focusing on their general structure and requirement specific to the calculation of radiative corrections. Detailed description of the system and its performance is presented taking GRACE as a concrete example. (author)

  4. Publisher Correction: On our bookshelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouzos, Marios

    2018-03-01

    In the version of this Books and Arts originally published, the book title Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomy was incorrect; it should have read Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomers. This has now been corrected.

  5. Self-correcting quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H; Chhajlany, R W; Horodecki, M; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2013-01-01

    Is the notion of a quantum computer (QC) resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting QCs. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connectedness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that six-dimensional color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure for initializing such quantum memories at finite temperature. (paper)

  6. Correcting AUC for Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Tworoger, Shelley; Qiu, Weiliang

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers are used frequently in epidemiologic and clinical work. The ability of a diagnostic biomarker to discriminate between subjects who develop disease (cases) and subjects who do not (controls) is often measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The diagnostic biomarkers are usually measured with error. Ignoring measurement error can cause biased estimation of AUC, which results in misleading interpretation of the efficacy of a diagnostic biomarker. Several methods have been proposed to correct AUC for measurement error, most of which required the normality assumption for the distributions of diagnostic biomarkers. In this article, we propose a new method to correct AUC for measurement error and derive approximate confidence limits for the corrected AUC. The proposed method does not require the normality assumption. Both real data analyses and simulation studies show good performance of the proposed measurement error correction method.

  7. Libertarian Anarchism Is Apodictically Correct

    OpenAIRE

    Redford, James

    2011-01-01

    James Redford, "Libertarian Anarchism Is Apodictically Correct", Social Science Research Network (SSRN), Dec. 15, 2011, 9 pp., doi:10.2139/ssrn.1972733. ABSTRACT: It is shown that libertarian anarchism (i.e., consistent liberalism) is unavoidably true.

  8. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  9. Spelling Correction in User Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-20

    conventional typescript -oriented command language, where most com- mands consist of a verb followed by a sequence of arguments. Most user terminals are...and explanations. not part of the typescripts . 2 SPFE.LING CORRLC1iON IN USR IN"RFAC’S 2. Design Issues We were prompted to look for a new correction...remaining 73% led us to wonder what other mechanisms might permit further corrections while retaining the typescript -style interface. Most of the other

  10. Nifedipine as a uterine relaxant for external cephalic version: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Marjolein; Bais, Joke M.; van Lith, Jan M.; Papatsonis, Dimitri M.; Kleiverda, Gunilla; Hanny, Dahrs; Doornbos, Johannes P.; Mol, Ben W.; van der Post, Joris A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of nifedipine as a uterine relaxant during external cephalic version to correct breech presentation. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women with a singleton fetus in breech presentation and a gestational age of 36 weeks or

  11. [External progressive ophthalmoplegia secondary to mitochondrial myopathy. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; Pérez-Loria, O; Alberto-Sagástegui, J; Farías-García, R

    2000-01-01

    Progressive limitation of occular motility, accompanied by ptosis but usually without diplopia, occurs in many pathologic states, including mitochondrial diseases. A case with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with onset during childhood, associated with proximal myopathy and dysphasia is presented. The muscle biopsy showed a myopathic pattern and abnormal subsarcolemmal mitochondrial deposits. Muscle biopsy for important in the correct diagnosis of this entity.

  12. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for sugar maple. Eleven types of external...

  13. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow-poplar. Twelve types of external...

  14. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow birch. Eleven types of external...

  15. Dynamics of Context-Dependent Recall: An Examination of Internal and External Context Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval dynamics in context-dependent recall were explored via manipulations of external and internal context in two experiments. Participants were tested in either the same or different context as the material was learned in and correct recalls, errors, and recall latency measures were examined. In both experiments changes in context resulted…

  16. Quantum error correction for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. (review article)

  17. The modified version of the centre-of-mass correction to the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelski, J.; Tatur, S.

    1986-01-01

    We propose the improvement of the recently considered version of the centre-of-mass correction to the bag model. We identify a nucleon bag with physical nucleon confined in an external fictitious spherical well potential with an additional external fictitious pressure characterized by the parameter b. The introduction of such a pressure restores the conservation of the canonical energy-momentum tensor, which was lost in the former model. We propose several methods to determine the numerical value of b. We calculate the Roper resonance mass as well as static electroweak parameters of a nucleon with centre-of-mass corrections taken into account. 7 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  18. External noise when using biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaleski, J.

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to cover sources of noise dealing with all steps in a biofuel chain; producing, transporting, storing and firing the biofuel. When the availability of relevant test results from noise surveys is not so good and mostly badly documented, the study has been concentrated on estimation of external noise for planning and design purposes, from a prospective biofuel-fired plant. A synoptic tabulation of estimated acoustic power levels from different noise sources, has been done. The results from measurements of external noise from different existing combined power and heating plants are tabulated. The Nordic model for simulation of external noise has been used for a prospective plant - VEGA - designed by Vattenfall. The aim has been to estimate its noise pollutions at critical points at the nearest residential area (250 m from the fenced industry area). The software - ILYD - is easy to handle, but knowledge about the model is necessary. A requisite for the reliability is the access to measurements or estimations of different sources of noise, at different levels of octaves from 63 to 8000 Hz. The degree of accuracy increases with the number of broad band sources, that are integrated. Using ILYD with available data, a night limit of 40 dB(A) should be possible to fulfill with good degree of accuracy at VEGA, between 10 pm and 7 am, with good planning and under normal operation conditions. A demand for 35 dB(A) as a limit can be harder to fulfill, especially at mornings from 6 to 7. Noise from heavy vehicles within the plant area is classified as industrial noise and not as road traffic noise. This type of noise depends very much on the way of driving and assumed acceleration. Concerning wheel-mounted loaders, they may then only be used during daytime. The simulations show, that even at daytime from 7 to 6 pm, it would be possible to use an acoustically damped chipping machine, inside the power industry area. 31 refs, 13 figs, tabs, 8

  19. The effect of automatic blink correction on auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Jussi; Vigário, Ricardo; Huotilainen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    The effects of blink correction on auditory event-related potential (ERP) waveforms is assessed. Two blink correction strategies are compared. ICA-SSP combines independent component analysis (ICA) with signal space projection (SSP) and ICA-EMD uses empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to improve the performance of the standard ICA method. Five voluntary subjects performed an auditory oddball task. The resulting ERPs are used to compare the two blink correction methods to each other and against blink rejection. The results suggest that both methods qualitatively preserve the ERP waveform but that they underestimate some of the peak amplitudes. ICA-EMD performs slightly better than ICA-SSP. In conclusion, the use of blink correction is justified, especially if blink rejection leads to severe data loss.

  20. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  1. Implementing a learning technology strategy: top–down strategy meets bottom–up culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lisewski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using interview-based ‘insider case study' research, this paper outlines why the University of Salford has adopted a Learning Technologies Strategy and examines the factors which are likely to lead to its successful implementation. External reasons for the adoption focused on the need to: respond to ‘increased Higher Education (HE competition', meet student expectations of learning technology use, provide more flexibility and access to the curriculum, address the possible determining effect of technology and establish a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE presence in this ‘particular area of the HE landscape'. Internal drivers centred on the need to: continue a ‘bottom– up' e-learning pilot project initiative, particularly given that a VLE is a ‘complex tool' which requires effective strategic implementation, and promote the idea that learning technology will play an important role in determining the type of HE institution that the University of Salford wishes to become. Likely success factors highlighted the need to: create ‘time and space' for innovation, maintain effective communication and consultation at all levels of the organization, emphasize the operational aspects of the strategy, establish a variety of staff development processes and recognize the negotiatory processes involved in understanding the term ‘web presence' in local teaching cultures. Fundamentally, the paper argues that policy makers should acknowledge the correct ‘cultural configuration' of HE institutions when seeking to manage and achieve organizational change. Thus, it is not just a question of establishing ‘success factors' per se but also whether they are contextualized appropriately within a ‘correct' characterization of the organizational culture.

  2. Neurological Correlates of Reward Responding in Adolescents With and Without Externalizing Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Chipman, Jane; Fleming, Andrew P.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Liang, Olivia; Aylward, Elizabeth; Johnson, L. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Opposing theories of striatal hyper- and hypodopaminergic functioning have been suggested in the pathophysiology of externalizing behavior disorders. To test these competing theories, the authors used functional MRI to evaluate neural activity during a simple reward task in 12- to 16-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or conduct disorder (n = 19) and in controls with no psychiatric condition (n = 11). The task proceeded in blocks during which participants received either (a) monetary incentives for correct responses or (b) no rewards for correct responses. Controls exhibited striatal activation only during reward, shifting to anterior cingulate activation during nonreward. In contrast, externalizing adolescents exhibited striatal activation during both reward and nonreward. Externalizing psychopathology appears to be characterized by deficits in processing the omission of predicted reward, which may render behaviors that are acquired through environmental contingencies difficult to extinguish when those contingencies change. PMID:19222326

  3. Next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, a number of external dosimetry problems have been solved. However, changes in standards and legal concepts relating to the application of dosimetry results will require further enhancements in measurement techniques and philosophy in the next 10 y. The introduction of effective dose equivalent and the legal use of probability of causation will require that much greater attention be given to determination of weighted organ dose from external exposure. An imminent change--an increase in the fast neutron quality factor--will require a new round of technology development in a field that has just received a decade of close scrutiny. For the future, we must take advantage of developments in microelectronics. The use of random access memory (RAM) and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices as detector elements, particularly for neutron dosimetry, has exciting possibilities that are just beginning to be explored. Advances in microcircuitry are leading, and will continue to lead, in the development of a new generation of small, rugged and smart radiation survey instruments that will make the most of detector data. It has become possible with very compact instruments to obtain energy spectra, linear-energy-transfer (LET) spectra, and quality factors in addition to the usual integrated dosimetric quantities: exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. These instruments will be reliable and easy to use. The user will be able to select the level of sophistication that is required for any specific application. Moreover, since the processing algorithms can be changed, changes in conversion factors can be accommodated with relative ease. During the next decade, the use of computers will continue to grow in value to the health physicist

  4. Patterning of alloy precipitation through external pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jack A.

    Due to the nature of their microstructure, alloyed components have the benefit of meeting specific design goals across a wide range of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In general by selecting the correct alloy system and applying a proper heat treatment it is possible to create a metallic sample whose properties achieve a unique set of design requirements. This dissertation presents an innovative processing technique intended to control both the location of formation and the growth rates of precipitates within metallic alloys in order to create multiple patterned areas of unique microstructure within a single sample. Specific experimental results for the Al-Cu alloy system will be shown. The control over precipitation is achieved by altering the conventional heat treatment process with an external surface load applied to selected locations during the quench and anneal. It is shown that the applied pressures affect both the rate and directionality of the atomic diffusion in regions close to the loaded surfaces. The control over growth rates is achieved by altering the enthalpic energy required for successful diffusion between lattice sites. Changes in the local chemical free energy required to direct the diffusion of atoms are established by introducing a non-uniform elastic strain energy field within the samples created by the patterned surface pressures. Either diffusion rates or atomic mobility can be selected as the dominating control process by varying the quench rate; with slower quenches having greater control over the mobility of the alloying elements. Results have shown control of Al2Cu precipitation over 100 microns on mechanically polished surfaces. Further experimental considerations presented will address consistency across sample ensembles. This includes repeatable pressure loading conditions and the chemical interaction between any furnace environments and both the alloy sample and metallic pressure loading devices.

  5. Analysis of External Treatment Methods and Technical Characteristics of External Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Miao, Mingsan; Bai, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Chinese medicine external therapy is a treatment method of Chinese medicine with Chinese characteristics. The effect of traditional Chinese medicine external treatment, convenient operation, external treatment and technology has great prospects for development. The traditional Chinese medicine external treatment method and technical characteristics were analyzed.

  6. In-vessel core debris retention through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel. SCDAP/RELAP5 assessment for the SBWR lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heel, A.M.J.M. van.

    1995-09-01

    In this report the results are discussed from various analyses on the feasibility and phenomenology of the External Flooding (EF) concept for an SBWR lower head, filled with a large heat generating corium mass. In applying External Flooding as an accident management strategy after or during core melt down, the lower drywell is filled with water up to a level where a large portion of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is flooded. The purpose of this method is to establish cooling of the vessel wall, that is challenged by the heat load resulting from the corium, in such a way that its structural integrity if not endangered. The analysis discussed in this report focus on the thermal response of the vessel wall and the ex-vessel boiling processes under the conditions described above. For these analyses the SCDAP/REALP5 MOD 3.1 code was used. The major outcome of the calculations is, that a major part of the vessel wall remains well below themelting temperature of carbon steel, as long as flooding of the external surface of the lower head is established. The SCDAP/RELAP5 analyses indicated that low-quality Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was not exceeded, under all the conditions that had been tested. However, a comaprison of the heat fluxes, as calculated in RELAP5, with the CHF values obtained from the Zuber correlation and the Vishnev correction factor (for boiling at inclined surfaces) proved that CHF values, based on these criteria, were exceeded in several surface points of the lower head mesh. The correlations, as resident in the current version of RELAP5 MOD 3.1, might lead to over-estimation of CHF for the EF analyses discussed in this report. The use of the more conservative Zuber correlation with the Vishnev correction factor is recommended for EF analyses. (orig.)

  7. Initial results of shoulder MRI in external rotation after primary shoulder dislocation and after immobilization in external rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennekamp, W.; Nicolas, V.; Gekle, C.; Seybold, D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: A change in the strategy for treating primary anterior traumatic dislocation of the shoulder has occurred. To date, brief fixation of internal rotation via a Gilchrist bandage has been used. Depending on the patient's age, a redislocation is seen in up to 90% of cases. This is due to healing of the internally rotated labrum-ligament tear in an incorrect position. In the case of external rotation of the humerus, better repositioning of the labrum ligament complex is achieved. Using MRI of the shoulder in external rotation, the extent of the improved labrum-ligament adjustment can be documented, and the indication of immobilization of the shoulder in external rotation can be derived. The aim of this investigation is to describe the degree of position changing of the labrum-ligament tear in internal and external rotation. Materials and Methods: 10 patients (9 male, 1 female, mean age 30.4 years, range 15-43 years) with a primary anterior dislocation of the shoulder without hyper laxity of the contra lateral side and labrum-ligament lesion substantiated by MRI were investigated using a standard shoulder MRI protocol (PD-TSE axial fs, PD-TSE coronar fs, T2-TSE sagittal, T1-TSE coronar) by an axial PD-TSE sequence in internal and external rotation. The dislocation and separation of the anterior labrum-ligament complex were measured. The shoulders were immobilized in 10 external rotation for 3 weeks. After 6 weeks a shoulder MRI in internal rotation was performed. Results: In all patients there was a significantly better position of the labrum-ligament complex of the inferior rim in external rotation, because of the tension of the ventral capsule and the subscapular muscle. In the initial investigation, the separation of the labrum-ligament complex in internal rotation was 0.44±0.27 mm and the dislocation was 0.45±0.33 mm. In external rotation the separation was 0.01±0.19 mm and the dislocation was -0.08±0.28 mm. After 6 weeks of immobilization in 10 external

  8. Correction factor for the experimental prompt neutron decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y.; Sadovich, S.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition of a spatial correction factor for the experimental prompt neutron decay constant. • Introduction of a MCNP6 calculation methodology to simulate Rossi-alpha distribution for pulsed neutron sources. • Comparison of MCNP6 results with experimental data for count rate, Rossi-alpha, and Feynman-alpha distributions. • Improvement of the comparison between numerical and experimental results by taking into account the dead-time effect. - Abstract: This study introduces a new correction factor to obtain the experimental effective multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by the point kinetics formulation. The correction factor is defined as the ratio between the MCNP6 prompt neutron decay constant obtained in criticality mode and the one obtained in source mode. The correction factor mainly takes into account the longer neutron lifetime in the reflector region and the effects of the external neutron source. For the YALINA Thermal facility, the comparison between the experimental and computational effective multiplication factors noticeably improves after the application of the correction factor. The accuracy of the MCNP6 computational model of the YALINA Thermal subcritical assembly has been verified by reproducing the neutron count rate, Rossi-α, and Feynman-α distributions obtained from the experimental data

  9. Neutronic analysis of JET external neutron monitor response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoj, Luka, E-mail: luka.snoj@ijs.si [Reactor Physics Division, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lengar, Igor; Čufar, Aljaž [Reactor Physics Division, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Syme, Brian; Popovichev, Sergey [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Conroy, Sean [VR Association, Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We model JET tokamak containing JET remote handling system. • We investigate effect of remote handling system on external neutron monitor response. • Remote handling system correction factors are calculated. • Integral correction factors are relatively small, i.e up to 8%. - Abstract: The power output of fusion devices is measured in terms of the neutron yield which relates directly to the fusion yield. JET made a transition from Carbon wall to ITER-Like Wall (Beryllium/Tungsten/Carbon) during 2010–11. Absolutely calibrated measurement of the neutron yield by JET neutron monitors was ensured by direct measurements using a calibrated {sup 252}Cf neutron source (NS) deployed by the in-vessel remote handling system (RHS) inside the JET vacuum vessel. Neutronic calculations were required in order to understand the neutron transport from the source in the vacuum vessel to the fission chamber detectors mounted outside the vessel on the transformer limbs of the tokamak. We developed a simplified computational model of JET and the JET RHS in Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP and analyzed the paths and structures through which neutrons reach the detectors and the effect of the JET RHS on the neutron monitor response. In addition we performed several sensitivity studies of the effect of substantial massive structures blocking the ports on the external neutron monitor response. As the simplified model provided a qualitative picture of the process only, some calculations were repeated using a more detailed full 3D model of the JET tokamak.

  10. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  11. Employment strategy of the Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borisovich Toreev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the crisis it is especially important to choose a correct employment strategy. Every employee uses an employment strategy, as he/she selects the direction of long-term employment consciously or intuitively. The choice of strategy is determined by a number of factors shaping the person’s attitudes: health, character, upbringing, education, social environment, institutional environment. The employment strategies of the young people newly entering the labor market differ from lab our strategies of workers. Young people do not have such experience and can plan their life “from scratch”. The Soviet specialists, people who started their career in the planned economy, have their own features of employment strategies. The article describes employment strategies of the Russians

  12. Surgical correction of postoperative astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstrom Richard

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The photokeratoscope has increased the understanding of the aspheric nature of the cornea as well as a better understanding of normal corneal topography. This has significantly affected the development of newer and more predictable models of surgical astigmatic correction. Relaxing incisions effectively flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. The net change in spherical equivalent is, therefore, negligible. Poor predictability is the major limitation of relaxing incisions. Wedge resection can correct large degrees of postkeratoplasty astigmatism, Resection of 0.10 mm of tissue results in approximately 2 diopters of astigmatic correction. Prolonged postoperative rehabilitation and induced irregular astigmatism are limitations of the procedure. Transverse incisions flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. Semiradial incisions result in two times the amount of flattening in the meridian of the incision compared to the meridian 90 degrees away. Combination of transverse incisions with semiradial incisions describes the trapezoidal astigmatic keratotomy. This procedure may correct from 5.5 to 11.0 diopters dependent upon the age of the patient. The use of the surgical keratometer is helpful in assessing a proper endpoint during surgical correction of astigmatism.

  13. An External Archive-Guided Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingling; Lin, Qiuzhen; Chen, Weineng; Wong, Ka-Chun; Coello Coello, Carlos A; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Jianyong; Zhang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    The selection of swarm leaders (i.e., the personal best and global best), is important in the design of a multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. Such leaders are expected to effectively guide the swarm to approach the true Pareto optimal front. In this paper, we present a novel external archive-guided MOPSO algorithm (AgMOPSO), where the leaders for velocity update are all selected from the external archive. In our algorithm, multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs) are transformed into a set of subproblems using a decomposition approach, and then each particle is assigned accordingly to optimize each subproblem. A novel archive-guided velocity update method is designed to guide the swarm for exploration, and the external archive is also evolved using an immune-based evolutionary strategy. These proposed approaches speed up the convergence of AgMOPSO. The experimental results fully demonstrate the superiority of our proposed AgMOPSO in solving most of the test problems adopted, in terms of two commonly used performance measures. Moreover, the effectiveness of our proposed archive-guided velocity update method and immune-based evolutionary strategy is also experimentally validated on more than 30 test MOPs.

  14. ANALISIS STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN AGROPOLITAN KABUPATEN NGANJUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripitono Adi Prabowo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study was to determine the development strategy of the region Agropolitan Nganjuk by knowing the internal factors and external factors that exist in Nganjuk. The method used in this research is SWOT analysis to identify the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and challenges in the development of the area Agropolitan in Nganjuk so it can determine its development strategy. The results this study is the development strategy that can be used is divided into three stages: 1 Incubation, equating the vision of all stakeholders, 2 implementation, the implementation of development strategies that have been defined, 3 Exit Strategy, strategy development and renewal.

  15. Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-27

    In "Women in Science: Some Books of the Year" (11 March, p. 1458) the name of the senior editor of second edition of The History of Women and Science, Health, and Technology should have been given as Phyllis Holman Weisbard, and the name of the editor of the first edition should have been given as Susan Searing. Also, the statement that the author of A Matter of Choices: Memoirs of a Female Physicist, Fay Ajzenberg-Selove, is now retired was incorrect.

  16. Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In the October In Our Unit article by Cooper et al, “Against All Odds: Preventing Pressure Ulcers in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients” (Crit Care Nurse. 2015;35[5]:76–82), there was an error in the reference citation on page 82. At the top of that page, reference 18 cited on the second line should be reference 23, which also should be added to the References list: 23. AHRQ website. Prevention and treatment program integrates actionable reports into practice, significantly reducing pressure ulcers in nursing home residents. November 2008. https://innovations.ahrq.gov/profiles/prevention-and-treatment-program-integrates-actionable-reports-practice-significantly. Accessed November 18, 2015

  17. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Gillon R. Defending the four principles approach as a good basis for good medical practice and therefore for good medical ethics. J Med Ethics 2015;41:111–6. The author misrepresented Beauchamp and Childress when he wrote: ‘My own view (unlike Beauchamp and Childress who explicitly state that they make no such claim ( p. 421)1, is that all moral agents whether or not they are doctors or otherwise involved in healthcare have these prima facie moral obligations; but in the context of answering the question ‘what is it to do good medical ethics ?’ my claim is limited to the ethical obligations of doctors’. The author intended and should have written the following: ‘My own view, unlike Beauchamp and Childress who explicitly state that they make no such claim (p.421)1 is that these four prima facie principles can provide a basic moral framework not only for medical ethics but for ethics in general’.

  18. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In the January 2015 issue of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 3–7), the article "Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords." by Prof. Monica Whitty et al., has an error in wording in the abstract. The sentence in question was originally printed as: Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. It should read: Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. The authors wish to apologize for the error.

  19. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From left to right: Luis, Carmen, Mario, Christian and José listening to speeches by theorists Alvaro De Rújula and Luis Alvarez-Gaumé (right) at their farewell gathering on 15 May.We unfortunately cut out a part of the "Word of thanks" from the team retiring from Restaurant No. 1. The complete message is published below: Dear friends, You are the true "nucleus" of CERN. Every member of this extraordinary human mosaic will always remain in our affections and in our thoughts. We have all been very touched by your spontaneous generosity. Arrivederci, Mario Au revoir,Christian Hasta Siempre Carmen, José and Luis PS: Lots of love to the theory team and to the hidden organisers. So long!

  20. Partial fourier and parallel MR image reconstruction with integrated gradient nonlinearity correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengzhen; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Weavers, Paul T; Huston, John; Gray, Erin M; Bernstein, Matt A

    2016-06-01

    To describe how integrated gradient nonlinearity (GNL) correction can be used within noniterative partial Fourier (homodyne) and parallel (SENSE and GRAPPA) MR image reconstruction strategies, and demonstrate that performing GNL correction during, rather than after, these routines mitigates the image blurring and resolution loss caused by postreconstruction image domain based GNL correction. Starting from partial Fourier and parallel magnetic resonance imaging signal models that explicitly account for GNL, noniterative image reconstruction strategies for each accelerated acquisition technique are derived under the same core mathematical assumptions as their standard counterparts. A series of phantom and in vivo experiments on retrospectively undersampled data were performed to investigate the spatial resolution benefit of integrated GNL correction over conventional postreconstruction correction. Phantom and in vivo results demonstrate that the integrated GNL correction reduces the image blurring introduced by the conventional GNL correction, while still correcting GNL-induced coarse-scale geometrical distortion. Images generated from undersampled data using the proposed integrated GNL strategies offer superior depiction of fine image detail, for example, phantom resolution inserts and anatomical tissue boundaries. Noniterative partial Fourier and parallel imaging reconstruction methods with integrated GNL correction reduce the resolution loss that occurs during conventional postreconstruction GNL correction while preserving the computational efficiency of standard reconstruction techniques. Magn Reson Med 75:2534-2544, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Motor coordination uses external spatial coordinates independent of developmental vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    The constraints that guide bimanual movement coordination are informative about the processing principles underlying movement planning in humans. For example, symmetry relative to the body midline benefits finger and hand movements independent of hand posture. This symmetry constraint has been interpreted to indicate that movement coordination is guided by a perceptual code. Although it has been assumed implicitly that the perceptual system at the heart of this constraint is vision, this relationship has not been tested. Here, congenitally blind and sighted participants made symmetrical and non-symmetrical (that is, parallel) bimanual tapping and finger oscillation movements. For both groups, symmetrical movements were executed more correctly than parallel movements, independent of anatomical constraints like finger homology and hand posture. For the blind, the reliance on external spatial factors in movement coordination stands in stark contrast to their use of an anatomical reference frame in perceptual processing. Thus, the externally coded symmetry constraint evident in bimanual coordination can develop in the absence of the visual system, suggesting that the visual system is not critical for the establishment of an external-spatial reference frame in movement coordination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Does External Funding Help Adaptation? Evidence from Community-Based Water Management in the Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M.

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community’s abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or “crowding-out,” in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or “crowds-in” community-driven adaptation.

  3. Universality of quantum gravity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C

    2008-11-28

    We show that the existence of a minimum measurable length and the related generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), predicted by theories of quantum gravity, influence all quantum Hamiltonians. Thus, they predict quantum gravity corrections to various quantum phenomena. We compute such corrections to the Lamb shift, the Landau levels, and the tunneling current in a scanning tunneling microscope. We show that these corrections can be interpreted in two ways: (a) either that they are exceedingly small, beyond the reach of current experiments, or (b) that they predict upper bounds on the quantum gravity parameter in the GUP, compatible with experiments at the electroweak scale. Thus, more accurate measurements in the future should either be able to test these predictions, or further tighten the above bounds and predict an intermediate length scale between the electroweak and the Planck scale.

  4. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  5. SELF CORRECTION WORKS BETTER THAN TEACHER CORRECTION IN EFL SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Dabaghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning a foreign language takes place step by step, during which mistakes are to be expected in all stages of learning. EFL learners are usually afraid of making mistakes which prevents them from being receptive and responsive. Overcoming fear of mistakes depends on the way mistakes are rectified. It is believed that autonomy and learner-centeredness suggest that in some settings learner's self-correction of mistakes might be more beneficial for language learning than teacher's correction. This assumption has been the subject of debates for some time. Some researchers believe that correction whether that of teacher's or on behalf of learners is effective in showing them how their current interlanguage differs from the target (Long &Robinson, 1998. Others suggest that correcting the students whether directly or through recasts are ambiguous and may be perceived by the learner as confirmation of meaning rather than feedback on form (Lyster, 1998a. This study is intended to investigate the effects of correction on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' writing composition in Payam Noor University. For this purpose, 90 English majoring students, studying at Isfahan Payam Noor University were invited to participate at the experiment. They all received a sample of TOFEL test and a total number of 60 participants whose scores were within the range of one standard deviation below and above the mean were divided into two equal groups; experimental and control. The experimental group went through some correction during the experiment while the control group remained intact and the ordinary processes of teaching went on. Each group received twelve sessions of two hour classes every week on advanced writing course in which some activities of Modern English (II were selected. Then after the treatment both groups received an immediate test as post-test and the experimental group took the second post-test as the delayed recall test with the same design as the

  6. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  7. Self-correcting Multigrid Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.

    2004-01-01

    A new multigrid algorithm based on the method of self-correction for the solution of elliptic problems is described. The method exploits information contained in the residual to dynamically modify the source term (right-hand side) of the elliptic problem. It is shown that the self-correcting solver is more efficient at damping the short wavelength modes of the algebraic error than its standard equivalent. When used in conjunction with a multigrid method, the resulting solver displays an improved convergence rate with no additional computational work

  8. Brane cosmology with curvature corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Maartens, Roy; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios

    2003-01-01

    We study the cosmology of the Randall-Sundrum brane-world where the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by curvature correction terms: a four-dimensional scalar curvature from induced gravity on the brane, and a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet curvature term. The combined effect of these curvature corrections to the action removes the infinite-density big bang singularity, although the curvature can still diverge for some parameter values. A radiation brane undergoes accelerated expansion near the minimal scale factor, for a range of parameters. This acceleration is driven by the geometric effects, without an inflation field or negative pressures. At late times, conventional cosmology is recovered. (author)

  9. On charged particle equilibrium violation in external photon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Hugo; Seuntjens, Jan; Palmans, Hugo

    2012-03-01

    In a recent paper by Bouchard et al. [Med. Phys. 36(10), 4654-4663 (2009)], a theoretical model of quality correction factors for idealistic so-called plan-class specific reference (PCSR) fields was proposed. The reasoning was founded on the definition of PCSR fields made earlier by Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35(11), 5179-5186 (2008)], requiring the beam to achieve charged particle equilibrium (CPE), in a time-averaged sense, in the reference medium. The relation obtained by Bouchard et al. was derived using Fano's theorem (1954) which states that if CPE is established in a given medium, the dose is independent of point-to-point density variations. A potential misconception on the achievability of the condition required by Fano (1954) might be responsible for false practical conclusions, both in the definition of PCSR fields as well as the theoretical model of quality correction factor. In this paper, the practical achievability of CPE in external beams is treated in detail. The fact that this condition is not achievable in single or composite deliveries is illustrated by an intuitive method and is also formally demonstrated. Fano's theorem is not applicable in external beam radiation dosimetry without (virtually) removing attenuation effects, and therefore, the relation conditionally defined by Bouchard et al. (2009) cannot be valid in practice. A definition of PCSR fields in the recent formalism for nonstandard beams proposed by Alfonso et al. (2008) should be modified, revising the criterion of CPE condition. The authors propose reconsidering the terminology used to describe standard and nonstandard beams. The authors argue that quality correction factors of intensity modulated radiation therapy PCSR fields (i.e., k(Q(pcsr),Q) (f(pcsr),f(ref) )) could be unity under ideal conditions, but it is concluded that further investigation is necessary to confirm that hypothesis.

  10. On charged particle equilibrium violation in external photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Hugo; Seuntjens, Jan; Palmans, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In a recent paper by Bouchard et al.[Med. Phys. 36(10), 4654-4663 (2009)], a theoretical model of quality correction factors for idealistic so-called plan-class specific reference (PCSR) fields was proposed. The reasoning was founded on the definition of PCSR fields made earlier by Alfonso et al.[Med. Phys. 35(11), 5179-5186 (2008)], requiring the beam to achieve charged particle equilibrium (CPE), in a time-averaged sense, in the reference medium. The relation obtained by Bouchard et al. was derived using Fano's theorem (1954) which states that if CPE is established in a given medium, the dose is independent of point-to-point density variations. A potential misconception on the achievability of the condition required by Fano (1954) might be responsible for false practical conclusions, both in the definition of PCSR fields as well as the theoretical model of quality correction factor. Methods: In this paper, the practical achievability of CPE in external beams is treated in detail. The fact that this condition is not achievable in single or composite deliveries is illustrated by an intuitive method and is also formally demonstrated. Conclusions: Fano's theorem is not applicable in external beam radiation dosimetry without (virtually) removing attenuation effects, and therefore, the relation conditionally defined by Bouchard et al. (2009) cannot be valid in practice. A definition of PCSR fields in the recent formalism for nonstandard beams proposed by Alfonso et al. (2008) should be modified, revising the criterion of CPE condition. The authors propose reconsidering the terminology used to describe standard and nonstandard beams. The authors argue that quality correction factors of intensity modulated radiation therapy PCSR fields (i.e., k Q pcsr ,Q f pcsr ,f ref ) could be unity under ideal conditions, but it is concluded that further investigation is necessary to confirm that hypothesis.

  11. Promoting justice or perpetuating prejudice? Interrupting external motivation in multicultural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V; Hinman, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    The effects of responding to social pressure (external motivation) are short-lived. Multicultural training, however, seeks to promote change in students and trainees that will be transformative and long-lasting. To this end, understanding the motivational factors that inform training is key. The present study was an investigation of the factors underlying external motivation to respond without prejudice for White individuals from the perspective of Higgins's regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) and regulatory mode (assessment and locomotion) theories. The results indicate that locomotion was negatively associated with external motivation to respond without prejudice, while assessment and prevention were positively associated with external motivation. Taken together, findings highlight the importance of cultivating locomotion (action oriented) motivation and inhibiting prevention (loss oriented) and assessment (preoccupation with finding the correct answer) motivations in multicultural training. Implications for training, effective action for justice, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Pierce diode with an external circuit. I. Oscillations about nonuniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The nonuniform (nonlinear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described, and the spectrum of oscillations (stable and unstable) about these equilibria are worked out. It is found that only the external capacitance alters the equilibria, though all elements alter the spectrum. In particular, the introduction of an external capacitor destabilizes some equilibria that are marginally stable without the capacitor. Computer simulations are performed to test the theoretical predictions for the case of an external capacitor only. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at Pierce parameters (α=ω/sub pL//v 0 ) that are multiples of 2π are not observed. This appears to be a failure of the simulation method under the rather singular conditions rather than a failure of the theory

  13. Outline of manual on measurement and assessment of doses from external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Michio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tsujimura, Norio

    2001-03-01

    The external exposure part in the manual for measurement and assessment of doses from external radiation is described since the part is changed in accordance with the revision of the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazard due to Radioisotopes, Etc. The manual contains general remarks, control of external exposure and its methods, person monitoring, site monitoring, correction of instruments and storage of records. The 2nd and 3rd chapters are described in details, because which are considerably changed together with appendices concerning the operational quantity for measuring external dose, conversion coefficients, and correlations of 3 mm, 1 cm and 70 {mu}m dose equivalents. Making manuals unique to the individual offices, etc. is recommended in compliance with the above manual.(K.H.)

  14. An evaluation of data-driven motion estimation in comparison to the usage of external-surrogates in cardiac SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Joyeeta Mitra; Johnson, Karen L; Pretorius, P Hendrik; King, Michael A; Hutton, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Motion estimation methods in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be classified into methods which depend on just the emission data (data-driven), or those that use some other source of information such as an external surrogate. The surrogate-based methods estimate the motion exhibited externally which may not correlate exactly with the movement of organs inside the body. The accuracy of data-driven strategies on the other hand is affected by the type and timing of motion occurrence during acquisition, the source distribution, and various degrading factors such as attenuation, scatter, and system spatial resolution. The goal of this paper is to investigate the performance of two data-driven motion estimation schemes based on the rigid-body registration of projections of motion-transformed source distributions to the acquired projection data for cardiac SPECT studies. Comparison is also made of six intensity based registration metrics to an external surrogate-based method. In the data-driven schemes, a partially reconstructed heart is used as the initial source distribution. The partially-reconstructed heart has inaccuracies due to limited angle artifacts resulting from using only a part of the SPECT projections acquired while the patient maintained the same pose. The performance of different cost functions in quantifying consistency with the SPECT projection data in the data-driven schemes was compared for clinically realistic patient motion occurring as discrete pose changes, one or two times during acquisition. The six intensity-based metrics studied were mean-squared difference, mutual information, normalized mutual information (NMI), pattern intensity (PI), normalized cross-correlation and entropy of the difference. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the performance is reported using Monte-Carlo simulations of a realistic heart phantom including degradation factors such as attenuation, scatter and system spatial resolution. Further the

  15. Clinical governance and external audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, S G; Buchanan, J G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a model of clinical governance that was developed at South Auckland Health during the period 1995 to 2000. Clinical quality and safety are core objectives. A multidisciplinary Clinical Board is responsible for the development and publicising of sound clinical policies together with monitoring the effects of their implementation on quality and safety. The Clinical Board has several committees, including an organization-wide Continuous Quality Improvement Committee to enhance the explicit nature of the quality system in terms of structure, staff awareness and involvement, and to develop the internal audit system. The second stream stems from the Chief Medical Officer and clinical directors in a clinical management sense. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors covers both clinical and financial audit. The reporting lines back to that committee are described and the role of the external auditor of clinical standards is explained. The aim has been to create a supportive culture where quality initiatives and innovation can flourish, and where the emphasis is not on censure but improvement.

  16. The external costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the ExtrenE project (external costs of electricity) of the European Commission (EC). The damage caused by pollution has been calculated through analyses of the impact pathways which involve an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - monetary estimation chain. The results are introduced for various cycles of combustible fuels (with several technological variants), indicating the confidence intervals. The cost of the damage is particularly high for coal. For example, for the coal-fired power stations in France (with the emission levels of 1995) it is approximately equal to the sales price of electricity. For natural gas, the cost of damage is approximately one-third that of coal. On the other hand, the damage costs for nuclear fuel and most forms of renewable energy are low, at a maximum just a few percent of the electricity price. The greatest part of these costs arises from health impact, particularly premature death. In order to avoid the controversy inherent in making a monetary assessment of mortality, especially if this is imposed upon future generations, the reduction in life expectancy due to the various combustible cycles is also indicated and the risks of nuclear energy are put into perspective via several comparisons. (authors)

  17. EXTERNAL ELEMENTS OF INTERCULTURAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra GEORGESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Because nowadays we attach a great importance to our look, this article wants to highlight certain aspects of intercultural management that are external to us, the personal label with which we "come into contact with the whole world” and also this article gives some suggestions that I want to consider for business success. As speakers of a language, we are both "producers" and "consumers" of it. In a sense, this is also the case for the dress code, the "language" of clothing: we dress in a certain way and this send messages to others; We perceive how others are dressed and so we receive messages from them. But there is no difference: we are not the ones who produce the signs. Beyond fashion, myths and motes, clothing, accessories, gesture, face expression, posture and body lines are the first elements that give visual identity to any person. In the business environment, as in the world of fashion, immediate visual identity is the one that generates the first impression.

  18. External plans for radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, G.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1989, the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico shares in the task of Food and Water Control corresponding to the FT-86 task force of External Plans for Radiological Emergency (PERE), in charge of the Veracruz Health Services. In the PERE preparation stage previous actions are necessary developed for the preparation and updating of this plan and the task organization with the purpose to maintaining standing and operable in any time and circumstance, the capability to response in the face of an emergency. This stage englobes activities which must be realized before to carry out the Plan as they are the specialized training of personnel which participates and the execution of exercises and simulacrums. Until 1998, training and exercises for this task had been realized under diverse possible sceneries but in conditions that simulated the presence of radioactive material. For this reason, it should be emphasized the training realized during the days 6th, 7th, 8th July, 1999, in the emergency planning zone of the Plan, which to carry out using radioactive material. The National Institute of Nuclear Research had in charge of the training. This work describes all the activities for the realization of this training. (Author)

  19. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. III; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis

  20. Internal and External Collaboration in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Middel, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Industry and academia alike are increasingly becoming aware of the fact that innovation does not take place in isolated cells or functions within the firm. During the last the years the term open innovation has emphasised the importance of internal and external collaboration in order to increase...... strategic priorities influence the degree of external and internal involvement in the NPD process, moderated by contextual factors. Results based on analyses of 584 companies from the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) 2005 indicate that suppliers are heavily involved in the NPD process...... in firms in B2C markets aiming at increasing the innovation volume. For B2B companies the reverse picture emerges. However, when the aim is to increase the radicality of new products, suppliers and customers are heavily involved for firms in B2B markets. Further, market uncertainty, and to some extent...

  1. Collaborative innovation: Internal and external involvement in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2011-01-01

    Industry and academia alike are increasingly becoming aware of the fact that innovation does not take place in isolated cells or functions within the firm. During the last the years the term open innovation has emphasized the importance of internal and external collaboration in order to increase...... strategic priorities influence the degree of external and internal involvement in the NPD process, moderated by contextual factors. Results based on analyses of 584 companies from the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) 2005 indicate that suppliers are heavily involved in the NPD process...... in firms in B2C markets aiming at increasing the innovation volume. For B2B companies the reverse picture emerges. However, when the aim is to increase the radicality of new products, suppliers and customers are heavily involved for firms in B2B markets. Further, market uncertainty, and to some extent...

  2. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  3. Advanced Corrections for InSAR Using GPS and Numerical Weather Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, F.; Foster, J. H.; Amelung, F.; Varugu, B. K.; Businger, S.; Cherubini, T.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from an investigation into the application of numerical weather models for generating tropospheric correction fields for Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). We apply the technique to data acquired from a UAVSAR campaign as well as from the CosmoSkyMed satellites. The complex spatial and temporal changes in the atmospheric propagation delay of the radar signal remain the single biggest factor limiting InSAR's potential for hazard monitoring and mitigation. A new generation of InSAR systems is being built and launched, and optimizing the science and hazard applications of these systems requires advanced methodologies to mitigate tropospheric noise. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to generate a 900 m spatial resolution atmospheric models covering the Big Island of Hawaii and an even higher, 300 m resolution grid over the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. By comparing a range of approaches, from the simplest, using reanalyses based on typically available meteorological observations, through to the "kitchen-sink" approach of assimilating all relevant data sets into our custom analyses, we examine the impact of the additional data sets on the atmospheric models and their effectiveness in correcting InSAR data. We focus particularly on the assimilation of information from the more than 60 GPS sites in the island. We ingest zenith tropospheric delay estimates from these sites directly into the WRF analyses, and also perform double-difference tomography using the phase residuals from the GPS processing to robustly incorporate heterogeneous information from the GPS data into the atmospheric models. We assess our performance through comparisons of our atmospheric models with external observations not ingested into the model, and through the effectiveness of the derived phase screens in reducing InSAR variance. Comparison of the InSAR data, our atmospheric analyses, and assessments of the active local and mesoscale

  4. The EU's cybercrime and cyber-security rulemaking: mapping the internal and external dimensions of EU security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    By taking the EU Cyber Strategy as a case in point, this contribution examines how the distinction between external and internal security in contemporary EU law manifests itself in large-scale risk regulation and in particular, how the EU relies upon external norms to regulate risk. This article

  5. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  6. Measuring External Face Appearance for Face Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, David; Lapedriza, Agata; Vitria, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the importance of the external features in face classification problems, and propose a methodology to extract the external features obtaining an aligned feature set. The extracted features can be used as input to any standard pattern recognition classifier, as the classic feature extraction approaches dealing with internal face regions in the literature. The resulting scheme follows a top-down segmentation approach to deal with the diversity inherent to the extern...

  7. Risk analysis of external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus

    2011-09-01

    External radiation therapy is carried out via a complex treatment process in which many different groups of staff work together. Much of the work is dependent on and in collaboration with advanced technical equipment. The purpose of the research task has been to identify a process for external radiation therapy and to identify, test and analyze a suitable method for performing risk analysis of external radiation therapy

  8. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  9. Early discharge after external anal sphincter repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe an accelerated-stay program for repair of the external anal sphincter. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing overlapping repair of the external anal sphincter were included in the study. Effect parameters were length of hospitalization....... CONCLUSION: We have described a safe accelerated-stay program (24 to 48 hours) for overlapping repair of external anal sphincter....

  10. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company's customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  11. A Generalized Correction for Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne C.; Bock, R. Darrell

    Use of the usual bivariate correction for attenuation with more than two variables presents two statistical problems. This pairwise method may produce a covariance matrix which is not at least positive semi-definite, and the bivariate procedure does not consider the possible influences of correlated errors among the variables. The method described…

  12. Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setare, M R; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R

    2012-01-01

    In this short paper, we calculate separately the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and self-gravitational corrections to Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects, both the temperature and entropy must be modified. (paper)

  13. 'Correction of unrealizable service choreographies’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancioppi, M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the detection and correction of design flaws affecting service choreographies. Service choreographies are models that specify how software services are composed in a decentralized, message-driven fashion. In particular, this work focuses on flaws that compromise the

  14. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  15. The correct "ball bearings" data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, C

    2002-12-01

    The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure.

  16. Interaction and self-correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satne, Glenda Lucila

    2014-01-01

    and acquisition. I then criticize two models that have been dominant in thinking about conceptual competence, the interpretationist and the causalist models. Both fail to meet NC, by failing to account for the abilities involved in conceptual self-correction. I then offer an alternative account of self...

  17. CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CAR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  18. Rank error-correcting pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Peñas, Umberto; Pellikaan, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Error-correcting pairs were introduced as a general method of decoding linear codes with respect to the Hamming metric using coordinatewise products of vectors, and are used for many well-known families of codes. In this paper, we define new types of vector products, extending the coordinatewise ...

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  20. Salvage of infected total knee arthroplasty with Ilizarov external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Gurava Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knee arthrodesis may be the only option of treatment in cases of chronic infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA with concomitant irreparable extensor mechanism disruption, extensive bone loss or severe systemic morbidities. Circular external fixation offers possible progressive adjustment to stimulate the bony fusion and to make corrections in alignment. We evaluated the results of knee arthrodesis with one or two stage circular external fixator for infected TKA. Materials and Methods: 16 cases of femoro-tibial fusion were retrospectively evaluated. Male-to-female ratio was 10:6. Mean age of the patients was 62.2 years. Cierney-Mader classification was used for anatomical and physiological evaluation while the bone stock deficiency was classified into mild, moderate and severe. Surgical technique involved either single or two stage arthrodesis using circular external fixator. Results: Union was achieved in 15 patients (93.75%. The mean duration for union (frame application time in these patients was 28.33 weeks (range 22 to 36 weeks. Analysis showed that in the group with frame application time of less than 28 weeks, the incidence of mild to moderate bone deficiency was 83.33%, while in the frame application time more than 28 weeks group the incidence was 20% (P-value 0.034. Similarly the incidence of Cierney-Mader 4B (Bl, Bs, Bls was found to be 33.33% in the group of frame application time of less than 28 weeks, while it was 90% in the group with frame application time more than 28 weeks (P-value 0.035. Conclusion: Circular external fixator is a safe and reliable method to achieve knee arthrodesis in cases of deep infection following TKA. Severe bone stock deficiency and Cierney- Mader type B host are likely risk factors for prolonged frame application time. We recommend a two-stage procedure especially when there is compromised host or severe bone loss.

  1. Energy policy and externalities: the life cycle analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virdis, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the energy sector, getting the prices right is a prerequisite for market mechanisms to work effectively towards sustainable development. However, energy production and use creates 'costs' external to traditional accounting practices, such as damages to human health and the environment resulting from residual emissions or risks associated with dependence on foreign suppliers. Energy market prices do not fully reflect those external costs. For example, the costs of climate change are not internalized and, therefore, consumers do not get the right price signals leading them to make choices that are optimised from a societal viewpoint. Economic theory has developed approaches to assessing and internalizing external costs that can be applied to the energy sector and, in principle, provide means to quantify and integrate relevant information in a comprehensive framework. The tools developed for addressing these issues are generally aimed at monetary valuation of impacts and damages and integration of the valued 'external costs' in total cost of the product, e.g. electricity. The approach of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) provides a conceptual framework for a detailed and comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options. This paper offers a summary of the LCA methodology and an overview of some of its limitations. It then illustrates, through a few examples, how the methodology can be used to inform or correct policy making and to orient investment decisions. Difficulties and issues emerging at various stages in the application and use of LCA results are discussed, although in such a short note, it is impossible to address all issues related to LCA. Therefore, as part of the concluding section, some issues are left open - and areas in which further analytical work may be needed are described. (author)

  2. Efficient Color-Dressed Calculation of Virtual Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Giele, Walter; Winter, Jan

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of generalized unitarity and parametric integration techniques, the construction of a generic Next-to-Leading Order Monte Carlo becomes feasible. Such a generator will entail the treatment of QCD color in the amplitudes. We extend the concept of color dressing to one-loop amplitudes, resulting in the formulation of an explicit algorithmic solution for the calculation of arbitrary scattering processes at Next-to-Leading order. The resulting algorithm is of exponential complexity, that is the numerical evaluation time of the virtual corrections grows by a constant multiplicative factor as the number of external partons is increased. To study the properties of the method, we calculate the virtual corrections to $n$-gluon scattering.

  3. Practical method of breast attenuation correction for cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Anderson de; Nogueira, Tindyua; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Megueriam, Berdj Aram; Santos, Goncalo Rodrigues dos

    2007-01-01

    The breast attenuation effects on SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) myocardium perfusion procedures have been lately scope of continuous inquiry. The requested attenuation correction factors are usually achieved by transmission analysis, making up the exposure of a standard external source to the SPECT, as a routine step. However, its high cost makes this methodology not fully available to the most of nuclear medicines services in Brazil and abroad. To overcome the problem, a new trend is presented in this work, implementing computational models to balance the breast attenuation effects on the left ventricle anterior wall, during myocardium perfusion scintigraphy procedures with SPECT. A neural network was put on in order to provide the attenuation correction indexes, based upon the following patients individual biotypes features: mass, age, height, chest and breast thicknesses, heart size, as well as the imparted activity intake levels. (author)

  4. Practical method of breast attenuation correction for cardiac SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Anderson de; Nogueira, Tindyua; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais (CGMI)]. E-mails: anderson@cnen.gov.br; tnogueira@cnen.gov.br; rguterre@cnen.gov.br; Megueriam, Berdj Aram [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: megueriam@hotmail.com; Santos, Goncalo Rodrigues dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: goncalo@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The breast attenuation effects on SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) myocardium perfusion procedures have been lately scope of continuous inquiry. The requested attenuation correction factors are usually achieved by transmission analysis, making up the exposure of a standard external source to the SPECT, as a routine step. However, its high cost makes this methodology not fully available to the most of nuclear medicines services in Brazil and abroad. To overcome the problem, a new trend is presented in this work, implementing computational models to balance the breast attenuation effects on the left ventricle anterior wall, during myocardium perfusion scintigraphy procedures with SPECT. A neural network was put on in order to provide the attenuation correction indexes, based upon the following patients individual biotypes features: mass, age, height, chest and breast thicknesses, heart size, as well as the imparted activity intake levels. (author)

  5. Logarithmic corrections to scaling in the XY2-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, R.; Irving, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    We study the distribution of partition function zeroes for the XY-model in two dimensions. In particular we find the scaling behaviour of the end of the distribution of zeroes in the complex external magnetic field plane in the thermodynamic limit (the Yang-Lee edge) and the form for the density of these zeroes. Assuming that finite-size scaling holds, we show that there have to exist logarithmic corrections to the leading scaling behaviour of thermodynamic quantities in this model. These logarithmic corrections are also manifest in the finite-size scaling formulae and we identify them numerically. The method presented here can be used to check the compatibility of scaling behaviour of odd and even thermodynamic functions in other models too. ((orig.))

  6. External proton and Li beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuff, Juan A.; Burlon, Alejandro A.; Debray, Mario E.; Kesque, Jose M.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Stoliar, Pablo A.; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J.; Vazquez, Monica E.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Somacal, Hector; Valda, Alejandro; Canevas, S.; Ruffolo, M.; Tasat, D.R.; Muhlmann, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 μm gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 ± 0.07 MeV, 2.9 ± 0.10 MeV y 1.5 ± 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 ± 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with γ-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/μm. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  7. Adaptive plasticity in speech perception: Effects of external information and internal predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, Sara; Fiez, Julie A; Holt, Lori L

    2016-07-01

    When listeners encounter speech under adverse listening conditions, adaptive adjustments in perception can improve comprehension over time. In some cases, these adaptive changes require the presence of external information that disambiguates the distorted speech signals, whereas in other cases mere exposure is sufficient. Both external (e.g., written feedback) and internal (e.g., prior word knowledge) sources of information can be used to generate predictions about the correct mapping of a distorted speech signal. We hypothesize that these predictions provide a basis for determining the discrepancy between the expected and actual speech signal that can be used to guide adaptive changes in perception. This study provides the first empirical investigation that manipulates external and internal factors through (a) the availability of explicit external disambiguating information via the presence or absence of postresponse orthographic information paired with a repetition of the degraded stimulus, and (b) the accuracy of internally generated predictions; an acoustic distortion is introduced either abruptly or incrementally. The results demonstrate that the impact of external information on adaptive plasticity is contingent upon whether the intelligibility of the stimuli permits accurate internally generated predictions during exposure. External information sources enhance adaptive plasticity only when input signals are severely degraded and cannot reliably access internal predictions. This is consistent with a computational framework for adaptive plasticity in which error-driven supervised learning relies on the ability to compute sensory prediction error signals from both internal and external sources of information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Causes of behavioral disorders leading to compulsory institutional correction or controlled education.

    OpenAIRE

    Poplšteinová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of my work is to provide a comprehensive overview of the possible causes of behavioral disorders that lead to the placement of individuals into correctional institutions. The work is primarily concerned with the influence of the family in the formation of the child's personality and with the other equally important factors from the external and internal environment of the individual.

  9. Energy policy and externalities: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in estimating the monetary value of the environmental impacts of different energy systems. Perhaps the best known study in Europe is that sponsored by the European Commission and known as the ExternE programme. In the USA a comparable project is that jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the European Commission. There are many others. In each case what is sought is a monetary value of an environmental impact arising from a unit of energy, usually standardised as a kilowatt hour. These environmental impacts are usually termed 'externalities'. An externality exists if two conditions are met. First, some negative (or positive) impact is generated by an economic activity and imposed on third parties. Second, that impact must not be priced in the market place, i.e. if the effect is negative, no compensation is paid by the generator of the externality to the sufferer. If the effect is positive, the generator of the externality must not appropriate the gains to the third party, e.g. via some price that is charged. In the energy externality literature, the procedure of expressing the externalities in, say, cents or milli-euros (1000 th of an Euro = m-euro) per kWh results in an 'adder'. An adder is simply the unit externality cost added to the standard resource cost of energy. Thus, if an electricity source costs X m/euros to produce or deliver, the final social cost of it is (X+y) m-euros where y is the externality adder. While externality adders have been researched most in the context of energy, they are increasingly being estimated for other economic sectors, notably transport and agriculture. This paper presents the uses of such figures. (author)

  10. Intersections between strategy and business models

    OpenAIRE

    磯村 和人

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between strategy and business models. I review major researches on strategy and business models to provide a viewpoint to consider the intersections between them. The theory of strategy shifts the focus from visible competitive advantage to its internal managerial resources. The concept of business models has been discussed because a business model is considered to be a combination of internal and external business processes; it clarifies how to effectivel...

  11. Finite-size corrections in simulation of dipolar fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Luc; Puibasset, Joël

    2017-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of dipolar fluids are performed at different numbers of particles N = 100-4000. For each size of the cubic cell, the non-spherically symmetric pair distribution function g(r,Ω) is accumulated in terms of projections gmnl(r) onto rotational invariants. The observed N dependence is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions for the finite-size corrections of different origins: the explicit corrections due to the absence of fluctuations in the number of particles within the canonical simulation and the implicit corrections due to the coupling between the environment around a given particle and that around its images in the neighboring cells. The latter dominates in fluids of strong dipolar coupling characterized by low compressibility and high dielectric constant. The ability to clean with great precision the simulation data from these corrections combined with the use of very powerful anisotropic integral equation techniques means that exact correlation functions both in real and Fourier spaces, Kirkwood-Buff integrals, and bridge functions can be derived from box sizes as small as N ≈ 100, even with existing long-range tails. In the presence of dielectric discontinuity with the external medium surrounding the central box and its replica within the Ewald treatment of the Coulombic interactions, the 1/N dependence of the gmnl(r) is shown to disagree with the, yet well-accepted, prediction of the literature.

  12. Advanced nuclear plant design options to cope with external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    reactors from external event impacts, as well as to assist the designers of advanced NPPs in the definition of a consistent strategy of design and siting evaluation in relation to extreme external events. This publication was prepared through the collaboration of the designers of 14 advanced NPPs from Argentina, Canada, Germany, India, Japan, Lithuania, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America, and was supported by a dedicated IAEA technical meeting convened in Vienna 14-19 November 2004. This publication also incorporates the contributions from several international experts, who provided descriptions of the state of the art approaches and methodologies for site safety assessment, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in relation to external events, and component qualification

  13. Correcting ligands, metabolites, and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vriend Gert

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of research areas in bioinformatics, molecular biology and medicinal chemistry require precise chemical structure information about molecules and reactions, e.g. drug design, ligand docking, metabolic network reconstruction, and systems biology. Most available databases, however, treat chemical structures more as illustrations than as a datafield in its own right. Lack of chemical accuracy impedes progress in the areas mentioned above. We present a database of metabolites called BioMeta that augments the existing pathway databases by explicitly assessing the validity, correctness, and completeness of chemical structure and reaction information. Description The main bulk of the data in BioMeta were obtained from the KEGG Ligand database. We developed a tool for chemical structure validation which assesses the chemical validity and stereochemical completeness of a molecule description. The validation tool was used to examine the compounds in BioMeta, showing that a relatively small number of compounds had an incorrect constitution (connectivity only, not considering stereochemistry and that a considerable number (about one third had incomplete or even incorrect stereochemistry. We made a large effort to correct the errors and to complete the structural descriptions. A total of 1468 structures were corrected and/or completed. We also established the reaction balance of the reactions in BioMeta and corrected 55% of the unbalanced (stoichiometrically incorrect reactions in an automatic procedure. The BioMeta database was implemented in PostgreSQL and provided with a web-based interface. Conclusion We demonstrate that the validation of metabolite structures and reactions is a feasible and worthwhile undertaking, and that the validation results can be used to trigger corrections and improvements to BioMeta, our metabolite database. BioMeta provides some tools for rational drug design, reaction searches, and

  14. Australian Correctional Management Practices for Terrorist Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Tompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.

  15. Servitization in China via an External Service Partner Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Frandsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a European manufacturer providing...... services in China in order to develop a better understanding of the challenges. An in-depth multiple case study approach was taken to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network. Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China...... and complexities for a Western manufacturer of attempting to move towards greater service provision in China....

  16. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  17. External and internal anatomy of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L F; Sousa Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; da Costa, W F; Pécora, J D

    1996-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 628 extracted, mandibular first and second molars was studied. The external anatomy was studied by measuring each tooth and by observing the direction of the root curvatures from the facial surface. The internal anatomy of the pulp cavity was studied by a method of making the teeth translucent.

  18. External Evaluation Measures for Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günnemann, Stephan; Färber, Ines; Müller, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    research area of subspace clustering. We formalize general quality criteria for subspace clustering measures not yet addressed in the literature. We compare the existing external evaluation methods based on these criteria and pinpoint limitations. We propose a novel external evaluation measure which meets...

  19. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  20. Wind power externalities: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative meta-analysis of the non-market valuation literature on the external effects associated with wind power production. A data set of 60 observations drawn from 32 studies is constructed. The relative economic values of different types of externalities as well